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COMPUTERS: AN INTRODUCTION The word Computer comes from the word Compute which me !s to c "cu" te# So computer is !orm ""$ co!sidered s c "cu" ti!% de&ice th t c ! perform rithmetic oper tio!s t ! e!ormous speed# I!f ct' the ori%i! " o()ecti&e of i!&e!ti!% the computer w s to cre te f st c "cu" ti!% m chi!e# *ut more th t +,- of the wor. do!e tod $ ($ the computer is !o!/m them tic " i! ! ture# 0e!ce computer c ! (e defi!ed s de&ice th t oper tes upo! i!form tio! or d t # A computer is pro%r mm ("e m chi!e# Moder! computers re e"ectro!ic !d di%it "# The ctu " m chi!er$/wires' tr !sistors !d circuits/ re c ""ed h rdw re# The i!structio!s !d d t re c ""ed softw re# A"" %e!er "/purpose computers re1uire the fo""owi!% h rdw re compo!e!ts: 2# Ce!tr " processi!% u!its 3CPU4: This is the he rt of the computer# This compo!e!t ctu ""$ e5ecutes the i!structio!s# 6# Memor$: E! ("es computer to store' t "e st tempor ri"$' d t !d pro%r ms# 7# I!put de&ice: It is ! i!put de&ice throu%h which d t !d i!structio!s re e!tered i!to the computer# 8# Output de&ice: It "est $ou see wh t the computer h s ccomp"ished# 9# M ss stor %e de&ice: A""ows computer to perm !e!t"$ store " r%e mou!t of d t # The$ i!c"ude dish dri&es !d t pe dri&es# *ENE:ITS O: AUTOMATION 2# Autom tio! he"p peop"e use the computer !d commu!ic tio! tech!o"o%$ to m ! %e !d process i!form tio! i! (etter w $# 6# O!ce t s. is i!iti ted' computers c ! proceed o! its ow! ti"" its comp"etio!s' pro&ided the$ re pro%r mmed correct"$# 7# Computers c ! (e pro%r mmed to perform series of comp"e5 t s.s i!&o"&i!% mu"tip"e pro%r ms# 8# Computers c ! perform "" the oper tio!s ccur te"$ !d withi! the specified time !d with %re ter speed th ! hum ! (ei!%s# 9# Computers c ! wor. for hours without !$ errors# A computer wi"" perform the te!th mi""io! c "cu" tio!s with e5 ct"$ the s me ccur c$ !d speed s the first o!e# ;# It c ! store " r%e mou!t of d t # The c p cit$ of stori!% !d retrie&i!% hu%e mou!ts of d t i! f st !d efficie!t m !!er is o!e of the import !t (e!efits of utom tio!# DISAD<ANTA=ES O: AUTOMATION: 2# Si!ce si!%"e computer c ! do the wor. of m !$ hum ! (ei!%s' it is f st rep" ci!% peop"e# 6# Computers c !!ot thi!.# 7# It h s !o i!te""i%e!ce of its ow!# It h s to (e to"d wh t to do !d i! wh t se1ue!ce# 8# Computers h &e !o fee"i!%s !d he!ce c !!ot m .e !$ )ud%me!t# 9# *ec use of utom tio!s' more !d more peop"e re (ecomi!% m chi!e/ depe!de!t#

;# Computers oper te "o%ic ""$ (ut the$ re i!c p ("e of cti!% prude!t"$ !d r tio! ""$# T>PES O: COMPUTERS The$ re m i!"$ c" ssified ( sic ""$ i!to three t$pes# The$ re: 2# A! "o% 6# Di%it " 4 Speci " purpose (4 =e!er " purpose# 7# 0$(rid A! "o% Computer: A! "o% is =ree. word which me !s est ("ishi!% simi" rities (etwee! the 1u !tities# The$ wor. o! the pri!cip"es of me sureme!t# I! ! "o% computers' the ph$sic " processes such s pressure' cce"er tio!' power' force etc# re represe!ted ($ e"ectric " curre!t o! &o"t %e si%! "s# ?he! ph$sic " p r meter is co!ti!uous"$ & r$i!%' its ! "o%ous e"ectric " p r meter "so wi"" (e co!ti!uous"$ & r$i!%# Such co!ti!uous"$ & r$i!% e"ectric " &o"t %e is fed s i!put to the ! "o% computer which is the! m !ipu" ted usi!% & rious e"ectro!ic mode"s such s i!&erters' mu"tip"iers !d i!te%r tor etc# !d the resu"ts re o(t i!ed# These resu"ts re me sured !d disp" $ed ($ meters' osci""oscopes# The computi!% u!its of ! "o% computers re ("e to respo!d to immedi te"$ to ch !%es !d c ! perform &er$ comp"e5 rithmetic fu!ctio!s t hi%h speed# This (i"it$ to oper te i! the re " time me !s these comp"e5 rithmetic pp"ic tio!s i! the scie!tific !d i!dustri " fie"ds i! simu" ti!% & rious ph$sic " s$stems or utom tic ""$ co!tro""i!