You are on page 1of 12

Medical Testament

Nutrition, Soil Fertility, and the National Health


County Palatine of Chester Local Medical and Panel Committee March 22, 1939 TH Cheshire Panel Committee on March 22 !1939" made #u$lic a %Medical Testament% si&ned $y its thirty'one mem$ers on nutrition and its relation to a&riculture( The occasion )as a meetin& at Cre)e )hich )as attended $y some *++ re#resentati,es of the county local health authorities, Farmers- .nion, and the medical #rofession( /fter the chairman, 0r( 1ohn 2err, had su$mitted the document, Sir 3o$ert McCarrison and Sir /l$ert Ho)ard s#o4e in su##ort of it( Sir 3o$ert McCarrison, in his address, said there )ere, in his estimation, four chief faults in the diets of the &reat mass of the #eo#le of this country5 617 the use of denatured )heat flour8 627 e9cessi,e use of car$ohydrate foods8 637 insufficient use of fresh &reen ,e&eta$les8 6:7 insufficient use of safe mil4 and also the lar&e consum#tion of meat and other animal foods '' a #ractice as unnecessary as it )as uneconomic( Sir /l$ert Ho)ard contended that soil fertility must $e the $asis of the #u$lic health system of the future, and that a&riculture must $e &i,en its #lace as the foundation of #re,enti,e medicine( Medical men as )ell as nutrition e9#erts, he said, )ere reali;in& that a fertile and #roducti,e soil )as an asset )hich should $e de,elo#ed in the nation-s interest( / resolution acce#tin& the testament )as mo,ed $y the Lord'Lieutenant, Sir <( =romley 0a,en#ort, seconded $y 0r( =os)ell of 3uncorn, and carried unanimously( '' Su##lement to the British Medical Journal, London, Saturday /#ril 1>, 1939

Medical Testament
County Palatine of Chester

Local Medical and Panel Committee March 22, 1939


NOTE: The figures within square brackets -- e.g. [15] -- refer to the References, which contain e tensi!e e tra "ateria#. $t is reco""en%e% that rea%ers kee& both &ages o&en for eas' reference.

/FT 3 more than a ?uarter of a century of medical $enefit under the National Health @nsurance /ct )e, the Local Medical and Panel Committee of Cheshire, feel that )e are in a #osition to re,ie) our e9#erience of the system( Constituted $y the statute to re#resent the #anel of an area, such a committee is in touch )ith all the family doctors '' in the case of Cheshire some *++ '' )ithin and on its $orders( Ho) far has the /ct fulfilled the o$Aect announced in its title '' %the Pre,ention and Cure of Sic4ness%B Cf the second item )e can s#ea4 )ith confidence( @f %#ost#onement of the e,ent of death% $e e,idence of cure that o$Aect has $een achie,ed5 the &reater e9#ectation of life )hich is sho)n $y the fi&ures of the 3e&istrar'Deneral is attri$uta$le to se,eral factors5 $ut certainly not least to the ser,ices of the #anel( The fall in fatality is all the more nota$le in ,ie) of the rise in sic4ness( Eear $y year doctors ha,e $een consulted $y their #atients more and more often, and the claims on the $enefit funds of societies ha,e tended to rise( Cf the first item, %the #re,ention ((( of sic4ness,% it is not #ossi$le to say that the #romise of the =ill has $een fulfilled( Thou&h to the sic4 man the doctor may #oint out the causes of his sic4ness, his #resent necessity is #aramount, and the moment is seldom o##ortune, e,en if not alto&ether too late for any essay in #re,enti,e medicine( Cn that first and maAor count the /ct has done nothin&( <e feel that the fact should $e faced( Cur daily )or4 $rin&s us re#eatedly to the same #oint5 %This illness results from a lifetime of )ron& nutritionF% The )ron& nutrition $e&ins $efore life $e&ins( %.nfit to $e a mother% '' from under'nutrition or nutritional anaemia '' is an occasional ,erdict u#on a

