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April 14-18, 2008

Vermelding onderdeel organisatie


1
Automation of Belt Conveyor Systems
The application of intelligent maintenance concepts
Prof.dr.ir. Gabriel Lodewijks
Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology
Transport Engineering and Logistics
Intensive Short Course in Belt Conveying of Bulk Solids
University of Witwatersrand, J ohannesburg, Republic of South Africa
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Contents
1. Introduction - definitions
2. Automation - principles
3. Continuous versus discrete
control
4. Computer process control
5. Two examples of automation
6. Control system components
7. Types of maintenance
8. Maintenance strategies
9. Conveyor belt monitoring
10. Idler roll monitoring
11. Managing data
12. Application of fuzzy logic
Automation Maintenance
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1. Introduction - definitions
Transport
Automation
Control
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Definition: Transport
Transport is the conveyance of goods, information
and energy from one place to another.
A transport system is the collection of people,
equipment and procedures organized to accomplish
transport.
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Transport system
Transport
support systems
Facilities:
Infrastructure
Equipment
Blue collar
workers
White collar
workers
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Example: Container terminal
Facilities Support systems
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Definitions: Automation
Automation is the technology concerned with the
application of mechanical, electronic and computer-
based systems to operate and control transport
Automation can be divided into automation of
transport support systems and facilities
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Example: Baggage handling systems
Transport support system
Transport facility
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Definitions: Control
Control is to exercise restraining or directing
influence over a system.
Intelligent control is the ability to make decisions
based on information gathered (1) through sensors in
the equipment, (2) provided by the control system of
the total transport system, (3) stored in an ERP/SAP
system.
Industrial control is defined as the automatic
regulation of unit operations and their associated
equipment as well as the integration and coordination
into the larger transport system.
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2. Automation principles
Reasons to automate
Automation implementation problems
Men versus machine
Principles & Strategies
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Reasons to automate
1. To increase labor productivity
2. To reduce labor cost
3. To mitigate the effects of labor shortages
4. To reduce or eliminate routine manual and clerical tasks
5. To improve worker safety
6. To improve product quality
7. To reduce manufacturing lead time
8. To accomplish processes that cannot be done manually
9. To avoid the high costs of not automating
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Automation may be difficult when
Task is technologically difficult to automate
Problems with physical access to the workplace
Adjustments required in the task
Manual handiness requirements
Demands on hand-eye coordination
Short product life cycle
Customized product
To cope with ups and downs in demand
To reduce the risk of product failure
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Man versus machines
Sense unexpected stimuli
Develop new solutions to
problems
Cope with abstract problems
Adapt to change
Generalize from observations
Learn from experience
Make difficult decisions
based on incomplete data
Perform repetitive tasks
consistently
Store large amounts of data
Retrieve data from memory
reliably
Perform multiple tasks at the
same time
Apply high forces and power
Perform computations
quickly
Make routine decisions
quickly
Challenge is to make systems intelligent!
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Men will always be involved in:
Equipment maintenance (will be discussed
extensively later)
Programming and computer operation
Engineering project work
Plant management (responsibility)
Conclusion: automation is not always the right answer
for a given transport situation!
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Automation principles & strategies
i. The USA principle
ii. Ten strategies for automation and production
systems
iii. Automation Migration strategy
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Automation the USA principle
Common sense approach
1. Understand the existing process
2. Simplify the process
3. Automate the process
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Automation ten strategies for automation
If automation seems feasible then:
1. Specialization of
functions
2. Combined operations
3. Simultaneous
operations
4. Integration of
operations
5. Increased flexibility
6. Improved material
handling and storage
7. On-line inspection
8. Process control and
optimization
9. Plant operations
control
10. Computer integrated
manufacturing
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Automation the Automation Migration
Strategy
Phase 1: manual production
Phase 2: automated production
Phase 3: automated integrated production
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3. Continuous versus discrete control
In continuous control the variables and
parameters are continuous and analog.
In discrete control the variables and parameters
are discrete, mostly binary discrete
cA
h M g
P
p
h
&
=
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M
Measure
Output variable
Compare
Set point
Decide
Adjust Actuator
Controller
Feedback
sensor
Process
Closed loop system
Part or Product
Material
1
5
4
3
2
6
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Typical measures of product output:
Continuous : weight, volume
Discrete : number of parts or products
Typical quality measures:
Continuous : consistency, concentration, specification
Discrete : dimensions, surface finish, reliability
Typical variables and parameters:
Continuous : temperature, volume flow rate, pressure
Discrete : position, velocity, acceleration force
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Typical sensors:
Continuous : flow meters, thermocouples
Discrete : limit switches, photoelectric sensors
Typical actuators:
Continuous : valves, heaters, pumps
Discrete : switches, motors, pistons
Typical process time constants:
Continuous : seconds, minutes, hours
Discrete : less than a second
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Control demands communication and
interaction between process and controller
4. Computer process control
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A real time controller is able to respond to the
process within a short enough time period
that process performance is not degraded.
This is affected by:
1. The speed of the controller s central processing unit
and its interfaces
2. the controllers operating system
3. the design of the application software
4. the number of different input/output events to which
the controller is designed to respond
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Real time control requires:
1. Process initiated interrupts
2. Timer initiated actions
3. Computer commands to process
4. System and program initiated events
5. Operator initiated events
Required controller capabilities:
1. Data sampling (frequency, order, format)
2. Interlocks (proceed/interrupt)
3. Interrupt system
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Enterprise level
Plant level
Device level
Cell or system level
Machine level
Basic control
Signal flow
Procedural control
Data flow
Coordination control
Data flow
Data flow
Mapping control levels into the levels of automation
in a factory
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Computer Process
Data collection
Process variables
Process monitoring
Computer Process
Process variables
Open loop control
Computer Process
Data collection
Process variables
Closed loop control
F
o
r
m
s

o
f

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p
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e
r

