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ImamSadiq Author:ShaykhMuhammadalHusseinalMudaffar THEPUBLISHER'SWORD DEDICATION PREFACED AHLAL.BAYT(THEMEMBERSOFTHEHOUSE) THEUMAYYAD BANUALABAS WHATWASTHECRIMEOFAHLALBAYT? THERELIGIOUSSCHOOLSANDSECTS THESALIHIYA THEMIMAMATE WHOWASALSADIQ?

WHOWASALSADIQ? THEPROTECTION ALSADIQANDTHEADVERSITIES ALSADIQ'SATTITUDESWITHALMANSURANDHISGOVERNORS ALSADIQINIRAQ HISSCIENTIFICLIFE Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

ISLAMICJURISPRUDENCE AlIhIKlja(MYROBALAN) HOWDIDALSADIQBECOMEASCHOOL? HISDEBATES HISLIFEANDHISGOODMANNERS HISMIRACULOUSACTS HISCHOSENWORDS HYPOCRISY HISCOMMANDMENTS SOMEOFILLSCOMMANDMENTSTOHISSHIA SUPPLEMENT HISSAYINGS SUPPLEMENT HISBIRTHANDHISDEATH HISCHILDREN SUPPLEMENT HISNARRATORS THESHIITEFAMOUSRELIABLENARRATORSOFALSADIQ SUPPLEMENT HISRELEASEDSERVANTS Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

TOTHEGENTLEREADER THEPUBLISHER.SWORD
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Gentlereader, Thisbook,betweenyourhands,isamongthemasterpiecesofthelateshaykh MohammedHusaynalMuzaffar.TheShaykhwasaprominentscholarwith outstandingmerits.HerenderedgreatservicestotheMuslimworld.Amongthemis thisbookhehaswrittenonImamalSadiq,peacebeonhim,toshowhisuniqe qualities. Thebook,writteninArabic,waspublishedseveraltimesbytheTheologicalSchoolin Najaf.ThenithasbeenpublishedbytheTheologicalSchoolinQum. Becauseofthehistoricalimportanceofthebook,wehavedecidedtopublishitin EnglishtoavailMuslimsallovertheworld.Besideswehaveshortenedsomeofits subjectsoasnottobeboring. So,gentlereader,readthebookcarefullyandsendusyourviewpointsand suggestionstoputthemintoeffect,forastheysay:.Manyheadsarebetterthanone.. Thankyou. DEDICATION MymasterAbflAbdAllah:Iraisethesepiefpageswithbothmyhandstodedicate themtoyourexaltedholiness.IamsurethatIamnotamongthosewhomatchthese highascents,orwhosegoodsaresoldinsuchanexpensivemarket,but1amcleaving Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

tothehandleofthispureprogeny,holdingfasttothisBlessedTree,andhopingvery muchtobeamongthoseluckyoneswhoservethem.Thisbook,whichisbetweenmy hands,istheresultofmycollecting,writing,andcommentingandthevalueofeach personiswhathedoeswellthenifthereisagoodfeatureinit,itisfromyouandto you;ifthereisaslipinit,itisfrommydisobedientpen.Stillyouarethebestin forgivingshortcomings.Myhopeisthatyouwillbekindenoughtobuythesegoods fromyourfollower.Itspriceisyouracceptance.Howhighthispriceis! Yourservant, MohammedalHusaynaIMuzaffar

PREFACED AsunderstandingthelifeofthislmamneedsstudyingtheaffairsoftheOmayyadand theAbbasiddynastieswhenAbAbdAllah,peacebeonhim,lived,theattitudeof thesetwopowerstowardsthemembersoftheHouse(ahlalBayt),thenumberof ahlatBayt,thereligioussectsandschoolsduringhislifetime,andtheopinionsof peopleaboutthelmamate,itisnecessaryforustomentionthesesubjectsinthe preface,becausethroughthemweareabletounderstandhispolitical,scientificand sociallife,andthereasonfor.whichhepublishedsciencesandknowledge,he summonedMuslimstoadoptethicsandmerits,andurgedthemtospreadvirtues secretlyandkeeptheirattributionto(ahlalBayt)secret.Alsohepreventedhis followersfromshowingtheirsupportforthemandgoingfrequentlytothemopenly. Thisiswhatwecalldissimulation(taqiyah). So,throughthispreface,thereaderisawareofthelifetimeofthislmanibeforehe studiesitsdetails. INTHENAMEOFALLAH,THEBENEFICENT,THEMERCIFUL AllpraiseisduetoAllah,theLordoftheWorlds.TheBeneficent,theMerciful.Master oftheDayofJudgment.TheedoweserveandTheedowebeseechforhelp.Keepus ontherightpath.ThepathofthoseuponwhomThouhastbestowedfavors.Not(the Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