maternal death( For one such fatal case there are hundreds of less se,erity )here the frail mothers and sic4ly infants sur,i,e( An Indictment The re#roach of the $ad teeth of n&lish children is an old story( @n 193* out of 3,:*3,9:G school children e9amined, 2,:2>,299 needed dental treatment( !1" Seein& that the #ermanent teeth de,elo# from the se,enteenth )ee4 of #re&nancy, and that certain foods, accurately 4no)n since 191G, !2" are the condition of their #ro#er &ro)th, that is a re#roach )hich should $e remo,ed( <ith it )ould &o the ,aried host of maladies that s#rin& from diseased teeth( That its remo,al is #ractica$le is sho)n $y Tristan da Cunha( Most of the #o#ulation of the little island, #eo#le of our race, li,in& on the #roduct of sea and soil, ha,e #erfect teeth )hich last them their li,es( 3ic4ets, for )hich n&land )as a $y')ord )hen Dlisson descri$ed it in 1*>+, is still )ith us( Dross deformities are rarer, $ut the $i& heads, tumid a$domens, flaccid s4ins, $ul&ed Aoints, and #inched chests are a common#lace of infancy8 and e,en at school a&e 3,:>H cases of ric4ets )ith *,:1> others of s#inal cur,ature )ere found in 193* $y the school medical officers in 1,HHH,+31 ins#ections( !3" Eet its #re,ention $y ri&ht feedin& is so easy that e,ery do& $reeder 4no)s the means( !:" 3ic4ets is a hea,y contri$utor to the C3 #o#ulation( The maternal mortality committee found that there is much less in Holland, )here $utter, mil4, and cheese are #lentiful, and the )omen, $y ,irtue of their &enerally healthy s4eletal de,elo#ment, are #rotected a&ainst the ris4s that are commonly faced $y )omen in the industrial areas of n&land( !>" Nutritional anaemia is of t)o 4inds, one su$tle and a#t to ha##en durin& #re&nancy, the other sim#le and due to too little iron in the food( !*" @t is 4no)n that anaemia, es#ecially of the latter 4ind, is common, es#ecially amon& children and )omen, )ho need much more iron in their food than men( /n in?uiry into the food of 1,1>2 families sho)ed that 1+ #er cent s#ent :s( a )ee4 #er head on food, 1+ #er cent( s#ent o,er 1:s(, )hile four more &rou#s of 2+ #er cent( each, s#ent *s(, Gs(, 1+s(, and 12s( res#ecti,ely( The food of the three lo)er &rou#s )as definitely deficient in iron( !H" @t is certain from this that nutritional anaemia amon& the #oorer classes is far commoner than is reco&ni;ed( Here is an e9am#le5 the $lood colour )as tested in t)o &rou#s of

school children, one a %routine sam#le% of children, the other s#ecially selected on account of #o,erty( Cnly half the #oor children and only three'?uarters of the su##osedly normal children had a $lood colour of H+ #er cent( of normal( !G" The final item of our indictment is consti#ation( /d,ertised a#erients are a measure of its #re,alence, and the host of di&esti,e disorders )hich result from it are a su$stantial #ro#ortion of the conditions for )hich our aid, as doctors, is sou&ht( Eet the cause in e,ery case '' a#art from rare a$normalities '' is the ill choice or ill #re#aration of food( @t is true that )e are consulted on these conditions )hen they are esta$lished and ha,e to deal )ith the effects '' &all' stones, a##endicitis, &astric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, colitis, and di,erticulitis '' of years in )hich the $ody has $een denied its due of this constituent of food or $urdened )ith an e9cess of that( Cther means of cure than #ro#er feedin& are called for at this late sta&e8 $ut the #rimary cause none the less )as )ron& nutrition( Convincing Research Those four items '' $ad teeth, ric4ets, anaemia, and consti#ation '' )ill ser,e as the heads of our indictment8 $ut in truth they are only a fra&ment of the )hole $ody of 4no)led&e on food deficiencies )hich different in,esti&ators from Lind !9" and Ca#tain Coo4 !1+" to Ho#4ins !11" and the Mellan$ys !2, :" ha,e unloc4ed( =ut it seems to us that the master 4ey )hich admits to the #ractical a##lication of this 4no)led&e as a )hole has $een su##lied $y Sir 3o$ert McCarrison( !12" His e9#eriments afford con,incin& #roof of the effects of food and &uidance in the a##lication of the 4no)led&e ac?uired( @n descri$in& his e9#eriments, )hich )ere made in @ndia, he mentions first the many different races of )hich the #o#ulation, 3>+ millions, is com#osed( % ach race has its o)n national diet( No) the most stri4in& thin& a$out these races is the )ay in )hich their #hysi?ue differs( Some are of s#lendid #hysi?ue, some are of #oor #hysi?ue, and some are of middlin& #hysi?ue( <hy is there this difference $et)een themB There are, of course, a num$er of #ossi$le causes5 heredity, climate, #eculiar reli&ious and other customs, and endemic diseases( =ut in studyin& the matter it $ecame e,ident that these )ere not #rinci#al causes( The #rinci#al cause a##eared to $e food( For instance, there

