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Monopulse is a technique used in radar that is able to detect the presence of an object as well as estimating the radar angle using a single pulse or ping. Due to noise and target fluctuations, this technique requires an estimation technique known as maximum likelihood estimation for calculating more accurate target locations. By recording multiple samples and using maximum likelihood estimation, a better estimate of the true position of the target can be determined.

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Electrical and Computer Engineering Rowan University Glassboro, NJ USA brossa22@students.rowan.edu, cullen38@students.rowan.edu

AbstractMonopulse is a technique used in radar that is able to detect the presence of an object as well as estimating the radar angle using a single pulse or ping. Due to noise and target fluctuations, this technique requires an estimation technique known as maximum likelihood estimation for calculating more accurate target locations. By recording multiple samples and using maximum likelihood estimation, a better estimate of the true position of the target can be determined. Key TermsMonopulse, Phased Array Radar, Maximum Likelihood Estimation

Knowing the time delay between transmitting the signal and receiving the signal, we can calculate the range of the target using Equation 1 where R is the range, c is the speed of light, and t0 is the time delay between transmitting the signal and receiving the signal. The velocity of the target can be calculated by comparing the received frequency with the transmitted frequency. (1) When determining the peak transmitter power, it is important to consider parameters such as the maximum range, wavelength, and gain. The radar range equation in terms of maximum range is defined as (1)

I. INTRODUCTION Radio Detection and Ranging, or radar, has been around since approximately April of 1904, when German Christian Hulsmeyer detected a ship in a fog [1]. Since then, the theory and technology behind radar has developed remarkably, and can detect now accurately detect the distance of a bird. During the development of the radar dish that society is more familiar with, the phased array radar was also under development. Rather than setting the direction of the radar waves by physically rotating a dish, the phased array radar uses the individual phases of antennas to steer a beam. With the development of the phased array radar came the need to for a proper method of estimating the range, velocity, and elevation of a target. In this paper, we will discuss the properties of phased array radar, and the estimation technique used to find the range of a target from the face of the array. II. BACKGROUND INFORMATION - PHASED ARRAY RADAR A. Radar Theory Radar is a system that can detect objects and determine their range, altitude, direction, and speed through the use of electromagnetic radiation. Typically, a very short pulse is transmitted by the antenna. As the pulse propagates in space, some of the energy will eventually be intercepted by a target. The energy intercepted by the target is reradiated in many directions. Some of the reradiated energy is received by the antenna. After some signal processing and amplification, a decision is made whether a target was detected or not.

( )

where G is the antenna gain, Ae is the receiving antenna effective area, is the radar cross section of the target, Ei(n) is the efficiency in adding together n pulses, F is the propagation factor, k is Boltzmanns constant, T 0 is the receiver temperature, fp is the pulse repetition frequency, (S/N) is the signal to noise ratio, and Ls is the system losses [2]. The SNR value used was determined using the Albersheim detection equation [3] given by ( ) (2)

(4)

-10 -20

PD is equal to the probability of detection and P FA is equal to the maximum tolerable false alarm rate. The Albersheim detection equation calculates the SNR required to achieve a given probability of detection with a given false alarm rate. B. Phased Array Radar Phased array radar is a type of radar system that uses a number of radiating elements, or antennas, to electronically steer the beam. Traditional radar systems use a mechanically rotating antenna to sweep the beam through space. A phased array steers the beam by shifting the signal phase of each radiating element. 1) Element Arrangement There are two possible arrangements for phased arrays. One arrangement is the linear array. A linear array is made up of multiple columns. Each column is shifted by a central phase shifter while each radiating element remains unchanged. This type of arrangement is a much simpler design, but only allows steering in only one dimension. A planar array is a two dimensional phased array where every radiating elements phase is independently shifted to allow beam steering in two dimensions. This is a more complicated design, but allows for greater flexibility and the use of digital beamforming. Typically, the radiating elements are spaced at a distance of half the wavelength of the radar's operating frequency. This is done to reduce grating lobes that are larger when the spacing of elements is larger than half of the wavelength. These grating lobes are repetitions of the main beam at angles where the phases line up. Figure 3 shows the array response of a 10 element linear array where the element spacing is half of the wavelength. You can clearly see the grating lobes in Figure 4 at +- 90 degrees. Figure 4 is the array response where the element spacing has been increased to equal the wavelength.

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Fig. 1. Plot of the array response pattern of a 10 element linear array at an operating frequency of 1 GHz and an element spacing of /2.

