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Shier, Butler, and Lewis: Holes Human Anatomy and Physiology, 13th ed.

Chapter 7: Skeletal System

Chapter 7: Skeletal System I. Introduction 1. Bones include active, living tissues: bone tissue, cartilage, dense connective tissue, blood, and nervous tissue. . Bones: support and protect so!t tissues, provide points o! attachment !or muscles, house blood"producing cells, and store inorganic salts. #. $he !our classes o! bone according to shape are long, short, !lat, and irregular. %. &'amples o! long bones are !orearm and thigh bones. (. Short bones are shaped like cubes. ). &'amples o! short bones are wrist bones and ankle bones. 7. *lat bones are plate"like structures. +. &'amples o! !lat bones are some skull bones, ribs, and scapulae. ,. -rregular bones have a variety o! shapes. 1.. &'amples o! irregular bones are vertebrae and some !acial bones. 11. /ound bones are also called sesamoid bones. 1 . Sesamoid bones are small and nodular and embedded within tendons ad0acent to 0oints. 1#. 1n e'ample o! a sesamoid bone is the patella. II. Bone Structure 1. 2arts o! a Long Bone 1. 1n e'panded end o! a long bone is called an epiphysis. . 1n epiphysis articulates with another bone. #. 1rticular cartilage is located on the articulating portion o! an epiphysis. %. $he sha!t o! a long bone is called a diaphysis. (. $he metaphysis is the widening part o! the bone between the diaphysis and the epiphysis. (. 2eriosteum is a tough, vascular, !ibrous membrane covering the diaphysis o! a bone.

). 2eriosteum !unctions to !orm and repair bone tissue. 7. 2rocesses provide sites !or attachments o! tendons or ligaments. +. $he wall o! the diaphysis is composed o! compact bone. ,. Compact bone has a continuous e'tracellular matri' with no gaps. 1.. $he epiphyses are largely composed o! spongy bone. 11. Spongy bone consists o! bony plates called trabeculae. 1 . 1 bone usually has compact bone overlying spongy bone with the relative amounts o! each varying in di!!erently shaped bones. 1#. 1 semi"rigid tube with a hollow chamber called the medullary cavity runs through the diaphysis. 1%. &ndosteum lines the medullary cavity and spaces o! spongy bone. 1(. &ndosteum contains bone"!orming cells. 1). $he tissue that !ills the spaces o! bone is called marrow. 17. $he two !orms o! marrow are red and yellow. B. 3icroscopic Structure 1. -ntroduction a. Bone cells are called osteocytes. b. Lacunae are tiny chambers that contain osteocytes. c. Lacunae !orm concentric canals around central canals. d. 4steoctyes transport nutrients and wastes to and !rom nearby cells. e. Cellular processes o! osteocytes pass through canaliculi. !. $he e'tracellular matri' o! bone is composed o! collagen and inorganic salts. . Compact Bones a. 1n osteon is a cylinder"shaped unit o! compact bone. b. $he substance o! compact bone is !ormed !rom many osteons cemented together. c. &ach central canal contains blood vessels and nerves. d. 2er!orating canals connect central canals o! osteons. e. 2er!orating canals contain larger blood vessels and nerves.

#. Spongy Bone a. Spongy bone is also composed o! osteocytes and e'tracellular material. b. 5nlike compact bone, the bone cells do not aggregate around central canals. c. -nstead the cells lie within trabeculae. d. 4steocytes get nutrients !rom substances di!!using into canaliculi that lead to the sur!ace o! trabeculae. III. Bone Development and Growth 1. -ntroduction 1. 2arts o! the skeleton begin to !orm during the !irst !ew weeks o! prenatal development. . Bony structures continue to grow until adulthood. #. Bones !orm by replacing e'isting connective tissues. %. -ntramembranous bones originate within sheetlike layers o! connective tissue. (. &ndochondral bones originate as masses o! cartilage that are later replaced by bone tissue. B. -ntramembranous Bones 1. &'amples o! intramembranous bones are the broad, !lat bones o! the skull. . 4steogenesis is bone development. #. 6uring their development, membranelike layers o! relatively undi!!erentiated connective tissue appear at the sites o! their !uture bones. %. 6ense networks o! blood vessels supply the connective tissue layers. (. 4steoblasts are bone"!orming cells. ). 4steoblasts deposit bony matri' around themselves. 7. Spongy bone can become compact bone as spaces !ill with bone matri'. +. 1s development continues, osteoblasts may become surrounded by matri'.

