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SMA Solar Technology

Sunny Boy 1 Webinar en Espaol 28 de Marzo 2011 8 am a 4 pm (hora de San Francisco, CA) Presentador : Antonio Gomez , Solar Academy, SMA America Rocklin, California USA Antonio.Gomez@SMA-America.com
1

Sunny Boy 1 Agenda

> Brief introduction to SMA > Course Content 1. Components and operation of a Grid Tied Photovoltaic System 2. Safety Basics 3. SMA inverters 4. System Design for a residential application 5. Installation, commissioning and troubleshooting

What does SMA Solar Technology AG Stand For?


> It is a German acronym that describes 3 different technology disciplines:

System Mess Anlagentechnik AktienGesellschaft


System Computer Control Mess Instrumentation or Measuring technology Anlagentechnik Plant System technology

SMA Around the World

Toronto, Canada SMA America HQ Rocklin, CA

SMA Manufacturing Plant , Denver, CO

SMA HQ main entrance , Kassel, Germany

SMA America, LLC


> Founded in Grass Valley 2000 > Moved to Rocklin in May 2008 > 200,000+ inverters installed in the U.S.

New SMA America Headquarters in Rocklin, CA

New SMA America Headquarters in Rocklin, CA

Solar Academy Course Structure


Non-Technical ------------------------------------------------- Expert Technical

Sales & Marketing


Sales Focus

Intro to PV

Basic Technical

Product Focus

Intro to SMA Products Sunny Island 1


Grid-Tie Backup

Grid Tied Single Phase

Sunny Boy 1

Sunny Boy 2

Grid Tied 3-Phase Focus

Central Inverter

Sunny Central 1

Communications

Monitoring & Data Logging (Basic)

WebBox

Monitoring & Data Logging (Advanced)

Revenue Grade Metering Advanced Comms

Sunny Island 2
Off Grid

Sunny Central 2 Utility Scale Applications


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US Production Facility
> Manufacturing Plant in Denver, CO > Production capacity up to1GW in the first stage > 100s of US jobs created > American Reinvestment & Recovery Act compliant

10

Grid Tie Photovoltaic Systems

Oregon State Capitol, Salem, USA


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Parts of a Grid Tie PV system

Question: What is the largest component of any grid tied solar system?

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1. The Sun
> Produces 386 billion billion Megawatts of energy every second > 15 minutes of sunlight > total consumption of all other forms of energy used in 1 year by all mankind > 5 billion year warranty

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2. Solar Cell The Smallest Component

14

Solar Cell Cross Section

[P]

Thickness Of Human Hair [B]

15

From Cell to Array

String

Array

Cell

Module

16

3. Inverter

DC

AC L1

Inverter

L2

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Irradiance, Current and Voltage

Irradiance in W/m2

18

Amps

Volts

Impact of temperature on voltage


Current Depends on Irradiance

P(W) = E(V) x I(A)

Voltage depends on temperature

19

Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)

20

MPPT on Shaded vs. Partially Shaded Strings


Not Shaded

Partially Shaded Power

Voltage
21

SMA OptiTrac

Other MPPT systems

22

4. Bi-Directional Meter Net Meter kWh

23

Components of a Grid Tied PV

Meter

PV Array

DC Disconnect

AC Disconnect AC Distribution Panel


24

Grid Tied PV Components in Operation

2 pole 40A

25

Inverter Topologies

26

Low Frequency Transformer

MPPT
Extracts maximum Power from the PV

Bridge
Converts DC to AC

Transformer
Provides insulation between DC and AC

Grid

27

IGBT Bridge of a Sunny Boy 7000 US

28

LF Transformers

SB 3000 US SB 3800 US SB 4000 US

SB 5000 SB 6000 SB 7000 SB 8000

US US US US
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High Frequency Transformer

DC

AC

DC

AC

30

Sunny Boy 2000HF-US, 2500HF-US, 3000HF-US

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Transformerless Inverter

32

Sunny Boy TL-US Series 8000, 9000, 10000

DC and AC Inputs to SB 7000US Solar Modules

DC

AC

Grid
34

Sunny Boy Inverters are Current Sources


AC Voltage

35

ANSI Grid Voltage Ranges and Tripping Voltages


228.6
ANSI Range A (-5%)

240V
(+5%)