% i!dustri " processes# The se1ue!ce of steps th t the m chi!e h s to e5ecute i! so"&i!% the pro("em is perm !e!t"$ wired i!to the circuitr$ of the m chi!e# Di%it " Computer: Di%it " computers wor. o! the pri!cip " of cou!ti!%# These computers oper te o! discrete !um(ers represe!ted ($ fi!ite se1ue!ce of di%its# I! other words' di%it " computer ccepts discrete !um(ers s i!put !d fter performi!% the desired oper tio!s o! these !um(ers' the$ produce discrete !um(ers s output# Si!ce di%it " computer wor.s direct"$ o! the & ri ("es of the pro("em' r ther th ! o! some e1ui& "e!t co!ti!uous & ri ("es' the$ re more ccur te th ! ! "o% computers# I! ! "o% computers the de%ree of ccur c$ depe!ds o! the i!strume!t !d the oper tor# Depe!di!% o! the f"e5i(i"it$ of the oper tio!s' the di%it " computers re either speci " purpose or %e!er " purpose# A4 Speci " purpose computers: The$ re desi%!ed to so"&e restricted c" ss of pro("ems# The$ re desi%!ed !d (ui"t to c ter to the re1uireme!ts of p rticu" r t s. or pp"ic tio!# It i!corpor tes the i!structio!s !eeded i! the desi%! of i!ter! " circuitr$ so th t it c ! perform the t s. o! simp"e comm !d 1uic."$ !d efficie!t"$# These dedic ted s$stems m $ reduce the processi!% "o d o! " r%e computers# E5 mp"es re: computers me !t for process co!tro" i! i!dustr$' computers me !t for ir tr ffic co!tro"' ro(ots etc# *4 =e!er " purpose computers: The$ re desi%!ed to so"&e wide & riet$ of pro("ems to meet the !eeds of m !$ differe!t pp"ic tio!s# The i!structio!s !eeded to perform p rticu" r t s. re !ot wired perm !e!t"$ i!to the i!ter! " stor %e# The$ re

re d from the i!put de&ice !d p" ced i!to the i!ter! " memor$ u!ti" the$ re !eeded# E5 mp"es re: p $ro""' s "es ! "$sis etc# 0$(rid computers 0$(rid computer is !other t$pe of computers which com(i!es the fe tures of (oth ! "o% !d di%it " computers# I! m !$ c ses' h$(rid computer is ! ! "o% computer co!tro""ed ($ di%it " computer i!ste d of hum ! (ei!%s# :or e5 mp"e' i! ! i!te!si&e c re u!it' ! "o% u!its me sure p tie!ts he rt fu!ctio!' temper ture !d other &it " si%!s# These me sureme!ts re the! co!&erted i!to !um(ers !d supp"ied to di%it " compo!e!ts th t mo!itor the p tie!ts &it " si%!s !d si%! "s !urses st tio! if (!orm " re di!%s re detected# 0$(rid computers re used for speci " pp"ic tio!s# M i! re s of their pp"ic tio!s re erosp ce !d process co!tro"# C@ASSI:ICATIONACATE=ORIES O: COMPUTERS Computers re m i!"$ c" ssified s fo""ows: 2# Micro computers# 6# Mi!i computers# 7# M i!fr me computers# 8# Super computers# Micro computers @ow/cost sm "" di%it " computers re .!ow! s microcomputers# The word "e!%th of the microcomputer m $ (e +/(it' 2;/(it or 76/(it# The$ re wide"$ used i! i!dustri " co!tro"' i!strume!t tio!' %e!er " purpose comput tio!s' home pp"i !ces' commerci " pp"i !ce' office utom tio!' utomo(i"es !d so forth# E5 mp"es of microcomputer re PC 3perso! " computer4# Mi!i computers Mi!icomputers re more powerfu"' f ster !d cost"ier th ! microcomputers# Their word "e!%th is 76/(it# Their processi!% speed "ies i! the r !%e of 2,/7, MIPs# Some mi!icomputers h &e o!"$ o!e CPU i#e# the$ re u!iprocessor s$stem where s some re mu"tiprocessor s$stem# Their RAM c p cit$ "ies i! the r !%e of + M*/B;M*# The h rd dis. c p cit$ is 7+, M*/7=*# The$ re used for i!ter cti&e !dmu"ti/user pp"ic tio!s# Up to ;8 or i! some c ses up to 2,, termi! "s c ! (e used# The$ re used i! i!dustr$' =o&er!me!t or% !iC tio!s' u!i&ersities' rese rch or% !iC tio!s etc# E5 mp"es of mi!icomputers M i!fr me computers M i!fr me computers re more powerfu"' must f ster !d cost"ier th ! m i!fr me computers# Their processi!% speed "ies i! the r !%e of 8,,/2,',,, MIPs# Their word "e!%th is ;8/ (it or B;/(it' memor$ c p cit$ 69; M* or more' h rd dis. c p cit$ is 2,,, M* or more' m chi!e c$c"e time 8/; !s# A supercomputer is mu"tiprocessor s$stem# The$ re used for so"&i!% &er$ sophistic ted pro("ems !d to process m ssi&e mou!t of d t # The$ re used for whether forec sti!%' i! erod$! mics' seismo"o%$' tomic !d !uc"e r ph$sics# :or we po!s rese rch !d de&e"opme!t' se!di!% roc.ets i!to sp ce !d so o!# E5 mp"es of Supercomputers re PARAM !d CRA>#