,. &'tracellular matri' enclosing the processes o! osteoblasts gives rise to canaliculi. 1.. 4nce isolated, osteoblasts become osteocytes. 11. 2eriosteum comes !rom cells o! the undi!!erentiated connective tissue that persist outside o! the developing bone. 1 . Compact bone is !ormed by osteoblasts on the inside o! periosteum. 1#. -ntramembranous ossi!ication is the process o! replacing connective tissue to !orm an intramembranous bone. C. &ndochondral Bones 1. 3ost o! the bones o! the skeleton are endochondral bones. . &ndochondral bones develop as masses o! hyaline cartilage. #. &ventually the cartilage decomposes. %. 1s the cartilage decomposes, a periosteum !orms !rom connective tissue that encircles the developing structure. (. Blood vessels and undi!!erentiated connective tissue cells invade the disintegrating tissue. ). Some o! the cells di!!erentiate into osteoblasts. 7. 4steoblasts !orm spongy bone in the spaces previously housed by cartilage. +. &ndochondral ossi!ication is the process o! !orming an endochondral bone by the replacement o! hyaline cartilage. ,. $he primary ossi!ication center is an area in the diaphysis o! a long bone in which the bony tissues begin to replace hyaline cartilage. 1.. Secondary ossi!ication centers appear in epiphyses. 11. $he epiphyseal plate is a band o! cartilage between the primary and secondary ossi!ication centers. 6. 7rowth at the &piphyseal 2late 1. -n a long bone, the diaphysis is separated !rom the epiphysis by an epiphyseal plate. . $he cartilaginous cells !orm !our layers.

#. $he !irst layer is composed o! resting cells that do not actively participate in growth. %. $he !irst layer anchors the epiphyseal plate to the bony tissue o! the epiphysis. (. $he second layer includes rows o! many young cells undergoing mitosis. ). 1s new cells appear, the cartilaginous plate thickens. 7. $he third layer is !ormed by older cells that are le!t behind as new cells appear. +. $he cells o! the third layer enlarge and thicken the epiphyseal plate. ,. $he !ourth layer is composed o! dead cells and calci!ied e'tracellular matri'. 1.. 4steoclasts break down calci!ied matri' o! bone. 11. 4steoclasts originate !rom monocytes. 1 . 4steoclasts secrete acids that dissolve the inorganic component o! the calci!ied matri', and their lysosomal en8ymes digest the organic components. 1#. 4steoclasts phagocyti8e components o! the bony matri'. 1%. 1!ter osteoclasts remove the e'tracellular matri', osteoblasts invade the region and deposit bone tissue in place o! calci!ied cartilage. 1(. 1 long bone continues to lengthen while the cartilaginous cells o! the epiphyseal plates are active. 1). Lengthening o! the bone is no longer possible once the ossi!ication centers o! the diaphysis and epiphysis meet and the epiphyseal plates ossi!y. 17. $he medullary cavity !orms when osteoclasts erode bone tissue in the diaphysis. 1+. $he bone in the central regions o! the epiphyses and diaphysis remains spongy. 1,. 9yaline cartilage on the ends persists as articular cartilage. &. 9omeostasis o! Bone $issue

1. $hroughout li!e, osteoclasts resorb bone tissue and osteoblasts replace bone. . 1bout #: to (: o! bone calcium is e'changed each year. *. *actors 1!!ecting Bone 6evelopment, 7rowth, and /epair 1. *actors that a!!ect bone development, growth, and repair include nutrition, e'posure to sunlight, hormonal secretions, and physical e'ercise. . ;itamin 6 is necessary !or proper absorption o! calcium. #. Lack o! vitamin 6 can lead to the diseases rickets and osteomalacia. %. ;itamin 1 is necessary !or osteoblast and osteoclast activity during normal development. (. ;itamin C is re<uired !or collagen synthesis. ). 7rowth hormone stimulates division o! cartilage cells in epiphyseal plates. 7. -n children, the absence o! growth hormone leads to pituitary dwar!ism. +. 1n e'cess o! growth hormone be!ore the epiphyseal plates ossi!y leads to pituitary gigantism. ,. -n adults, an e'cess o! growth hormone leads to acromegaly. 1.. $hyro'ine can halt bone growth by causing premature ossi!ication o! the epiphyseal plates. 11. 2arathyroid hormone stimulates an increase in the number and activity o! osteoclasts which break down bone. 1 . Se' hormones promote !ormation o! bone tissue. 1#. Se' hormones also stimulate ossi!ication o! the epiphyseal plates. 1). *emales typically reach their ma'imum heights earlier than males because the e!!ects o! estrogen on the epiphyseal plates are stronger than testosterone. 17. 2hysical stress stimulates bone growth. IV. Bone Function 1. Support and 2rotection 1. Bones give shape to structures such as the head, !ace, thora', and limbs.