252 254
ANSI Range A

264

228.6
ANSI Range B (-13%)

252
ANSI Range B (+ 6 %)

208.8 Inverter Tripping (-12 %) 211

254.4 Inverter Tripping (+ 10 %) 264

Inverter Operating Voltage (Vac Min)

Inverter Operating Voltage (Vac Max)


36

Likely Spots for High Impedance

Loose Contact

Loose Contact

Bad Breaker

Loose Insufficient Contact Wire Size

Tighten AC connections at 18 in-lb

37

www.SMA-America.com

38

www.SMA-America.com

39

Voltage Drop Calculator

40

Grid Protective Functions


1. Anti Islanding
> Required by UL 1741 (IEEE 929) > Protects people and property

2. Over / Under Voltage 3. Over / Under Frequency


Protects quality of grid

41

Anti-Islanding : Grid Guard Monitoring


T1 T2

Grid Voltage

Inverter Current

42

Inverter response to grid Failure


Grid Voltage

Inverter disconnects from the grid within 160ms

Loss of Grid

Inverter Current
43

Connecting Grid tied inverters to Generators


240 VAC

44

Over and Under Voltage Monitoring

45

ANSI Grid Voltage Ranges and Tripping Voltages


228.6
ANSI Range A (-5%)

240V
(+5%)

252 254
ANSI Range A

264

228.6
ANSI Range B (-13%)

252
ANSI Range B (+ 6 %)

208.8 Inverter Tripping (-12 %) 211

254.4 Inverter Tripping (+ 10 %) 264

Inverter Operating Voltage (Vac Min)

Inverter Operating Voltage (Vac Max)


46

Over / Under Voltage Monitoring

47

Front Panel LEDs

BLINKING YELLOW INDICATES A FAILURE

48

Practices to avoid premature tripping

> Size the AC wiring for a 1% voltage drop (raise) > Tighten all AC connections > Use wet location rated wire nuts

49

Over / Under Frequency Monitoring


Required by UL and IEEE 59.3 to 60.5

50

Most common reasons for Fac error code


> AC Disconnect or Breaker is OFF > Grid is Down > Frequency of the grid is 0Hz because the grid voltage is 0V AC

51

PV array Go - No Go test measurements


1) Open Circuit Voltage has to be higher than the inverter PV start Voltage (For example 228VDC for SB 3000 and 285VDC for SB 4000 US).

2) Voltage between positive and ground and negative and ground has to be zero or less than ~12 volts bleeding down to zero.

53

Acceptable Open Voltage Insufficient Voc for Circuit SB 3000US (228V DC)

40 V

40 V

40 V

40 V

40 V

200 VDC Voc = 350


54

Ground No Ground Fault Fault


70 V

70V

70 V

70 V

70 V

+ 140 V 0 V 210 V

56

Disconnecting a PV array under load at 600 VDC 20 Amp

57

Bi-directional Battery Inverter: Grid Tied Back Up

58

Sunny Island 5048U

> Creates micro grid when utility grid is lost > Requires 48V DC battery bank > Sunny Boys, if used, are AC coupled to the Sunny Island > Solar modules cannot be directly connected to the Sunny Island!

59

Grid-Tied Back up with Sunny Boy: Grid is Present


120 VAC

L2

60

Grid-Tied Back up with Sunny Boy: Loss of Grid

61

Grid-Tied Back up with Sunny Boy: Grid Returns


L1

120 VAC

120 VAC

L2

62

Safety Basics: PV, Hazards, Practices, PPE


> Non Electrical Hazards: > Exposure to Mother Nature- hydrate, sunscreen, protective clothing > Snakes, bugs and rodents > Cuts and bumps > Falls, strains and sprains > Burns- thermal and chemical > Repetition

63

Safety Hazards
> Electrical Hazards > Shock- DC and AC > Arc- could cause burns > Blast- vapors, impact injury, hearing loss

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Electrical Shock Thresholds

Reaction Tingle, warmth Shock; reflex may cause injury Severe Shock; cannot let go Ventricular Fibrillation Heart Frozen