p
r
o
c
e
s
s

c
o
n
t
r
o
l
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Process
Input parameters Output variables
Sensor plus transducer
Display instrument
Set point
Analog
controller
Typical analog control loop
actuator
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Process
Input parameters Output variables
Sensors plus transducers
DDC
computer
Components of a DDC system
Multiplexer
ADC DAC
Operator
console
Multiplexer
actuators
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Digital versus analog
More control options than analog
Integration and optimization of multiple loops
possible
Options to edit the control program
Options application in distributed control
systems
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5. Two examples of automation
Automate load sharing between drives of a long
overland conveyor
Control the load of bulk material on a belt conveyor
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Example 1: automate load sharing between drives
of a long overland conveyor
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M
Measure output variables:
Belt speed & drive torques
Compare
Set point: belt speed
Decide
Adjust:
Drive torque
power supply
Closed loop system:
Drive load sharing 1
Material:
Voltage, current
Material:
Power
Always use one drive as a master and the other as a slave!
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M
Measure output variables:
Belt speed & drive amps
Compare
Set point: belt speed
Decide
Adjust:
Drive amps
power supply
Closed loop system:
Drive load sharing 2
Material:
Voltage, current
Material:
Power
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Example: Wheatstone bridge
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Example 2: control the load of bulk material on a
belt conveyor
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Two ways of controlling:
By changing the feed
By changing the belt speed
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M
Measure output variables:
Belt speed and total weight
Compare
Set point: capacity [MTPH]
Decide
Adjust:
Belt speed or material feed
Transport
Closed loop system:
Conveyor belt weight scale
Material:
Bulk feed @ capacity
Material:
Bulk supply @ capacity
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Example: Design issues
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1. Sensors for measuring continuous and discrete
process parameters
2. Actuators that drive continuous and discrete process
parameters
3. Devices that convert analogue signals to digital data
4. Devices that convert digital data into analogue
signals
5. Input/output devices for discrete data
6. Control System Components
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A sensor detects the physical variable of interest
(temperature, force, pressure).
A transducer converts that variable into an
alternative form (voltage), quantifying the variable
in the conversion.
Sometimes sensor and transducer are the same
device and simply called sensor.
Sensors:
Important are: calibration, zeroing, and
amplification
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A analog sensor produces a continuous analog
signal such as electrical voltage or current.
A discrete sensor produces an output that can
only have certain values. A binary sensor produces
an on/off signal. A digital sensor produces a digital
output signal, for example in the form of a set of
parallel status bits.
Sensors - continued
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Analog sensors
Discrete sensors - binary
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Discrete sensors - digital
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Limit switch
Magnetic gate
Magnetic sensors
Tachometer
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An actuator is a hardware device that
converts a controller command signal into a
change in a physical parameter.
Actuators can be classified into three
categories:
1) Electrical
2) Hydraulic
3) pneumatic
Actuators
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Electrical actuators
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Hydraulic actuators
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Pneumatic actuators
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Motor
Brake
Winch
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Pulse generators Pulse counters Discrete pulse data
Contact output
array
Contact input array Discrete data other
than binary
Contact output Contact input Discrete data
binary (on/off)
Digital to analog
converter
Analog to digital
converter
Continuous analog
signals
Output interface
from computer
Input interface to
computer
Type of data
from/to process
Input/output devices for discrete data
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(1) Sensor and transducer
Process
(2) Signal conditioning
M
Other signals
(3) Multiplexer
(4) Amplifier
(5) ADC
Digital input
to computer
Steps in analog to digital conversion of
continuous analog signals from process
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ADC is done in three phases:
Sampling
Quantification
encoding
Sampling rate
Conversion time
Resolution (2
n
)
Conversion method
Time
Signal
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Conversion method: successive approximation method
Assume: 6 bit register with full scale of 10 V
111111 = 5V+2.5V+1.25V+0.625V+0.312V+0.156V=10 V
000000 = 0V
Suppose input voltage = 6.8 V, convert this using the
above method
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DAC is done in two phases:
Decoding
Data holding
E
0
=E
ref
(0.5B
1
+0.25B
2
+(2
n)-1
B
n
), e.g. E
ref
=10
Time
Signal
E(t)=E
0
, zero order hold
E(t)=E
0
+alpha tau
Alpha=(E
0
-E
0
(tau))/tau
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AD converter
DA converter
Pulse counter
Pulse generator
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7. Types of maintenance
Four types of maintenance can be distinguished:
Preventive maintenance
Random maintenance
Corrective maintenance
Predictive maintenance
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preventive maintenance - calendar based, i.e.
activities are planned depending on working hours or
at certain time intervals (scheduled maintenance); it
may be based on observed deterioration of
components; nothing is repaired but preventive jobs
are done.
random maintenance opportunity based, i.e.
maintenance is done when the opportunity arises; the
decision to maintain a component based on
opportunities may or may not be triggered by the
condition of a component.
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corrective maintenance emergency based, i.e.
repairing when a component malfunctions; this may
cause a general shutdown of the system; the repair
activity was not scheduled beforehand.
predictive maintenance condition based, i.e.
components are being monitored and when irregular
factors are discovered, one waits until a maintenance
opportunity arises; it is a planned and corrective
maintenance.
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Intelligence here is defined as:
the ability to make decisions based on information
gathered through sensors in the equipment
or provided by the control system of the total
transport system.
What can we use for application in an
intelligent maintenance system?
Only predictive maintenance is fit for intelligent maintenance
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8. Maintenance strategies
Background
Reliability
Research goal and approach
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RWE Power, Germany
What is the chance that we will experience a major
shutdown before the next scheduled stop?
Previously we changed out belting after 6 years. Today
we do so after nine years. What is the optimum?
If we change our maintenance philosophy, how can we
determine the effect of this change in advance?
A belt conveyor system consists of many components.
How can we distinguish the influence of one
component on the systems reliability from the other?
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Reliability
In general reliability is the extend to which an
experiment, test or measuring procedure
yields the same results on repeated tests.
In the context of bulk material handling
systems reliability is the extend to which
the systems shows the same (desired)
operational behavior on repeated occasions.
The assessment of reliability depends on the
aggravation level that is considered:
system, equipment, component
Simulation can be used to determine the levels reliability
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Mine
Overland
conveyor
Stacker
(incl. conveyor)
Stockpile
conveyor
J etty
conveyor
Shiploader
Reclaimer
Stock
Pile
ShipQueue
Mine
Overland
conveyor
Stacker
(incl. conveyor)
Stockpile
conveyor
J etty
conveyor
Shiploader
Reclaimer
Stock
Pile
ShipQueue
System level
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Equipment level
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Component level
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Research Goal and Approach
The goal of this research project is to develop
maintenance strategies that keep the reliability
of bulk material handling systems above a
required minimum level at minimum costs or
loss of production time.
For this specific maintenance control procedures
are being developed.
These procedures are first tested by applying
simulation techniques.
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Maintenance System
Monitoring:
- Visual
- Sensors
- ERP
Actions:
- Nothing
- Repair
- Replace
Processing
Real Conveyor Belt System
- Conveying material @ capacity, # hours
- Damage generation
- Damage growth
- Wear
Material flow Material flow
Real system
Challenge 1
Challenge 2
Challenge 3 Challenge 4
Check reliability target!!
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From real system to modeled system challenge 1
Develop (simulation) model of real belt
conveyor system
-Damage generation
-Damage growth
Verify experimentally real damage
development and progress
If model predicts ok, else adjust model
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Issues:
Visual observation
Classification
Rationalization
Belt wear index
From real system to modeled system challenge 2
Belt condition
monitoring
Issues:
Data acquisition
Data mining
data processing
detection of defects
data analysis
ERP
Issues:
Data base
In but never out
Outdating
Global vs detailed
Triggering
Rigid
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From real system to modeled system challenge 3
Evaluate the current status of damages
Evaluate the current density of damages
Predict the evolution of the damages
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From real system to modeled system challenge 4
Example:
Strategy 1: I nspection only forward, data mining immediately after inspection,
servicing if required. Do nothing on return. I t is assumed that the maintenance
trolley has sufficient data processing equipment on board to perform the data
mining function.
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If ok then , else
Run simulation analyze results
Check reliability target
Transfer approved maintenance procedure to real
system
Use simulation as background controller
Change maintenance control procedure
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9. Conveyor belt monitoring
Uncertainty in prediction of break time caused by a
damage
Examples of belt damage
Damage representation in model
Damage generation in the model
Belt damage:
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Uncertainty in prediction of break time caused by a
damage
average cum.
load to break
cum. load to repair
with certain risk to
break
Breaking
probabiltity
cumulative belt load
from damage
creation time
damage grow distribution of
a certain damage type
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Broken steel cords Cover damage
Belt damage - examples
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Splice damage Edge damage
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Damage representation in the model
Average values:
di : Initial damage gravity
ti : Damage creation time
dr : R epairable till this damage level
ds : Damage level may cause
emergency stop
s1 : (dr-di)/(tr-ti) grow rate
s2 : (ds-dr)/(ts-tr) grow rate
time (= function of cumulative load)
tr
ts
di
ds
dr
ti
Damage gravity
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Damage generation in the simulation model.
Current Section
Speed
Damage
Generators
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Maintenance system issues:
Monitoring frequency
Visual vs. sensor based
Interpretation, processing of monitoring data
Overhaul frequency
Repair or replace decisions
Clustering of damages
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What is in the model up till now:
Material flow representation
Damage types
Damage model
Visual inspection
Sensor based inspection
Simple damage processing
Simple repair and replace decisions
Model combines discrete event simulation and
continuous simulation in a process interaction approach:
Thomas (pseudo language)
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Simulation results
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Conclusions :
A simulation model has been developed that enables the determination
of an optimal maintenance strategy for large scale belt conveyor
systems.
Combine human inspection data and sensor data in an automated
maintenance system
Collect and record on line data with respect to belt load and damage
behavior obtained from sensor measurements and visual inspections
Convert recorder data into statistics to be used for improving
predictions about damage behaviour as a function of time.
Use on line measurements for improving quality of damage prediction
thus saving on operational costs
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10. Idler roll monitoring
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Existing inspection systems
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100 km Phosboucraa system build by Krupp in the 70ties
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CKIT system on Richards Bay Coal Terminal
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Data acquisition and mining
Data acquisition techniques
Data mining I technique of data processing
Data mining II detection of defects
Data mining III data analysis
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Data acquisition technique
Rotating components:
Vibration based
Acoustics based
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Technique of data processing
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1) Fundamental train frequency:
2) Ball pass inner ring frequency:
rot cage
f cos
P
D
1
2
1
f