. $he bones o! lower limbs, pelvis, and vertebral column support the body=s weight. #. $he bones o! the skull protect the eyes, ears, and brain. %. $he bones o! the thora' protect the heart and lungs. (. Bones o! the pelvic girdle protect lower abdominal and internal reproductive organs. B. Blood Cell *ormation 1. 9ematopoiesis is blood cell !ormation. . Blood cell !ormation begins in the yolk sac. #. Later in development, blood cells are made in the liver, the spleen, and red bone marrow. %. 3arrow is a so!t, netlike mass o! connective tissue within the medullary cavities o! long bones, in the irregular spaces o! spongy bone, and in the larger central canals o! compact bone tissue. (. /ed marrow !unctions in the !ormation o! red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. ). /ed marrow occupies the cavities o! most bones in an in!ant. 7. >ith increasing age, yellow marrow replaces red marrow. +. ?ellow marrow stores !at. ,. -n an adult, red marrow is primarily !ound in the spongy bone o! the skull, ribs, sternum, clavicles, vertebrae, and hipbones. C. -norganic Salt Storage 1. &'tracellular matri' o! bone tissue includes collagen and inorganic mineral salts. . $he salts account !or about 7.: o! the e'tracellular matri' by weight. #. 9ydro'yapatites are tiny crystals o! calcium phosphate. %. $he body re<uires calcium !or many metabolic processes including blood clot !ormation, nerve impulse conduction, and muscle cell contraction. (. >hen blood calcium is low, parathyroid hormone stimulates osteoclasts to break down bone tissue to release calcium salts.

). ;ery high blood calcium levels inhibit osteoclast activity. 7. Calcitonin stimulates osteoblasts to !orm bones. +. Bone tissue contains lesser amounts o! magnesium, sodium, potassium and carbonate ions. V. Skeletal r!ani"ation 1. $he number o! bones in a human skeleton is around .). . *lat bones o! the skull are tightly 0oined by sutures. B. 6ivisions o! the Skeleton 1. $wo ma0or portions o! the skeleton are a'ial and appendicular. . $he a'ial skeleton contains skull bones, middle ear bones, the hyoid bone, vertebral column bones, and thoracic cage bones. #. $he skull is composed o! + cranial bones and 1% !acial bones. %. $he hyoid bone supports the tongue and is an attachment !or certain muscles that help move the tongue. (. $he hyoid bone is located in the neck between the lower 0aw and the laryn'. ). $he vertebral column consists o! vertebrae, a sacrum, and coccy'. 7. $he distal end o! the column is !ormed by the sacrum and the coccy'. +. $he coccy' is also called the tailbone. ,. $he thoracic cage is composed o! 1 pairs o! ribs and the sternum. 1.. $he appendicular skeleton consists o! bones o! the pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, and lower limbs. 11. $he pectoral girdle is !ormed by scapulae and clavicles. 1 . $he pectoral girdle connects the bones o! the upper limbs to the a'ial skeleton. 1#. $he pectoral girdle aids in upper limb movements. 1%. &ach upper limb consists o! a humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges. 1(. $he humerus, radius, and ulna articulate at the elbow. 1). $he wrist bones are called carpals. 1. @umber o! Bones

17. $he bones o! the palm are called metacarpals. 1+. Bones in the !ingers are called phalanges. 1,. $he pelvic girdle is !ormed by two co'al bones. .. $he pelvic girdle connects the bones o! the lower limbs to the a'ial skeleton and with the sacrum and coccy'. 1. $he pelvic girdle, sacrum, and coccy' !orm the pelvis. . &ach lower limb consists o! a !emur, tibia, !ibula, patella, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges. #. $he !emur and tibia articulate with each other at the knee. %. $he kneecap is called the patella. (. $he anklebones are tarsals. ). $he bones o! the instep o! the !oot are called metatarsals. 7. Bones o! the toes are called phalanges. VI. Skull #$II. %ower %im& 1. -ntroduction 1. 1 human skull usually consists o! bones. . $he moveable bone in the skull is the mandible. #. Some cranial and skull bones together !orm the orbit o! the eye. B. Cranium 1. $he cranium encloses and protects the brain. . $he sur!ace o! the cranium provides attachments !or muscles that make chewing and movements o! the head possible. #. Sinuses are air"!illed cavities in cranial bones. %. Sinuses reduce the weight o! the skull and increase the intensity o! the voice by serving as resonant sound chambers. (. $he eight bones o! the cranium are 1 !rontal bone, occipital bone, parietal bones, 1 temporal bones, 1 sphenoid bone and 1 ethmoid bone.

