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MT 102 Data and File Structures Contents

Unit 1 Data Structures Basics Unit 2 Algorithm Complexity Notations Unit 3 Linked List Unit 4 Stacks and Queues Unit 5 Trees and Binary Trees Unit 6 Binary Search Tree Unit 7 Balanced Trees Unit 8 Graphs Unit 9 Applications of Graphs
Edition: Fall 2011 BKID B1476 2

1 11 26 43 60 77 92 114 135

May 2011

Unit 10 Dynamic Storage Management Unit 11 Searching and Sorting Techniques Unit 12 File Structures Unit 13 External Sorting Techniques Unit 14 External Searching Techniques Acknowledgements, References and Suggested Readings

156 173 192 214 229 246

Dean Directorate of Distance Education Sikkim Manipal University (SMU DDE) Chairman Head IT SMU DDE, Manipal 576 104 Additional Registrar SMU DDE Manipal 576 104 Addl. Registrar (S. E.) Office of the Student Evaluation Manipal 576 104 Dr. N. V. S. Subba Reddy Director, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Gangtok, Sikkim Dr. Ramprasad Vardhachar Director, Computer Studies Dayanand Sagar Institutions, Bangalore Prof. A. Srinivas Director - Research and Consultancy and Professor of Computer Science PES Institute of Technology, Bangalore Content Preparation Team Ms. S. Vidya SMU DDE Bangalore Mr. Arun Chaudhary SMU DDE Bangalore Edition: Fall 2011 Printed: May 2011 This book is a distance education module comprising a collection of learning material for our students. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form by any means without permission in writing from Sikkim Manipal University, Gangtok, Sikkim. Printed and published on behalf of Sikkim Manipal University, Gangtok, Sikkim by Mr. Rajkumar Mascreen, GM, Manipal Universal Learning Pvt. Ltd., Manipal 576 104. Printed at Manipal Press Limited, Manipal. Mr. Niraml Kumar Nigam Head of program ( IT) SMU-DDE, Manipal 576 104 Dr. A. Kumaran Research Manager, Multilingual Research , Microsoft (India) Mr. Ashwin Krishna Director, Keystone Business Bangalore Mr. Srinivas Deeduvanu Engineering Manager Yahoo (India), Bangalore Dr. Rajasekar Image Quality Leader Wipro - GE (India), Bangalore Dr. Ashok Kumar T. K. General Manager IBM (India), Bangalore

Content Editing Ms. Varuna Gupta SMU DDE Bangalore

Data structure is a 4 credit subject of primary importance to the discipline of Information Technology. It is a particular way of storing and organising data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently. Data structures are used in almost every program or software system. Specific data structures are essential ingredients of many efficient algorithms, and make possible the management of huge amounts of data, such as large databases and internet indexing services. This course starts with an introduction of basic structures like array, stacks and queues. Subject further explored to trees like general trees, binary tress, BST and balanced trees. Further it is discussing about the dynamic memory management and file structures. This course also explains about the searching and sorting techniques on external storages. Self-Learning Material (SLM) for this subject is divided into 14 units. A brief description of all of them is given below. Unit 1: Data Structures and Basics This unit gives introduction to how a problem can be made simpler if it is analyzed in terms of sub problems. Also introduced the subject data structures along with the simple operations on this structure. Unit 2: Algorithm Complexity This unit gives a brief explanation about mathematical function and notations occur in study of algorithms and the notation of complexity of an algorithm. Unit 3: Linked List This unit gives an overview of how the data can be stored in the form of list in the memory. Representation and opeations on the linked list and also this unit explored the types of linked list. Unit 4: Stacks and Queues This unit deals with data structure called stack and queue with its array and linked list implementation. It is further explained about the various applications of stack.

Unit 5: Trees and Binary Trees This unit gives an overview of terminology of the tree structure and the unit further explored to binary tree. It explains the types of binary tree and different traversal pattern on binary tree. Finally this unit discuss the what are the different ways that the binary tree can be represented. Unit 6: Binary Search Tree This unit discusses about the BST (Binary Search tree), how to construct binary tree from a given tree. This unit discusses about sequential and other representation of binary tree. How to carry out search, insertion and deletion procedure on BST. Unit 7: Balanced Trees This unit is discuss about two more important type of tree called AVL tree and B-Tree. This unit discusses about the tree structure and various operations on both type of trees. Concluded with the the discussion of applications of B-Tree. Unit 8: Graphs This unit covers the basic concept of graphs as data structure. It also discussed the representation of graph in matrix and list structure. Explain to write algorithm for finding paths between nodes and this unit concluded with the discussion of spanning tree. Unit 9: Application of Graphs This unit covers topological sorting and Dijkstras algorithm to find shortest path in graph and to find the minimum spanning tree using prims algorithm. Unit 10: Dynamic Storage Management This unit familiarises you with the concept of dynamic memory management and what are the various practices involved in memory management. It explores the concept of buddy system, storage realse and the role of agrbage collection. Unit 11: Searching and Sorting Techniques This unit covers the notation and concepts of sorting. Further this unit explores about sorting technique, sequential and binary search technique.

Unit 12: File Structures This unit discuss the various external storage devices . It also discuss about the various file structures like sequential, indexed sequential and direct file and its processing procedure. Unit 13: External Sorting Techniques This unit discuss the concept of external sorting and also discuss the various sorting techniques which can applied on the data which is available externally. Unit 14: External Searching Techniques This unit discuss the concepts external searching with hashing technique and also an detail discussion about the types of hashing technique. Objectives of studying the subject After studying this subject, you should be able to: describe, design and use different types of basic data structures. discuss to create two powerful important data structure like trees and graphs and to work with these structures. allocate and deallocate the dynamic size of memory discuss various external storage devices and file structures with its accessibility execute sorting and searching technique on external data.