C0ARACTERISTICS O: COMPUTERS: 2# Speed: A computer is &er$ f st de&ice# It c ! perform i! few seco!ds the mou!t of wor. th t hum ! (ei!% c ! do i! ! e!tire $e r/if he wor.ed d $ !d !i%ht !d did !othi!% e"se# To put it i! differe!t m !!er' computer does i! o!e mi!ute wh t wou"d t .e m ! his e!tire "ifetime# ?hi"e t ".i!% (out the speed of computer' we do !ot t ". i! terms of seco!ds or e&e! mi""iseco!ds# Our u!its of speed re the microseco!ds' the ! !oseco!ds# A!d e&e! the Pico seco!ds# A powerfu" computer is c p ("e of performi!% (out 7 to 8 mi""io! simp"e rithmetic oper tio!s per seco!d# 6# Accur c$: The ccur c$ of computer is co!siste!t"$ hi%h !d the de%ree of ccur c$ of p rticu" r computer depe!ds upo! its desi%!# *ut for p rticu" rs computer' e ch !d e&er$ c "cu" tio! is performed with the s me ccur c$# Errors c ! occur i! computer' (ut these re m i!"$ due to hum ! r ther th ! tech!o"o%ic " we .!esses' th t is' due to imprecise thi!.i!% ($ the pro%r mmer or due to i! ccur te d t # 7# Di"i%e!ce: U!"i.e hum ! (ei!%' computer is free from mo!oto!$' tired!ess' " c. of co!ce!tr tio!' etc#' !d he!ce c ! wor. for hours to%ether without cre ti!% !$ error !d without %rum("i!%' which re1uire %re t ccur c$# If te! mi""io! c "cu" tio!s h &e to (e performed' computer wi"" perform the te! mi""io!th c "cu" tio!s with e5 ct"$ the s me ccur c$ !d speed s the first o!e# 8# <ers ti"it$: <ers ti"e is o!e of the most wo!derfu" thi!%s (out the computer# O!e mome!t' it is prep ri!% the resu"ts of p rticu" r e5 mi! tio!' the !e5t mome!t it is (us$ prep ri!% e"ectricit$ (i""s' !d i! (etwee!' it m $ (e he"pi!% ! office secret r$ to tr ce ! import !t "etter i! seco!ds# A"" th t is re1uired to ch !%e its t "e!t is to s"ip i! !ew pro%r m i!to it# 0e!ce computer is c p ("e of performi!% "most !$ t s. pro&ided th t the t s. c ! (e reduced to series of "o%ic " steps# Power of Remem(eri!%: As hum ! (ei!% c1uires !ew .!ow"ed%e' the (r i! su(co!scious"$ se"ects wh t it fee"s to (e import !t !d worth ret i!i!% i! its memor$' !d re"e% tes u!import !t det i"s to the ( c. of the mi!d or )ust for%ets them# ?ith computers' this is !ot the c se# A computer c ! store !d rec "" !$ mou!t of i!form tio! (ec use of its seco!d r$ stor %e c p (i"it$# E&er$ piece of i!form tio! c ! (e ret i!ed s "o!% s desired ($ the user c ! (e rec ""ed s !d whe! re1uired# E&er$ piece of i!form tio! $e rs' the i!form tio! rec ""ed wou"d (e s ccur te s o! the d $ whe! it w s fed to the computer# A computer for%ets or "ooses cert i! i!form tio! o!"$ whe! it is s.ed to do so# So it is e!tire"$ u!to the user to m .e computer ret i! or for%et p rticu" r i!form tio!# No# I#D# : A computer is !ot m %ic " de&ice# It c ! o!"$ perform t s.s th t hum ! (ei!% c !# The differe!ce is th t it performs these t s.s with u!thi!. ("e speed !d ccur c$# It possesses !o i!te""i%e!ce of its ow!# Its I#D# is Cero' t "e st ti"" tod $# It h s to (e to"d wh t to do !d i! wh t se1ue!ce# 0e!ce' o!"$ the user determi!es wh t t s.s computer wi"" perform# A computer c !!ot t .e its ow! decisio! i! this re% rd# No# :ee"i!%s: Computers re de&oid of emotio!s# The$ h &e !o fee"i!%s !d !o i!sti!cts (ec use the$ re m chi!e# A"thou%h me! h &e succeeded i! (ui"di!% memor$ for the computer' (ut !o computer possesses the e1ui& "e!t of hum ! he rt !d sou"# * sed o!

