Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 137
Three Revolutionary Architects, Boullée, Ledoux, and Lequeu Author(s): Emil Kaufmann Source: Transactions of the

Three Revolutionary Architects, Boullée, Ledoux, and Lequeu Author(s): Emil Kaufmann

Source: Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, Vol. 42, No. 3 (1952),

pp. 431-564 Published by: American Philosophical Society

Accessed: 10/07/2011 13:42

Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless

you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.

Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at .

Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission.

JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. American Philosophical Society is collaborating with JSTOR

American Philosophical Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Transactions of the American Philosophical Society.

http://www.jstor.org

TRANSACTIONS

OF THE

AMERICANPHILOSOPHICALSOCIETY

FOR

HELD

AT

PROMOTING

PHILADELPHIA

USEFUL

KNOWLEDGE

NEW

SERIES-VOLUME

1952

42, PART

3

THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS, BOULLEE, LEDOUX, AND LEQUEU

THE

EMIL KAUFMANN

AMERICAN

PHILOSOPHICAL

INDEPENDENCE

PHILADELPHIA

SQUARE

6

OCTOBER, 1952

SOCIETY

COPYRIGHT 1952 BY THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY

PREFACE

Philosophical

Society for having made possible the completion of this

I wish also to express my

ways

in the preparation of this book, above all to M. Jean

Adhemar, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, Dr. Leo C.

Egbert,

Princeton University, Prof. Paul Frankl, Inst. for Ad-

vanced

bia University, New York, Architect

Philip Johnson,

Museum of Modern Art, New York, Prof. Erwin Panofsky, Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, Prof.

Meyer Schapiro, Columbia University, New York, Prof. John Shapley, Catholic University of America, Wash-

ington, D. C.

quite particu-

which I had the privilege to work, and

My best thanks go to the libraries in

Princeton, Prof. Julius S. Held, Colum-

I am deeply indebted to the American

study by its generous grants.

sincere gratitude to those who helped

me in various

Collins, New York City, Prof. Donald Drew

Study,

larly to the ever helpful librarians of Avery Library,

Columbia University, Prof. Talbot F. Hamlin, Prof. James Grote Van Derpool; Mr. Adolf Placzek, Avery Library, and Miss Ruth Cook, librarian of the Archi-

tectural Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. For permission to reproduce drawings and photo- graphs I am indebted to the Cabinet d'Estampes, Bibl.

Nationale, Paris

Archives photographiques, Paris (H6tel Brunoy), Bal-

timore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Md. (portrait of

Ledoux), Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Deco- ration, New York (etchings by Le Geay).

(drawings

of Boullee and Lequeu),

The

bibliographical references conform with

tions of the World List of Historical Periodicals, Ox-

ford, 1939.

EMIL KAUFMANN Los Angeles, California, December 1951

The quotations are in the original orthography.

the abbrevia-

431

THREE

REVOLUTIONARY

LEDOUX,

ARCHITECTS,

LEQUEU

BOULLEE,

AND

EMIL KAUFMANN

Deja

l'aurore

s'empare

du monde

.

les arts se reveillent;

un nouveau jour commence. Ledoux

.

.

Introduction

PART I.

ETIENNE-LouIs BOULLEE

.

I.

II.

III.

IV.

The Teachers

Jacques-Franqois

Germain

Abbe

Jean-Laurent

Blondel

Boffrand

Laugier

Le Geay

The Man

The

The Thinker

A rtist

PART II.

CLAUDE-NICOLAS LEDOUX

V. Life and Character

VI.

Buildings

Erected

or Projected

Baroque

The Fashion of Classicism The Rule of Geometry New Surface Patterns

New

The

Survivals

Ways

of Spatial

Composition

Ideal of Individualism

CONTENTS

PAGE

.

433

436

436

436

446

448

450

453

459

469

474

474

479

481

483

483

486

488

494

VII.

The

Propylaea

Heritage

of Paris of the Past

The

Modern

Composition

VIII. The Ideal City Plan Utilitarian

Buildings

Public

Residences

Buildings

PART III.

JEAN-JACQUESLEQUEU

IX. Lequeu's Life

X.