path)ofthoseuponwhomThywrathispoughtdown,norofthosewhogoastray. SurelyAllahandHisangelsblesstheProphet;Oyouwhobelieve!Callfor(Divine) blessingsonhimandsalutehimwitha(becoming)Salutation.peacebeuponAlYasin. InTheNameOfAllah,MostGracious,MostMerciful PraisebetoAllah,thelordoftheWorlds.Peaceandblessingsbeuponourmaster MohammedandhisHousehold. TherankandpositionoffmamAbaAbdAllahJa.farb.MohammedalSdiq,peace andblessingsbeuponhim,isnothidden.AllMuslims,thepioneersofscience,and thelike,knowthathewasthetorchofguidanceandthelampofthereligionthat spreadduringhislifetimeandwhoselightsradiatedallovertheworld.Inthe meantimethetransmittersoftraditions,therepresentativesofthescienceofHadith (tradition),andthetheologiansofShi.aandnonShi.agraduatedfromhisschools. AswearenotabletoknoweverythingaboutthisgreatIslamicfigure,thenwewill takeaglanceathislifetime. Forthisreason,theFoundationhasprintedthebookofthescholar,theresearcher ShaykhMohammedalHusaynMuzaffar,becausehehaspieflystudiedmany achievementsofImamalSdiq,peacebeonhim,suchashisscientificschools,his debates,hissermons,hissayings,andthosewhohavenarratedahadeethonhis authorityfromamongShiaasandnonSha.as. WeimploreAllah,theExalted,tograntussuccesstopublishIslamicbooksandoffer themtothepioneersofknowledgeandthetheologicalschools,verilyHeistheLord ofsuccess. AHLAL.BAYT(THEMEMBERSOFTHEHOUSE) WhowereAhlatBayt? TheHolyBooktellsusabouttheWordsofAllah,theGreatandAlmighty,concerning them:.Allahonlydesirestokeepawayuncleannessfromyou,Omembersofthe House!andtopurifyyoua(thoroughpurification)..[1]aItisavirtueforthem.Noone ofallpeoplehasthisvirtue. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Thereisnodignitymorepreciousthankeepingawayuncleannessfromthemand purifyingthemfromalldefects,thatisthepurifyingwhichtheMostkind(Allah)likes forthemwithHiscare,anditisnotlimitedtoacertainuncleannessorfromacertain thing.So,itimpliesgeneralpurifyingfromeverydefectandsin. Fromthisholyverse,weconcludetheinfallibilityofthemembersoftheProphetic House(.aMalBayt,),becauseeverysinisuncleannessandcommittingsinsdoesnot agfeewiththeirkeepingawayfromthemandtheirpurificationfromthem,so,they are,accordingtothisversepurifiedfromuncleannessandsins.Isinfallibilityathing behindthis? Yes,allimportanceisintheconcernedpersonswiththisvirtuewhichnooneofthe communityhad,exceptthem. DoesthisvirtueconcernthosewhowereintheHousewhentheabovementioned HolyVersecamedownordoesitconcerneveryonewhobelongedtothemost purifiedProphetbecauseofacertainaffinityorancestry?Ifthesecondquestionis accepted,thentherealityopposesit,becausesomeoftheProphet.swivesdisobeyed him,andnouncleannessisgreaterthanthisdisobedience.So,certainlyhiswivesare notconcernedwiththisvirtue.AlsosomeofthosewhobelongedtotheProphet becauseofancestrycommittedgravesinsandcrimes,anditisnotrightthatAllah, theAlmighty,wantstodoathingbythecreationwill,[2]butthethingdoesnot happen.AsitisimpossiblethatAllahwantstocreateathingandthethingdoesnot happen,soalltheProphet.swivesandalltheHashimitesarenotincludedinthe foregoingverse,becausethewomenandtheHashimitesmightconunitwhat conflictswithpurification,besidesnoonehassaidthatallhiswivesandallthe Hashimiteswereinfallible. Andiftheintendedmeaningintheversewasthelegalwill,thennosensewouldthe willofpurificationconcerningthemembersoftheHouse(ahlalBayt)havebecause Allah,theExalted,wantsitfromallpeople. AstheverseconcernstheoutstandingmeritofAhlalBayt,itindicatesthatthe creationwillisconfinedtothem.Thenthelegislationwillisrelated 1AlAhzab:33. 2ThecreationwillisrelatedtotheActofthewilier(Allah)Himself;legislationwillis

