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College of Business and Accountancy Hotel and Restaurant Management



Submitted by: Julius Jay Edillor Alphie Malig Sean Michael Lumanta

Submitted to: Ms. Liza Imperial

January 8, 2014

INTRODUCTION Strategy Formulation is the process by which a company decides how it will compete in the marketplace; this is often the energizing and guiding force for everything it does. Strategy Implementation is the way the strategic plan gets carried out in activities of organizational members.


Work-flow design is the process of analyzing the tasks necessary for the production of a product or service, prior to allocating and assigning theses tasks to a particular job category or person. Organization structure refers to the relatively stable and formal network of vertical and horizontal interconnections among jobs that constitute the organization. Work flow design and Organization design structure have to be understood in the context of how an organization has decided to compete.

WORK-FLOW ANALYSIS In this section we present an approach for analyzing the work process of a department as a means of examining jobs in the context of an organization. ANALYZING WORK OUTPUTS An output is the product of a work unit is often an identifiable thing such as completed purchase order, an identifiable thing such as a completed purchase order, an employee test or a hot, juicy hamburger. However, an output can also be a service. ANALYZING WORK PROCESSES Once the outputs of the work unit have been identified, it is possible to examine the work processes used to generate the output. The work processes are the activities that members of a work unit engage in to produce a given output. ANALYZING WORK INPUTS Raw materials consist of the materials that will be converted into the work units product. Equipment refers to the technology and machinery necessary to transform the raw materials into the product. The final inputs in the work-flow process are the human skills and efforts necessary to perform the tasks.

ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE It provides a cross-sectional overview of the static relationships between individuals and units that create the outputs.

DIMENSIONS OF STRUCTURE Two of the most critical dimensions of organization structure are centralized and departmentalization. Centralization refers to the degree to which decision-making authority resides at the top of the organizational charts as opposed to being distributed throughout lower levels (in which case authority is decentralized). Departmentalization refers to the degree to which work units are grouped based on functional similarity or similarity of work flow. STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATIONS Functional structure employs a functional departmentalization scheme with relatively high levels of centralization. Divisional structure combines a divisional departmentalization scheme with relatively low levels of centralization. STRUCTURE AND NATURE OF JOBS Jobs in functional structures need to be narrow and highly specialized. Workers in these structures tend to have little decision-making authority or responsibility managing coordination between themselves and others.

This refers to the process of getting detailed information about jobs. Job analysis has deep historical roots. THE IMPORTANCE OF JOB ANALYSIS Job analysis is such an important activity to HR Managers that it has been called the building block of everything that personnel does. This statement refers to the fact that almost every human resource management program requires some type of information that is gleaned from job analysis: selection, performance appraisal, training and development, job evaluation, career planning, work redesign and human resource planning. Work Redesign - often a firm will seek to redesign to work to make it more efficient or effective. Human Resource Planning - planners analyze an organizations human resource needs in a dynamic environment and develop activities that enable a firm to adapt to change. Selection - identifies the most qualified applicants for employment. Training - Almost every employee hired by an organization will require training. Performance Appraisal - deals with getting information about how well each employee is performing in order to reward those who are effective, improve the performance of those ineffective or provide a written justification for why the performer should be disciplined.

Career Planning - entails matching an individuals skills and aspirations with opportunities that are or may become available in the organization. Job Evaluation - The process of job evaluation involves assessing the relative dollar value of each job to the organization to set upn internally equitable pay structures.

THE IMPORTANCE OF JOB ANALYSIS TO LINE MANAGERS First, managers must have detailed information about all the jobs in their work group to understand the work-flow process. Second, managers need to understand the job requirements to make intelligent hiring decisions. Third, a manager is responsible for ensuring that each individual is performing satisfactorily (or better). Finally, it is also managers responsibility to ensure that the work is being done safely, knowing where potential hazards might manifest themselves and creating a climate where people feel free to interrupt the production process if dangerous conditions exist.


Nature of Information
Two types of information are most useful in job analysis: Job Description is a list of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) that a job actions. Job Specification is a list of knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) that an individual must have to perform the job.

Sources of Job Analysis Information

Whatever job analysis method you choose, the process of job analysis entails obtaining information from people familiar with the job. We refer to these people as subject-matter experts because theyre experts in their knowledge of the job.


Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)

- is a standardized job analysis questionnaire containing 194 items. They are organized into 6 sections: 1. Information input 2. Mental processes 3. Work output 4. Relationships with other persons 5. Job context 6. Other characteristics

The Occupational Information Network (O*NET)

The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) was born during the 1930s and served as vehicle for helping the new public employment system link the demand for skills and the supply of skills in US workforce.

DYNAMIC ELEMENTS OF JOB ANALYSIS Job tends to change and evolve over time. Those who occupy or manage the jobs often make minor, cumulative adjustments to the job that tries to match either changing conditions in the environment or personal preferences.

Job Design is the process of defining how work will be performed and the tasks that will be required in a given job. Job Redesign refers to changing the tasks or the way work is performed in an existing job. Research has identified four basic approaches that have been used among the various disciplines (such as psychology, management, engineering and ergonomics) that have dealt with job design issues. MECHANISTIC APPROACH - It has roots in classical industrial engineering. - Its focus of the mechanic approach is identifying the simplest way to structure work that maximizes efficiency. Scientific Management was one of the earliest and best-known statements of the mechanistic approach. According to this approach, productivity could be maximized by taking scientific approach to the process of designing job. MOTIVATIONAL APPROACH Has roots in organizational psychology and management literature and, in many ways, emerged as a reaction to mechanistic approaches to job design. A model of how job design affects employee reactions is the Job Characteristics Model. Jobs can be described in terms of five characteristics: Skills variety, Task identity, Autonomy, Feedback and Task significance. BIOLOGICAL APPROACH Biological Approach to job design comes primarily from the sciences of biomechanics, work physiology and occupational medicine, and it is usually referred to as ergonomics. Ergonomics is concerned with examining the interface between individuals physiological characteristics and the physical work environment.

PERPETUAL-MOTOR APPROACH Has a root in human-factors literature. Whereas, the biological approach focuses on physical capabilities and limitations, the perpetual-motor approach focuses on human mental capabilities and limitations.

TRADE-OFFS AMONG DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO JOB DESIGN A great deal of research has aimed at understanding the trade-offs and implications of these different job design strategies. Many authors have called for redesigning jobs according to the motivational approach so that the work becomes more psychologically meaningful.