60 Hz AC Amps .001 .002 .02 .1 >1

DC Amps .006 .009 .09 .5 >1

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Electrical Safety Practices


> Good work habits > Clean working area > Awareness of hazards > CPR certification > Adherence to company safety practices > Knowledge, compliance and proper execution of Code > Article 240 Overcurrent protection > Article 250 Grounding > Article 300 Wiring methods > Article 339 Underground feeders > Article 690 Solar Photovoltaic Systems > Article 705 Interconnected power sources
66

Electrical Safety: Tools


> Multimeter > Megger > Hot Stick > Cell Phone > Fire Extinguisher (Class C) > Listed Torque Drivers

67

Electrical Safety: Personal Protective Equipment


> Helmet > Gloves > Footwear > Eye Protection

68

UL Listing
> All SMA inverters sold in the US and Canada are listed under the UL 1741 standard

69

UL.com

Enter SMAs UL Number E210376

70

SMA Inverter UL Listing

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Sunny Boy 3000 US

> 3000 Watts > DC Switch Included > 208V AC and 240V AC > Auto voltage sensing > 96.6% Max 95.5% CEC
> Compatible with Positive and Negative to ground modules

72

Sunny Boy 4000 US


> 4000 Watts > DC Switch Included > 208V AC and 240V AC > Auto voltage sensing > 96.6% Max 95.5% CEC > 10 year warranty
> Compatible with Positive and Negative to ground modules > SB 3800US (3800W Max output) > Uses 2 pole 20A breaker > Ideal for 100A panels

73

Sunny Boy 5000US


> 5000 Watts > DC Switch Included > 208/ 240 / 277 VAC > Manually selected > 96.8% Max 95.5% CEC > 10 year warranty > MPPT: 250 - 480V DC > Compatible with Positive and Negative to ground modules

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Sunny Boy 6000US


> 6000 Watts > DC Switch Included > 208/ 240 / 277 VAC > Manually selected > 97% Max 95.5% CEC > 10 year warranty > MPPT: 250 - 480V DC > Compatible with Positive and Negative to ground modules

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Sunny Boy 7000US


> 7000 Watts > DC Switch Included > 208/ 240 / 277 VAC > Manually selected > 97.1% Max 96% CEC > 10 year warranty > MPPT: 250 - 480V DC > Compatible with Positive and Negative to ground modules

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Sunny Boy 8000US


> 8000 Watts > DC Switch Included > 240 or 277 VAC only > Manually selected > 97.1% Max 96% CEC > 10 year warranty > Positive/Negative to Ground modules > MPPT: 250 - 480V DC > PV start: 365V DC

77

Inverter models and AC operating voltages


SB 3000 US SB 4000 US SB 5000 US SB 6000 US SB 7000 US

SB 8000 US

208V / 240V Automatic Voltage Sensing 208V / 240V / 277V Manual Voltage Selection 240V / 277V Manual Voltage Selection
78

Sunny Boys in Single and Three Phase Systems


> Sunny Boys are single phase inverters but can operate in either

Single Phase or Three Phase systems

79

Utility Transformers

Commercial

Commercial

Residential

Commercial Agricultural

Commercial

Commercial
80

Inverter Configuration

81

Default Inverter Settings

1. Jumper Configuration: Look for Neutral 2. Ground Fault Detection Interrupt (GFDI) Fuse: Negative to Ground 3. Voltage Selection: 240V AC (SB 5,6, 7, & 8000 US only)

82

Neutral Configuration Jumpers

83

Neutral Configuration Jumper

Look for a Neutral

If the jumpers are incorrectly configured the inverter will flag the error:
84

Disturbance: Grid Time Out

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Positive to Ground Module Compatibility ALL Sunny Boy Inverters are UL Listed for use with POSITIVE to GROUND Modules

86

Default Negative to Ground


1. GFDI Fuse on top 2. Jumper on top

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Color of Grounded Conductor


> NEC 200.6(A) > An insulated grounded conductor of 6 AWG or smaller shall be identified by a continuous white or gray outer finish or by three continuous white stripes on other than green insulation along its entire length.