Lequeu's Work Baroque and Classicism Exoticism

The

Toward

In the Style of the Stage

Struggle

When

Search for New

a New

Forms

Composition

for Grandeur

the

Tempest

Stills

Bibliography

Index

PAGE

498

499

504

509

509

514

517

524

538

538

545

546

549

552

554

555

556

558

559

560

INTRODUCTION

As late as the 1920's the works of Boullee and Ledoux were discussed only if they had some local interest. Be-

yond this their works

In

an article published in 1929 I attempted to direct atten-

tion to their tions of mine

best, and the authors were

were referred to very briefly, at

commonly disparaged.

historic significance.

Lequeu, my

Subsequent publica-

on Ledoux, including the first monograph,

were followed by French biographies in 1934 and 1945.

As to Boullee and

tin, 1939 and 1949,

studies on these two men.

research yielded much new material.

Moreover, I will discuss the predecessors of these three

men who were also

enter another hitherto

century French architectural theory. Some of the trea-

tises I have used are rare and not

others are too lengthy for

fore, selected passages which provide a deeper insight

of the era and reveal the character of

their authors have been assembled in my notes.

The

bibliography lists monographs and essays of general

interest; further bibliographical

in the notes.

references are included

Those interested in Ledoux will find here

into the

seem to be the only biographical

essays in the Art Bulle-

Continued

highly interesting personalities, and

neglected field, that of eighteenth-

easily accessible, while

There-

the average reader.

thought

sources that are missing in other biographies, just as

they will find among the illustrations many designs not before reproduced.

at-

This

book ventures

into

unmapped

territory.

It

tempts

the

French

clarify the historical position of the architects by set-

ting off their production

their period, it does not pretend to say the last word on

the

development time. I know that one can look at the extremely original

which it will discuss for the first

to

lay

the

groundwork

of

the

era

for

an

investigation

in

is

of

the

to

architecture

which

the

culminated

attempt

here

Revolution.

Although

against the general trends of

works

is

pointing out the shortcomings of this attempt, but will

carry on with independent and better interpretations

based on a renewed scrutiny of their works, and of the

treatises referred to in the text.

of these three architects

be hoped

that others

will

from various

not limit

angles.

It

to

to

themselves

To

begin

with,

I should

like to make

it clear that

I

do not regard as "revolutionary architects" those archi-

tects who were commissioned by revolutionary authori- ties in the years 1789-1799 to design public buildings, memorials or ephemeral decorations for revolutionary

celebrations.

433

The architects considered here did not

434

play any

who pretended that

they

ian caps or other petty

tional designs. They

new ideals set forth by the leading thinkers of the cen-

tury, and strove unconsciously rather than intentionally,

No broad-

express minded historian of the French Revolution will restrict

himself to the deeds and misdeeds which occurred in the

years

the ultimate restoration of order. He will rather study how the concept of the individual's rights, and of a new

order of society decades prior to

new ideas, failing temporarily, but paving

the future.

growth of ideas before commenting on their materializa-

tion. Historians have believed that architectureand the fine

arts in general

century movement of reorientation and reorganization.

erroneous belief resulted from the fact that the of the architectural revolution fell into

when the ideas for which they fought were

discredited. Most contemporaries and the following

oblivion

protagonists

This

to

KAUFMANN:

THREE

REVOLUTIONARY

ARCHITECTS

[TRANS.

AMER. PHIL. SOC.

active role in the

political scene; nor did they

of the main architectural trends in the late eighteenth century may help to make this detailed investigation more easily comprehensible.

within a hierarchical order

had been a foremost

Baroque, even of the Baroque's last stage with all its

sumptuousness

eenth century,

pression

the

character, the creation of atmosphere, and

belong

to the host of minor artists

were abreast of the times when they affixed Phryg-

emblems to thoroughly conven- were men imbued with the great

these ideals in their own medium.

of turmoil, from the destruction of the Bastille to

developed

1789; how

and took hold during the

people began to defend the

the way for deal with the

likewise, must

Art history,

remained

apart

from the eighteenth-

Well-balanced harmony

aim. of the Renaissance and the

In the late eight-

and exaggeration.