)ere races of )hich different sections came under all these influences $ut )hose food differed( Their #hysi?ue differed, and the only thin& that could ha,e caused it to differ a##eared to $e food( The ?uestion then )as ho) to #ro,e that the difference in #hysi?ue of different @ndian races )as due to food( %@n order to ans)er it @ carried out an e9#eriment on )hite rats to see )hat effect the diets of these different races )ould ha,e u#on them )hen all other thin&s necessary for their #ro#er nutrition )ere #ro,ided( The reasons for usin& rats in e9#eriments of this 4ind are that they eat anythin& a man eats, they are easy to 4ee# clean, they can $e used in lar&e num$ers, their ca&es can $e #ut out in the sun, the round of chemical chan&es on )hich their nutrition de#ends is similar to that in man, and a year in the life of a rat is e?ui,alent to a$out t)enty'fi,e years in the life of a human $ein&( So that $y usin& rats one &ets results in a fed months )hich it )ould ta4e years to &et in man( %<hat @ found in this e9#eriment )as that )hen youn& &ro)in& rats of healthy stoc4 )ere fed on diets similar to those of #eo#le )hose #hysi?ue )as &ood the #hysi?ue and health of the rats )ere &ood, )hen they )ere fed on the diets similar to those of #eo#le )hose #hysi?ue )as $ad the #hysi?ue and health of the rats )ere $ad, and )hen they )ere fed on diets similar to those of #eo#le )hose #hysi?ue )as middlin& the #hysi?ue and health of the rats )ere middlin&(% !12" / s#ecial &rou# )hich he fed on the food of Tra,ancore, in )hich there is a considera$le #ro#ortion of ta#ioca, disclosed a far hi&her #ercenta&e of &astric and duodenal ulcer cases than the other &rou#s( This )as informin&, as the #eo#le of Tra,ancore suffer )ith #e#tic ulcer ,ery much more commonly than the other #eo#les of @ndia( %Dood or $ad #hysi?ue as the case mi&ht $e )as, therefore, due to &ood or $ad diet, all other thin&s $ein& e?ual( Further, the $est diet )as one used $y certain hardy, a&ile, ,i&orous, and healthy races of Northern @ndia(% !Note5 The Hun;a, !13" Si4h, and Pathan(" %@t )as com#osed of freshly &round )hole')heat flour made into ca4es of unlea,ened $read, mil4 and the #roducts of mil4 6$utter, curds, $uttermil47, #ulses 6#eas, $eans, lentils, fresh &reen leaf ,e&eta$les, root ,e&eta$les 6#otatoes, carrots, and fruit, )ith meat occasionally( %No) in my la$oratory @ 4e#t a stoc4 of se,eral hundred rats for $reedin& #ur#oses( They li,ed under #erfect conditions5 cleanliness, roomy ca&es, &ood $eddin&, a$undant fresh )ater, fresh air, and sunli&ht '' all these thin&s they had8 and they )ere fed on a diet similar to that of a race )hose #hysi?ue )as

$##ustration fro" (Nutrition an% )ea#th( b' *ir Robert +c,arrison -.aber an% .aber, 1/001 -- rats fe% on the Eng#ish %iet took to canniba#is". ,#ick )EREfor fu##-si2e% i"age.

,ery &ood( They )ere 4e#t in stoc4 from $irth u# to the a&e of 2 years '' a #eriod e?ui,alent to the first fifty years in the life of human $ein&s( 0urin& this #eriod no case of illness occurred amon& them, no death from natural causes( no maternal mortality, no infantile mortality e9ce#t for an occasional accidental death( @n this sheltered stoc4 &ood health )as secured and disease #re,ented $y the com$ination of si9 thin&s5 fresh air, #ure )ater, cleanliness, sunli&ht, comfort, and &ood food( Human $ein&s cannot, of course, $e so sheltered as these rats )ere, $ut the e9#eriment sho)s ho) im#ortant these thin&s are in maintainin& health(
Diet and disease