our fee"i!%' t ste' .!ow"ed%e' !d e5perie!ce' we ofte! m .e cert i! )ud%eme!t i! our d $ "ife# *ut computers c !!ot m .e such )ud%eme!t o! their ow!# Their )u%eme!t is ( sed o! the i!structio! %i&e! to them i! the form of pro%r ms th t re writte! ($ us# The$ re o!"$ s %ood s m ! m .es !d uses them# =ENERATIONS O: COMPUTER E=e!er tio!F i! computer t ". is step i! Tech!o"o%$# It pro&ides fr mewor. for the %rowth of the computer i!dustr$# There re tot ""$ fi&e computer %e!er tio!s .!ow ti"" tod $# E ch of these %e!er tio!s h d (ee! discussed (e"ow "o!% with their d& !t %es !d dis d& !t %es# The$ re s fo""ows: :irst %e!er tio!32B86/2B994: The$ i!c"ude the e r"$ computers "i.e ENIAC' ED<AC' EDSAC' etc# These m chi!es !d other of their time were m de possi("e ($ the i!&e!tio! of E& cuum tu(eF' which w s fr %i"e %" ss de&ice th t cou"d co!tro" !d mp"if$ e"ectro!ic si%! "s# These & cuum tu(e computers re referred to s first %e!er tio! computers# Ad& !t %es: 2# < cuum tu(es were the o!"$ e"ectro!ic compo!e!ts & i" ("e duri!% those d $s# 6# < cuum tu(e tech!o"o%$ m de possi("e the d&e!t of e"ectro!ic di%it " computers# 7# These computers were the f stest c "cu" ti!% de&ices of their time# The$ cou"d perform comput tio!s i! mi""iseco!ds# Dis d& !t %es: 2# Too (u".$ i! siCe 6# U!re"i ("e 7# Thous !ds of & cuum tu(es th t were used emitted " r%e mou!t of he t !d (ur!t out fre1ue!t"$ 8# Air co!ditio!i!% re1uired 9# Pro!e to fre1ue!t h rdw re f i"ures ;# Co!st !t m i!te! !ce re1uired# G# No!/ port ("e +# M !u " ssem("$ of i!di&idu " compo!e!ts i!to fu!ctio!i!% u!it re1uired B# Commerci " productio! w s difficu"t !d cost"$ 2,#@imited commerci " use Seco!d %e!er tio! 32B99/2B;84: The tr !sistor' sm ""er !d more re"i ("e successor to the & cuum tu(e' w s i!&e!ted i! 2B8G# 0owe&er' computers th t used tr !sistors were !ot produced i! 1u !tit$ u!ti" o&er dec de " ter# This seco!d %e!er tio! emer%ed with tr !sistors (ei!% the (r i! of the computer# Ad& !t %es 2# Sm ""er i! siCe s comp red to first %e!er tio! computers 6# More re"i ("e 7# @ess he t %e!er ted 8# These computers were ("e to reduce comput tio! " times from mi""iseco!ds to microseco!ds# 9# @ess pro!e to h rdw re f i"ures ;# *etter port (i"it$ G# ?ider commerci " use

Dis d& !t %es: 2# Air/co!ditio!i!% re1uired 6# :re1ue!t m i!te! !ce re1uired 7# M !u " ssem("$ of i!di&idu " compo!e!ts i!to fu!ctio!i!% u!it w s re1uired 8# Commerci " productio! w s difficu"t !d cost"$# Third %e!er tio! 32B;8/2BG94: Ad& !ces i! e"ectro!ic tech!o"o%$ co!ti!ued !d the d&e!t of Emicroe"ectro!icsF tech!o"o%$ m de it possi("e to i!te%r te " r%e !um(er of circuit e"eme!ts i!to &er$ sm "" surf ce of si"ico! .!ow! s EchipsF# This !ew tech!o"o%$ w s c ""ed E i!te%r ted circuitsF 3ICs4# The third %e!er tio! w s ( sed o! IC tech!o"o%$ !d the computers th t were desi%!ed with the used of i!te%r ted circuits were c ""ed third %e!er tio! computers# Ad& !t %es: 2# Sm ""er i! siCe s comp red to pre&ious %e!er tio! computers# 6# E&e! more re"i ("e th ! seco!d %e!er tio! computers# 7# E&e! "ower he t %e!er ted th ! seco!d %e!er tio! computers# 8# These computer were ("e to reduced comput tio! " times from microseco!ds to ! !oseco!ds# 9# M i!te! !ce cost is "ow (ec use h rdw re f i"ures re r re# ;# E si"$ port ("e# G# Tot ""$ %e!er " purpose# ?ide"$ used for & rious commerci " pp"ic tio!s "" o&er the wor"d# +# @ess power re1uireme!t th ! pre&ious %e!er tio! computers# B# M !u " ssem("$ of i!di&idu " compo!e!ts i!to fu!ctio!i!% u!it !ot re1uired# So hum ! " (our !d cost i!&o"&ed t ssem("$ st %e reduced dr stic ""$# 2,# Commerci " productio! w s e sier !d che per# Dis d& !t %es: 2# Air/co!ditio!i!% re1uired i! m !$ c ses# 6# 0i%h"$ sophistic ted tech!o"o%$ re1uired for the m !uf cture of IC chips# :ourth %e!er tio!32BG9 ON?ARDS4: I!iti ""$' the i!te%r ted circuits co!t i!ed o!"