however, the

chief aims were the ex-

into

independent units.

were

aimed at

century

of

division of the composition

The forms

by

which promised

to

The French architects at the close of the

not content with literary picturesqueness, but expressiveness, legitimately through form.

best to serve the double

and individualism were those of

end of expressiveness elementary geometry.

be independent from each other.

lowed the parts Moreover, they

to a building by differentiating the constituents in size,

or

architects also

from the traditionalto the geomet-

rical forms because their attitude toward the material

had undergone a

roque features with

The revolutionary

"character"

Self-contained, these forms al-

give

allowed the architect to

in

shape.

contrasting them

passed

profound change.

their

The sensuous Ba- the Ba-

shapes of Caryatides

to

pay

flexibility expressed

in the

that

roque trend toward animism

trend accounts for the preference

"living" forms, e.g., supports

(All-Beseelung). This

was given to

generations were not able to distinguish between those

attempts

and

transitory.'

changes

the

revolutionaries were, on

tive, adhering to Baroque 2 tenets or looking back to

all, to antiquity and to the Mid-

dle Ages.

been destroyed,

ings

so that it is only by turning to the writ-

and projects of the architects that one can learn

about the aspirations

these buildings have

the remote past-above

In the first place, many of the actual buildings

remained almost unnoticed up to recent times.

But there are other reasons why the great

those which proved to be merely whimsical and

which were to become fruitful

and permanent,

by

in claws, etc. more atten-

and Atlantes, or furniture legs ending

The revolutionary architects began

tion to the inherent

to

Although some

of their

of the

it was restraint. Expressiveness and individualism were

also the aims of the rising romanticmovement. Revolu- architecture differed in that its creators were

tionary hostile to revivalism of any

rejected any imitation of the past. In reality,

the different currents crossed constantly and in

of the revolutionary

roque, as well as

But the most advanced of the designs resemble in plain-

traces of Romanticism are to be found.

works reminiscences of the Ba-

many

course,

kind, and in principle they

their goal was no longer outward show,

were expressive of the excitement

properties

of the materials and liked

disguise.

present them without any

experiments

period,

the surface at least, conserva-

Secondly,

almost all of

of the era.

of

Along with the general unrest which was to lead to

the political revolution, went a slowly-growing dissatis- faction with the established modes of artistic

composi-

tion. This discontent caused the architects to search

impor-

tant, a new principle of composition. A brief outline

for, and finally find, new forms and, even more

those of the twentieth century.

ness and monumentality In architecture, just

were to triumph

ciently realistic, modernists. But the temporary victory

of the conservatives should not lead

the achievements of the progressives lacked

On the contrary,

century

as the

of transition from the Middle Ages to

the Renaissance, as momentous as the

and in

social life.

and the foundations of a new tradition were laid.3

as in politics,

the reactionaries though not suffi-

us to believe that

significance.

place in eighteenth-

over the inspired,

great events took

1 Lemonnier,

the

Henry,

92-97,

La

megalomanie

dans

l'architecture,

ridi-

quelques-uns

ce qu'il pouvait

L'Architecte

culing

deconcertent

faire du chateau de Versailles

5:

artist:

1910, devotes two pages to Boullee

tres

."

pousses,

dont

on devine

"de projets

au premier abord

He also finds that Boullee

architecture-events which were as significant

processes

contemporaneous

glorious artistic tradition was abandoned,

would not deserve mention at all, had he not enjoyed

a certain

reputation while alive, and been a member of the Institut de

France, Benoit, F., L'art francais sous la Revolution et l'Empire,

avide d'inedit, il in-

267, Paris, 1897, disparages Ledoux:

venta des monstruosites." Only recently it seems, has opinion

about these artists changed in their country.

the term "Baroque" will be used in a

changes in philosophical thinking, in literature,

A

2 In this investigation

wider

composi-

tional principles which were already decisive in the Renaissance,

and reached their climax

sense.

It

will

serve

to

indicate

certain

basic

in the Baroque proper.

3 In my Von Ledoux bis Le Corbusier, 5, 39, 48, 59, Vienna, 1933, I pointed out that one should not see merely the sterile classicism about 1800, but realize that then certain new artistic

VOL.