%The ne9t ste# )as to find out ho) much of this remar4a$ly &ood health and freedom from disease )as due to the &ood food5 food consistin& of )hole' )heat flour ca4es, $utter, mil4, fresh &reen ,e&eta$les, s#routed #ulses, carrots, and occasionally meat )ith $one to 4ee# the teeth in order( So @ cut out the mil4 and mil4 #roducts from their diet, or reduced them to a minimum, as )ell as reducin& the consum#tion of fresh ,e&eta$le foods, )hile lea,in& all other conditions the same( <hat )as the resultB Lun& diseases, stomach diseases,

$o)el diseases, 4idney and $ladder diseases, made their a##earance( @t )as a##arent, therefore, that the &ood health de#ended on the &ood diet more than on anythin& else, and that the diet )as only health'#romotin& so lon& as it )as consumed in its entirety8 so lon&, in fact, as it contained enou&h mil4, $utter, and fresh ,e&eta$les( %Many more e9#eriments )ere done )hich sho)ed that, )hen rats or other animals )ere fed on im#ro#erly constituted diets, such as are ha$itually used $y some human $ein&s, they de,elo#ed many of the diseases from )hich these human $ein&s tend to suffer5 diseases of the $ony frame)or4 of the $ody, of the s4in co,erin& it, and of the mem$ranes linin& its ca,ities and #assa&es8 diseases of the &lands )hose #roducts control its &ro)th, re&ulate its #rocesses, and ena$le it to re#roduce itself' diseases of those hi&hly s#eciali;ed mechanisms '' the &astro'intestinal tract and lun&s '' desi&ned for its nourishment8 diseases of the ner,es( /ll these )ere #roduced in animals under e9#erimental conditions $y feedin& them on faulty human diets( %Here is an e9am#le of such an e9#eriment( T)o &rou#s of youn& rats of the same a&e )ere confined in t)o lar&e ca&es of the same si;e( ,erythin& )as the same for each &rou# e9ce#t food( Cne &rou# )as fed on a &ood diet, similar to that of a Northern @ndian race )hose #hysi?ue and health )ere &ood, and of )hich the com#osition is &i,en a$o,e( The other )as fed on a diet in common use $y many #eo#le in this country, a diet consistin& of )hite $read and mar&arine, tinned meat, ,e&eta$les $oiled )ith soda, chea# tinned Aam, tea, su&ar, and a little mil45 a diet )hich does not contain enou&h mil4, mil4 #roducts, &reen leaf ,e&eta$les, and )hole'meal $read for #ro#er nutrition( %This is )hat ha##ened( The rats fed on the &ood diet &re) )ell8 there )as little disease amon& them, and they li,ed ha##ily to&ether( Those fed on the $ad diet did not &ro) )ell8 many $ecame ill and they li,ed unha##ily to&ether, so much so that $y the si9tieth day of the e9#eriment the stron&er ones amon& them $e&an to 4ill and eat the )ea4er, so that @ had to se#arate them( The diseases from )hich they suffered )ere of three chief 4inds5 diseases of the lun&s, diseases of the stomach and intestines, and diseases of the ner,es '' diseases from )hich one in e,ery three sic4 #ersons amon& the insured classes, in n&land and <ales, suffers(% !12" These researches )ere minutely made on a lar&e scale, and $ut for the food the conditions of each &rou# )ere identical and ideal( Their results to our minds carry com#lete con,iction '' es#ecially as those of us )ho ha,e $een a$le to