). $he !rontal bone !orms the anterior portion o! the skull above the eyes, the roo! o! the nasal cavity and the roo!s o! the orbits. 7. $he supraorbital !oramen is on the upper margin o! each orbit and allows blood vessels and nerves to pass to tissues o! the head.

+. $he sinuses o! the !rontal bone are called !rontal sinuses. ,. $he two halves o! the !rontal bone !use together by the !i!th or si'th year o! li!e. 1.. 4ne parietal bone is located on each side o! the skull behind the !rontal bone. 11. $ogether the parietal bones !orm the sides and roo! o! the cranium. 1 . $he sagittal suture !uses the parietal bones. 1#. $he coronal suture !uses the parietal bones to !rontal bones. 1%. $he occipital bone 0oins the parietal bones along the lambdoidal suture. 1(. $he occipital bone !orms the back o! the skull and the base o! the cranium. 1). $he !oramen magnum is a large opening in the occipital bone through which the brain and spinal cord 0oin. 17. 4ccipital condyles are located on each side o! the !oramen magnum. 1+. 4ccipital condyles articulate with the !irst cervical vertebra. 1,. 1 temporal bone on each side o! the skull 0oins the parietal bone along a s<uamous suture. .. $he temporal bones !orm parts o! the sides and the base o! the cranium. 1. $he opening leading inward to parts o! the ear is called the e'ternal acoustic meatus. . 3andibular !ossae articulate with condyles o! the mandible. #. $he mastoid process is a site o! attachment !or certain muscles o! the neck. %. $he styloid process is a site o! attachment !or muscles o! the tongue and pharyn'. (. $he carotid canal is near the mastoid process and transmits the internal carotid artery. ). $he 0ugular !oramen is the opening between the temporal and occipital bones and accommodates the internal 0ugular vein.

7. $he 8ygomatic process pro0ects anteriorly !rom the temporal bone and 0oins the 8ygomatic bone. +. $he sphenoid bone helps !orm the anterior portion o! the cranium. ,. $he sella turcica is an indention in the middle o! the sphenoid bone and holds the pituitary gland. #.. $he sinuses o! the sphenoid bone are called sphenoidal sinuses. #1. $he ethmoid bone is located in !ront o! the sphenoid bone. # . -t consists o! two masses 0oined by cribri!orm plates. ##. $he cribri!orm plates !orm the roo! o! the nasal cavity. #%. @erves associated with smell pass through ol!actory !oramina. #(. 2ortions o! the ethmoid bone also !orm sections o! the cranial !loor, orbital walls, and nasal cavity walls. #). 1 perpendicular plate pro0ects downward !rom the cribi!orm plates to !orm most o! the nasal septum. #7. Scroll"shaped plates called superior and middle nasal conchae pro0ect inward !rom the lateral portions o! the ethmoid bone. #+. $he lateral portions o! the ethmoid bone contain many small air spaces called ethmoidal sinuses. #,. $he crista galli is triangular process that pro0ects upward and is located between cribri!orm plates. %.. $he crista galli is attached to membranes that enclose the brain. C. *acial Skeleton 1. $he !acial skeleton consists o! 1# immovable bones and a movable lower 0aw bone. . $he !acial bones provide sites o! attachment !or muscles that move the 0aw and control !acial e'pression. #. $he ma'illary bones !orm the upper 0aw. %. 2ortions o! the ma'illary bones also comprise the anterior roo! o! the mouth, the !loors o! the orbits, and sides and !loor o! the nasal cavity. (. $he ma'illary bones also contain sockets !or the upper teeth. ). -nside the ma'illae, lateral to the nasal cavity are ma'illary sinuses.