88

Negative to Ground DC Disconnect Connections

89

Negative to Ground Inverter DC Connections

90

Field Programmable to Positive to Ground


1. GFDI Fuse on bottom 2. Jumper on bottom

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Positive to Ground DC Disconnect Connections

92

Positive to Ground Inverter DC Connections

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SB 5,6,7,8000 US: Pull both fuse holders

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Swap fuse holders and reinsert

95

Swap jumper to left position

> Negative to Ground: Fuse / Jumper on Right > Positive to Ground: Fuse / Jumper on Left

96

Grid Voltage Selector: Default 240 V

97

Incorrect Voltage Selection

98

Sunny Boy AC Terminal Blocks

99

SB 3000US, 3800US & 4000US

100

SB 5000US, 6000US & 7000US

101

Grounding

102

Grounding
> Several Articles cover grounding system [NEC 250 & 690] > Equipment Grounding > DC Grounding Electrode and GEC > Grounding Single Sunny Boy > Grounding Multiple Sunny Boys

103

Equipment Ground
> The Protected Earth (PE) terminal of the inverter is for the termination of the equipment grounding conductor [NEC 690.43 46] > All DC and AC equipment is grounded including: > PV module frames > DC disconnect > Inverter Chassis > AC disconnect > AC ground bus in AC distribution panel

104

Grounding Electrode
> Required by NEC 690.47 > The Grounding Electrode (GE) and Grounding Electrode Conductor (GCE) are used to bond the grounded conductor to Earth Ground. > Use NEC 250.66 (AC) & 250.166 (DC) to correctly size the GEC based on the GE system being used.

105

PE Terminal vs.Grounding Electrode Terminal Equipment Ground GEC Terminal

106

Grounding
> For a Single SMA Inverter > DC Ground Rod is not required > Use continuous #8 AWG bare or insulated conductor > Connect Ground Terminal to AC ground rod > You can route with the AC conductors, but do not attach or splice at the service panel(s) > If the ground rod is unavailable, irreversibly splice to the AC GEC > If you have a non-rod AC GE, use appropriate size conductor > See [NEC 250.166] for alternate size requirements
107

Single Inverter Grounding Method 1


Existing AC Service Equipment

PV Array

DC Disconnects

PV Inverter

AC Disconnects

690.47(C)(1)

690.47(C)(2)

Optional 250.54 Supplementary Grounding Electrode (Lightning Protection)

New DC Grounding Electrode

Existing AC Grounding Electrode


108

Single Inverter Grounding Method 2


Existing AC Service Equipment

PV Array

DC Disconnects

PV Inverter

AC Disconnects

Unspliced 8 AWG Conductor

Optional 250.54 Supplementary Grounding Electrode (Lightning Protection)

Serves as AC and DC GEC

Existing AC Grounding Electrode


109

Grounding
> For Multiple Sunny Boy Inverters > Use a DC Grounding Electrode (ground rod) > Run a #6 AWG from the DC GE to the AC GE > This line will become a GEC for the inverters > Run a short #6 AWG jumper to each inverter > This line must be irreversibly spliced to the GEC > If the AC or DC Grounding Electrode is not a rod type increase the GEC to the appropriate size > [NEC 250.66 & 250.166] will determine the correct size

110

Multiple Inverter Grounding Method

Inverter 1

Inverter 2

Inverter 3

Inverter 4

Irreversible Splices
Connection of GEC taps IAW 250.6(C) and (D)

111

Grounded PV Arrays
> NEC 690.41-45 describes the requirements for system grounding of PV arrays. > Sunny Boy Inverters comply and include the GFDI circuitry required by [NEC 690.5 or NEC 690.35(C)]

> Intentionally grounding the PV grounded or ungrounded conductors outside the inverter will blow the GFDI fuse.