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relatedtotheactsofhumanbeings,itconcensthereligiousobligations. (22) totheactsofcreatures,whiletheverseconcernstheactofAllah.Therefore,ifthe versewasrelatedtothelegislationwill,He(Allah)wouldsay:.Goandpurifyyourself.. So,thereisnodoubtthattheconcernedpersonsintheversearethosewhohave beenmentionedinthefirstquestion,namelytheintendedmeaningoftheverse referstocertainpeople,andtheywerethosewhowereintheHouseofourmaster Mohammed,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,wherehecoveredthemandhimself withhiscloak(kisa.).So,theversewassentdowntothemandconcerningthem. Theywere.Ali,Fatima,andtheirsons,peacebeonthem.Moreoverthecorrect traditionsofthetwoparties(ShVaandSunna)affirmthat. Andiftherewasnoreligioustextthatdenotesthattheverseconcernsthem(ahlal Bayt),ththeirbehaviorwouldbethegreatestevidencefortherelationbetweenthem andtheverse,becausetheiractionsandsayingsforceustoadmittheirhonesty. Thisplaintruthhasbeenwellknownfortheclearheadedpersonssincethe revelationofthisclearversetilltoday.Theycertainlyknowthatthemembersofthe House(ahlalBayt)werethepeopleofthecloak(kisa.),whohadcountlessnoble qualitiesofwhichwerepurificationfromdefectsandtakingawayuncleannessand sins. Yes,maybe,someoftheHashimitesmadeuseofthegeneralsenseoftheword(ahlal Bayt)toachievetheiraimsandtoreachthethrone,soalltheHashimitesusedthis versetoconvincepeopletofollowthem. Alsotheword.Shi.ism.(tashayy.)maybeusedtoreferto.Aliand(themembersof the)House(ahlalBayt)inthegeneralsense,notthemembersofthecloak(kisa.)and thelmamsfromthesonsofalHusayn,peacebeonthem,butthepersonswhomthe floodsoftherabbledonotdeviatethemfromthetruth.PeopleknewthatShi.ism (tashayy.)waslimitedtothosecertainlmamswhensilencespreadoverthemafter thefirstonethirdoftheAbbasiddynastywhentherevoltsoftheAlawidswereover. OurevidenceisthattheAbbasidwereabletodestroytheMarwanidynastyandto takethereinsofgovernmentbyusingthewords(ahlalBayt).TheAbbasidusedthese wordstomaketheheartsofShT.ainclinetothemandtomakethemapidgetobuild Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

anentityfortheirauthorityandtodestroytheentityoftheOmayyaddynastythat resistedthemembersoftheHouse(ahlalBayt)andtheirfollowersthroughoutits. daysandcoloredthesurfaceofthegroundwiththeirshedblood. ThustheAbbasidsachievedtheirambitionthroughthemembersoftheandtheirthe followersHouse(.ahlalBayt,l.Theyusedthembothasapidgetoachievetheirgoals. Generallyspeakingtheymadeuseofallparties:theAbbasid,theTalibis,theAlawids, theJa.farids,the.Aqilis,theHassanis,andHusaynis. (23) TheneveryHashimiteusedthesamemannertosummonpeopletosupporthisrising. Forexample,AbdAllahb.Mu.awiyab.AbdAllahb.Ja.farrevoltedagainstAbu MusliminKufatheninPersiabecausetheyhadthefollowersofthemembersofthe House(ahlalBag),butAbuMuslimwasabletokillAbdAllahwhenhisfollowers abandonedhim.BesidesZaidandhisson,andthetwopothersMohammedand IpahimrosetotaketheauthorityfromtheenemiesofthemembersoftheHouse(ahl alBayt). Afterthat,peoplerealizedthattheAbbasidsdidnotbelongtothemembersofthe House(ahlalBayt)becausetheypulledouttheswordofaggressionagainstthe membersoftheHouse(ahlalBayt),whowerethekinshipoftheProphet,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily.Moreover,peopleknewthattheAbbasidswantedtoachieve theiraimswhentheysummonedthemtooverthrowtheOmayyaddynastyunderthe pretextofavengingthebloodofthosewhowerekilledin(theBattleof)alTafand thecrucifixionofKanasahandJawzjanandthelike.ThatwasbecausetheAbbasids hadbuilttheirauthorityontheskullsofthosewholovedthemembersoftheHouse (ahlalBayt).Inotherwords,theyshowedthespiteoftheirchestsandtheirevilinner mostthoughtstowardahlaIBaytandtheirfollowers.Besides,Mohammedand lpahimdisappearedwhenalSafahtookthereinsofgovernmentbecausetheywere awareofhisintentionstowardthecloserelativesoftheProphet. TherearemanyproofsfortheirpressureagainstthemembersoftheHouse(ahlal Bayt).Insidethisbookyouwillreadconvincingproofs. TheUmayyad