42,

PT.

3,

1952]

INTRODUCTION

is not dis-

435

strug-

Revolutionary architecture in its

in

this book.4

entirety

Of the three, Boullee

represents primarily

the

cussed

the period would allow, it

personalities in the reform movement, by recounting

their lives and by discussing their achievements and the

ideals for which

Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, and

revolutionary

architecture. There were many more who shared the

same ideals, who had the same

and the same hopes for an artistic renascence.

work of these three represents the height of the move- ment that ended the Baroque and presaged the architec-

ture of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Having lived in the atmosphere of growing

and social discontent, the revolutionary architects wished to realize, for the common good, the ideals of the time

political

not the only representatives

More than a general survey of

presents the most original

gle for new forms; Ledoux, the search for a new order

of

the revolutionary movement-despair,

return to the past.

thought and the wide scope of his building activities, his

work will be presented more

any previous publication.

architect.

Twenty years

lications on him.

concern themselves with artists whose

never heard.

brilliantly

put it in the dedication of his Cours d'architecture:

"nous n'avons point

ignorons." 5

eenth-century architecture The increased

of the period will remove what

may be left of former doubts.

the constituents; Lequeu the tragic ultimate stage of

resignation, and

Because of the depth of Ledoux'

completely and more thor-

as

a

great

they strove. Etienne-Louis Boullee,

Jean-Jacques Lequeu were

of French

contempt for the past,

But the

oughly than has been done in

Today Ledoux

is

recognized

ago it was difficult to bring out any pub-

In general,

people are reluctant to

names they have

Or, as Frangois Blondel so

d'amour pour les choses que nous

Today, the revolutionary current in eight-

is an accepted historical fact.

knowledge

by contriving architectural schemes such as had never

existed before. They did their part in the double task

of the

new.

not spared the ordeals of their times and were menaced

by

disillusioned and reactionary.

its fanaticism. In the end they themselves became

period: tearing down the old and building the

Like others who served the same cause, they were

spoke, approvingly or

otherwise, of the

Thus we are pro-

vided with

of the three architects.

are the publications of Jacques-Fran?ois Blondel, who was the founder of the most renowned school of archi-

We shall begin with

tecture in the eighteenth century.

him, for he was the first teacher of the eldest of our

architects, Boullee.

Prominent among the sources

Many contemporary sources

indomitable urge toward innovation,

and of the innovators themselves.

the background for a better understanding

principles rose to live on all through the nineteenth century. Cp. my review, Art Bulletin 30: 288, 1948, of Raval, Marcel, and

J.-Ch. Moreux, Ledoux.

4 In my forthcoming Architecture in the Age of Reason the transformation' of architectural thought in the eighteenth cen-

tury will

tionary

be discussed,

Architecture.

with

special

regard

to French

Revolu-

5 Paris, 1675.

PART

I

ETIENNE-LOUIS

BOULLEE

I.

THE

TEACHERS

JACQUES-FRANCOIS

BLONDEL

Jacques-Frangois Blondel's reputation is based chiefly

on his activities as teacher and writer.'

that his principal merits lay in these fields. When his last hours approached, he asked to be taken to his school

in the Louvre. There he wished to wait for death, and

there he died.2 His architectural work, however, was

to be

lustrate the great change which took place in the eight-

His early manner may easily be recog-

nized in the

la distribution des maisons de plaisance;

ner in the structures he erected at Metz between 1761 and 1771. The most striking traits of the five maisons de plai- sance are the plastic character of the architectural body

his late man-

He himself felt

as i'mportant as his teaching, for his buildings il-

eenth century.

designs of his first publication in 1737, De

3

as a whole and of its single features; the predominance of voids over walls; the lavishness of decoration. In

these projects

disintegration of Baroque composition begins (fig. 1).

The portico

different character.4 Here the wall is

a heavy parapet

of statues by into the sky.