112

Ungrounded PV Arrays: NEC 2005 [690.35]


> The DC disconnect must break all conductors > Overcurrent protection, when required, must be installed on all source circuit conductors > Ground Fault Protection is still required > PV source and output circuit conductors must be multi-conductor and double insulated ; labeled PV Wire > Red and Black color coding

113

As of August 2008

All Sunny Boy inverters ship with a DC ONLY disconnect. This DC disconnect model is used for all Sunny Boy US Series. (SB TL-US inverters have their own specific disconnect)
114

Large Field Wiring Area

Knockouts on sides, bottom and back panel of disconnect (6 total)

115

Handle Removal

Handle must be in the OFF position to remove handle

Screw slot covered in the ON position

116

Handle Removal

Standard #2 Philips screwdriver Handle retains screw

117

Equipment Ground Wire to the Inverter L1 L2 N PE


Dedicated Equipment Ground wire to the Inverter. 3 grounding terminals total

118

Fuse Number matches the Terminal Number

Removing a blown fuse shows the string number that caused the fault

119

DC Terminal Labels

120

Direct connection to string terminals

20 Amp Maximum Fuse Rating

2 4

1 3

121

SB US Series DC Disconnect Schematic

122

Frequently Asked Question What can I do if I have more strings on my array than terminals in the SMA DC Disconnect?

123

SMA Combiner Boxes

124

36 Amp Combined input from a Combiner Box


SMA DC Disconnect

To grounded conductor terminal


125

Combined DC Input Terminal up to 36 Amps

Combiner Box Ungrounded Wire

Combiner Box Grounded Wire

Wire size 10 to 6 AWG

126

3 Grounding Terminals

Equipment Ground

Ground Rod at the inverter


127

Photovoltaic Modules and Array Design

27 Sharp 235 modules 2 SB 3000US

SolarHot 4' x 10 Platinum collector

Courtesy: Freedom Power, LLC; Shreveport, LA


128

Solid Green LED


Solid Green MPP MODE

129

Laboratory Conditions vs. Reality

1 Module = 100 watts (STC) at 25C (78F) 1 Module = ~80 Watts at 50C

*GEPV-100
130

STC Watts vs. AC Watts 3 strings of 10 modules = 3000 Peak DC Watts (STC) Reality: 3000 DC Watts ~20% (temp variations) 2400 DC Watts ~4% (inverter inefficiency) 2304 Peak AC Watts Caution: Do not sell STC Watts!

131

System Design

132

Sunny Design Solar Design Tool Software

133

Download Software and Meteorological data

134

135

Step 1 PV Plant

136

Select Location Data

> Select Region, Country > Select city closest to installation site

137

PV Module Temperatures

Temps in Celcius

Lowest Record Low

Highest Record High

138

PV (Cell) Temperature Entry Rule of Thumb


> Free field installation: +22C > Roof-top installation with large distance between roof and module: +28C > Roof-top installation with room for airflow: +29C > Roof-top installation with little room for airflow: +32C > Facade with room for airflow: +35C > Facade with little room for airflow: +39C > Roof-top integrated with no room for airflow: +43C > Facade integrated with no room for airflow: +55C > Version 2.0 will offer module temperature OR ambient temperature option > Version 2.0 will offer temperatures in either F or C
139

Average Temperatures from Weather.com


Atlanta, GA Highest Record High = 32C

Lowest Record Low = 1C

141

Mounted Flat Against The Roof

+39 C

142

Tilt Angle or Ground Mount

+28 C

143

Tilt Angle or Ground Mount

+22 C

Courtesy: David Monniaux, Runion Islands


144

Solar Trees
+22 C

145

Tracker Mount

+22 C

Courtesy : Katcha Sanderson


146

Select Module Information

147

Unlisted Module Entry

Use if module is not listed

148

Manual Data Entry

149

Select and Tilt and Azimuth angles

True South is 0 degrees Enter offset of installation orientation


150

Step 2 Inverter

Select Inverter type

151

Inverter Page > Select inverter with appropriate grid voltage > System selects number of inverters > Verify Grid voltage

152

String Configuration Output


Number of Strings

Number of Modules (Min & Max)

153

Wire Size Calculator

154

Step 3 Results

155

Value Descriptions
> Inverter effectiveness > AC Power / DC Power > MPP tracker, inverter > Nominal Power Ratio > DC nominal power / PV peak power > Yearly energy Yield (approx) > Estimated annual yield in kWh

156

Compatibility Check
> Green = PV and Inverter are within the nominal power ratio standard range > 80-120% > Energy Usability > % of DC power converted / effective DC power produced > Performance ratio > Deviation of power effectively fed into the grid compared to STC PV yields > Includes power losses of entire plant > PV efficiency, cable losses, mismatch and inverter efficiency