=
rot ir
f cos
P
D
1
2
N
f

+ =
Detection of defects
N = number of rotating elements
D = diameter of rolling elements
P = bearing pitch diameter
= contact angle
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3) Ball pass outer ring frequency:
4) Ball spin frequency:
rot or
f cos
P
D
1
2
N
f

=
( )
rot
2
2
re
f cos
P
D
1
D 2
P
f

=
Detection of defects, continued
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Outer ring defect:
Inner ring defect:
Rolling element defect:
Cage defect:
rot or
kf nf f =
rot ir
kf nf f =
rot re
kf nf f =
cage
nf f =
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Field measurements
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An intelligent maintenance concept
Model
Planning & control
Simulation settings
Results
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Model
Belt conveyor
Bearings
Maintenance robot
Inspection
Service
Residual life time:
S1 = L + d(L - A)X - f (L-A)
L, Lifetime of the roll
A, Current age of the roll
X, Random variable, sampled from a Normal(0,1)-distribution
d, Deviation, as fraction of the residual lifetime
f, Safety factor, as fraction of the residual lifetime
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Lifetime Estimation
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
0 150 300 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800
Simulation time [days]
L
i
f
e

t
i
m
e

e
s
t
i
m
a
t
e

[
d
a
y
s
]
Lifetime d = 0.25, f = 0.00 d = 0.00, f = 0.25 d = 0.25, f = 0.25 x = y
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Strategy 1: Inspection only forward, data mining
immediately after inspection, servicing if required. Do
nothing on return. It is assumed that the maintenance
trolley has sufficient data processing equipment on
board to perform the data mining function.
Strategy 2: Inspection and servicing both forward and
on return. Data mining right after inspection. It again
is assumed that the maintenance trolley has sufficient
data processing equipment on board to perform the
data mining function.
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Strategy 3: Inspection only forward, servicing only on
return. Data mining after inspection but before return.
In this case data mining is still done on board of the
maintenance trolley, either during inspection or upon
arrival at the tail of the system.
Strategy 4: Inspection only forward, data mining upon
arrival at the tail, servicing on return. In this case data
has to be transmitted to a central computer system
that, after processing the data, dispatches a servicing
list to the trolley.
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Simulation settings
Length 10,000 m
Frame distance 2 m
resulting number of frames 5001
resulting number of rolls 21671

Life time
distribution
LMin LMax Failure
rate
Average
Upper, side rolls
1750 days 2083 days 0.10 1812.4 days
Upper, middle roll
1667 days 2000 days 0.10 1733.5 days
Lower, Side roll
1875 days 2208 days 0.10 1931.1 days