7. $he ma'illary sinuses e'tend !rom the !loor o! the orbits to the roots o! the upper teeth. +. 6uring development, portions o! the ma'illary bones called palatine processes grow together and !orm the anterior section o! the hard palate. ,. $he alveolar arch is a horseshoe shaped collection o! alveolar processes. 1.. $eeth occupy cavities in this arch. 11. $he palatine bones are L shaped. 1 . $he palatine bones are located behind the ma'illae. 1#. $he hori8ontal portions o! the palatine bones !orm the posterior section o! the hard palate and the !loor o! the nasal cavity. 1%. $he perpendicular portions o! the palatine bones help !orm the lateral walls o! the nasal cavity. 1(. Aygomatic bones are responsible !or the prominences o! the cheeks below and to the sides o! the eyes. 1). &ach 8ygomatic bone has a temporal process that e'tends posteriorly to 0oin the temporal bone. 17. Lacrimal bones are located in the medial wall o! each orbit. 1+. $he nasal bones !orm the bridge o! the nose. 1,. $he nasal bones are attachments !or the cartilaginous tissues that !orm the shape o! the nose. .. $he vomer is located along the midline within the nasal cavity. 1. 2osteriorly the vomer 0oins the perpendicular plate o! the ethmoid bone. . $he nasal septum is !ormed !rom the vomer and perpendicular plate o! the ethmoid. #. $he in!erior nasal conchae are attached to the lateral walls o! the nasal cavity. %. Like the ethmoidal conchae, the in!erior conchae support mucous membranes within the nasal cavity. (. $he mandible is shaped like a horseshoe.

). $he !lat pro0ections at the ends o! a mandible are rami. 7. $he rami are divided into a mandiblar condyle and a coronoid process. +. $he mandibular condyles articulate with the temporal bones. ,. $he coronoid processes provide attachment sites !or muscles used in chewing. #.. $he alveolar border is a curved bar o! bone on the superior border o! the mandible and it contains the sockets o! the lower teeth. #1. 3andibular !oramens are located near the center o! each ramus. # . Blood vessels and nerves run through mandibular !oramens. ##. $he mental !oramen is an opening near the point o! the 0aw. 6. -n!antile Skull 1. 1t birth, the skull is incompletely developed with !ibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones. . *ontanels are membranous areas o! an in!antile skull. #. *ontanels permit some movement between the bones so that the developing skull is partially compressible and can slightly change shape. %. &ventually !ontanels close and cranial bones grow together. &. ;ertebral Column 1. $he vertebral column e'tends !rom the skull to the pelvis and !orms the vertical a'is o! the skeleton. . $he vertebral column is composed o! vertebrae that are separated by intervertebral discs. #. $he vertebral column supports the head and the trunk o! the body. %. $he vertebral column protects the spinal cord. (. $he spinal cord passes through a vertebral canal. ). 1n in!ant has ## separate bones in the vertebral column. 7. $he sacrum is !ormed by !ive !used vertebrae. +. $he coccy' is !ormed by !our !used vertebrae. ,. 1n adult vertebral column has ) bones.

1.. $he !our curvatures o! the vertebral column are thoracic, sacral, cervical, and lumbar. 11. $he cervical curvature develops when a baby begins to hold up its head. 1 . $he lumbar curvature develops when a child begins to stand. *. 1 $ypical ;ertebra 1. $he body o! a vertebra !orms the thick, anterior portion o! the bone. . $he intervertebral discs are !astened to the upper and lower sur!aces o! the vertebral bodies. #. $he discs cushion and so!ten the !orces caused by walking and 0umping movements. %. 1nterior longitudinal ligaments 0oin the bodies o! ad0acent vertebrae on their anterior sur!aces. (. 2osterior longitudinal ligaments 0oin the bodies o! ad0acent vertebrae on their posterior sur!aces. ). 2edicles are two short stalks that pro0ect posteriorly !rom each vertebral body. 7. Laminae are two plates that arise !rom the pedicles and !use in the back to become spinous processes. +. 1 vertebral arch is !ormed by the pedicles, laminae, and spinous processes. ,. Spinous processes are structures !ormed by the !usion o! two laminae. 1.. 1 transverse process pro0ects laterally and posteriorly. 11. Superior and in!erior articulating processes pro0ect upward and downward !rom each vertebral arch. 1 . -ntervertebral !oramina provide passageways !or spinal nerves. 7. Cervical ;ertebra 1. $here are 7 cervical vertebrae. . $he transverse processes o! cervical vertebrae are distinctive because they have transverse !oramina.