Ville in the same city are of still greater sternness.5

he almost reached the borderline where

of the

Cathedral of Metz, however, has a

emphasized and

row

crowns the sides, but without the

which formerly buildings

The Corps

seemed to fade

de Garde and the H6tel de

Blondel's writings contain prin-

of

ciples of the the tendency

might surmise that this tendency merely formed part

of the return to antiquity, which is generally consid-

ered a chief trait of late eighteenth-century development. However, extremely few statements in Blondel's volumi-

Like his buildings,

Baroque, side-by-side with the germs

toward simplicity and "purity."

One

de

Boullee,

draft

Boullee,

et

ville, A.-J., Vies des fameux architectes, 472, Paris, 1787; Prost, Auguste, J.-F. Blondel, 82, Metz, 1860. The first publication in which Blondel participated was Architecture francoise, Paris, Jean Mariette, 1727. Cp. Kaufmann, Emil, Contribution of J.-F. Blondel to Mariette's Architecture francoise, Art Bulle-

tin 31:

Louis,

and thus

1927, ignores does not know

1About

of

Blondel

Paris,

an

as

the

Nat.,

teacher

Fonds

of

Boullee,

see

Papiers

9153,

fol.

de

et Arts,

Bibl.

frangais,

sur

ms.

la

vie

Sciences

38,

Litt.

obituary;

de

Villar,

l'Inst.

Notice

Nat.

des

Memoires

Beaux-Arts III, Histoire: 43, an IX. Cf. Dezallier d'Argen-

58-59.

Hautecceur,

Blondel's

Reprint

1747

(see

of Mariette,

note 72)

Paris,

Discours,

of the latter's

share in Mariette's

publication.

2 Len6tre,

3 Blondel,

G., J.-F.

J.-F.,

Blondel,

L'Architecte

5:

8, 1910.

1:

Same,

De

la distribution

des maisons

is from

p. 26,

de plaisance,

pl. 41.

Paris,

Lejeaux,

1737.

The house which I illustrate

ill.,

de

Marcel, Metz,

L'Architecture

p. 120.

Metz,

Lejeaux,

ills.,

Strasbourg,

4 Grosdidier de Matons,

Jeanne, Blondel,

5

ill., p. 51, Paris,

40:

1929.

ill., p. 23, 1927.

27.

Lejeaux,

Blondel,

Grosdidier,

d'Armes

Place

Revue de I'art anc. et mod. 42:

1927.

ills., p. 275, 277, 1927.

nous writings suggest

It is, moreover,

more Baroque phase, he called attention to the impor-

tance of studying classical works,6 whereas in the late

Cours d'Architecture-composed

posed ascending "Classicism"-he declared that it made no sense to erect buildings in the manner of the An- cients.7 Studying their work, he pointed out, should teach one to think, but not in the same way that they thought. Each nation, he felt, had its own approach. What was right for one generation would not be right for those to come.8

It is, of course, not possible to draw a clear demarca- tion line between Blondel's early and his late periods.

The opposed concepts crossed constantly, just as they were to do in the works and writings of his pupils,

The older architect, naturally,

Boullee and Ledoux.

devoted more space to the older ideas, while the two younger men gave more attention to the modern views.

that this was true in his case.

interesting to note that in his early,

in the time of the sup-

to note that in his early, in the time of the sup- FIG. 1. C o

FIG.

1.

Country house-Batiment

a l'Italienne.

However, a mixture of contradictory

that the work of these three architects had in common.

Many

be

But on reading their respective

texts there can be no doubt that the seeds of the revo-

of the later architects were planted

lutionary thinking in Blondel's school.

of Ledoux, one will perhaps

find a very similar boldness of thought in Blondel's cool,

be still more amazed to

If one is startled by the originality

than by a generation.

removed from those of Blondel by centuries rather

ideas is not all

of Boullee's and Ledoux' achievements seem to

"a puiser dans l'ancienne de cet Art."

6 Blondel, Distribution 1: xv, Architecture les premiers elemens

contenant les

lecons donnees en 1750 et les annees suivantes 3: liv, Paris, 1771 f., "il seroit peut-etre deraisonnable de vouloir aujourd'hui elever chez nous des edifices precisement dans le gout de

l'antique."

apprendre

a penser;

qui leur

est

les

7Blondel, J.-F., Cours d'Architecture

8

Ibid.,

Iv,

"Les

Anciens

.

