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SEMESTER 1, 2013/2014

MTH 4403 INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONS RESEARCH

ASSIGNMENT TITLE: PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Group Members : ChooShu Fen CheeYik Yang Tham Wendy Wong HuiShein MahSiau Man

157832 158394 159281 159353 160179

Lecturer

: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Rizam bin Abu Bakar

INTRODUCTION
In Project Management terminology, Critical Path Method (CPM) is designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project. CPM is often used in the project of construction, software development, product development, research and engineering, among others. Any project with interdependent activities can apply this method of mathematical analysis.

In Critical Path Method (CPM), a diagram or flowchart is made of all work items, showing which items are dependent on which others. If done properly, this diagram shows where the bottlenecks will be. The critical path is the shortest sequence of work that can complete the project.

In our case, the objectives are to construct a model of the project to categorize a list of all activities within a work breakdown structure, to estimate the time (duration) that each activity will take to complete, and also to calculate the dependencies between the activities by using CPM.

PROBLEM STATEMENT
The Def Jam Company has just signed a contract of $2.5 million to recruit Justin Bieber and his teams to perform in a charity event. The choir performers need to go into operation within 92 days. Def Jam is assigning its best manager, James Franco, to this project to help ensure that it stays on schedule. Mr. Franco will need a number of crews to assist the activities at different times. The following table listed the activities involves in a choir service. Activity Activity Description Immediate Predecessors A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Select music Learn music Make copies and buy books Tryouts Rehearsals Rent candelabra Decorate candelabra Set up decorations Order choir robe stoles Check out public address system Select music tracks Set up public address system Final rehearsal Choir party Final program A A B,C D D F D D D J K E,G,L H,L,M I,N Estimate Duration (weeks) 2 14 14 3 70 14 1 1 7 7 14 1 1 1 1

METHODOLOGY
Critical Path Method (CPM) is used for scheduling project activities and it is based on mathematical calculations. There are five steps in CPM: 1. Creating a network (activity-on-arc (AOA) or activity-on-node (AON)) showing the task names, durations, and precedence relationships, where the four dates (ES, EF, LS, LF) are empty, except for the early start of the first task.

2.

Making a Forward Pass through the network. Then, determine the early start (ES) and early finish (EF) for every activity.

3.

Making a Backward Pass through the network. Then, determine the late start (LS) and late finish (LF) for every activity.

4.

Calculate the total float (TF), free float (FF), and independent float (IF) for every activity. Total Float: It is the difference between the maximum time available to perform the activity and the activity duration. The maximum time available for any activity is from the earliest start time to the latest completion time. On critical activities, total float is always zero. The formula for calculating the total float is: TF = LF EF = ES LS Free Float: It is that portion of the total float within which an activity can be manipulated without affecting the floats of subsequent activities. Free float will always be less than or equal to total float and never more. In all critical activities, free float is always zero. The formula for calculating the free float is: FF = ESafter EFcurrent Independent Float: It is that portion of the total float within which an activity can be delayed for start without affecting the floats of preceding activities. If the result is negative, it is taken as zero. The formula for calculating the free float is: IF = ESafter LFbefore Duration

5.

Finding the paths that consist entirely of activities with zero float. These paths will go from the very first activity to the last activity. This path will be the critical path where no delay is allowed. Critical path: The sequence of critical activities in a network is called the critical path. It is the longest path in the network from the starting event to the ending event and defines the minimum time required to complete the project.

RESULT
Activity-on-node (AON):

START

A(2)

0 0 2

2 2

2 16 2 16 2

B(14)

C(14)

2 16 2 16 2

D(13)

16 19 16 19 2

J(7)
19 26 67 74 4 2 19 33 74 88 4 2 33 34 88 89 4 2

K(14)

F(14)
19 89 19 89 4

E(70)

26 40 74 88 42 4041 8889 4 2 89 90 89 90 4

L(1)

G(1)

H(1)

19 20 89 90 4 2 90 91 90 91 4 2

M(1)

N(1)
2

I(7)

19 26 84 91 4 2

O(1)

91 92 91 92 4 2

FINISH

The following table listed the floats for every activity. Activity Estimate Duration (days) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O 2 14 14 3 70 14 1 1 7 7 14 1 1 1 1 Early Start (ES) 0 2 2 16 19 19 33 19 19 19 26 40 89 90 91 Latest Start (LS) 0 2 2 16 19 74 88 89 84 67 74 88 89 90 91 Early Finish (EF) 2 16 16 19 89 33 34 20 26 26 40 41 90 91 91 Latest Finish (LF) 2 16 16 19 89 88 89 90 91 74 88 89 90 91 92 Total Float (TF) 0 0 0 0 0 55 55 70 65 48 48 48 0 0 0 Free Float (FF) 0 0 0 0 0 0 55 70 65 0 0 49 0 0 0 Independent Float (IF) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 70 65 0 0 0 0 0 0

Total Float: Total Float Total float is a measure of time by which it may be extended or delayed without delaying completion of the project, assuming no extension or delay in any other activity. (TF=LFEF=ESLS)
i.