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(24) WhoweretheOmayyads? TheHolyKoranclearlysays:.AndWedidnotmakethevisionwhichWeshowedya butatrialformenandthecursedtreeintheKoranaswell..[1]Aboutthecauseofthe revelationofthisverse,thebooksofInterpretationtellusthattheProphetdreamt thathesawsomemonkeys,meaningtheOmayyadsacontrollingtheauthorityandgo uponhispulpit.So,itwastheOmayvadswhowerethecursedtree.ThusthePro Allahblesshimandhisfamily,didnotsmiletillhedied.[2] Aphet,mayApartfromthisverse,therearemanyversethatdispraiseandslanderthe Omayyads.See(theBookof)alIIakim,thetraditionabout.AllintheWordsof Allah:.HaveyounotseenthosewhohavechangedAllah.sfavorforungratefulness andmadetheirpeoplealightintotheabodeofperdition;.[3] He(alHakim)said:.Theyarethetwodissolute(tribesjfromQurayshl3anuOniayyah (thesonsofOmayyah/theOmayyads)andbanualMaghirah(theSonsofal Maghirah).(Seealso)theTafsir(interpretation)ofb.JarirconcerningtheWordof Allah:.AndStrivehardin(thewayof)Allah..[4] Hesaid(b.Jarir)i.Surely,thosewithwhom(Allah),theExalted,ordered(theMuslims) tostrivewereMakhzumandOmayyah.[5] ThentheTruthfulProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,saidastheGlorious Korandid:.Allah,curseallbaniOmayyah!.Therearesimilartraditionsconcerning AbuSufyanandhistwoSonsYazidandMu.awiya.Donotforgetwhathas beenieportedfromhimaboutAlAbial.AsespeciallyaboutaIHakamandhisson Marwan.[6] I(theauthor)wonder;whydoestheClearBookpraisethemembersoftheHouse(ahl alBayt)andcursetheOmayyads? DoesAllah,theExalted,praiseAhlalBaytrandomlyandcursetheOmayyads aggressively?ExaltedbeAllahfromthatinhighexaltation. 1Banilsra.il:60. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

2Majma'alBayyan:3/424SharhalNahj:3/488and2/466and467.InhisTafsir,al Shawkanysaid:.TheyareaIAbiAl.as(theSonsofAbiA1.as). 3Apahim:28. 4AlHajj:78. 5TafsiralTibari:17/142. 6Theexpertinthis(subject)doesnotneedreferencesbecausetheyaremany,andI wantedtounderstandsomethingofthat,soseeb.AbjalHadeedinthepreviousfoot note(No.2)and1/361.106and410,and4/148.Seealsoal1sti.abbyb.AbdalBir onMarwan,alHakimfromAbuHurayrahonAlAbiA1.as,Marwan,hisfather,his Sons,andsoon. (25) Yes,surely,itisobediencethatapproachesmankindtotheCreator,andstirely,itis disobediencethatdistancestheslavefromtheCreator;howeverAllahtreatsthe obedientslaveofhisslaveswithaffection,kindness,andmercy,andpunishesthe disaoedientoneoftheminthesamemannerverilyHeentersthepersonwhoobeys HimintoParadiseevenifheisaNegrofromatHabasha(Abyssina),andentersthe personwhodisobeysHimintoHellevenifheisaSayyidfromQuraysh. ThemembersoftheHouse(ahlalBayt)approachedtheHolyPresence,theyfeared HimandobeyedHisorders,soHe(Allah)grantedthemthatmosthighpositionof whichnohumanbeinghas,whiletheOmayyadswentfarawayfromtheCourtof Mercy,theydisobeyedAllah,andwentondisobeyingHim,soHe(Allah)hasdescribed themasthecursedtreeintheKoran,besidestheProphet,mayAllahblesshimand hisfamily,hascursedthem. Andifhistoryhasnottoldusaboutthatdegreeofobediencewhichthemembersof theHouset.ahlalBayt,aachieved,andthedegreeofdisobedienceonwhichthe Omayyadswenton,thesanctificationfromAllahinHisBookforthemembersofthe House(ahlalBayt)willbeenoughforustoknowtheirobedienceandthe disobedienceoftheOmayyads. Youmayunderstandthisconclusionwithoutdeepthinkingwhenyoureadthe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