#. $he spinous processes o! the second through the si'th cervical vertebrae are bi!id. %. $he vertebra prominens is the spinous process o! the 7th cervical vertebra. (. $he atlas is the 1st cervical vertebra. ). $he atlas supports the head. 7. $he !acets o! the atlas articulate with occipital condyles. +. $he a'is is the second cervical vertebra. ,. $he dens is a process that pro0ects upward and lies in the ring o! the atlas. 1.. 1s the head is turned !rom side to side, the atlas pivots around the dens. 9. $horacic ;ertebra 1. $here are 1 thoracic vertebrae. . $he !acets o! thoracic vertebrae articulate with ribs. #. $he bodies o! thoracic vertebrae are adapted to bear increasing loads o! body weight. -. Lumbar ;ertebra 1. $here are ( lumbar vertebrae and they are located in the small o! the back. . $he bodies o! lumbar vertebrae are larger and stronger than the superior vertebrae. #. $he transverse processes o! lumbar vertebrae pro0ect posteriorly and the spinous processes are thick, short, and nearly hori8ontal. B. Sacrum 1. $he sacrum is triangular in shape. . $he median sacral crest is a ridge o! tubercles where the spinous process o! sacral vertebrae !used together. #. 2osterior sacral !oramina are rows o! openings located to the sides o! the tubercles.

%. $he sacrum is wedged between the co'ae and is united to them at its articular sur!aces. (. $he sacrum !orms the posterior wall o! the pelvic cavity. ). $he sacral promontory is upper anterior margin o! the sacrum. 7. 1nterior sacral !oramina provide passageways !or nerves and blood vessels. C. Coccy' 1. $he coccy' is the lowest part o! vertebral column. . Sitting presses on the coccy', and it moves !orward, acting like a shock absorber. L. $horacic Cage 1. $he thoracic cage includes the ribs, thoracic vertebrae, the sternum, and the costal cartilages that attach the ribs to the sternum. . $he thoracic cage supports the shoulder girdle and upper limb and protects the viscera in the thoracic and upper abdominal cavities. 3. /ibs 1. $he usual number o! ribs is %. . $he true ribs are the !irst 7 pairs o! ribs. #. $he !alse ribs are the last !ive pairs o! ribs. %. *loating ribs are the last two pairs o! !alse ribs. (. 1 typical rib has a long, slender sha!t. ). $he head o! a rib is an enlarged portion o! a rib at its posterior end. 7. $he head o! a rib articulates with a !acet on the body o! its own vertebra and with the body o! the ne't higher vertebra. +. 1 tubercle o! a rib articulates with the transverse process o! the vertebra. ,. Costal cartilages are composed o! hyaline cartilage. 1.. Costal cartilages are attached to the anterior ends o! a rib. @. Sternum 1. $he sternum is located along the midline in the anterior portion o! the thoracic cage.

. $he three parts o! the sternum are manubrium, body, and 'iphoid process. #. $he 'iphoid process pro0ects downward. %. $he manubrium articulates with clavicles. (. $he manubrium and body articulate with ribs. 4. 2ectoral 7irdle 1. $he !our parts o! the pectoral girdle are two clavicles and two scapulae. . $he pectoral girdle supports the upper limbs and is an attachment !or several muscles that move the arm. 2. Clavicles 1. 1 clavicle has an S shape. . Clavicles run between the sternum and the shoulders. #. $he sternal ends o! the clavicles articulate with the manubrium. %. $he acromial ends o! the clavicles articulate with the scapulae. (. $he clavicles brace the !reely movable scapulae and are attachment sites !or muscles o! the upper limbs, chest, and back. D. Scapulae 1. $he scapulae are shaped like triangles. . $he spine o! a scapula divides it into a supraspinous !ossa and in!raspinous !ossa. #. $he acromion process !orms the tip o! the shoulder. %. $he acromion process articulates with the clavicle. (. $he coracoid process curves anteriorly and in!eriorly to the acromion process. ). $he glenoid cavity is a depression on the lateral sur!ace o! a scapula. 7. $he glenoid cavity articulates with the head o! the humerus. +. $he three borders o! the scapulae are superior, lateral, and medial. /. 5pper Limb 1. $he bones o! the upper limb !orm the !ramework !or the arm, !orearm, wrist, and hand.