Activity F Activity F (Rent candelabra) could finish as early as day 33 or as late as day 88. Therefore, activity F can be delayed up to 55 days beyond the earliest time schedule without delaying the completion of the project at 92 days.

ii.

Activity G Activity G (Decorate candelabra) could finish as early as day 34 or as late as day 89. Therefore, activity G can be delayed up to 55 days beyond the earliest time schedule without delaying the completion of the project at 92 days.

iii.

Activity H Activity H (Set up decorations) could finish as early as day 20 or as late as day 90. Therefore, activity H can be delayed up to 70 days beyond the earliest time schedule without delaying the completion of the project at 92 days.

iv.

Activity I Activity I (Order choir robe stoles) could finish as early as day 26 or as late as day 91. Therefore, activity I can be delayed up to 65 days beyond the earliest time schedule without delaying the completion of the project at 92 days.

v.

Activity J Activity J (Check out public address system) could finish as early as day 26 or as late as day 74. Therefore, activity J can be delayed up to 48 days beyond the earliest time schedule without delaying the completion of the project at 92 days.

vi.

Activity K Activity K (Select music tracks) could finish as early as day 40 or as late as day 88. Therefore, activity K can be delayed up to 48 days beyond the earliest time schedule without delaying the completion of the project at 92 days.

vii.

Activity L Activity L (Set up public address system) could finish as early as day 41 or as late as day 89. Therefore, activity L can be delayed up to 48 days beyond the earliest time schedule without delaying the completion of the project at 92 days.

viii.

Activities A, B, C, D, E, M, N, O Activity A,B, C, D, E, M, N and O have zero total float, this indicates that these activities cannot delay. If any delays in these activities will delay project completion at 92 days.

Free Float: Free Float is defined as the amount of delay which can be assigned to any one activity without delaying subsequent activities. (FF = ESafter EFcurrent)
i.

Activity G Activity G (Decorate candelabra) can have a 55 days of slack without adversely affecting the subsequent activity M (Final rehearsal) early start time.

ii.

Activity H Activity H (Set up decorations)can have a 70 days of slack without adversely affecting the subsequent activity N (Choir party) early start time.

iii.

Activity I Activity I (Order choir robe stoles)can have a 65 days of slack without adversely affecting the subsequent activity O (Final program) early start time.

iv.

Activity L Activity L (Set up public address system)can have a 49 days of slack without adversely affecting the subsequent activity M (Final rehearsal) and activity N (Choir party) early start time.

Independent Float: Independent float is defined as the amount of delay which can be assigned to any activity without delaying subsequent activities or restricting the scheduling of proceeding activities. (IF = ESafter LFbefore Duration)
i.

Activity H An amount of 70 days delay can be assigned to activity H (Set up decorations) without restricting the scheduling of proceeding activity N (Choir party).

ii.

Activity I An amount of 65 days delay can be assigned to activity I (Order choir robe stoles) without restricting the scheduling of proceeding activity O (Final program).

Critical Path: Activity A, B, C, D, E, M, N and O has zero float and hence are critical. The critical path is i. ii. Start-A-B-D-E-M-N-O-Finish Start-A-C-D-E-M-N-O-Finish

with the project duration of 92 days.

CONCLUSION
The Critical path of a network gives the shortest time in which the whole project can be completed. It is the chain of activities with the longest time durations. These activities are critical activities. They are critical in the sense that delays in any of them results in the delay of the completion of the project. There may be more than one critical path in a network and it is possible for the critical path to run through a dummy.

From the problem statement above, we can conclude that there are two critical paths in the project which is i. ii. Start-A-B-D-E-M-N-O-Finish Start-A-C-D-E-M-N-O-Finish

For the 2 critical paths above, no delays of time is allowed. The total time required to complete the project is 92 days. The activities on the critical path are the critical bottleneck activities where any delays in their completion must be avoided to prevent delaying of project completion. Hence, Mr James Franco has to take note on the critical path activities so that the project is stay on schedule. In conclusion, critical path identification is required for any project-planning phase. This gives the project management the correct completion date of the overall project and the flexibility to float activities.A critical path diagram should be constantly updated with actual information when the project progresses in order to refine the activity length/project duration predictions. By using CPM within the planning process is to help us develop and test our plan to ensure that it is robust. CPM formally identifies tasks which must be completed on time for the whole project to be completed on time. It also identifies which tasks can be delayed if resource needs to be reallocated to catch up on missed or overrunning tasks.

Critical Path Analysis also helps us to identify the minimum length of time needed to complete a project. Where we need to run an accelerated project, it helps us to identify which project steps we should accelerate to complete the project within the available time. In short, Critical Path Method (CPM) is a powerful tool that helps us to schedule and manage complex projects.