KoranictextsandtheProphetictraditions.Yes,ifyoustudythoroughlytheOmayyad historybeforeIslamandaftertheendoftheirdynasty,youwillknowthatAllah,the Almighty,andHisApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,haveshownintheBook andtheSunnatheirpasthistoryandinwardthoughtsandtoldusaboutthefollowing Qmayyads. Theirbehaviorwasnotvagueforpeople;neverthelesstheKoranicverseandthe Prophetictraditionshavecometoputanendtothepretextsoftheirfriendsandto refutethestubbornnessoftheirfollowers.Inspiteoftheseclearversesand traditions,theOmayyadsstillhavefriends,followers,anddefenders. Tomaketheheartssureofthistruth,wewillmentionpiefextractsfromthereliable historyaboutthepracticesoftheOmayyads. AbdalMunafdiedandleftsomesons,ofthemwereHashim,atMuttalib,Nawfal, and.AbdalShams.Hashimwasthecleverestandmostmeritoriousofallhis pothers,soQurayshdecidedtogivehimtheresponsibilityofwateringandfeeding pilgrims,hisfatherAbdatMunaf,hadpracticedthesetwojobsbeforehim,so HashimwasasQdrayshthought;moreoverheincreasedthehonorofthisfather whenhedecidedontwo(trading)journeysthewinterjourneywastotheYemen;the summerjourneywastoSham.TheHolyBook(theKoran)hasmentionedthesetwo journeys.Hashim.sintentionfromthosetwojourneyswastoincreasethe (26) moneyofQuraysh,thentheywouldbeabletofeedpilgrims.Thiswasahighvirtue whichHashimwantedtoachieveforhispeople.Andthatwasthecustomofthegreat menwholeadtheirpeopletogreatachievementsandanhonorableloftyposition. Thenheprecededhispeopleinfeedingpilgrimstobeanexampleforthem.Hewas openhanded,sopilgrimsbecamerichbecauseofhisgenerosity.Thenhispoetsaid famouslinesofpoetry.Amongthemis; Amru,theveryhigh,pokeuptheporridgeforhispeople AndthemenofMeccawerehungry 'Amruwithprestigepokeup(hashamma) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

pleadforhispeople WhilethepeopleofMeccawereneedyandskinny. ForthisreasonhewascalledLThshim;thisnewnamereplacedhisoldname. Amru..[1].So,generositywasoneofHashim.svirtuesthatmadehimmasterover Quraysh,themastersofArabs.Thenhispothersdivided.AlMuttalibstoodbyhim, whileNawfalstoodbyAbdalShams. Theycompetedwithhimandtriedtomatchhimwithhisgoodtraits,buttheywere unabletoachievethat,soHashimbecamethematchlessmasterofalBattha. becauseofhisgenerousactsandgoodqualities. WhenAbdalShamsdied,Omayyahappeared.HetriedtooccupyHashim.shighrank becausehisfatherwasunabletooccupyitbefore,buttherewasagreatdifference betweenhimandHashiminageandimportance.Hashimbecameamasterbecause hewasfullofvirtues,whileOmayyahhadnothingtobeamasterexceptmoneyand sons;theywerenotenoughtohelphimtobeamasterwithoutsupremequalities. OnedayOmayyahsoughttovieinnobilitywithHashim.Heacceptedthat,butwedo notknowwhyhewassatisfiedatthatmeasurewhilehewasthemasterofalBattha. andtheShaykhofQuraysh,theonlythingweknowisthatheknewthathewouldwin theroundtohinderOmayyah.sambitionandtohumiliatehisambitioussoul,so HashimwontheroundandexiledOmayyahoutofMedinafortenyears.Inthe meantimeOmayyahwassatisfiedthatHashimwouldbeathim,buthewantedpeople tohonorhimwhentheysaidthatheviedinnobilitywithHashim. When.AbdalMuttalibappearedafterhisfatherHashimandhisunclealMattalib, hegotahigherrankandhighermeritsthanthatofhispeopleandhisancestors,so thewaterofZamzamgushedoutforhim,whilenooneofQurayshhadwonthis honorbeforehim,soQurayshfeltenvytowardhimandtriedtoshareinthishonorof wateringthepilgrims,butherefused,sotheyaskedhispriestHudhaylinShamto judgehim.WhentheysawhismiraclesontheirwaytoSham,theyrefrainedfromhis trialandgavehimZamzamandthewateringofpilgrims. SharhalNahj3/457. (27) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

ItwasheHisMmwhowarnedApaha,theleaderoftheAbyssiansandtheEmirofthe Yemen,whenthelattercamefromtheYemenwithgreatarmytodestroytheHouse (theKaaba)toforcetheArabstovisittheHousehebuiltintheYemen.BesidesAbd aIMuttalibdidnotgooutoftheHouseasQurayshdidwhentheyescapedbecauseof thepoweroftheAbyssinianS,buttheendoftheAbyssinianswasdestructionasthe GloriousBookhasmentioned,.[1]sotheirendhappenedaccordingtothewarningof themasterofAlAbattha.. ForthisreasonQurayshfeltenvytowardAbdalMuttalibforhismiracles,andthe ownerofthevirtueisenvied. Omayyahwasdissatisfiedwithwhathehadfoundasaresultofhiscompetitionwith Hashim,sohetriedtocompetewithAbdalMuttalib.ThenOmayYahforcedAbdal Muttalibtocompetewithhim,butAbdalMuttalibbeathimandexiledhimforten years.AlsoHarbb.OmayyahviedinmoneyandpeoplewithAbdalMuttalib. He(Omayyah)thoughtthathewouldgetahighpositionwiththesethings,notwith virtueandgooddeeds.HetriedtocompetewithAbdalMuttalibforhishighrank becauseofenvyandselfadmiration.AlNafirwasastonishedatllarb.scompetition withShaykhalBattha.,sohesaidtohim: Yourfatherisaprostituteloverandhisfatherischaste AnddrovetheelephantawayfromtheHolycountry. ThislineofpoetrydenotesthatAbdalMuttalibandhisancestorshadtwofamous qualities;Harbandhisancestorshadtwofamousqualities,too. So,theprominentfiguresofQurayshjudgedforAbdalMuttalibinevery competition. DonotforgettheAlliance(hilf)ofalFudool.ItwasthebestallianceQurayshorall Arabsmadetopunishtheoppressorandsupporttheoppressed.TheProphet,may Allahblesshimandhisfamily,entereditbeforeIslam.Afterthathesaidaboutit:.ifI wasinvitedtoasimilarone,Iwouldaccept..ThatwastheAlliancewithwhichal HusaynthreatenedMu.awiyah,Itlookedfortheusurpingtyrants.Howmany plunderedmoneyandusurpedhonoritreturned. AlZubayrb.AbdalMuttalibfoundedtheAllianceofalFudool.TheNawfalisandthe .Hashirnitesdidnotenterit.Thepersonhastherighttoaskaboutthereasonwhy Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