. $he bones o! the upper limb are humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges. S. 9umerus 1. $he humerus e'tends !rom the scapula to the elbow. . $he head o! the humerus !its into the glenoid cavity. #. $wo processes 0ust below the head are a greater tubercle and lesser tubercle. %. $he intertubercular groove is a !urrow between the greater tubercle and lesser tubercle. (. $he anatomical neck is the narrow depression along the lower margin o! the head that separates it !rom the tubercles. ). $he surgical neck is a tapering region 0ust below the head and the tubercles o! the humerus. 7. $he deltoid tuberosity is an attachment site !or the deltoid muscle. +. $wo condyles at the lower end o! the humerus are the capitulum and trochlea. ,. $he capitulum is on the lateral side and articulates with the radius. 1.. $he trochlea is on the medial side and articulates with the ulna. 11. &picondyles are located above the condyles and provide attachments !or muscles and ligaments o! the elbow. 1 . $he coronoid !ossa is a depression between the epicondyles anteriorly that receives the coronoid process o! the ulna when the arm bends at the elbow. 1#. $he olecranon !ossa is a depression on the posterior distal sur!ace o! the humerus that receives the olecranon process o! the ulna when the arm straightens at the elbow. $. /adius 1. $he radius is located on the thumb side o! the !orearm. . $he radius e'tends !rom the elbow to the wrist and crosses over the ulna when the hand is turned so that the palm !aces backward. #. $he head o! the radius articulates with the capitulum o! the humerus.

%. $he radial tuberosity is an attachment site !or the biceps brachii. (. $he styloid process is located at the distal end o! the radius on its lateral side. 5. 5lna 1. $he trochlear notch o! the ulna is a wrenchlike opening at the pro'imal end o! the ulna. . $he trochlear notch articulates with the trochlea o! the humerus. #. $he olecranon process is located above the trochlear notch. %. $he head o! the ulna articulates laterally with a notch o! the radius and with a disc o! !ibrocartilage in!eriorly. (. $he styloid process o! the ulna is located at the distal end o! the ulna on its medial side. ;. 9and 1. $he hand is made o! the wrist, palm, and !ingers. . $he bones o! the wrist are called carpals. #. $he individual names o! the + carpals are scaphoid, capitate, trape8oid, trape8ium, lunate, hamate, tri<uetrum, and pisi!orm. %. $he anterior sur!ace o! the wrist is concave to allow !or the passage o! tendons and nerves into the palms. ). $he metacarpals !orm the !ramework o! the palm. 7. $he distal ends o! metacarpals !orm the knuckles o! a clenched !ist. +. 2ro'imally, the metacarpals articulate with carpals. ,. 6istally, the metacarpals articulate with phalanges. 1.. $he metacarpal o! the thumb is numbered 1. 11. $he !inger bones are phalanges. 1 . &ach !inger has # phalanges and the thumb has >. 2elvic 7irdle 1. $he pelvic girdle consists o! two co'ae that articulate with each other anteriorly and with the sacrum posteriorly. . $he pelvis is !ormed by the sacrum, coccy', and pelvic girdle. #. $he pelvic girdle supports the trunk o! the body. phalanges.

%. $he pelvic girdle provides attachments !or the lower limbs and protects the urinary bladder, the distal end o! the large intestine, and the internal reproductive organs. (. $he body=s weight is transmitted through the pelvic girdle to the lower limbs and then onto the ground. E. 9ip Bones 1. &ach co'a develops !rom the !ollowing three parts: an ilium, an ischium, and a pubis. . $he acetabulum is a cup"shaped cavity o! a co'al bone. #. $he acetabulum receives the head o! the !emur. %. $he ilium is the largest and most superior portion o! the co'a. (. $he ilium !orms the prominence o! the hip. ). $he iliac crest is the margin o! the prominence o! the hip. 7. $he iliac !ossa is the smooth, concave sur!ace on the anterior aspect o! the ilium. +. 2osteriorly the ilium 0oins the sacrum at the sacroiliac 0oint. ,. $he anterior superior iliac spine can be !elt lateral to the groin and is an important surgical landmark. 1.. 4n the posterior border o! the ilium is a posterior superior iliac spine. 11. Below the posterior superior iliac spine is a deep indentation called the greater sciatic notch, through which nerves and blood vessels pass. 1 . $he lowest portion o! the co'a is the ischium. 1#. $he ischium is L shaped. 1%. $he ischial tuberosity points posteriorly and downward. 1(. $he ischial tuberosity supports the body during sitting. 1). $he ischial spine is a sharp pro0ection above the ischial tuberosity. 17. $he distance between the ischial spines is the shortest diameter o! the pelvic outlet. 1+. $he pubis constitutes the anterior portion o! the co'a. 1,. $he symphysis pubis is where the two pubis bones 0oin together.

