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BENTUK MINERAL DENGAN SUSUNAN KRISTAL YANG SAMA MEMILIKI KETERATURAN SISTEM KRISTAL YANG SAMA PULA

Symmetry

Motif: the fundamental part of a symmetric design that, when repeated, creates the whole pattern Operation: some act that reproduces the motif to create the pattern

2-D Symmetry

Symmetry Elements 1. Rotation a. Two-fold rotation

= 360o/2 rotation to reproduce a motif in a symmetrical pattern

A Symmetrical Pattern

6 6

2-D Symmetry

Symmetry Elements Operation 1. Rotation a. Two-fold rotation

= 360o/2 rotation to reproduce a motif in a symmetrical pattern

= the symbol for a two-fold rotation

Motif

Element

2-D Symmetry

Symmetry Elements 1. Rotation a. Two-fold rotation

= 360o/2 rotation to reproduce a motif in a symmetrical pattern

= the symbol for a two-fold rotation

6 6

second operation step

2-D Symmetry

Symmetry Elements 1. Rotation a. Two-fold rotation

Some familiar objects have an intrinsic symmetry

2-D Symmetry

Symmetry Elements 1. Rotation a. Two-fold rotation

Some familiar objects have an intrinsic symmetry

2-D Symmetry

Symmetry Elements 1. Rotation a. Two-fold rotation

Some familiar objects have an intrinsic symmetry

Symmetry Elements 1. Rotation a. Two-fold rotation

Some familiar objects have an intrinsic symmetry

Symmetry Elements 1. Rotation a. Two-fold rotation

Some familiar objects have an intrinsic symmetry

Symmetry Elements 1. Rotation a. Two-fold rotation

Some familiar objects have an intrinsic symmetry

2-D Symmetry

Symmetry Elements 1. Rotation a. Two-fold rotation

Some familiar objects have an intrinsic symmetry

180o rotation makes it coincident

Second 180o brings the object back to its original position Whats the motif here??

2-D Symmetry

Symmetry Elements 1. Rotation b. Three-fold rotation

= 360o/3 rotation to reproduce a motif in a symmetrical pattern

2-D Symmetry

Symmetry Elements 1. Rotation b. Three-fold rotation

step 1

step 3

step 2

2-D Symmetry

Symmetry Elements 1. Rotation

6

6

6 6

6 6

6

1-fold

2-fold

3-fold

4-fold

6-fold

a

identity

5-fold and > 6-fold rotations will not work in combination with translations in crystals (as we shall see later). Thus we will exclude them now.

2-D Symmetry

Symmetry Elements 2. Inversion (i)

inversion through a center to reproduce a motif in a symmetrical pattern = symbol for an inversion center

inversion is identical to 2-fold rotation in 2-D, but is unique in 3-D (try it with your hands)

6 6

2-D Symmetry

Symmetry Elements 3. Reflection (m)

Reflection across a mirror plane reproduces a motif

2-D Symmetry

We now have 6 unique 2-D symmetry operations:

1 2 3 4 6 m

Rotations are congruent operations reproductions are identical Inversion and reflection are enantiomorphic operations reproductions are opposite-handed

2-D Symmetry

Combinations of symmetry elements are also possible To create a complete analysis of symmetry about a point in space, we must try all possible combinations of these symmetry elements

In the interest of clarity and ease of illustration, we continue to consider only 2-D examples

2-D Symmetry

Try combining a 2-fold rotation axis with a mirror

2-D Symmetry

Try combining a 2-fold rotation axis with a mirror

Step 1: reflect

(could do either step first)

2-D Symmetry

Try combining a 2-fold rotation axis with a mirror

Step 1: reflect

2-D Symmetry

Try combining a 2-fold rotation axis with a mirror

Step 1: reflect

Is that all??