thesepeoplerefrainedfromenteringit:WasitbecausetheHashimtesfoundeditOr becauseitwasasupremevirtueOrwhat? ThesearetheattitudesoftheOmayyadsifyoudigresssomeofthembeforetherise ofthesunofIslam.Thenifyoustudytheirattitudesaftertheriseofthepightsunof Islam,youwillbesurethatthistreeisworthyofrevealingthatHolyverse,because faithdilnotentertheirhearts,theyused 1AlFitChapter. (28) everymeanstoputoutthatpightlight,andtheydidtheactswhichjusticeand manhoodrefuse,andhonorandvirtuehate. AnddoesanyoneforgetwhatAbuSufyandid?HeharmedtheProphetbefore,the EmigrationandinciadpeopleagainsthimaftertheEmigration.TheBattlesofUhid andalAhzab(theallies),(theexpeditionto)alHudaybiyyaandsimilarevents,which historyhasimmortalized,tellyouabouthisattitude(towardtheProphet,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily).He(AbuSufyan)andtheOmayyads,theHashimtes,were theownersofthecaravans(ofcamels)andtheparties.HowdoesthesonofIslam forgetthoseeventswhilehistoryalwaysremindshimofthem?AbSufyanandhis sonMu.wyyahdidnotenterIslamtillitseizedthembytheneck,andtheyfoundno escapefromit.AftertheConquest(alfaith),theWiseProphethabituatedthem(to Islam)withplentifulgivingfromthebooty(oftheBattleof)Hunayn,sogreedhelped fearwiththataffection,buttheirheartswerestillcontainingancientpaganism,envy, spite.Theydidtheirbesttoseizetheopportunitytodeclaremutinytotakethe heritageofthechildrenandtheunclesandthegrandfathers,whosejugularveins thesharpswordsofIslamcut. Nevertheless,AbuSufyanwasnotabletokeepthosepsychologicalspites,sothey appearedintheslipsofhistongue,andmostofthemappearedduringthedaysof. Uthman,.[1]becausehe(AbuSufyan)feltthathewassafeofpunishment,and whoeverfeelssafeofpunishmentmisbehaves.Ofcourse,hefeltsafebecausethe authoritywasinthehandsofhisboysashesaidwhenhekickedthetombofHamzah b.AbdalMuttalibwithhisfoot. AsforhissonMu.wiya,[2]whenheknewthatIslamspread,itsrootsentwined,and itspancheswerehigh,heuseditasameanstouprootit.Mu.awyyahcontrolledthe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

countrywhileIslamwasstillfreshandnew,sohepokeaUitslawsandopposedallits rules,buthedidnotapparentlytakeoffthenooseofIslam.Ofcourse,hedidnottake itoffbecauseitwasthemeansthathelpedhimtoobtainthatwidesupreme authority;theauthoritywhichneitherSakharb.HarbnorOmayyahhaddreamtabout before.Noharmhimbecauseofthatphenomenonbecausethepretextwastohitget hisvastambitionsandtodestroytheloftybasesofIslam. 1AlAghani:9096. 2aboutMa.awyyiahManytraditionshasbeenreportedfromtheProphet,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily.Forexample,.Am.mar,theoppressivegroupwillkillyouin Siffin.. AlSyyfltThasregardedthistraditionasensuredbymanylinesoftransmission.And. Verily,.Allwillwagewareagainstthemutineers(atQasitIn),andtheywillbeMu. awiyaandhissoldiers..SeealsothefollowingvolumesofSharhatNahj: 1/347,463,372,361,355,373,and113,2/102and363,3/443and463and15,4/192. SeealsoAllsti.KbaboutMu.awiva. (29) ItissufficientthatMu.awiyawagedwaragainsttheMasterofprophetswhenhe wagedwaragainsttheCommanderoftheFaithful(AmiratMu.miflin),peacebeon him,aboutwhomtheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,said:.Yourpeaceis mypeaceandyourwarismywar.[1]Afterme,youwillwagewaragainsttheoath peakersofallegiance(atNkithin),theunjust(atQasitln),andtheRenegades(at Mariqin).[2]IfMu.awiyawagedwaragainstAbuatHasan(Imam.Ali),peacebeon him,topunishthosewhokilled.Uthman,thenwhydidheforgivethemwhenhe becamecaliph?I(theauthor)donotknowwhyMu.awiyahwastheguardianof. UthmanwhileatMurtada(Imam.Ati)wastheCommanderoftheFaithfulandtheir Guardian. ByAllah,theaimofMu.awiya,wasnotsovaguethatweshouldproduceevidencefor it.IfhewasnotanenemyforIslamanditsProphet,hewouldnothavesharpenedthe bladetodestroythefamilyoftheProphetwhiletheKoranhassummonedMuslimsto loveandrespectthem,andtheProphethasalsosummonedMuslimstosupportand cleavetothem. They(ahlalBayt)committednocrimeagainstMu.awiyabutbecausetheywerethe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