Speed 0.5 m/s
Inspection setup time 30 sec
Inspection time 60 sec
Servicing setup time 30 sec
Servicing time 240 sec

Conveyor belt
bearings
Maintenance robot
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Average cycle time for the robot
Average number of inspections per cycle
Percentage of early replaced rolls
Average time between early replacement and lifetime
roll
Percentage of late replaced rolls
Average time between lifetime roll and late
replacement
Performance indicators:
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Logistic control of maintenance
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Cycle Safety Avg. Nr % Avg % Avg
interval Time Time Inspect Early Early Late Late
0.00 0.00 30 30 60 2.40 3308 100% 15.2 0% 0.2
0.10 0.00 30 30 60 2.39 3313 87% 15.7 13% 26.9
0.20 0.00 30 30 60 2.38 3332 77% 16.9 23% 43.1
Settings Early replaced
d f Inspection
Time
Cycle Late replaced
Deviation in lifetime estimation
Cycle Safety Avg. Nr % Avg % Avg
interval Time Time Inspect Early Early Late Late
0.00 0.25 30 30 60 3.05 6011 100% 24.9 0% 0.0
0.10 0.25 30 30 60 3.02 5876 100% 25.4 0% 0.0
0.20 0.25 30 30 60 2.94 5571 99% 26.8 1% 15.7
Cycle Early replaced Late replaced
d f Inspection
Time
Settings
Safety factor in lifetime estimation
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Cycle Safety Avg. Nr % Avg % Avg
interval Time Time Inspect Early Early Late Late
0.10 0.25 30 30 60 3.02 5876 100% 25.4 0% 0.0
0.10 0.25 20 20 40 2.25 4288 100% 17.0 0% 0.0
0.10 0.25 10 10 20 1.44 2462 100% 8.5 0% 7.5
0.10 0.25 5 5 10 0.98 1380 100% 4.2 0% 8.8
Cycle Early replaced Late replaced
d f Inspection
Time
Settings
Inspection cycle interval
Cycle Safety Avg. Nr % Avg % Avg
interval Time Time Inspect Early Early Late Late
0.10 0.25 30 30 60 3.02 5876 100% 25.4 0% 0.0
0.10 0.25 30 30 fixed 6.86 21671 100% 25.3 0% 0.0
Cycle Early replaced Late replaced
d f Inspection
Time
Settings
Fixed versus flexible inspection plan
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Conclusions:
The technology to set-up an automated maintenance system for
belt conveyors based on the trolley concept is available.
A proper logistic model is required for the intelligent control of
the maintenance trolley and robot, maximizing their performance.
The performance level depends on the accuracy of the remaining
life estimation.
The intelligent maintenance concept also works in case the life
estimator is based on historical data provided by roll/bearing
manufacturers. In that case however, the number of inspections
as well as early replaced rolls will increase significantly.
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Optimize the values for cycle interval, safety time and
inspection time based on case studies
Use flexible cycle times for inspection instead of a fixed
cycle interval
Introduce fixed inspection rounds with low frequency
(cycle time >> 100 days), and use the flexible inspection
strategy in between
Use statistical methods (exponential smoothing, moving
average) to improve the lifetime estimators during the
lifetime of a roll
Introduce new strategies; for instance, decouple
inspection and repair rounds (for cases where inspection
can be automated and repair is manual)
Recommendations:
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Logistic visibility is the extent to which the position or location
of an object, service or information and its status are known
in a logistic system.
Logistic visibility can be improved by using automatic identification technologies
(Auto-ID) and automatic data capture.
Auto-ID technologies include:
bar codes,
smart cards,
voice recognition,
some biometric technologies,
optical character recognition,
radio frequency identification (RFID).
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UHF RFID Systems
Tag (microchip, antenna, battery)
Receiver
Interrogator
Data capture and collection
Conversion data -> information
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The reliability of an RFID system is the extent to which the
system yields the same result in terms of tag identification and
data exchange on successive trials.
The functionality of RFID systems includes the identification
(tag segregation and isolation), read and or write processes.
The RFID radio waves are transmitted at a certain frequency.
The frequency varies from 2 kHz (VLF) to 60 GHz (SHF).
UHF (EU: 865-868 MHz ) tags typically offer better range and
can transfer data faster and are fit for application in logistic
systems.
17/ 04/ 2008 127
Maximizing collected energy
Tag antenna size and shape
Anti-collision protocols
Reading rate
Tag performance
The reliability of RFID systems depends on the quality of the
logistic visibility of objects, which depends on the readability
of the tags attached to those objects. Tag readability is
affected by:
Technical challenges:
17/ 04/ 2008 128
The interest in the application of UHF RFID systems in logistic
systems is increased considerably due to:
the enormous drop of the cost of UHF RFID technology
the tags serial number and the working protocols are coded via
the rules of the electronic product code (EPC)
the ability of technology to acquire a large amount of data in
real time
The ability to gather information other than an objects ID
Application of RFID in Logistic Systems:
17/ 04/ 2008 129
The performance characteristics of RFID systems (tags
and interrogating equipment) depend on:
the application factors,
the particular RF air interface (frequency, modulation,
protocol, etc.)
Important are the test conditions, the definition of the
performance indicators and the number of samples tested at
the same time.
RFID Performance Tests
17/ 04/ 2008 130
Test conditions
SHORT RANGE TEST CONDITIONS
Condition Range Comment
Distance 0 10 meters 3-D (x,y,z)
Tag population 1, 10, 20, 50, 100

Tag geometry Linear, array,
volume

Tag orientation 0, 30, 60, 90 deg,
random
3-D (,,)
Tag volume 0.016, 0.125, 1 m
3

Tag speed 0, 1, 2, 5, 10 m/s
Tag mounting
material
Paper, wood, glass,
plastic, metal

RF environment Benign, moderate,
congested
WLAN, machinery, etc.
Data transaction 1, 8, 16, 32 bytes Read and write
Interrogator
antenna height
0.5, 1, 2, 3 meters Distance above ground
plane (propagative)