157

Yield Loss Warning

> Reduced # modules from 18 to 12 > Nominal Power ratio went up from 107% to 161% > Indicates inverter is oversized

158

Result Page with PV Mismatch

159

Sunny Design Layout Options

160

Page Setup

161

Output Page Values Selection

Select which values will be printed on the Output Sheet

162

Output Page Top Half

163

Output Page Bottom Half

164

DC Wiring
> Basic DC wiring design has these 6 elements: > Conductor Sizing > Overcurrent Protection Sizes > Series Fusing > DC Disconnect > DC Combiners > Grounding the PV- Conductor

165

DC Conductor and Device Sizing


> Based on the Rated Short Circuit Current (Isc) of the solar panel > [NEC 690.8(A)(1)] > First, find the PV Source Circuit Current (PVscc)
PV scc = Isc x 1.25 For example : Isc = 7.9 Amps PV scc = 7.9 A x 1.25 = 9.8 A

> Then, size devices and conductors for 125% of PVscc


-- [NEC 690.8(B)(1)] 9.8 A x 1.25 = 12.25 A -- Can also multiply Isc x 156% and get the same answer

166

Fuse Sizing
> Overcurrent Protection (Series Fusing) is required by [NEC 240] for all source circuits to protect from backfeed under fault conditions. > To properly size protective devices, round up to next whole number > For example: 125% * PVscc = 12.25A 15A fuse > Maximum Series Fuse Rating on the module manufacturers spec sheet.

167

DC Wiring- Overcurrent Protection


> Overcurrent protection is required by [NEC 690.9].

168

Series Fusing required for more than 2 strings

169

Combiner boxes are fused

SMA SCCB - 6

170

Unfused Disconnect (SB361)

HU 361 RB

171

DC Disconnect
> [NEC 690.13] through [NEC 690.17] provides details > The Disconnect should only switch the ungrounded conductors. > The Disconnect is not rated as serviceable equipment > The Disconnect shall be located in a readily accessible location outside a building or inside nearest the point of penetration of the building. > Note: Disconnects shall not be installed in bathrooms. > PV circuit conductors can be run inside a building to a DC disconnect provided they are contained in metallic raceway [NEC 690.31(E)].

172

NEC 690.17 Requirements


> Manually operable switch(es) or circuit breaker(s) which comply with the following requirements:
1) 2)

Located where readily accessible. Externally operable without exposing the operator to contact with live parts. Plainly indicating whether in the open or closed position Having an interrupt rating sufficient for the nominal circuit voltage and the current that is available at the line terminals of the equipment.

3) 4)

173

AC Wiring
> Basic AC Design meets 6 requirements > Proper Circuit Routing > Overcurrent Protection Sizing > Voltage Drop and Conductor Sizing > Line/Supply-Side or Load-Side Point of Connection > AC Panel Sizing > AC Disconnect

174

AC Circuit Routing [NEC 690.64(B)(1)]

> Each inverter must have a dedicated circuit with one Over Current Protection Disconnecting Means > This can be a dedicated circuit to an AC breaker.
OR

> A dedicated circuit to a fused AC disconnect

175

AC Wiring
> Overcurrent Protection Sizing > The independent overcurrent protection size is 125% of the maximum output current of the inverter

=
SB 7000US 29.1A @ 240Vac 2 pole 40 Amp Breaker
176

AC Breaker Size SB 3000US & SB 4000US Max Output Current 12.5 A Max Output Current 16.6 A 125% of Max Output 15.25 125% of Max Output 20.75 Breaker Size 20A Breaker Size 25A or 30A

SB 3000 US 240Vac SB 4000 US 240Vac

Poles 2 Poles 2

177

The full consequence of NEC 2005 [690.64(B)(2)]


> The sum of the ampere ratings of overcurrent devices in circuits supplying power to a busbar or conductor shall not exceed the rating of the busbar or conductor. > Exception is 120% for dwelling units > NEC 2008 [690.64(B)(2)] > The sum of the ampere ratings of overcurrent devices in circuits supplying power to a busbar or conductor shall not exceed 120% of the rating of the busbar or conductor.