familyoftheProphet,andthecaretakersofthereligionanditspropagandists.Ifhe (Mu.awiya)hadshakenhandswiththemandforgiventhem,hewouldhavenot obtainedtheauthorityforwhichhewagedwaragainsttheProphetandhislaw.[3] BeforeMu.awiyahperished,hefeltthathedidnotachievehisdesiresthrough wagingwaragainsttheProphetandhismessage,soheauthorizedhissonYazidto fulfillthemafterhisdeath,butYazidhadnotthecunningofhisfather,namelyhewas notabletoputpoisonintohoneytoplotagainstIslam,thenhisintentionsclearly appearedonthepagesofhisacts.AssoonashebecameCaliph,hebeganattacking aIHusayn,thegrandsonoftheProphetthemasteroftheyoungmenofParadise. AlsohebeganattackingthefamilyoftheProphet,thebestofallmenin righteousnessandvirtue.ThenhedidwhathewishedinthecountryofEmigration (DaratHijra)andagainsttherestofthecompanions(oftheProphet).Thereligion, manhood,andchastitydidnotpreventhimfromdoingthat.Moreover,heordered hisfighterstosiegethesacredHouse(theKaaba)andthrowstonesatitinthe mannerthatkilleditsinhabitantsandarchers. WhichfamilydefendedIslamandprotecteditsachievementsmorethenatHusayn andhisfamily?WhichcountryfollowedIslammorethan(thecountryof)thetwoHoly Mosques(atHaramayn)?Didb.Maysn(theson 1MusnadAhmmadb.Hambal:2/442andAsadatGMbah:3/11. 2MaanialAkhbar,204.Sunanb.Majah,8,3950. 3SharhatNahj1/463.MurfljatDhahab:1/341.Inthesetwobooks,thereare reportsdenotethatalMaghTrab.Shu.baregardedMu.awiasdisbelievewhilehe himselfwasadisbeliever,thenhowwasMu.awiya?WoetowhomatNamrud regardedasdisbeliever. (30) ofMaysun)leaveanythingtowagewaragainstIslam,theProphetmayAllahbless himandhisfamily,andhiscompanions?IfwetrytocounttheactsoftheOmayyads, withwhichtheyresistedIslamanditstruthfulOwner,wewillnotbeabletobecause theyaremany,meanwhilewewillbeoutofourpurpose.Yes,thereisnoharmwhen wementionextractstowhichatMaqrtzT,theOwneroftheplans,hasreferredinhis study.AlNiz.WaatTakhasum.andatJahizinhisstudyinwhichhehasgivenan exampleabouttheboastingbetweentheOmayyadsandtheHashimtes,someof Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