17/ 04/ 2008 131
Performance indicators
The reliability of an RFID system was defined as the
extent to which the system yields the same results in
terms of functionality on successive trials.
The functionality of RFID systems includes the
identification, the read, and the write processes and can
be quantified by performance indicators including:
1. the identification range & rate,
2. read range & rate,
3. write range & rate.
17/ 04/ 2008 132
Reliability tests
TU Delft, 3mE RFID laboratory
17/ 04/ 2008 133
17/ 04/ 2008 134
Definition of the communication zone in
X Z direction
Communication zone in TU Delft
laboratory
Typical test results are:
17/ 04/ 2008 135
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Power level of interrogator [W]
R
e
a
d

r
a
n
g
e

[
m
]
A: Interrogator power level Pt to reading range R from
interrogator to tag (Gen 1)
17/ 04/ 2008 136
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Power level of interrogator [W]
R
e
a
d

r
a
n
g
e

[
m
]
Wood
Air
Carton
Stone
B: Effect of mounting material on the read range (Gen 1)
17/ 04/ 2008 137
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
R(z) [m]
R
(
x
)

[
m
]
Readability = 100%
Readability < 100%
C: Communication zone in the z x direction with one tag
(R(z) min is 0.25 m, R(z) max is 3.25 m, R(x) min is 0 m,
R(x) max is +1.0 m and 0.5 m) (Gen 2)
17/ 04/ 2008 138
RFID Technology Integrated in Belt
Conveyors
RFID Belt Rip Detection System
Method for self-synchronizing a conveyor belt sensor system (Goodyear, 2007)
Conveyor belt with carrier tissue in which conductive loops are embedded (ContiTech, 2002)
Existing Technologies
17/ 04/ 2008 139
Existing technologies, disadvantages:
Sensor loops in belting very sensitive to breaking with belt
bending
Sensors do not really add anything. Its just a different way to
identify a position in the belt without needing a line of sight
New direction in technology; use RFID outside the belt itself
and combine RF communication features with real time data
collection.
17/ 04/ 2008 140
RF chip; processor and radio module for communication
17/ 04/ 2008 141
Combine the RF chip with sensor technology for data gathering
17/ 04/ 2008 142
If required use battery power
17/ 04/ 2008 143
Select proper enclosure and antenna arrangement
17/ 04/ 2008 144
Decide on number of required different units (e.g. routers)
17/ 04/ 2008 145
Organize/design
network arrangement
17/ 04/ 2008 146
17/ 04/ 2008 147
17/ 04/ 2008 148
17/ 04/ 2008 149
A
E
D
B
C
F
Option 1: tag to tag communication
17/ 04/ 2008 150
A
E
D
B
C
F
Option 2: tag to router communication
17/ 04/ 2008 151
Option chosen: tag to tag communication
17/ 04/ 2008 152
PC
Modbus Master
server
Enterprise or
Automation
Network
17/ 04/ 2008 153
PC
Modbus Master
server
Enterprise or
Automation
Network
Automatic Network Set-up
17/ 04/ 2008 154
PC
Modbus Master
server
Enterprise or
Automation
Network
Self Healing Network
17/ 04/ 2008 155
Prototypes
17/ 04/ 2008 156
Lifetime Estimation
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
0 150 300 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800
Simulation time [days]
L
i
f
e

t
i
m
e

e
s
t
i
m
a
t
e

[
d
a
y
s
]
Lifetime d = 0.25, f = 0.00 d = 0.00, f = 0.25 d = 0.25, f = 0.25 x = y
Maintenance Control Using RF Based
Systems
T
Normal
0
T
Failure
T
Signal
Simulation Time
Temperature
Signal Interval
SignalTime FailTime
Most important difference: wear pattern
17/ 04/ 2008 157
The settings used in the simulations are
as follows:
Normal operating temperature = 30C
Failure temperature = 80 C
Conveyor length = 10,000 meter
Simulation length = 100 days
Three options as far as temperature
settings are discussed:
1) T1=37, T2=35
2) T1=71, T2=69
3) T1=71, T2=35
17/ 04/ 2008 158
The following performance indicators results are presented:
1. Average cycle time for the robot
2. Average number of inspections per cycle
3. Percentage of early replaced rolls
4. Average time between early replacement and lifetime roll
5. Percentage of late replaced rolls
6. Average time between lifetime roll and late replacement
17/ 04/ 2008 159
Simulation results:
Settings
Safety Safety Monitoring Nr Avg. % Avg % Avg
Time 1 (d) Time 2 (d) interval (h) Cycles Time Early Early Late Late
37 35 0.00 0.00 24 98 0.52 100.0% 7.0 0.0% 0.0
37 35 0.25 0.00 24 99 0.52 100.0% 7.1 0.0% 0.0
37 35 0.50 0.00 24 99 0.52 100.0% 7.0 0.0% 0.0
d f
Cycle Early replaced Late replaced
1)
Settings
Safety Safety Monitoring Nr Avg. % Avg % Avg
Time 1 (d) Time 2 (d) interval (h) Cycles Time Early Early Late Late
71 69 0.00 0.00 24 94 0.52 100.0% 1.2 0.0% 0.0
71 69 0.25 0.00 24 94 0.52 99.6% 1.5 0.4% 0.1
71 69 0.50 0.00 24 98 0.52 99.5% 3.3 0.5% 0.1
Cycle Late replaced Early replaced
d f
2)
Settings
Safety Safety Monitoring Nr Avg. % Avg % Avg
Time 1 (d) Time 2 (d) interval (h) Cycles Time Early Early Late Late
71 35 0.00 0.00 24 16 0.80 99.9% 4.4 0.1% 0.1
71 35 0.25 0.00 24 24 0.69 100.0% 5.3 0.0% 0.0
71 35 0.50 0.00 24 87 0.53 100.0% 6.9 0.0% 0.0
Early replaced Late replaced
d f
Cycle
3)
4-7 days 0% 35

