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Production Engineering Questions

(a) Production Well (10%)


A well is producing undersaturated oil at conditions where the bubble point pressure is reach
in the tubing well above the perforations. For this well
(i) Make a sketch of the ideal inflow performance linecurve! including the variables
on the " and # a"es.
(ii) Assuming that the well will suffer from near$wellbore deposition at a later time!
add a linecurve illustrating this effect. %hat is this effect commonl# called.
(iii) Add to the sketch t#pical outflow performance curves for two (high and low)
wellhead pressures.
(iv) Add to the sketch the point indicating the appro"imate reservoir pressure.
(v) &ame one or more technologies that can be used to increase the production rate
inflow performance of the well'
(b) Oil and Gas Processing (15%)
(il! gas and water are separated on an offshore platform. After some processing the
(associated) gas is at )* bara and *+ ,. -he figure below shown the phase diagram and
h#drate e.uilibrium line for the gas. -he volumetric flow rate at standard conditions is */./0
M1m
2
d (remember that 345 at standard conditions). -he gas is to be compressed to 5*) bara
for pipeline e"port from the platform the 6+ km to the receiving terminal on land.
(i) ,alculate the ideal compression power and the compressor e"it temperature
assuming adiabatic conditions.
(ii) 7ased on the temperature calculation above! calculate the temperature of the gas
when it arrives at the receiving terminal on land.
(iii) %ill h#drate form in the pipeline! and wh# or wh# not'
Molecular weight! M 4 5).2 kgkmol
8eat capacit# gas! ,
p
4 *)0+ 9kg.:
8eat capacit# ratio! k 4 5.)6
1ea temperature! - 4 0 ,
Pipeline internal diameter! d 4 2+ inch
(verall heat transfer coefficient! ; 4 50 %m
*
.:
Friction factor pipeline! f 4 +.++0
Phase envelope and h#drate line for associated gas with molecule weight 5)!2 kgkmol (same
gas as in table above). Pressure scale is from + to 5*+ bara.
Equations (Production Engineering)
dx
dT
kA q
dr
dp k
u

,
_

+
w
o o o
wf
r
r
kh
B q
p p ln
*

o c s
B q q
. .

. .c s
o
V
V
B
) (
R i t p o p
p p c V B N
w w o o f t
c S c S c c + +
t
h c A
B q
p p
t
o o
i R


1
]
1

,
_

s
r
r
B
p p kh
q
w
e
o o
wf R
o
< 2 ln
) ( *

) (
wf R o
p p PI q
1
]
1

,
_

s
r
r
kh
B q
p p
w
e o o o
R wf
< 2 ln
*

dp
z
p
p T
T
s
r
r
kh
q
e
wf
p
p g c s
c s
w
e
g

,
_

,
_

,
_

1
]
1

,
_

. .
. .
5
< 2 ln

,
_

z
p
p F
g

) (
gL p
1
]
1

L
T R z
gM
p p
o
e"p
p q P
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

5
5
5
5
*
5
k
k
p
p
k
k
RT
M
m
P
k
k
p
p
T T
5
5
*
5 *

,
_

p
!
!
k

"!V
#I

,
_


x
x
M
$
T
5
1
1
]
1

+ L
m!
d %
T T T T
p

e"p ) (
5 *
& g f
p p p p + +
*
*
u
d
L f
p
f

( ) + =
p
p
ln
f
d
p p
>- 3 m f
M A d
*
5
*
* *
5
*
*
*
*
+

,
_


*0 ! +
>e
256 ! +
f

ud
>e
1
1
]
1

,
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+
,
_


n 55 ! 5 n
d /0 ! 2
k
>e
? ! 6
log
n
) ! 5
f
5
n 4 5 for v@ske! n 4 2 for gass
"
" L
'
'
f
gd
u

2
<
"
" L
s '
k u

,
_

"
" L
'
gd
u


5)
*
( )
z T
T
p
p
k A q
c s
c s "
" L
s " c s "
5
. .
. .
. .

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_

,
_


0) ! +
6

,
_


L
k A q
"
" L
s " "


z(RT pV
( )
zRT
pM
m kg
2

z
T
T
p
p
V V
c s
c s
c s

,
_

,
_

. .
. .
. .
7
g
(4FAF gass) 4
z
p
p
T
T
V
V
c s
c s c s

,
_

,
_

. .
. . . .
?6 ! *)

g&ss
)uft
g&ss
M
M
M
$ kmo) k*
$ kmo)
*
R 25< ! )
.
)25<
Conversion Table
Traditionally units !"equivalents #se$ul in$o%
&E'GT(
mile (mi)
#ard (#d)
foot (ft)
inch (in)
)
56+?.2<< m B
+.?5<< m B
+.2+<) m B
+.+*0< m B
2 ft 4 5 #d
5* in 4 5 ft
*O&#)E
;1$gallon (gal)
;:$gallon (gal)
APC barrel (bbl)
kubikkfot (cf)
+,
+.++2/)0<5 m
2
+.++<0<6+? m
2
+.50)?)/ m
2
+.+*)256/ m
2
5 bbl 4 <* ;1 gal
5 bbl D 0.6* cf
)-
pound (lbm)
;1$ton (ton)
;:$ton (ton! tonne)
.g
+.<020? kg
?+/.5)0 kg
5+56.+0 kg
TE)PE/-T#/E
>ankin (>)
,elciusgrader (,)
Fahrenheit (F)
0elvin1 0
0? : B
: 4 , E */2
, 4 (F$2*) F 0? > 4 F E <6+
E'E/G23 WO/0
kalori (cal)
erg
7ritish -ermal ;nit (7-;)
kilowattime (kwh)
4oule1 4
<.5)< 9 B
5+E$/ 9
5+00.+6 9
26++ 9
9 4 &m
POWE/
hestekraft (elektrisk) (hk! hp)
hestekraft (h#draulisk)
Watt1 W
/<6 % B
/<6.+<2 %
% 4 9s
5O/CE
d#n (d#n)
kilopond! eller kilogramkraft (kpkgf)
poundforce (lbf)
'e6ton1 '
5+E$0 & B
?.)+660 &
<.<<)** &
& 4 kg ms
*
d#n 4 g cms
*
P/E#/E
bar (bar)
pound per s.uare inch (psi)
atmosf@re (atm)
mm kvikksGlv (torr)
Pascal1 Pa
5+0 Pa
6)?<./6 Pa
5.+52*0 bar B
522.2** Pa
Pa 4 &m
*
5 bar D 5<.0 psi
5 atm D 5<./ psi
5 atm D 5.+5 bar
*!CO!T2
poise (p)
centipoise (cp)
lbf(ft
*
s)
Pa%s
5+E$5 Pas B
5+E$2 Pas B
<./))+2 Pas
Pa.s 4 kgs.m
poise 4
d#ncm
*
s
7E'!T2
APC$gravit# (APC)
gcm
2
lbm;1$gal
lbm;:$gal
lbmft
2
.g8+
,
kgm
2
4 (5<5.0)(5+++)(525.0 E APC)
5+++ kgm
2
B
55?.)*6 kgm
2
??.//62 kgm
2
56.+5)0 kgm
2
*O&#)E 5&OW
liter pr. sek. (ls)
fat pr. dag (bbld)
kubikkfot pr. dag (cfd)
;1$gallon pr. minutt (galmin)
+
,
8s
5+E$2 m
2
s
5.)<+5E$6 m
2
s
2.*//<E$/ m
2
s
6.2+?+2E$0 m
2
s
BH E"act value