178

Main Breaker Sizing


Main Circuit Breaker and Busbar = 125A

Will this installation comply with NEC?

Empty Slot for SB4000US breaker 2 Pole 25/30 Amp


179

NEC 690.64(B)(2) 120% Rule


PV + Main 120% of Bus Bar or Conductor Main Breaker and Bus bar rating: 125 A 30 A (PV) + 125A (Main) 150 A (1.2 x 125A)

155 > 150

180

Now What?
> Upgrade the Bus Bar (new distribution panel) = $$$$ > Downgrade the Main Breaker to 100A = $$ > Supply side connection (Line side tap) = $$

181

AC Voltage Drop and Conductor Sizing


> NEC 210.19(A)(1) FPN No. 4 recommends less than 3% voltage drop in branch circuits. > SMA recommends between 1 % and 1.5% voltage drop. > Feedback from the field shows fewer AC related calls when this small tolerance is used. > Use the Voltage Drop Calculator on SMA website

182

AC Voltage Drop and Conductor Sizing

> Branch circuit conductors are sized based on the maximum output current of the inverter [NEC 210.19(A)(1)] > Equipment grounding conductor is sized by Table 250.122 > Note: if the branch circuit conductors are increased for voltage drop then the equipment grounding conductor must be increased proportionally [NEC 250.122(B)].

183

Line Side Connections


> NEC 690.64(A) allows for connection to the supply side of the service disconnection means. > This creates a second service entrance > Must comply with the requirements of NEC 230.82(6)

184

Is an AC side visible indicator disconnect required?


> NEC 690.64 does not specifically require one. > Check with your local utility about this requirement. > Some utilities are beginning to phase this out. > November 21st 2006, PG & E dropped AC disconnect requirement. > Can be unfused unless it is the primary disconnect for a utility side connection.

185

DC Ground Current Messages


> Three Levels of Ground Current > 0 to 100 mA (0.1A):
Normal

> 100 to 1000 mA (1A): Earth_Cur_max > > 1000 mA: GFDI Open >
Indicates a problem on the DC side of the installation

186

Earth Current Max


> Earth_Cur_max > Usually caused by improper installation. > Pinched or chaffed wires; insulation perforated by rodents. > Lightning arrestors that do not reset after T- storm. > Recommended Fix
> Treat this like a ground fault.

187

NEC 690.5 GFDI


> Required roof mounted systems . > Designed to prevent building fires. > Requires a label indicating consequences of a ground fault (NEC 690.5 (C)) > Sunny Boy inverters have integrated GFDI. > Although the GFDI fuse is located inside the inverter, a blown fuse indicates a fault outside the inverter.
INVERTERS DO NOT CAUSE GROUND FAULTS!

188

Ground Fault Detection

189

GFDI Fuse Open


> Indicates a true ground fault > Can appear during initial installation or develop in an existing installation > Rodents chewing through wires > Mounting screw through the back of a module > Condensation in a junction box > Bonding PV ground outside the inverter > Lightning strike

191

Busy Squirrels

192

Indication of PV Array Ground Fault

193

Where is the Ground Fault?

42 / 21 = 2 or 2nd module from the positive home run. 63/21 = 3 or 3rd module from the negative home run.

Positive to Ground 42 Volts

Negative to Ground 63 Volts

194

Where is the ground fault?

+
Open Circuit = 400V DC 400 V / # of Modules ~ 40V per Module + to G = 120V DC

-- to G = 280V DC

_
195

Where is the ground fault?

Open Circuit = 400V DC 400 V / # of Modules ~ 40V per Module + to G = 360V DC

-- to G = 40V DC

_
196

Where is the ground fault?

Open Circuit = 400V DC 400 V / # of Modules ~ 40V per Module + to G = 0V DC

-- to G = 400V DC

_
197

Ground Fault Localization


> Check to ensure modules & strings are wired correctly > Check for pinched wires between panels or in conduit > Check for damage to PV modules. > Check junction boxes for loose connections or water (especially if wire nuts are used!) > Check to ensure grounded conductor is not bonded to equipment ground

198

Required Information for Permitting


> Site plan showing location of major components on the property. > Not necessarily to scale. > Should represent relative location of components. > PV arrays on dwellings with a 3 perimeter space at ridge and sides do not need fire service approval. > Electrical diagram showing PV array configuration, wiring system, overcurrent protection, inverter, disconnects, required signs, and AC connection to building > Specification sheets and installation manuals (if available) for all manufactured components including, but not limited to, PV modules, inverter(s), combiner box, disconnects, and mounting system.