71

3
1 3 days 0%-0.5% 69

71

2
7 days 0% 35

37

1
Waste Failure T2 T1 Setting
Summary:
17/ 04/ 2008 160
Comparison of technology:
Cycle Safety Avg. Nr % Avg % Avg
interval Time Time Inspect Early Early Late Late
0.10 0.25 30 30 60 3.02 5876 100% 25.4 0% 0.0
0.10 0.25 20 20 40 2.25 4288 100% 17.0 0% 0.0
0.10 0.25 10 10 20 1.44 2462 100% 8.5 0% 7.5
0.10 0.25 5 5 10 0.98 1380 100% 4.2 0% 8.8
Cycle Early replaced Late replaced
d f Inspection
Time
Settings
Performance comparable; different control settings
17/ 04/ 2008 161
Conclusions
The technology for smart rolls and the required maintenance
procedure control have been developed.
The smart roll technology used fundamentally differs from the
trolley based vibration technology, e.g. reliability and equipment
used differs.
Performance of both technologies comparable, only the trolley
cycle time differs.
With the smart rolls a failure rate of 0% can be achieved
assuming that the safety temperatures are set correctly.
With the smart roll system the waste, in terms of days of early
replacement, can be reduced to a minimum.
17/ 04/ 2008 162
Smart roll technology in its current state is too expensive. This
will improve when rolled out on a large scale. More industrial
partners will be involved in the future.
Simulation is an excellent tool to determine the correct settings of
the monitoring system.
The time available between a possible failure warning and the
final failure is much shorter when temperature monitoring is used
than is the case when using vibration monitoring. This may have
an affect in practice on the failure rates. This needs to be
investigated in practice.
Conclusions, continued;
17/ 04/ 2008 163
11. Managing data
On-line monitoring versus off-line monitoring
Amount of sensors versus amount of information
From managing data to applying knowledge
Cost of monitoring
Structure of Intelligent Conveyor Belt Monitoring system
Knowledge based expert system
17/ 04/ 2008 164
From managing data to applying knowledge
Data
Recorded, classified, and stored things, events, activities and/or
transactions;
No specific meaning;
Numeric, alphanumeric, figures, sounds, images, etc.
On-line / off-line
I nformation
Data that has a meaning for the recipients intended actions or
decisions;
Confirms something the recipient knows;
Reveals surprising things the recipient not known.
Knowledge
Organized and processed data and/or information;
Conveys understanding, experience, accumulated learning and
expertise;
Application of data and information in making a decision.
17/ 04/ 2008 165
A knowledge-based expert system
for intelligent belt conveyor monitoring
Input from the ERP system
Input from human inspectors in e-format
Conveyor belt monitoring & control system
Brake system monitoring & control system
Drive system monitoring & control system
Pulley system monitoring & control system
Take-up system monitoring & control system
Idler roll monitoring & control system
17/ 04/ 2008 166
M
o
n
e
y
Monitoring system complexity
Net savings (ROI>0)
Loss (ROI<0)
Loss (ROI<0)
Investment in life cycle costs
Life cycle costs savings
Costs of monitoring
17/ 04/ 2008 167
Sensor
(Transducer)
Signal
Conditioning
A/D (D/A)
Converter
Computer
DAC
Structure of ICBM
17/ 04/ 2008 168
Local DCom
(meters)
Room-Local DCom
(10s, 100s meters)
Remote DCom
100s, Ks meters
17/ 04/ 2008 169
Algorithms
17/ 04/ 2008 170
KMF KBS DaMi AI/ES ICT DT modeling
Knowledge
Management
KMF: Knowledge Management Framework
KBS: Knowledge Base System
DaMi: Data Mining
AI/ES: Artificial Intelligence / Expert System
ICT: Information Communication Technology
DT: Database Technology
17/ 04/ 2008 171
Application
Field
DAC DCom DAN DM
Raw
Data
Sensory
System
Parsed
Data
Remedy
Information
Operator
Software
Interface
Knowledge
Expectation
Knowledge
Arbitration
Knowledge
17/ 04/ 2008 172
A KBS is a computer system in which some symbolic
representation of human knowledge is applied, usually
in a way resembling human reasoning, to perform
tasks instead of employing more algorithmic methods.
ES is system which are capable of offering solutions
to specific problems in a given domain or which are
able to give advices, both in a way at a level
comparable to that of experts in the field.
Knowledge based expert system (KBES)
17/ 04/ 2008 173
The KBES effectively stores and applies the successful
experience and expertise of domain specialist for
improving the performance of a conveyor belt system. The
KBES consists of two procedures:
1. The case-based reasoning case retrieval procedure (CBR).
2. The knowledge-based case adaptation procedure.
17/ 04/ 2008 174
The case-based reasoning (CBR) case retrieval
procedure carries out case matching and retrieving
by similarity evaluation and hierarchical indexing
organization (two steps).
The knowledge-based case adaptation procedure is
designed to reconcile the discrepancy between the
currently monitored situation and a retrieved past case
(one step).
17/ 04/ 2008 175
Case based reasoning Case adaptation procedure
17/ 04/ 2008 176
Event identification
New situation has a set of parameters called events: S
e
Event i has behavior j that belongs to category C
e
17/ 04/ 2008 177
Case representation
} C j , S i | ) j , i ( MS { MS
e e n n
=
A monitored operational situation (the n
th
) can be
represented as follows:
17/ 04/ 2008 178

=
vibration _ pulley
speed _ belt
S
e
For example:

=
vibration _ pulley
speed _ belt
S
e

=
g sin decrea g sin increa state _ steady zero
g sin decrea g sin increa state _ steady zero
C
e
MS1={(belt speed, increasing),
(pulley vibration, increasing)}
In total:
17/ 04/ 2008 179
Event quantification
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Time(s)
S
p
e
e
d
(
m
/
s
)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Time(s)
S
p
e
e
d
(
m
/
s
)
?
17/ 04/ 2008 180
A fault can be quantified by a probabilistic analysis.
For example the belt speed can be assessed by:
) time stop desired time stop actual ( when ,
time stop desired
time stop desired time stop actual
) beltspeed ( P
n
n
n
>

=
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Time(s)
S
p
e
e
d
(
m
/
s
)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Time(s)
S
p
e
e
d
(
m
/
s
)
17/ 04/ 2008 181
Case representation
17/ 04/ 2008 182
17/ 04/ 2008 183
Case base organization
17/ 04/ 2008 184
25 . 0 ) ( bs P 5 . 0 ) ( 25 . 0 < bs P
75 . 0 ) ( st P 75 . 0 ) ( 5 . 0 < st P
17/ 04/ 2008 185
Similarity measurement &
case retrieval
17/ 04/ 2008 186
)) j , i ( MS ), j , i ( MS ( MF MF
n p i
=
To evaluate the similarity between a past case and the new
case, match factors (MF) are used.

