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Like an awkward kid whos finally shed the braces and baby fat, young adult literature is coming

into its own (Crocker,2003). Attracting both young and adult readers, young adult literature has become the bright spot in an otherwise fluctuating literature market. In 2013, sales are expected to hit $861 million, which is a 30.6% increase from 2008 sales (Fitzgerald, 2009). When talking about young adult literature, pinpointing its definiton can be difficult. Young adult literature is defined in multiple ways. Iyer defines it as literature aimed for students who are 14 to 17 year old. In their book Literature for Todays Young Adult, Donelson and Nilsen define young adult literature as anything that readers between the ages of twelve and eightenn choose to read during leisure time or to fill school assignments. In fact, there really is no consensus among publishers, librarians, teachers, reviewers, and booksellers about exacty what young adult literature is (Aronson,2001). There is not even an agreement about who is a young adult. Though there is no concrete definition for young adult literature, it is an absolute fact that all young adult literature have child/teen protagonist. It reflects a childs experiences with conflicts, focuses on themes that interest young people, and uses language common to young adults. One of the most recent genres to be accepted in young adult literature is fantasy. At the most basic level, fantasy can be defined as literature which contains elements that don ont or cannot exist in reality. It is an imaginative fiction that allows us to explore major life mysteries without being limited by size, time, or space (Gates,2003). Fantasy is usually about stories in which there is a journey being undertaken by the characters- most likely children. It is generally concerned with the conflict between good and evil, and with the use and consequences of magic.

Many fantasy stories in young adult books of the 21st century involve child heroes who started off from an ordinary or underdog status. At an early age, they encountered experience that gave them the feeling of not belonging and being different. For the reason that of this, their childhood was rough and unpleasant. An example would be the story of Harry Potter. Orphaned as a baby, he was left to be taken care of by his relatives who treated him like a burden to their family. At his old school, he cant find comfort either, because he was being bullied by Dudleys friends. But during the chase between him and the bullies, he was able to discover something different. He was able to jump to the roof of their schools building. Because of what happened, he was friendless and was often isolated from the others. In another book, I am Number Four; after the destruction of their planet by the Mogs and the death of his family Number Four together with eight other children were transported to Earth in order to protect them from the enemies. But the Mogs followed them and they could be anywhere. Because of the possible danger, Number Four and his guardian constantly moves from one place to another. Because of this, Number Four had no friends and was always alone. Every time they move to a new place, John is forced to change his name and identity. When he moved to his new school in Ohio where he kept his low profile, he was called John Smith. Here he was bullied by the cool guys but John always kept his distance and never fought back. Percy Jackson is a 12 year-old boy who have ADHD and dyslexia. Having these defects did not make his life easy. His classmates laugh at him everytime he reads something aloud in class. Every trouble that happens in school points to him as the instigator. Thats why he has been expelled from every school he has ever attended. Growing up, he never knew his dad. Eventually, his mom remarried to a stinky and unkind man, Gabe, who treated him like dirt.

In The Secret of Life of Nicholas Flamel, twins Josh and Sophie Newman discover that they are part of an ancient prophecy. They start to develop the ability to control the element of fire, water, wind ,and earth. When Perry, Nicholas wife gets kidnapped by the enemies, Josh and Sophie use their powers to save her. Through their journey in saving Perry they learn how their powers can get too powerful and out of control. Another brother and sister tandem from the book, The Red Pyramid discovers that they came from the bloodline of Egyptian pharaohs. On their trip to the British Museum, the Rosetta stone exploded and released the ancient Egyptian deities. Set, god of chaos trapped their father inside. Other gods, Isis and Horus possessed their bodies thus giving Sadie and Carter magical abilities. They get to travel to different times and places by dreaming. They can also read hieroglyphics and cast magic spells. With their newly discovered powers, they encounter a lot of battles Sets accomplices. All these children did not become powerful on their own. They had their family and friends who helped them develop their powers. Though Harrys parents are no longer alive, he found his new family in Hogwarts. Professor Dumbledore, McGonagall, and Hagrid became his guardians. They taught him the proper use of magic and the dangers it can bring. He also learned a lot from his friends, Ron and Hermione. In I am Number Four, it was Henri who acted as the father figure and guardian for John Smith. He trained him how to properly control his powers and hide them from other people. Percy Jacksons main teacher was Chiron who taught him sword fighting and archery. He teaches Percy the quality of a true hero. Since their parents are always away, Josh and Sophie Newman was trained by Nicholas Flamel and some of his companions. They taught them the secrets of their abilities and how to use them against enemies. Similarly, since Sadie and Carter parents are not around they are taught by their Uncle Amos how to use their powers. When their Uncle Amos suddenly disappeared, they were trained by

their friend Zia Rashid in the House of Life in Cairo. They were taught how to cast magic spells and open portals to another dimension. But their powers are not just for fun and games because the fate of the world is on their hands. These powerful children are fated to save the world from dark forces that are eager to destroy it. After years of training, Harry Potter is more prepared than ever to fight the Lord Voldemort. Using his newly discovered powers, John Smith protected the city of Ohio from the Mogs. Leading an army of demigods, Percy Jackson prevented the Titans from destroying the world. Josh and Sophie Newman fought the ancient spirits of Isis and Osiris from conquering the universe. Sadie and Carter with their magic spells battled Apophis, the serpentine manisfestation of chaos and destruction. But its not just their powers and heroic deed that made them the hero of each story, but rather their characteristics and values that make somebody to look up to. Harry Potter was willing to sacrifice his life in order to defeat Lord Voldemort. John Smith voluntarily left his girlfriend, Sara Hart in order to protect her from the Mogs. Percy Jackson declined the gift of immortality so that he can live with his friends and mother in the real world. In order to keep the balance of the Earth, Josh was permanently separated from his sister Sophie. For a quite a long time, Sadie and Carter had no parents and have only had each others backs.