#rofit $y their lesson ha,e $een ama;ed at the $enefit conferred u#on #atients )ho ha,e ado#ted the re,ised dietary to )hich that lesson #oints( !1:" The Defect and the Remedy @t is far from the #ur#ose of this statement to ad,ocate a #articular diet( The s?uimau9 on flesh, li,er, $lu$$er, and fish8 the Hun;a or Si4h on )heaten cha##attis, fruit, mil4, s#routed le&umes, and a little meat8 the islander of Tristan on his #otatoes, sea$irds- e&&s, fish, and ca$$a&e, are e?ually healthy and free from disease( =ut there is some #rinci#le or ?uality in these diets )hich is a$sent from, or deficient in, the food of our #eo#le today( Cur #ur#ose is to #oint to this fact and to su&&est the necessity for remedyin& the defect( To descry some factors common to all these diets is difficult, and an attem#t to do so may $e misleadin&, since 4no)led&e of )hat those factors are is still far from com#lete8 $ut this at least may $e said, that the food is, for the most #art, fresh from its source, little altered $y #re#aration, and com#lete8 !22" and that, in the case of those $ased on a&riculture, the natural cycle5 3ni"a# 4 5egetab#e --6 *oi# --6 7#ant --6 .oo% 83ni"a# --69 +an :aste is com#lete( !1>" No chemical or su$stitution sta&e inter,enes( !23" Sir /l$ert Ho)ard-s )or4 on the nutrition of #lants, initiated at @ndore and carried from @ndia to many #arts of the )orld, seems to constitute a natural lin4 in this cycle( !1*" He has sho)n that the ancient Chinese method !1H" of returnin& to the soil, after treatment, the )hole of the animal and ,e&eta$le refuse )hich is #roduced in the acti,ities of a community results in the health and #roducti,ity of cro#s and of the animals and men )ho feed thereon( He has disco,ered the #rinci#les of the treatment of that refuse( These #rinci#les are com#le9, $ut the treatment is sim#le thou&h #recise( The follo)in& ?uotation from his )ritin&s em$odies in #ractical form this factor of inestima$le ,alue to human health and economy( %The @ndore #rocess is sim#le( / layer a$out * in( dee# of mi9ed ,e&eta$le )astes is li&htly co,ered )ith a$out 2 in( of farmyard manure follo)ed $y a

&ood s#rin4lin& of earth( @f any )ood ashes are a,aila$le these are added )ith the soil( The #ro#ortion of mi9ed )astes to farmyard manure must not e9ceed 351 $y ,olume( The sand)ich #rocess is re#eated until the material in the hea# or #it is after fermentation 3 ft( thic4( The layers must $e 4e#t moist, $ut not )et, lest the air su##ly $e interru#ted( The moistened hea# should resem$le as far as #ossi$le a #ressed'out s#on&e( The tem#erature ra#idly rises to a$out 1>+ de& F( and the )hole mass $ecomes co,ered )ith &reyish')hite mycelium( /fter t)o or three )ee4s the hea#s or #its are turned and )atered if necessary( / second turn and )aterin& follo)s at the end of si9 )ee4s from the start, $y )hich time the mass has crum$led and turned $lac4( @n three months from the $e&innin& the car$on'nitro&en ratio falls from 3351 in the ori&inal mi9ture to a$out 1251, )hen the humus, )hich resem$les old leaf'mould, is ready for the land( %C,er'acidity, faulty aeration, too much moisture, or an unsuita$le site '' any of these may #resent a #assin& #ro$lem in this country( Such #ro$lems must $e tac4led $earin& in mind the s#ecial circumstances &i,in& rise to them( @n no case yet ha,e they #ro,ed insolu$le( %The #rocess is a #artial re,ersal of the )or4 of the &reen leaf( @n the cells of the leaf sim#le su$stances o$tained from the soil and the atmos#here are synthesi;ed $y means of the ener&y of sunli&ht into car$ohydrates and #roteids( The fun&i and $acteria in the com#ost hea# #ractically undo this synthesis until a com#arati,ely sta$le condition of or&anic matter is reached in the sha#e of humus( This is the real food of the soil and of the cro#( The second sta&e in $rea4in& do)n the materials made $y the leaf is only reached )hen the soil or&anisms o9idi;e humus into sim#le su$stances once more )hich can $e a$sor$ed $y the roots of #lants( The )heel of life has then com#leted a sin&le re,olution( %@t is not difficult to understand that the use of artificials in feedin& the cro# direct side'trac4s a #ortion of Nature-s essential round8 artificial stimulus a##lied year after year and at the same times must ine,ita$ly $reed e,ils, the full e9tent of )hich are as yet $ut dimly seen( The relation $et)een ?uality and yield, for e9am#le, does not lend itself to scientific formulae( The time may come )hen yield )ill de#end entirely u#on ?uality, $ut ?uality can ne,er under any circumstances de#end u#on yield( Factory'made manure is the )ea4 lin4 in the chain of a&ricultural economics(% @t seems o$,ious to us that the ne) 4no)led&e of nutrition com#els our #rofession to return to the Hi##ocratic ,ie) '' in so far as it has a$andoned it ''