=
i
n
i
n p i n
n p
) i ( P
)) j , i ( MS ), j , i ( MS ( MF ) i ( P
) C , C ( S
Consequently the similarity between the past case Cp and
the new case Cn is defined as:
17/ 04/ 2008 187
9672 . 0
002 . 0 588 . 0 832 . 0 134 . 0 078 . 0 12 . 0
002 . 0 994 . 0 588 . 0 902 . 0 832 . 0 691 . 0 134 . 0 733 . 0 078 . 0 879 . 0 120 . 0 844 . 0
=
+ + + + +
+ + + + +
= S
17/ 04/ 2008 188
Case based adaptation procedure:
- statistical heuristics
- rule based reasoning
17/ 04/ 2008 189
Heuristic adaptation:
- trending analysis
- correlation analysis
- cluster analysis
- regression models
- causal modeling
A
B
17/ 04/ 2008 190
What if a system is too complex to understand
as a whole (for example an aircraft)?
What is the relation between the operator and
the system?
17/ 04/ 2008 191
17/ 04/ 2008 192
Knowledge based systems are widely used in other research
fields.
Well accessible and extensive knowledge of domain specialists
and past successful experiences can be accumulated and reused
continuously and consistently.
Deviations in expertise among different operators or lost of
domain knowledge can be overcome.
Human efforts can be reduced with the assistance of an
intelligent monitoring system.
Challenges are building-up sufficient knowledge bases and ensure
acceptance by operators
Conclusions:
17/ 04/ 2008 193
In order to limit the initial
complexity and to prove the
technology we focused
on the brake as a rather
complex component.
The central research question
is how to build up a knowledge
base in situ?
17/ 04/ 2008 194
The intelligent brake project
Goal: investigate whether a knowledge based system can
be prepared before installation in the field.
Before: determine the important sub-systems that play a
role in the performance of the brake.
Step 1: build-up a list of possible ways of malfunctioning
and causes.
Step 2: build-up a list of required information to distinguish
between possible causes.
Step 3: Build a detailed model of the system under
consideration.
Step 4: make knowledge based expert system.
Step 5: use model to build up knowledge base.
Step 6: test knowledge based expert system.
17/ 04/ 2008 195
Mechanical part
Electrical part
Hydraulic part
17/ 04/ 2008 196
v
brake disc
[rad/s]
PWM [V]
p
oil
[Pa]
F
brake
[N]
17/ 04/ 2008 197
First step: building up a list of problems with possible causes
Result Cause Measurement
Oil, paint or grease on
brake disc or pads
Braking time will increase.
The disc velocity will be too high.
The pressures are correct.
Visually check.
Damaged spring The spring force will be lower than it was.
The braking time will increase.
The pressures are correct, although the braking force
is too low.
Less pressure required to compress the springs.
The air gap will be smaller than it was adjusted.
No relevant changes in pad wear during the period in
which the above stated changes occur.
Insufficient output forces
and torques (insufficient
pressure), long braking
time or insufficient braking
force
Air gap between brake
pad and disc too large
Air gap distance too large.
Braking time will be too long, if the system brakes at
all.
The pressures are correct, although the braking force
is too low.
Air in hydraulic It takes much more time to compress air than oil,
therefore:
The pumping time increases.
The brake will react much slower.
The air bubbles will dampen vibrations in the
hydraulic.
Brake applies slowly
(insufficient flow or no
flow)
Air gap between brake
pad and disc too large
Air gap distance too long.
Braking time will be too long, if the system brakes at
all.
The pressures are correct, although the braking force
is too low.
Uneven pad wear Pad thickness differs if you compare different spots.
Air gap gets too large, at one spot more than on
another.
Heavy pad wear The brake does not lift
properly
Pad thickness decreases fast.
Air gap increases fast.
Braking force decreases fast.

17/ 04/ 2008 198
Second step: building up a list of required information
to distinguish between possible causes.
I ndicator for failure causes in hydraulic brake system Sensor to measure indicator at test arrangement

Pressure in main accumulator Hydraulic pressure sensor at pressure port 40
Pressure in brake Hydraulic pressure sensor at pressure port P2
Spring constant Hydraulic pressure sensor at pressure port P2 to measure the
lifting pressure of the brake
Pumping time and number of times the pump starts pumping Volt-meter over power supply line to the pump
Pressure switch output signal Volt-meter over line between pressure switch and pump
Disc velocity Incremental encoder at the axe of the disc
Valve position Not possible to measure
Air gap distance, will only change due to wear
Brake pad thickness or wear results in a certain travel distance
of the spring, x.
Analogue on/off and pad wear indicator on the brake
Braking force Measure brake torque by mounting brake on torque plate with
torque transducers
Fluid level in tank Level and thermo switch in the tank
Output tachometer Secondary incremental encoder on the main incremental
encoder
Pad temperature Temperature sensor in pad
Disc temperature Infrared sensor
Power supply Volt-meter over power supply line

17/ 04/ 2008 199
Third step: make model of system.
17/ 04/ 2008 200
Spring
Cylinder
Oil chamber
Piston
17/ 04/ 2008 201
Disc brake
17/ 04/ 2008 202
Fourth step: make knowledge based expert system.
17/ 04/ 2008 203
Fifth step: use model to build up knowledge base.
{{ {{{
VH H M L VL
{
{
{
{
VL
L
M
H
VH
17/ 04/ 2008 204
Sixth step: test knowledge based expert system
17/ 04/ 2008 205
17/ 04/ 2008 206
Final step: putting it into practice!
Problem: less braking force!
Cause:
17/ 04/ 2008 207
12. Application of fuzzy logic
17/ 04/ 2008 208
Fuzzy sets were introduced by Zadeh as a methodology of
representing and manipulating data that was not precise,
but rather fuzzy. (The first literature: L. A. Zadeh, Fuzzy Sets,
Information and Control, Vol. 8 1965, pp. 338-353)
17/ 04/ 2008 209
17/ 04/ 2008 210
Let X be a non-empty set. A fuzzy set A in X is characterized
by its membership function:
Basics:
] 1 , 0 [ X : A
and A(x) is introduced as the degree of membership of
element x in fuzzy set A for each . The value zero is
used to represent complete non-membership, the value one
is used to represent complete membership, and values in
between are used to represent intermediate degrees of
membership. A mapping of the fuzzy set is also called
the membership function of a fuzzy set.
X x
17/ 04/ 2008 211
The concept can be illustrated with an example. Let's consider
peoples age in terms of "youthness". In this case the set A
is the set of people. A fuzzy subset Y (young) is also defined,
which answers the question "to what degree is person x young?
To each person, we have to assign a degree of membership in
the fuzzy subset Y. The easiest way to do this is with a
membership function based on the person's age x.