.. $he pubic arch is the angle the pubis bones !orm below the symphysis. 1. $he obturator !oramen is the largest !oramen o! the skeleton. -t is located between the three parts o! a co'al bone. ?. $rue and *alse 2elves 1. $he pelvic brim would be marked i! a line were drawn along each side o! the pelvis !rom the sacral promontory downward and anteriorly to the upper margin o! the symphysis pubis. . $he pelvic brim separates the true pelvis !rom the !alse pelvis. #. $he !alse pelvis is bounded posteriorly by the lumbar vertebrae, laterally by the !lared parts o! the iliac bones, and anteriorly by the abdominal wall. %. $he !alse pelvis supports the abdominal organs. (. $he true pelvis is bounded posteriorly by sacrum and coccy' and laterally and anteriorly by lower ilium, ischium, and pubis bones. A. 6i!!erences Between 3ale and *emale 2elves 1. 5sually the !emale iliac bones are more !lared than those o! the male. . $he !emale hips are usually wider than those o! the male. #. $he angle o! the !emale pubic arch may be greater than that o! the male. %. $he !emale pelvic cavity is usually wider in all diameters than that o! the male. (. $he bones o! the !emale pelvis are lighter and show less evidence o! muscle attachments. 11. Lower Limb 1. $he bones o! the lower limb !orm the !ramework o! the thigh, leg, ankle, and !oot. . $he bones o! the lower limb are the !emur, tibia, !ibula, patella, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges. BB. *emur 1. $he !emur e'tends !rom the hip to the knee.

. $he head o! the !emur pro0ects medially into the acetabulum. #. $he !ovea capitis is a pit that marks the attachment o! a ligament. %. $he neck o! the !emur is a constriction 0ust below the head. (. $wo large processes below the neck o! the !emur are the greater and lesser trochanters. ). $he linea aspera is a longitudinal crest on the posterior sur!ace o! the !emur. 7. $he lateral and medial condyles articulate with the tibia. +. $he patella articulates with the !emur on its distal anterior sur!ace. ,. $he medial and lateral epicondyles provide attachments !or muscles and ligaments. CC. 2atella 1. $he patella is a sesamoid bone located in a tendon that passes anteriorly over the knee. . $he patella controls the angle at which this tendon continues toward the tibia. 66. $ibia 1. $he shinbone is the tibia. . $he tibia is located on the medial side. #. $he medial and lateral condyles o! the tibia articulate with the condyles o! the !emur. %. $he tibial tuberosity is located below the condyles o! the tibia. (. $he tibial tuberosity provides an attachment !or the patellar ligament. ). $he anterior crest o! the tibia is a prominence that e'tends downward !rom the tibial tuberosity and attaches connective tissues in the leg. 7. $he medial malleolus is a prominence at the distal end o! the tibia. +. 4n the tibia=s lateral side is a depression that articulates with the !ibula. ,. $he in!erior sur!ace o! the tibia=s distal end articulates with the talus. &&. *ibula 1. $he !ibula is on the lateral side o! the tibia. . $he head o! the !ibula articulates with the tibia.

#. $he lateral malleolus articulates with the ankle and protrudes !rom the lateral side. **. *oot 1. $he !oot is made o! the ankle, the instep, and the toes. . $he ankle or tarsus is composed o! seven tarsal bones. #. $he talus articulates with the tibia and !ibula and can move !reely at the ankle. %. $he seven tarsal bones are the calcaneous, the talus, the navicular, the cuboid, and the lateral, medial, and intermediate cunei!orm bones. (. $he largest tarsal is the calcaneus. ). $he calcaneus helps support body weight. 7. $he metatarsus consists o! !ive elongated bones. +. $he heads at the distal ends o! the metatarsals !orm the ball o! the !oot. ,. $he arch o! the !oot is !ormed by the arrangements o! the tarsals and metatarsals. 1.. $he bones o! the toes are called phalanges. 11. &ach toe has # phalanges e'cept the great toe because it lacks the middle phalyn'. $III. %i'e(Span Chan!es 1. 1n incremental decrease in height begins at about age #.. B. Compression !ractures o! the vertebrae may contribute to loss o! height. C. 1s calcium levels !all, bones become brittle and prone to !racture. 6. 7radually, osteoclasts come to outnumber osteoblasts. &. By age #( all adults start to lose bone mass. *. $rabecular bone shows signs o! aging !irst. 7. Compact bone loss begins around the age o! %.. 9. -n the !irst decade !ollowing menopause 1( to .: o! trabecular bone is lost and 1. to 1(: o! compact bone is lost in women. -. $he most common !ractures in the elderly are vertebral compression !ractures, hip !ractures, wrist !ractures, leg !ractures, and pelvis !ractures.

B. $o preserve skeletal health avoid !alls, take calcium supplements, get enough vitamin 6, avoid carbonated beverages, and get regular e'ercise.

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