that a #hysician is a naturalist 6phusikos7 and to ta4e co&ni;ance of the other lin4s of the cycle of Nature as )ell as of man, his #atient( For only so can he understand his #atient( <ithout #retension to a&ricultural 4no)led&e )e can a##reciate the $earin& of Sir /l$ert Ho)ard-s disco,ery on our )or4( Agriculture's Contribution <hether his disco,ery can $e harnessed to the #ro$lems of #u$lic health, to the sanitary dis#osal of munici#al and ,illa&e )aste has, )e understand, $een in,esti&ated( That side of the matter does not closely concern us8 $ut )e understand that the dis#osal of to)n )astes on a lar&e scale at Nairo$i !1G" on these #rinci#les has succeeded, and that Mr( ( F( <atson, su#erintendent of the Do,ernor-s states, =en&al, has a##lied the @ndore method to the house refuse and ni&ht soil of smaller munici#alities( !19" <hether the heat, 1>+ de& F(, )ill 4ill the an4ylostomum is a ?uestion to $e ans)ered( Turnin& to n&land, )e learn that at =odiam in Susse9, at the lar&e ho# &arden of Messrs( /rthur Duinness, Son and Co(, Ltd(, !2+" the system dis#oses of many tons of the crushed refuse of South)ar4 )ith results satisfactory in all res#ects5 and Ca#tain 3( D( M( <ilson-s @ceni state in Lincolnshire !21" #ro,ides another illustration of this method of turnin& )aste to )ealth( Thou&h )e $ear no direct res#onsi$ility for such #ro$lems, yet the $etter manurin& of the home land so as to $rin& an am#le succession of fresh !23" food cro#s to the ta$les of our #eo#le, the arrest of the #resent e9haustion of the soil, and the restoration and #ermanent maintenance of its fertility concern us ,ery closely( For nutrition and the ?uality !23" of food are the #aramount factors in fitness( No health cam#ai&n can succeed unless the materials of )hich the $odies are $uilt are sound( /t #resent they are not( Pro$a$ly half our )or4 is )asted since our #atients are so fed from the cradle, indeed $efore the cradle, that they are certain contri$utions to a C3 nation( ,en our country #eo#le share the )hite $read, tinned salmon, dried mil4 re&ime( /&ainst this the efforts of the doctor resem$le those of Sisy#hus( This is our medical testament, &i,en to all )hom it may concern '' and )hom does it not concernB <e are not s#ecialists, or scientists, or a&riculturists( <e re#resent the family doctors of a &reat county '' the county, said Michael 0rayton, of %such as soundly feed%8 a county )hich &i,es its name to a cheese than )hich there is

none $etter, thou&h to most n&lishmen alasF only a name8 a county )here the $est farmin& is still #ossi$le, )hich should minister to the needs of its o)n industrial areas and of a far )ider circle( <e cannot do more than #oint to the means of health( Their #roduction and su##ly are not our function( <e are called u#on to cure sic4ness( <e concei,e it to $e our duty in the #resent state of 4no)led&e to #oint out that much, #erha#s most, of this sic4ness is #re,enta$le and )ould $e #re,ented $y the ri&ht feedin& of our #eo#le( <e consider this o#inion so im#ortant that this document is dra)n u# in an endea,our to e9#ress it and to ma4e it #u$lic8 and the occasion on )hich it is to $e announced has $een or&ani;ed in the ho#e of ,entilatin& it8 and )e are ha##y indeed that MaAor'Deneral Sir 3o$ert McCarrison and Sir /l$ert Ho)ard ha,e a&reed to $e #resent and to address the meetin&( <e )ish to say finally that the interest ta4en in the matter $y the Lord' Lieutenant of Cheshire, =ri&adier Deneral Sir <illiam =romley 0a,en#ort, 2(C(=(, C(M(D(, C(=( (, 0(S(C(, )ho )ill $e #resent, is sincerely a##reciated( 6Si&ned $y the Mem$ers of the Local Medical and Panel Committees7 1ohn 2err 6Chairman7 N( /( =os)ell 6Iice'Chairman7 1( =arry =ennett 6Hon( Treasurer7 F( D( /llan H( 1affe D( =inns 1( H( 2err C( H( =lac4lay 3( ( Loney Harry ( =o)er <( S( Lynd H( 0( =rice 1ames Mur#hy 1( <( Chad)ic4 1 =( Mur#hy 1( 0( Chisholm M( Par4es 3( =( 0a,idson 1( No$le Platt <( <( 0ic4son

L( T Pollard M( 0)yer 1( 3 3o$ertson H( n&lish <( 1( /( 3ussell F( M( Fello)s <( ( C( Thomas 1 =( Fulton F( <raith 3( F( Derrard Lionel 1as( Picton 6Hon( Secretary7