$ (out te! to twe!t$ compo!e!ts# This tech!o"o%$ w s ! med sm "" sc "e i!te%r tio! 3SSI4# @ ter' with the d& !ceme!t i! tech!o"o%$ for m !uf cturi!% ICs' it (ecomes possi("e to i!te%r te upo! hu!dred compo!e!ts o! si!%"e chip# This tech!o"o%$ c me to (e .!ow! s medium sc "e i!te%r tio! 3MSI4# The! c me the er or " r%e sc "e i!te%r tio! 3@SI4 whe! it w s possi("e to i!te%r te o&er 7,',,, compo!e!ts o!to si!%"e chip# Effort is sti"" o! for further mi""io! compo!e!ts wi"" (e i!te%r ted o! si!%"e chip .!ow! s &er$ " r%e sc "e i!te%r tio! 3<@SI4# A fourth %e!er tio! computer' which is wh t we h &e !ow' h s @IS chips s its (r i!# It is @SI tech!o"o%$ which h s "ed to the de&e"opme!t of &er$ sm "" (ut e5treme"$ powerfu" computers# Ii w s the st rt of soci " re&o"utio!# A who"e computer circuit w s soo! & i" ("e o! si!%"e chip' the siCe of post %e st mp# O&er!i%ht computers (ec me i!credi("$ comp ct# The$ (ec use i!e5pe!si&e to m .e !d sudde!"$ it (ecome possi("e for !$o!e !d e&er$ o!e to ow! computer# Ad& !t %es: 2# Sm ""est i! siCe (ec use of hi%h compo!e!t de!sit$

6# <er$ re"i ("e 7# 0e t %e!er ted is !e%"i%i("e 8# No ir co!ditio!i!% re1uired i! most c ses 9# Much f ster i! comput tio! th ! pre&ious %e!er tio! ;# 0 rdw re f i"ure is !e%"i%i("e !d he!ce mi!im " m i!te! !ce is re1ired G# E si"$ port ("e (ec use of their sm "" siCe +# Tot ""$ %e!er " purpose B# Mi!im " " (our !d cost i!&o"&ed t ssem("$ st %e 2,# Che pest mo!% "" %e!er tio!s# Dis d& !t %e 2# 0i%h"$ sophistic ted tech!o"o%$ re1uired for the m !uf cture of @SI chips# :ifth %e!er tio! 3$et to come4: Scie!tists re !ow t wor. o! the first %e!er tio! computer/ promise' (ut !ot $et re "it$# The$ im to (ri!% us m chi!es with %e!ui!e I#D#' the (i"it$ to re so! "o%ic ""$' !d with re " .!ow"ed%e of the wor"d# Thus' u!"i.e the " st four %e!er tio!s which ! tur ""$ fo""owed its predecessor' the first %e!er tio! wi"" (e tot ""$ differe!t' tot ""$ !o&e"' !d tot ""$ !ew# I! structure it wi"" (e p r ""e" 3the prese!t o!es re seri "4 !d wi"" (e ("e to do mu"tip"e t s.s simu"t !eous"$# I! fu!ctio!s' it wi"" !ot (e "%orithmic 3step ($ step' with o!e step t time4# I! ! ture' it wi"" !ot do )ust d t processi!% 3!um(er cru!chi!%4 (ut .!ow"ed%e processi!%# I! i!fere!ce' it wi"" !ot (e mere"$ deducti&e' (ut "so i!ducti&e# I! pp"ic tio!' it wi"" (eh &e "i.e ! e5pert# I! pro%r mmi!%' it wi"" i!ter ct with hum !s i! ordi! r$ " !%u %e 3u!"i.e *ASIC' CO*O@' :ORTRAN' etc# ?hich prese!t computer !eed4# A!d i! rchitecture' it wi"" h &e HIPS 3.!ow"ed%e i!form tio! processi!% s$stem4 r ther th ! the prese!t DIPSA@IPS 3 d t A "o%ic i!form tio! processi!% s$stem4# I!put u!it D t !d i!structio! must e!ter the computer s$stem (efore !$ comput tio! c ! (e performed o! the supp"ied d t # This t .es is performed ($ the i!put u!it th t "i!.s the e5ter! " e!&iro!me!t with the computer s$stem# D t !d i!structio! e!ter i!put u!its i! forms th t depe!d upo! the p rticu" r de&ice used# :or e5 mp"e' d t is e!tered from .e$(o rd i! m !!er simi" r to t$pi!%' !d this differs from the w $ i! which d t is e!tered throu%h c rd re der which is !other t$pe of i!put de&ice# 0owe&er' re% rd"ess of the form i! which the$ recei&e their i!puts' "" i!put de&ices must pro&ide computer with d t th t re tr !sformed i!to the (i! r$ codes th t the prim r$ memor$ of computer is desi%!ed to ccept# This tr !sform tio! is ccomp"ished ($ u!its c ""ed i!put i!terf ces# I!put i!terf ces re desi%!ed to m tch the u!i1ue ph$sic " or e"ectric " ch r cteristics of i!put de&ices to the re1uireme!ts of the computer s$stem# I! short' the fo""owi!% fu!ctio!s re performed ($ ! i!put u!it: 2# It ccepts 3or re ds4 the "ist of i!structio!s !d d t from the outside wor"d# 6# It co!&erts these i!structio!s !d d t i! computer ccept ("e form# 7# It supp"ies the co!&erted i!structio! !d d t to the computer s$stem for further processi!%# Output u!it The )o( of ! output u!it is )ust the re&erse of th t of ! i!put u!it# It supp"ies i!form tio! !d resu"ts of comput tio! to the outside wor"d# Thus it "i!.s the computer with the e5ter! " e!&iro!me!t# As computers wor. with (i! r$ code' the resu"ts produced