Azimuth Cut (elevation angle = 0.0) 0 -10 -20

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Fig. 2. Plot of the array response pattern of a 10 element linear array at an operating frequency of 1 GHz and an element spacing of .

2) Beam Steering By changing the phase of each element in a phased array, the beam can be effectively steered due to constructive and destructive interference. This simple concept is shown in Figure 3. Figure 4 shows a 10 element linear array before and after steering.

Fig. 5. This figure shows a physical representation of the sum and delta signals. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Monopulseprinzip2.gif

Fig. 3. This figure shows how shifting each elements phase can change the direction of the transmitted signal. [4]

Before steering 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -200

Fig. 6. This figure shows how the delta (upper) and sum (lower) signals are formed. Source: http://www.radartutorial.eu/06.antennas/an17.en.html

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III. METHODS / THEORY / EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE A. Maximum Likelihood Estimation Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) is a plausible alternative to using the Minimum Variance Unbiased (MVU) estimator. The MLE will be used with the MVU estimator does not exist or when it cannot be found when it does exist. The MLE is defined to be the value of that maximizes the probability density function (PDF) p(x; ) for a fixed. This method of estimation requires the data to be a Gaussian, but the variance and mean need not be known. The general computation of the MLE can be found as follows: (5)

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Fig. 4. This figure shows a 10 element linear array before and after steering.

3) Monopulse Theory The most common type of phased array radar currently being used is known as monopulse radar. Monopulse radar gets its name from the way it obtains information about the target. In one single pulse of the radar, we can determine whether a target is detected and the angle from the main beam where the target is located, as shown in Figure 5. The monopulse design produces two signals: a sum signal, and a delta signal, as shown in Figure 6. The sum signal represents the center of the main beam by adding the all the signals together. The delta signal is created by subtracting the signals from one side of the radar array from the other. This delta signal will have either a negative or positive value that corresponds to which side of the main beam the target is located.

The argmax function would return the value that maximizes the argument , and would be accomplished in practice by taking the derivative of log-likelihood representation of the signal setting it equal to 0. The MLE also has the ability to be determined numerically. This can be done because the MLE is defined to be computed over the maximum of a known function. This is useful when is only defined only a set range [a,b], as the MLE would only need to be calculated over that interval, rather than the entire sample set. Both the analytical and numerical method of solving for the MLE result in a more accurate estimate is there are more samples present in the data.

B. Range Detection In this application, monopulse radar is being used to find the distance from the radar to the target. When the signal is radiated toward the target, it follows the piece-wise function below. N represents the total number of samples between transmit pulses. This is a constant that is previously determined for the system. s[n] contains the discretized signals of the pulse that lasts for M-1 samples. For monopulse systems, the pulse can be any kind of signal. It can correspond to (but is not limited to) a chirp, a sine wave, or a DC pulse. The signal model represents the transmitted pulse as it is seen on the face of the antennae. For the ease of simulation, the signal does not have any noise, and this closely represents what is seen in practice. There is slight noise observed on the face of the array, but this can be corrected for it can be measured. During the travel from array to target, the signal generates noise, which is assumed to be white Gaussian noise. Once the wave hits the target, it reflects back to the array. Ideally, the received signal would be a delayed radiated signal. However, due to the noise, the return signal follows the distribution given below:

( )

(11)

(6) (12)

As seen in Equation (13), the MLE calculation becomes the correlation between the transmit pulse window and section of the entire received signal [5]. This method hold true to using the convolution of the full transmitted and received signal that is implemented in faster, currently implemented systems [4]. To find the estimate of the distance, the following relationship is used. (7) (14)

[n] represents the received samples that include the noise in the signal. N and M represent the same values as in Equation (6). no represents the first sample that contains the received pulse data. To find the MLE, the PDF of must be computed, found below:

c is the speed of propagation, which is the speed of light in this case. fs is the sampling frequency of the array. The entire equation is divided by two because the distance it takes for signal to reach the target, reflect, and travel is two times the total distance. C. Simulation Matlabs phased array toolbox was used to simulate the entire phased array radar system. In order to simulate the system, a number of objects needed to be defined. These objects were the waveform, the antenna, the steering vector, the receiving beamformer, the radar target, the antenna and target platforms, the transmitter, the radiator, the collector, the receiver preamp, and the propagation environment which we will define as free space. After all objects have been defined, we need to begin the simulation. The first step is to calculate the steering vector based on a given angle. The wave to be transmitted is generated, the pulse is transmitted, and then the pulse is radiated towards the target. The pulse then propagates to the target in free space where it reflects off of the target before being propagated back towards the antenna. The target is defined to be at coordinates [7000 5000 0] m, corresponding to a straight-line distance of 8602.3 m. The echo is collected and then it is sent through the receiver preamp. The signal is then sent through the receiving beamformer. The signal now needs to be analyzed by using a correlation-type function. The maximum point of this function is the estimated range of the target. This estimate is