.

. peuvent

mais nous ne devons

peuples

ont

."

un caractere,

bien

nous

eux.

sentir

pas penser comme

une

maniere

de

Tous

436

VOL.

42,

PT.

3,

1952]

ETIENNE-LOUIS

437

It seems worth while then to study Blondel's writings

BOULLEE

academic treatises. His criticism of the moderns, how-

ever,

their style. Blondel was extremely

clearly to

the

be distinguished from the process

architect was to combine art

construction.1l Some of Blondel's passages are the very

forerunners of Ledoux' enunciations:12

moment when the architect ceases to

mission, not even in the hours of relaxa-

tion; 13 he must ardently endeavor to discover the prom-

ise latent in the building site; 14 he should be possessed

by

good architect should be interested in every aspect of

life.16

Soon the reader will see how a new type of architec-

In Blondel

himself we already find the new type of "enlightened"

provides us today with the clearest description of

proud of his profession: Ar-

0

a creative art,9 and is

of building;

with the techniques of

There should

to learn what had happened. Patte

that Blondel was not a

the revolution. This characterizationconforms with the

picture

of fight," as Georges Len6tre dubbed Blondel,21 was a

staunch defender of the old faith, but he had also much of the new trends.

understanding Blondel never tired of

principles of the hierarchical

concatenation,22or, as he put it, "l'architecture pyra- midale" and "les liaisons qui seules peuvent mettre d'ac- cord les parties avec le tout." 23 As to the requirements of gradation he offered general comments as well as specific suggestions. He favored the predominance of the main avant-corps, and an "air of superiority" for the dominant part.24 The liveliness of the plan and the "pyramidal"form, in his view contributed most to the excellence of the Luxembourg.25 For this very same gradation he praised Palladio, but not for that classical-

ity which so many critics, past and present, have ascribed to the Vicentine master.26 He pointed out that just as within the single structure one part is to rule, so in a group is one building to be accentuated.27 He warned against combining a basement with an attic, for two "subaltern" stories could never make a satisfying

declares explicitly

revolutionary, but only prepared

chitecture, he prods, is

we gain from Blondel's text. The "professor full

putting emphasis

on the basic

Baroque, on gradation and

not be a single

think of his

a thirst for knowledge of every description.15 A

ture developed in the eighteenth century.

builder 17 who was

recognize in him the universally-minded architect who

could

Blondel, an indefatigable worker, forever intent upon

improvement,19 was younger generation.

predestined to be the leader of the

to be guided by "reason"; and we

claim to be the legitimate judge of the other arts.18

My view of Blondel as a progressive teacher is based

of his statements, which I shall discuss

but corroborated by Pierre Patte, who edited the

fifth volume of Blondel's Cours. Transi-

minor changes would hardly have prompted

not only

later,

posthumous

tory and

Patte to say:

on

many

whole.28 He found it quite

basement with orders while leaving the higher-ranking main story bare and unadorned.29 Attics, he held,

should not contain rooms, but serve only as crowning features.30 Orders deserved blame if used indiscrimi- nately without regard to the rank of the stories.31 Simi- larly, he censured the over-ornamentationof Islamic art

with its persistent

concatenation and integration were as im-

portant as gradation. He incessantly pleaded for per-

unpardonable to adorn the

He has

9

10 Ibid.4:

succeeded,by his teaching,

preparing the revo-

architecturein the last twenty

in

lution that came to pass in

years. We shouldnot forget that we owe him this.20

repetition of identical motifs.32

"le belliqueuxprofesseur."

To him,

Ibid.,xiv, "L'Architectureest un Art createur."

viii, "plus de

"L'Architectureest a

la

ma;onnerie ce que

exaltation."

et moins

Paris,

de ma;onnerie."Cp.Ledoux,C.-N.,L'Architecture,15,

1804,

aux belles lettres; c'est l'enthousiasmedramatique du metier;

la poesie

est

21 Len6tre,Blondel,6,

22

Gradationmeansthe differentiationof the partsaccording

to their

termswereusedin thesesenses by Robert Morris, RuralArchi-

tecture,London, 1750.