re "so i! the (i! r$ form# 0e!ce' (efore supp"$i!% the resu"ts to the outside wor"d' it must (e co!&erted to hum ! ccept ("e 3re d ("e4 form# This t s. is ccomp"ished ($ u!its c ""ed output i!terf ces# Output i!terf ces re desi%!ed to m tch the u!i1ue ph$sic " or e"ectric " ch r cteristics of output de&ices 3termi! "s' pri!ters' etc#4 to the re1uireme!ts of the e5ter! " e!&iro!me!t# IN short' the fo""owi!% fu!ctio!s re performed ($ ! output u!it: 2# It ccepts the resu"ts produced ($ the computer which re i! coded from !d he!ce c !!ot (e e si"$ u!derstood ($ us# 6# It co&erts these coded resu"ts to hum ! ccept ("e 3re d ("e4 form# 7# It supp"ies the co!&erted resu"ts to the outside wor"d# Stor %e u!it The d t !d i!structio!s th t re e!tered i!to the computer s$stem throu%h i!put u!its h &e to (e stored i!side the computer (efore the ctu " processi!% st rts# Simi" r"$' the resu"ts produced ($ the computer fter processi!% must "so (e .ept somewhere i!side the computer s$stem (efore (ei!% p ssed o! to the output u!its# Computer must "so (e preser&ed for o!%oi!% processi!%# The stor %e u!it or the prim r$A m i! stor %e of computer s$stem is desi%!ed to c ter to "" these !eeds# It pro&ides sp ce for stori!% d t !d i!structio!s' sp ce for i!termedi te resu"ts' !d "so sp ce for the fi! " resu"ts# I! short' the specific fu!ctio!s of the stor %e u!it re to ho"d 3store4: 2# A"" the d t to (e processed !d the i!structio!s re1uired for processi!% 3recei&ed from i!put de&ices4 6# I!termedi te resu"ts of processi!%# 7# :i! " resu"ts of processi!% (efore these resu"ts re re"e sed to ! output de&ice# Arithmetic "o%ic u!it The rithmetic "o%ic u!it 3A@U4 of computer s$stem is the p" ce where the ctu " e5ecutio! of the i!structio! t .es p" ces duri!% the processi!% oper tio!# To (e more precise' "" c "cu" tio! re performed !d "" comp riso!s 3decisio!s4 re m de i! the A@U# The d t !d i!structio!' stored i! the prim r$ stor %e prior to processi!%' re tr !sferred s !d whe! !eeded to the A@U where processi!% t .es p" ce# No processi!% is do!e i! the prim r$ stor %e u!it# I!termedi te resu"ts %e!er ted i! the A@U re tempor ri"$ tr !sferred ( c. to the prim r$ stor %e u!ti" !eeded t " ter time# D t m $ thus mo&e m !$ times the processi!% is o&er' fter the comp"etio! of processi!% the fi! " resu"ts which re stored i! the stor %e u!it re re"e sed to ! output de&ice# Co!tro" U!it *$ se"ecti!%' i!terpreti!% !d seei!% the e5ecutio! the pro%r mmi!% structures the co!tro" u!it is ("e to m i!t i! order !d direct the oper tio! of the e!tire s$stem# It does !ot perform !$ ctu " processi!% o! the d t # It cts s ce!tr " !er&ous s$stem for the other compo!e!ts of the computer s$stem# Ce!tr " Processi!% U!it 3CPU4 The co!tro" u!it !d the rithmetic @o%ic u!it of computer s$stem re )oi!t"$ .!ow! s ce!tr " processi!% u!it# The CPU is the (r i! of !$ computer s$stem# @i.e hum ! (r i!' i! computer s$stem "" the m )or c "cu" tio!s !d comp riso!s re m de i!side the CPU !d the CPU is "so respo!si("e for cti& ti!% !d co!tro""i!% the oper tio!s of the other u!its of computer s$stem#