2-D Symmetry

Try combining a 2-fold rotation axis with a mirror

Step 1: reflect

No! A second mirror is required

2-D Symmetry

Try combining a 2-fold rotation axis with a mirror

2mm indicates 2 mirrors

The mirrors are different (not equivalent by symmetry)

2-D Symmetry

Now try combining a 4-fold rotation axis with a mirror

2-D Symmetry

Now try combining a 4-fold rotation axis with a mirror

Step 1: reflect

2-D Symmetry

Now try combining a 4-fold rotation axis with a mirror

Step 1: reflect

Step 2: rotate 1

2-D Symmetry

Now try combining a 4-fold rotation axis with a mirror

Step 1: reflect

Step 2: rotate 2

2-D Symmetry

Now try combining a 4-fold rotation axis with a mirror

Step 1: reflect

Step 2: rotate 3

2-D Symmetry

Now try combining a 4-fold rotation axis with a mirror

2-D Symmetry

Now try combining a 4-fold rotation axis with a mirror

2-D Symmetry

Now try combining a 4-fold rotation axis with a mirror

Point group name??

2-D Symmetry

Now try combining a 4-fold rotation axis with a mirror

Point group name?? 4mm

2-D Symmetry

3-fold rotation axis with a mirror creates point group 3m Why not 3mmm?

2-D Symmetry

6-fold rotation axis with a mirror creates point group 6mm

2-D Symmetry

All other combinations are either: Incompatible (2 + 2 cannot be done in 2-D) Redundant with others already tried m + m 2mm because creates 2-fold This is the same as 2 + m 2mm

2-D Symmetry

The original 6 elements plus the 4 combinations creates 10 possible 2-D Point Groups: 1 2 3 4 6 m 2mm 3m 4mm 6mm

Any 2-D pattern of objects surrounding a point must conform to one of these groups

3-D Symmetry

New 3-D Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

a. 1-fold rotoinversion ( 1 )

3-D Symmetry

New 3-D Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

a. 1-fold rotoinversion ( 1 )

3-D Symmetry

New 3-D Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

a. 1-fold rotoinversion ( 1 ) Step 1: rotate 360/1 (identity) Step 2: invert

x x

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

b. 2-fold rotoinversion ( 2 )

Step 1: rotate 360/2 Note: this is a temporary step, the intermediate motif element does not exist in the final pattern

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

b. 2-fold rotoinversion ( 2 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

b. 2-fold rotoinversion ( 2 )

The result:

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

b. 2-fold rotoinversion ( 2 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

c. 3-fold rotoinversion ( 3 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

c. 3-fold rotoinversion ( 3 ) 1

Step 1: rotate 360o/3 Again, this is a temporary step, the intermediate motif element does not exist in the final pattern

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

c. 3-fold rotoinversion ( 3 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

c. 3-fold rotoinversion ( 3 )

2

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

c. 3-fold rotoinversion ( 3 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

c. 3-fold rotoinversion ( 3 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

c. 3-fold rotoinversion ( 3 )

3

Complete second step to create face 3 2

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

c. 3-fold rotoinversion ( 3 )

4

2

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

c. 3-fold rotoinversion ( 3 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

c. 3-fold rotoinversion ( 3 ) Fifth step creates face 6 (5 (3) 6) Sixth step returns to face 1 5 1

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

c. 3-fold rotoinversion ( 3 ) 3

This is unique

5 4 6

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

d. 4-fold rotoinversion ( 4 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

d. 4-fold rotoinversion ( 4 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

d. 4-fold rotoinversion ( 4 )

1: Rotate 360/4

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

d. 4-fold rotoinversion ( 4 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

d. 4-fold rotoinversion ( 4 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

d. 4-fold rotoinversion ( 4 )

3: Rotate 360/4

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

d. 4-fold rotoinversion ( 4 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

d. 4-fold rotoinversion ( 4 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

d. 4-fold rotoinversion ( 4 )

5: Rotate 360/4

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

d. 4-fold rotoinversion ( 4 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

d. 4-fold rotoinversion ( 4 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

d. 4-fold rotoinversion ( 4 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

e. 6-fold rotoinversion ( 6 )