199

Code Organizer Diagram Form

http://www.solarabcs.org/permitting/Expermitprocess.pdf
200

Installation, Commissioning and Maintenance

201

Sunny Boy Mounting


> > > > Do not mount in direct sunlight (Ambient temp < 45C). Mount in vertical position only. Recommended minimum clearance is 8 on all sides; at least 3 feet between the floor/ground and the DC disconnect. Do not mount inverters on bedroom walls because they vibrate.

> 3 feet

202

Indoor Installation

> Ensure adequate ventilation

Courtesy: Vincent Endter, Clark Electric


203

Evidence of Improper Ventilation

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Avoid Direct Exposure to Sunlight

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1 String of 18 Kyocera 170GT (deliberately undersized)

1 SB 6000US Inverter receives a few hours of sun in the afternoon. Recommend Sunny Shade!
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Sunny Shade?

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OptiCool: Cooling System

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Improper Mounting

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Preventive maintenance

> The Sunny Boy inverters contain no user-serviceable parts except for the fans on the bottom of the enclosure and the handle covers on the sides of the unit. > For all repair and maintenance always return the unit to an authorized SMA Service Center.

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Maintenance Fan Cleaning 1. 2. 3. 4. Periodicity: Every 6 months; sooner depending on environment. Turn off DC and AC power to inverter. Wait 5 min. for capacitors to discharge. Remove fan screen(s)

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Remove fan and disconnect from power cable Latch holes

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Jumpers configured for fan test

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Inverter Commissioning
1. Remove covering from PV array (if used). 2. Turn on AC breaker and/or disconnect. 3. Turn on DC disconnect. 4. Inverter will be in Waiting Mode for approximately 10 seconds. Green light will be blinking. 5. If there is no fault the inverter will tie to the grid and the green light will change from blinking to solid.

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SUNNY BOY HF-US : Benefits


Easy Installation

> Light weight: less than 50 pounds > Fits between wall studs > No special tools required > Plug in selector of positive or negative ground
Simple Communication

> Bluetooth interface > Graphic display > Preconfigurable settings

SUNNY BOY HF-US


Maximum Performance

> World class efficiency (95%CEC) > Maximum module selection


Versatile

> Flexible system design with: > Voltage input window 175 to 600V > Maximum DC input current 15 A > 2 DC terminals expandable to 3 terminals > Integrated DC disconnect

Graphic Display and Data Logging


Graphic Display available 24 hours Daily power curve Current Power kWh today Total kWh Grid voltage

PV array voltage
SD card can store inverter data for up to 25 years

Wireless Bluetooth Technology

Wireless data logging and monitoring with free Sunny Explorer software

Wireless data logging and monitoring with Sunny Beam Bluetooth

3000HF US Disconnect

2 spring loaded DC terminals

Configuration and communication module Field configurable for positive ground systems

DIN rail allows expansion for 3 terminals

Spring loaded terminals for AC connection

DC disconnect switch

Fan release

Stud Mount Installation

> Optional recessed installation > New or retrofit homes with limited space > PV ready new home construction > Available Q1 2011 (no, really)

Introduction to Data Logging and Monitoring

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Solar Plant Tool


> Worldwide system access with web browser > Cyclic reporting of system yield > Remote plant diagnosis and configuration > Data Storage and display via Internet > Compatible with all SMA inverters

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Inverter communication requires: 2) One RS-485 Cable

1) One RS- 485 Piggy Back Card

3) One Web Box

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26 Kyocera KD205 Panels (5.33KW) Scottsdale, AZ

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Additional Monitoring
> Sunny Beam > Sunny Portal iPhone app (Free) > SunnyPortal.mobi (Blackberry, etc) > Flashview Software (Free) > Solar Checker app (Free)

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Questions?

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