Prim r$ !d Seco!d r$ Stor %e The memor$ co!sists of Prim r$ !d Seco!d r$ memories# There re se&er " differe!t t$pes of Prim r$ memories# 2# RAM3R !dom Access Memor$4 Prim r$ Stor %e is usu ""$ referred to s R !dom Access Memor$ (ec use it is possi("e to r !dom"$ se"ect !d use !$ "oc tio! of this memor$ to direct"$ store d t !d i!structio!# It is "so referred to s the re dA write memor$ (ec use i!form tio! c ! (e re d from the chip !d "so c ! (e writte! i!to it# 6# ROM3Re d O!"$ Memor$4 Re d O!"$ Memor$ is o!e i! which the i!form tio! is perm !e!t"$ stored# The i!form tio! from the memor$ c ! o!"$ (e re d !d it is !ot possi("e to write fresh i!form tio! i!to it# This is the re so! is it c ""ed ROM# ?he! the power supp"$ is switched off' the i!form tio! stored i!side ROM is !ot "ost s it is i! c se of RAM chip# 7# PROM3Pro%r mm ("e Re d O!"$ Memor$4 A PROM is memor$ chip o! which $ou c ! store pro%r m# *ut o!ce the PROM h s (ee! used ' $ou c !!ot wipe it c"e ! !d use it to store somethi!% e"se# 8# EPROM3Er s ("e Pro%r mm ("e Re d O!"$ Memor$4 It is possi("e to er se i!form tio! stores i! EPROM chip !d the chip c ! (e repro%r mmed to store !ew i!form tio!# The stored i!form tio! is er sed i! ! EPROM chip ($ e5posi!% it to the u"tr &io"et "i%ht# ?he! EPROM is i! use' the i!form tio! c ! o!"$ (e re d !d the i!form tio! rem i!s o! the chip u!ti" it is er sed# 9# EEPROM3E"ectro!ic ""$ Er s ("e Pro%r mm ("e Re d O!"$ Memor$4 I! the EEPROM' i!ste d of er si!% the e!tire co!te!ts of the chip' its co!te!ts m $ (e er sed ("oc.wise 3e ch ("oc. co!t i!i!% few ($tes to few .i"o($tes4 ($ e"ectric method !d c ! "so (e pro%r mmed e"ectric ""$ either p rt"$ or fu""$# Seco!d r$ Stor %e De&ices Au5i"" r$ memor$ or Seco!d r$ memor$ is used with most of the computers# Se&er " differe!t de&ices c ! (e used s seco!d r$ stor %e' (ut the o!e se"ected for p rticu" r pp"ic tio! m i!"$ depe!ds upo! how the stored i!form tio! !eeds to (e ccessed# * sic ""$ there re two methods of ccessi!% i!form tio!# The$ re se1ue!ti " ccess or seri " ccess !d direct ccess or r !dom ccess# A se1ue!ti " ccess de&ice is o! i! which the rri& " t the "oc tio! desired m $ (e preceded ($ se1ue!ci!% throu%h other "oc tio!s' so th t their ccess time & ries ccordi!% to "oc tio!s# Direct ccess stor %e de&ice is o!e i! which !$ "oc tio!s i! the de&ice m $ (e se"ected t r !dom' ccess to

the i!form tio! stored is direct !d ppro5im te"$ e1u " ccess time is re1uired for e ch "oc tio!# Some of the Seco!d r$ Stor %e de&ices re s fo""ows: Pu!ched P per T pe: It is se1ue!ti " seco!d r$ stor %e de&ice# D t is coded i! p per i! form of pu!ched ho"e com(i! tio!s# The t pe is !orm ""$ 2 i!ch wide' comes i! ro"es !d m $ (e used i! !$ "e!%th upto se&er " hu!dred feet# The stor %e c p cit$ of pu!ched p per t pe is &irtu ""$ u!"imited !d the cost per stored is &er$ "ow# M %!etic t pe: M %!etic t pe is o!e of the most popu" r stor %e mediums for " r%e d t th t re se1ue!ti ""$ ccessed !d processed# The t pe is p" stic ri((o! usu ""$ I i!ch wide th t is co ted o! o!e side with ! iro! o5ide m teri " which c ! (e m %!etiCed# It is simi" r to the t pe used o! t pe recorder e5cept th t it is of hi%her 1u "it$ !d more dur ("e# @i.e recorder t pe' computer t pe c ! (e er sed !d reused i!defi!ite"$# M %!etic Dis.: A m %!etic dis. is thi!' circu" r met " p" teAp" tter co ted o! (oth sides with m %!etic m teri "# It is &er$ simi" r i! ppe r !ce to ! @P %r mopho!e record# :"opp$ Dis.: The met ""ic dis.s th t we descri(ed (o&e re c ""ed h rd dis.s# These dis.s' i! the form of dis. p c.s re suit ("e o!"$ for " r%e !d medium siCed computer !d ofte! re too e5pe!si&e for sm "" computer s$stems# A! i!cre si!%"$ popu" r direct ccess seco!d r$ stor %e medium for micro !d mi!i computer s$stem is the f"e5i("e or f"opp$ dis.# :"opp$ dis.s re "so referred s dis.ettes or f"oppies# Optic " Dis.: A! optic " dis. stor %e s$stem co!sists of rot ti!