[ [

] ] (8)

which results in

] ]

(9)

Since we need to minimize with respect to no, the maximization occurs over ( [ ]) (10)

Subsequently, the exponent is a negative value, the maximum of is found by minimizing the exponent term, or

then compared with the exact target range to determine a percent error. IV. RESULTS

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Fig. 9. This figure shows the signal that is received at the antenna. Each of the 10 different colors represents a separate element in the phased array.

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Samples 140 160 180 200 Signal after Beamforming Applied -100

Fig. 7. This figure shows the signal, after being amplified by the transmitter, being radiated from the antenna.

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Fig. 10. This figure shows the signal after beamforming has been applied. The only noise present is thermal noise in the receiver preamp.

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Fig. 8. This figure shows the signal being reflected off of the target.

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Fig. 11. This figure shows the windowed correlation of the transmitted signal with the received signal.

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Fig. 12. This figure shows the signal after beamforming with an SNR of -10 dB. The sampling rate was 1 MHz.

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Fig. 15. This figure shows the windowed correlation of the transmitted signal with the received signal. The received signal had an SNR of -10 dB. The sampling rate was 100 MHz.

V. DISCUSSION In Figures 7 and 8, the pulse being sent and reflected can be realized. It can be seen that the pulse takes up five samples at a sampling frequency of 1 MHz, resulting in a pulse width of 5 s. In Figure 9 shows the received signal hitting the array prior to beam forming, and Figure 10 shows the result after beam forming. For proof of concept, the signals found in Figures 7 and 10 are the signals that represent s[n] and x[n] without added noise. Using the correlation of the two signals as given in equation (13), Figure 11 shows the results of moving the window correlation. The peak is found to be at the 59th sample, corresponding to the readings observed by the array in Figure 10 and the object reflecting the signal at the 30th sample, as observed in Figure 8. In Figures 12 and 15, the signals being viewed have an applied signal to noise ratio of -10 dB, or 10 times the noise power to the signal power. Figure 12 contains the signal with a sampling frequency of 1 MHz, and Figure 13 shows the correlation of the sent signal to the beamformed signal. The max value of the correlation, is found to be at sample 59. Using the relationship given in equation (14) the estimated distance was found to be 8843.9 m, an error of 2.808%. Figure 14 contains the signal with a sampling frequency of 100 MHz, and Figure 15 shows the correlation of the sent signal to the beamformed signal, finding the peak value of correlation at sample 5745. Using equation (14), the range estimate was 8611.5 m, an error of 0.1071%. These findings prove that the more points in the data set, the more accurate an estimate can be made. With a magnitude change in samples of 100, the error decreased by 96.19%. The estimate could have been computed to an even smaller error percentage, but with the limited computing power of personal computers being used, the amount of calculations that needed to be completed exceed their ability.

Correlation

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Fig. 13. This figure shows the windowed correlation of the transmitted signal with the received signal. The received signal had an SNR of -10 dB. The sampling rate was 1 MHz.

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Fig. 14. This figure shows the signal after beamforming with an SNR of 10 dB. The sampling rate was 100 MHz.

VI. CONCLUSION It can be seen that the MLE is an effective estimator in determining the range of a stationary object in phased array radar. Even though this was a simplified method of calculating the distance, it still proved to estimate following the convention that the more samples present, the more accurate the estimation becomes. This was seen in how increasing the sampling frequency by a magnitude of 100 increased the accuracy of estimation by almost 100%. With current systems being as accurate as they are, the sampling frequencies are assumed to be significantly higher than the ones that were tested, a fairly safe assumption because in some estimation cases, the accuracy becomes life or death. REFERENCES [1] M. Hollmann. Christian Huelsmeyer, the inventor. (Radar Online). [online] 2007. http://www.radarworld.org/huelsmeyer.html [2] M. I. Skolnik. (2008). Radar Handbook (3). [Online]. Available: http://accessengineeringlibrary.com/browse/radarhandbook-third-edition [3] K. White et al., Radar sensor management for detection and tracking, Defense Science and Tech. Org., Edinburg., SA, Australia, Rep. [4] U. Nickel, Fundamentals of signal processing for phased array radar, FHR., Wachtberg, Germany, Rep. [5] S. M. Kay. Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing: Estimation Theory. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 1993.

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