>
<

=
30 0
30 20 10 / ) 30 (
20 1
) (
x if
x if x
x if
x Y
A graph of this looks like:
17/ 04/ 2008 212
17/ 04/ 2008 213
Given this definition, here are some example values:
Person Age degree of youth
--------------------------------------
Johan 10 1.00
Edwin 21 0.90
Parthiban 25 0.50
Arosha 26 0.40
Chin Wei 28 0.20
Rajkumar 83 0.00
So given this definition, it can be said that the degree
of truth of the statement Edwin is YOUNG" is 0.90.
17/ 04/ 2008 214
Why do we need fuzzy sets in belt conveyor inspection
and maintenance procedures?
Objectification of inspection results
Consistent results between different inspectors
Approach gives a straight forward advice
Allows fuzzy interpretation of observation
Allows combination with other information sources
17/ 04/ 2008 215
Assume someone wants to evaluate the condition of cracks on the
conveyor belt surface. The condition can be represented as a fuzzy set on a
universe of crack sizes. For instance, a Big Crack is roughly interpreted as
follows:
Below 10cm cracks are considered as small. Sizes make almost no
real difference to inspectors eyes;
Between 10cm and 15cm, a variation in the size induces a weak
preference to evaluate the crack as big;
Between 15cm and 20cm, a variation in the size induces a clear
preference to evaluate the crack as big;
Beyond 20cm cracks are always considered big.
17/ 04/ 2008 216
Other membership functions:
17/ 04/ 2008 217
Application of fuzzy sets to calculate a belt wear index
Location factor (concentration factor) : LF
Intensity factor (type of damage) : IF
Extension factor (size of damage) : EF
Accumulation factor (growth of damage) : AF
Question: how can we assess the degree of damage of
the belt and what can be said about the interval
between todays inspection and the following
inspection?
Assume four fuzzy sets:
17/ 04/ 2008 218
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
x (% of belt width) [-]
L
F

[
-
]
17/ 04/ 2008 219
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
x (% of cables in belt) [-]
E
F

[
-
]
17/ 04/ 2008 220
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
slight smooth irregular uneven broken
Intensity [-]
I
F

[
-
]
17/ 04/ 2008 221
Belt wear index I
r
is defined as:

=
i
i
i
i i
r
w
DF w
I
where
w
i
the weight of the i
th
damage factor
DF
i
the i
th
damage factor (LF, IF, EF)
17/ 04/ 2008 222
Example of a first inspection:
Belt section with a smooth round gap of 5 cables (d/B,
e.g. d = 50 mm, B=1000 mm, N = 100 cables) on 25 %
(x/B, x = 250 mm) of the belt width.
Assume: w
LF
=2, w
IF
=1, w
EF
=3, the belt wear index then is:
B
x
d
17/ 04/ 2008 223
55 . 0
3 1 2
5 . 0 * 3 4 . 0 * 1 7 . 0 * 2
w w w
EF w IF w LF w
I
EF IF LF
EF IF LF
r
=
+ +
+ +
=
+ +
+ +
=
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
x (% of belt width) [-]
L
F

[
-
]
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
x (% of cables in belt) [-]
E
F

[
-
]
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
slight smooth irregular uneven broken
Intensity [-]
I
F

[
-
]
The belt wear index is 0.55, but what does that mean?
Do we need to repair this damage or not?
17/ 04/ 2008 224
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
Ir [-]
R
e
p
a
i
r

i
n
d
e
x

[
-
To answer this question we need to defuzzification!
If the repair index = 1 then the advice is to repair,
if it is zero then the advice is not to repair.
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Belt section with a smooth round gap of 8 cables (d/B,
e.g. d = 80 mm, B=1000 mm, N = 100) on 20 % (x/B,
x = 200 mm) of the belt width.
In this case, the belt wear index is:
B
x
d
Example of a second inspection:
17/ 04/ 2008 226
73 . 0
3 1 2
8 . 0 * 3 4 . 0 * 1 8 . 0 * 2
w w w
EF w IF w LF w
I
EF IF LF
EF IF LF
r
=
+ +
+ +
=
+ +
+ +
=
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
x (% of belt width) [-]
L
F

[
-
]
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
x (% of cables in belt) [-]
E
F

[
-
]
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
slight smooth irregular uneven broken
Intensity [-]
I
F

[
-
]
The belt wear index is 0.73;
Do we need to repair this damage or not?
17/ 04/ 2008 227
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
Ir [-]
R
e
p
a
i
r

i
n
d
e
x

[
-
The answer is yes!
17/ 04/ 2008 228
More damage types
Mobile inspections
17/ 04/ 2008 229
What about the interval between inspections?
For that purpose the AFs can be used.

=
i
i
i
i i
f
w
AF w
I
t
EF EF
AF
t
IF IF
AF
t
LF LF
AF
t t t
EF
t t t
IF
t t t
LF

=
+
+
+
Assume t=0.5 (0.5 year)
and w
LF
=4, w
IF
=1, w
EF
=8
then the belt inspection index is:
17/ 04/ 2008 230
6 . 0
5 . 0
5 . 0 8 . 0
t
EF EF
AF
0
5 . 0
4 . 0 4 . 0
t
IF IF
AF
2 . 0
5 . 0
7 . 0 8 . 0
t
LF LF
AF
t t t
EF
t t t
IF
t t t
LF
=

=
=

=
=

=
+
+
+
43 . 0
8 1 4
6 . 0 * 8 0 * 1 2 . 0 * 4
w w w
AF w AF w AF w
I
EF IF LF
EF EF IF IF LF LF
r
=
+ +
+ +
=

=
The frequency index is 0.43, but what does that mean?
Again this needs defuzzification.
17/ 04/ 2008 231
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
If [-]
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

i
n
d
e
x

[
-
Frequency index = 0; no change required
Frequency index = 0.25; reduce inspection interval by 12.5%
Frequency index = 0.5; reduce inspection interval by 25 %
Frequency index = 0.75; reduce inspection interval by 37.5%
Frequency index = 1; reduce inspection interval by 50 %
17/ 04/ 2008 232
To get more insight in damage developments a combination
between all presented technologies is implemented.
Belt condition
monitoring
ERP