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Assignment 4 (chapter 4)

3. a) What is what-is analysis? [141]

Understanding the current network Planning for changes in the technological infrastructure
b) List the four driving forces for change. [142]


4.

Growth of application traffic demand Introduction of disruptive applications Changes in elements of the IT technological infrastructure Organizational change

a) What are QoS metrics? (Do not just spell out the acronym.) [143]

Quality of service metrics quantitive measures of network performance


5. a) In what units is transmission speed normally measured? [143]

Bits per second


c) Give the names and abbreviations for speeds in increasing factors of 1,000. [144]

Abbreviation 1 kbps 1 Mbps 1Gbps 1 Tbps

Meaning 1000 bps 1000 kbps 1000 Mbps 1000 Gbps

d) What is 55,000,000,000 bps with a metric prefix? [144]

55,000,000,000,000 kbps
e) Write out 100 kbps in bits per second (without a metric prefix). [144]

10 f) Write the following speeds properly: 0.067 Mbps, 23,000 kbps, and 48.62Gbps. [144] 67 kbps , 23 Mbps, 48.62 Gbps
6. a) Distinguish between rated speed and throughput. [146]

Rated speed is the speed it should achieve based on vendor claims or the standard that defines the technology. Throughput is the transmission speed a network actually provides to users.

b) Distinguish between individual and aggregate throughput. [146]

Aggregate throughput: total it provides all users who share it Individual: single users receive as their shares of the aggregate throughput
7. a) What is availability? [146]

Percentage of time that the network is available for use


e) What are packets? [148]

data sent in small messages


f) Distinguish between the packet error rate and the bit error rate. [148]

Packet error rate: percentage of packets that are lost or damaged during delivery Bit error rate: percentage of bits that are lost or damaged
h) What is latency? [148]

packets that encounter delays when they move through a network


j) What is jitter? [148]

occurs when the latency between successive packets varies


9. Do a three-site traffic analysis. Site X attaches to Site Y, which attaches to Site Z. Site X is 130 meters east of Site Y. Site Z is 180 meters west of Site Y. Site X needs to be able to communicate with Site Y at 3 Gbps. Site Y needs to be able to communicate with Site Z at 1 Gbps. Site X needs to be able to communicate with Site Z at 700 Mbps. Supply your picture giving the analysis. You may want to do this in Office Visio or Windows Draw and then paste it into your homework.

10.

a) What is the purpose of redundancy in transmission lines? [151 152]

They provide backup paths in case another line fails


b) If the line between R and S fails in Figure 4-11, how much capacity will the line between Q and S need? [151152]

45 Mbps more capacity


11. a) What is a network topology? [153]

Refers to the physical arrangement of a networks computers, switches, routers, and transmission lines
b) At what layer do we find topologies? [153]

Physical layer
c) In what topology are there only two nodes? [153]

Point-to-Point topology
d) In what topologies is there only a single path between any two end nodes? [153]

Star
e) In what topology are there usually many paths between any two end nodes? [153]

Mesh
f) In what topology is broadcasting used? [153]

Bus topology
g) What topologies can be used in complex networks? [154]

Real network
12. a) What is the advantage of a full-mesh leased line network? [155]

Provides many redundant paths so communication is unimpeded


b) What is the disadvantage? [155]

The cost will grow exponentially as the number of sites increases


c) What is the advantage of a pure hub-and-spoke leased line network? [155]

Reduces the number of leased lines required to connect all sites because communication goes through one site, minimizes cost
d) What is the disadvantage? [155]

Reduces reliability

e) Do most leased line networks use a full-mesh or a pure hub-and-spoke topology? Explain. Most real networks use a mix of there two pure topologies because they must balance reliability and cost
13. A company has three sites: Micah, Mallory, and William. Micah and Mallory need 100 Mbps of transmission capacity between them. Mallory and William need 200 Mbps of transmission capacity between them. Micah and William need 300 Mbps of transmission capacity between them. a) Create a hub-and-spoke network with Micah as the hub. What links will there be, and how fast will they need to be? Explain your reasoning. [155]

b) For the same situation, create a full-mesh network. What speeds will the links need to have if you are not concerned with redundancy in case of line failure? Explain your reasoning. [155]

c) Building on the last part of this question, add redundancy so that a failure of the line between Mallory and William will not bring down the network. (Hint: DTP.) [155]

14.

a) How long are momentary traffic peaks? [157]

Fraction of a second to a few seconds


b) Distinguish between overprovisioning and priority. [157-158]

Overprovisioning: adding much more switching and transmission line capacity Priority: assigns high priority to latency-intolerant applications (voice) while giving low priority to latency-tolerant applications (email)
18. a) What is the make-versus-buy decision? [163]

Make software itself or purchase the software from another company?


c) We are considering products A, B, and C. Our criteria are price, performance, and reliability with weights of 20 percent, 40 percent, and 40 percent, r espectively. Product As evaluation scores on these three criteria are 8, 6, and 6, respectively. For B, the values are 6, 8, and 8, respectively. For C, they are 7, 7, and 7, respectively. Present a multicriteria analysis of the decision problem in tabular form and showing all work. Interpret the table. [163164]

Product A Criterion Functionality Availability Cost Ease of Management Electrical Efficiency Total Score
Criterion Weight (Max 5) Criterion Rating (Max 10) Criterion Score

Product B
Product Rating (Max 10) Criterion Score

Product C
Product Rating (Max 10) Criterion Score

21.

c) What is provisioning? [167] Set up service

Thought Questions
1. Assume that an average SNMP response message is 100 bytes long. Assume that a manager sends 40 SNMP Get commands each second. a) What percentage of a 100 Mbps LAN links capacity would the resulting response traffic represent? [168169]

100 bytes * (8 bits/1 byte) = 800 bits * 40 = 32,000 bps 32,000/100 Mbps = .32%
b) What percentage of a 128 kbps WAN link would the response messages represent? [168-169]

32,000/128 kbps =250


c) What can you conclude from your answers to this question? [168 169] 2. The telephone network has long boasted that it has the five nines (99.999 percent availability). a) How much downtime is this per year? Express downtime in days, hours, minutes, and so on as appropriate. [147]

b) How much downtime is there per year with 99 percent availability? [147]