113.

rank;

concatenationtheir formal unification. Both

190,

"airde

superiorite." Similarly,59,

23

24

25

Cours1: 386, 430.

Distribution1:

Cours3: 79, "chef-d'ceuvreduc6tede sa forme pyramidale,

le mouvement que Debrossea su donnera son plan." Cf.

et par

4:

midales."

195.

26

Ibid.1: 387, "Palladioa entendule mieuxles formes pyra-

27

Ibid.4: 154,"preeminenceau chateausur toutesles de-

pendances."

28 Ibid.3:

244,

Ibid.,23,

Ibid.,235, "cet etage

"cesdeux

etages

subalternes."

29

30

"unabusimpardonnable."

batard."

31J.-F.

32

Blondelin L'Encyclopedie, ed. Diderotand d'Alem-

bert,Paris,1762,Plates,Architecture, 1: 8, pl.20, "deuxordres pratiques l'unsurl'autrene distinguentjamaisl'etagesuperieur d'avecl'inferieur." Cours4: liii, "ornementsArabessi peu faits pour alleren-

semble."

on ne peut en parler qu'avec

11 Cours 4:

xxv,

12

Ibid.

se trouve

enfante."

3:

xv,

appele

en sorte

que

de merite,

16

"il faut

"Doue

reunir la science au metier."

d'un heureux

les

genie

merveilles

l'Architecte

.

que 1'Architecture

il faut faire

les

environs

"

pour elever

13 Ibid., xxiv,

tout

14 Ibid., xxv, "on parcourt

15 Ibid., xxvi,

"Lors de ses delassements

.

.

.

"c'est avec

meme, tourne au profit de l'Art."

d'un ceil avide

la passion de devenir un Architecte

avec tous, et en tout temps."

tout instruit."

Pierre

Patte,

vi,

"M. Blondel

.

.

. tout

ce

les

Arts

qu'on s'eclaire

Ibid., xxv,

17 Ibid.

5:

avoit

qu'il

18 Ibid.

"tout interesse,

Avertissement,

by

pour principe d'eclairer

enseignoit."

3:

lxxiv,

par le raisonnement

Juge-ne

de

"L'Architecte,

tous

liberaux."

19 Ibid., 388, "la premiere pensee n'est jamais precisement celle

a laquelle il faut s'arreter

20 Ibid. 5:

vii,

"

"Aussi a-t-il

reussi a preparer, par ses instruc-

de

tions la revolution notre Architecture."

qui s'est faite depuis 20 ans dans le gout

438

KAUFMANN:

THREE

REVOLUTIONARY

ARCHITECTS

[TRANS. AMER.PHIL.SOC.

t1a -;;> a;; V ; II -i i I:1~ II 8iSjlilll!$i< 1 S<g~~:_: :::: ,.;,!
t1a
-;;>
a;;
V
;
II -i
i
I:1~ II 8iSjlilll!$i<
1
S<g~~:_:
::::
,.;,!
-;I
~~~:0~
-38
lli-l^^^^lli
:
.I',l~~~~e~~a~~ Si
I

S ^IIn

FIG.

2.

Architectural

profile-Entablement

Toscan.

fect unity of the parts,33 which could be attained by

symmetry ("one of the chief beauties of architecture"),34

or, still

better, by spatial interrelationships. As the most

efficient means of unifying the interior space, he recom-

mended the enfilade, or the threading

of rooms along an

axis;a5 and he also suggested the use of mirrors on opposite walls to create the illusion of continuous

vistas.36

The enfilade, which had been extremely popular in France since the late seventeenth century, not only tied

all of the rooms

terior

placed in the center

together,

vista.

but also served

to tie

the in-

to the exterior

Staircases were not to be

lest they

obstruct-

of the structure,

1752,

"les rapports du tout aux parties, et des parties au tout."

larly,

"l'unite que nous avons tant recommandee."

pression of Architecture

tion. 34 Cours 1: 408, "La symetrie

une des principales beautes

de l'Architecture." 35 Encyclopedie, loc. cit., 10, about a plan of his, "le premier merite d'un plan consiste dans la beaute des enfilades princi-

pales."