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

e. 6-fold rotoinversion ( 6 )

1

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

e. 6-fold rotoinversion ( 6 )

1

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

e. 6-fold rotoinversion ( 6 )

2 1

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

e. 6-fold rotoinversion ( 6 )

2 1

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

e. 6-fold rotoinversion ( 6 )

3

2 1

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

e. 6-fold rotoinversion ( 6 )

3

2 1

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

e. 6-fold rotoinversion ( 6 )

3

2 1

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

e. 6-fold rotoinversion ( 6 )

3

2 1

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

e. 6-fold rotoinversion ( 6 )

3

5 2 1

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

e. 6-fold rotoinversion ( 6 )

3

5 2 1

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

e. 6-fold rotoinversion ( 6 )

3

5 2 1

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

e. 6-fold rotoinversion ( 6 )

Note: this is the same as a 3-fold rotation axis perpendicular to a mirror plane

Top View

3-D Symmetry

New Symmetry Elements 4. Rotoinversion

e. 6-fold rotoinversion ( 6 )

A simpler pattern

Top View

3-D Symmetry

We now have 10 unique 3-D symmetry operations:

1 2 3 4 6 i 2 3 4 6

Combinations of these elements are also possible A complete analysis of symmetry about a point in space requires that we try all possible combinations of these symmetry elements

3-D symmetry element combinations a. Rotation axis parallel to a mirror

Same as 2-D 2 || m = 2mm 3 || m = 3m, also 4mm, 6mm

2 m = 2/m 3 m = 3/m, also 4/m, 6/m

2-fold axis at odd angle to mirror? Some cases at 45o or 30o are possible, as we shall see

3-D Symmetry

3-D symmetry element combinations d. Combinations of rotations 2 + 2 at 90o 222 (third 2 required from combination) 4 + 2 at 90o 422 ( ) 6 + 2 at 90o 622 ( )

3-D Symmetry

As in 2-D, the number of possible combinations is limited only by incompatibility and redundancy There are only 22 possible unique 3-D combinations, when combined with the 10 original 3-D elements yields the 32 3-D Point Groups

3-D Symmetry

But it soon gets hard to visualize (or at least portray 3-D on paper)

Fig. 5.18 of Klein (2002) Manual of Mineral Science, John Wiley and Sons

3-D Symmetry

The 32 3-D Point Groups

Every 3-D pattern must conform to one of them. This includes every crystal, and every point within a crystal

Increasing Rotational Symmetry Rotation axis only Rotoinversion axis only Combination of rotation axes One rotation axis mirror One rotation axis || mirror Rotoinversion with rotation and mirror Three rotation axes and mirrors Additional Isometric patterns 2/m 2/m 2/m 23 2/m 3 1 1 (= i ) 2 2 (= m) 222 2/m 2mm 3 3 32 3/m (= 6) 3m 3 2/m 4 4 422 4/m 4mm 4 2/m 4/m 2/m 2/m 432 43m 6 6 (= 3/m) 622 6/m 6mm 6 2/m 6/m 2/m 2/m 4/m 3 2/m

Table 5.1 of Klein (2002) Manual of Mineral Science, John Wiley and Sons

3-D Symmetry

The 32 3-D Point Groups Regrouped by Crystal System

(more later when we consider translations)

Crystal System Triclinic Monoclinic Orthorhombic Tetragonal Hexagonal No Center 1 2, 2 (= m) 222, 2mm 4, 4, 422, 4mm, 42m 3, 32, 3m 6, 6, 622, 6mm, 62m Isometric 23, 432, 43m Center 1 2/m 2/m 2/m 2/m 4/m, 4/m 2/m 2/m 3, 3 2/m 6/m, 6/m 2/m 2/m 2/m 3, 4/m 3 2/m

Table 5.3 of Klein (2002) Manual of Mineral Science, John Wiley and Sons

3-D Symmetry

The 32 3-D Point Groups

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