% dis. which is co ted with thi! met " or other m teri " th t si hi%h"$ ref"ecti&e# The stor %e de!sit$ of optic " dis.s is e!ormous' the stor %e cost is e5treme"$ "ow !d the ccess time is re" ti&e"$ f st# O!e sm "" i!e5pe!si&e dis. wi"" (e ("e to rep" ce 69/7, ree"s of m %!etic t pe !d !$ d t o! the dis. c ! (e ccessed withi! few mi""iseco!ds# There re three t$pes of optic " dis.s : 2# CD/ROM3Comp ct dis. / Re d O!"$ Memor$4 CD/ROMS re m !uf ctures "i.e %r mopho!e records# E ch dis. co!t i!s 2;,,, tr c.s per i!ch !d e ch is ppro5# 8 i!ch i! di meter# The m )or "imit tio! of the dis.s is th t the$ re re d o!"$ de&ices# A dis. !orm ""$ c ! ho"d o&er ;,,,M* of d t # 6# ?ORM3?rite O!ce Re d M !$4 dis.s:

The optic " dis. which c ! (e writte! o!ce ($ the user is c ""ed ?ORM# O!e th d t stored o! the dis. it c ! !e&er (e er sed or ch !%ed without ph$sic ""$ destro$i!% the dis.# 7# Er s ("e Optic " dis.: This uses (oth " ser !d m %!etic he d to re d !d write the d t # The d t stores o! the dis. c ! (e er sed !d rewritte!# This dis. c ! (e used s "ter! ti&es to tr ditio! " m %!etic dis.# INPUT DE<ICES A! i!put de&ice is m chi!e th t feeds d t i!to the computer# Some of the i!put de&ices re s fo""ows: He$(o rd: It is ! i!put de&ice co!sisti!% of set of t$pewriter "i.e .e$s th t e! ("e $ou to e!ter d t i!to the computer# Computer .e$(o rds re simi" r to e"ectric t$pewriter .e$(o rd th t co!t i!s dditio! " .e$s# The .e$s o! computer .e$(o rds re c" ssified s fo""ows: 2# A"ph !umeric .e$s/"etters !d !um(ers 6# Pu!ctu tio! .e$s/ comm ' semico"o! etc# 7# Speci " He$s/ :u!ctio!s .e$s' co!tro" .e$s' rrow .e$s' c ps "oc. .e$s etc# Mouse: It is de&ice th t co!tro"s the mo&eme!t of the cursor or poi!ter o! disp" $ scree!# It is sm "" o()ect which c ! ro"e "o!% h rd f" t surf ce# It co!t i!s t "e st o!e (utto! (ut sometimes s m !$ s three which h &e differe!t fu!ctio!s# Tr c. * "" It is !other poi!ti!% de&ice esse!ti ""$ it is mouse "$i!% o! its ( c.# To mo&e the poi!ter $ou rot te the ( "" with the thum(' $ou fi!%ers or the p "m of $our h !d# There re usu ""$ 2 to 7 (utto!s !e5t to the ( "" which $ou use )ust "i.e mouse (utto!s# Jo$stic.: It is "i&er th t mo&es i! "" directio!s !d co!tro" the mo&eme!t of the poi!ter or some other disp" $ s$m(o"s# A )o$stic. is simi" r to mouse e5cept th t with mouse the cursor stop mo&i!% s soo! s $ou stop mo&i!% the mouse# ?ith )o$stic. the poi!ter co!ti!uous mo&i!% i! the directio! the )o$stic. is poi!ti!%# To stop the poi!ter $ou must retur! the )o$stic. to its upri%ht positio!# There i!c"ude 6 (utto!s c ""ed tri%%ers# @i%ht Pe!: It is "i%ht se!siti&e detector to se"ect o()ects o! disp" $ scree!# It is simi" r to mouse e5cept th t with "i%ht pe! $ou c ! mo&e the poi!ter !d se"ect o()ects o! the disp" $ scree! ($ direct"$ poi!ti!% to the o()ects with the pe!# Sc !!er:

The$ re ( sic ""$ i!put de&ices th t re c p ("e of reco%!iCi!% m r.s or ch r cters# The$ re used for direct d t e!tr$ i!to the computer s$stem# The 6 m )or t$pes of Sc !!ers re: 2# Optic " Sc !!er 6# M %!etic I!. Ch r cter Reco%!itio! De&ices# The commo! optic " sc !!er de&ices re OMR' OCR !d ( r code re ders# =r phic Disp" $ De&ices: The$ re c p ("e of disp" $i!% %r phics !d di %r ms s we"" s "ph !umeric ch r cters !d re used p rticu" r"$ s ! id to desi%!# =r phic de&ices pro&ide !ot o!"$ me !s of disp" $i!% hi%h reso"utio! dr wi!% (ut "so the c p (i"it$ of m !ipu" ti!% !d modif$i!% the dr wi!%s !d desi%!s disp" $ed o! the termi! " scree!# Pri!ter: Pri!ters re the most commo!"$ used output de&ices th t c ! (e fou!d i! "most "" computer ce!ters the$ re the prim r$ output de&ices used to prep re perm !e!t docume!ts i! hum ! re d ("e form# There re se&er " t$pes of pri!ters th t re desi%!ed for differe!t t$pes of pp"ic tio!s# Depe!di!% o! their speed !d ppro ch of pri!ti!% pri!ters re c" ssified re ch r cter pri!ter' "i!e pri!ter !d p %e pri!ter#