whattheyhavementionedisasfollow:.Indeed,baniOmayya(thesonsof OmayyaltheOmayyads)stampedthenecksofthecompanionsanddappledthehands ofMuslimsasamarktoenslavethem,madetheProphetbelowtheCaliph,had sexualintercoursewithMuslimwomeninMuslimcountries(DaralIslam),delayed theprayerpretendingtobebusydeliveringasermon,ateanddrankonthepulpitof theProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily..[1] ThisissomeoftheforbiddenthingsandpeakingoftheIslamiclawwhichtheabove mentionedauthorshavewritten.Iwonder;weretheynotawareofthereligionand itspunishmentsanditsregulationsanditsentries?Itissufficientforthemthatthey wagedviolentwaragainsttheProphet.smission.Furthermore,theyregardedthe missionasasupremeauthoritywithwhichtheHashimitesplayed.Theymadethe Bookatargetfortheirarrows.Theydidtheirbesttotransfertheritualpilgrimageto Jerusalem,thentothemosquewhichtheybuiltinDamascus.Andtheyused mangonelstothrowstonesattheSacredHouse(theKaaba). DonotaskaboutwhatthepurefamilyoftheProphetfaced,startingfromthe crucifiedpersonsofKanasaandJozjan,namelyZaidandhissonYahya,tothepersons killedwithpoison,suchasatHasan,atSajad,atBaqir,peacebeonthem,Abfl Hashimb.atHanafiyyah,Ipahimb.MohammedthepotherofatSaflah,andthe like.Thatisexceptthosewhoweremadehomelessinthehorizons,andthosewho werehiddenintheprisons. .Amrb.AbdatAzizwasthebestoftheUmayyad. Heknewthatpeoplehatedhisfamily.So,hetriedtochangetheiropinionsabout them. Nowonder!PeopleacceptedthegovernmentoftheUmayyadbecause.birdsofa featherflocktogether..Surely,thereligionhasorderedpeopletoconformtopiety secretlyandopenly,justbehaviortowardscloserelativesandthecommonpeople, refrainingfromhiddenandopenlewdness,abstainingfromaggressionduring satisfactionandanger.Howfarpeople 1SharhatNahj:3146g470. (31) stillarefromwhatthereligioncommands!.[1]Inotherwords,thepersonwhofollow Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

hisself(mostsurely(man.s)selfwantstocommand(himtodo)evil)isnotableto followthereligionevenifitpreventshimfromthewaysofappetitesandforbidshim fromoppressionandaggression.Ifpeoplehadwantedguidance,theguardianswould havenothiddenthemastersofjusticeandtruthandfaithandtruthfullness,and thoseguardianswouldhaveacceptednothingfromthembutthesenoblemanners. Indeed,peoplegofarawayfromtheseAlawidvirtuesasthewildanimalgoesfar awayfromtheangelsandastheearthisforfromthestarsofthesky. Ifyoustudytheconditionsofpeoplethoroughly,youwillbesureoftheseProphetic words:. Howeveryouare,(agovernor)isappointedoveryou..[2] Doesthescholaraccepttheignorantpersontorulehim?Doesthejustpersonaccept thecorruptpersontoleadhim? Theguardiansofignoranceandoppressionandcorruptionfoundthattheirmatches supportedthemandkeptsilentfortheiracts,sotheirselvesfolloweddesiresand appetites.Inthemeantime,theirselvessoughttolowerthedignityoftheProphet, mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,declarewaronhismission,andwagedwaragainst hisfamily. Studyingtheselvesandactsofthosepeoplethoroughlyshowyoufaithlessnessand treasonandpartialityformisguidanceagainstguidance,forfalsehoodagainstthe truth.Alsoyouareabouttowonderhowthereligionandthegreatfiguresof guidancehasnotbecomeobliteratedyetaslongasthesupportersofthetruthare veryfeweverywhereandeverytime..Andveryfewofmyservantsaregrateful..[3] Wheredoyoudisappearfromthistruth,whiteonelookatourpresenttimeshows youhowthecompetitionbetweenthetruthandfalsehoodtakeplace,andhowthe second(falsehood)anditssupportershasovercomethefirst(thetruth)?Nowonder, butthewonderisthatthemastersofthetruthsometimesobtainvictory,and falsehoodisabandoned.IfAbuatHasan(Imam.Ali)andatHasanhadobtained victoryoverMu.awyya,andatHusaynoverYazid,thenitwouldhavebeen somethingnewinhistory. ForthevictoryoftheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,afterthosebloody battleswastoprovethisverse:.Thathewhowouldperish 1InhisbookatManqipwaatMathfflib,theEgyptianjudgeAbeHanTfaatNu.man Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

hasfullymentionedthevirtuesoftheHashemiteandthedefectsoftheOmayyads.If youreadthisbook,youwillknowtheuglyactsoftheOmayyads.Ifwewanttosearch more,wewillmentionbooksmorethanthosewehavementionedhere.Butwhatwe havementionedisenoughtoachieveouraim.Theabovementionedbookisstill handwritten.Ithasnotprintedyet.IhaveseenacopiesofitinsomelipariesofNajaf. 2Ahmadb.Hambal.sMusnad:4/437. 3Saba:13. (32) mightperishbyclearproof,andhewhowouldlivemightlivebyclearproof.[1]Ifthe unbeliefovercameIslam,itslightwasnotcompleted,andtheproofwasnot established. Indeed,theTrustyProphetpoughtallmenvirtues,happiness,andgoodmanners. Still,theyhinderedhimhismissionthoughhismissionwasfortheirgoodand happiness.Theyrefusedthosevirtuesbecausetheydidnotmatchtheirbehaviorand inwardthoughtslikeotherpeopleineverytime.Moreover,theyacceptedthat happinesswhentheswordcameovertheirheadsandthewhiphittheirnoses. Nevertheless,theyquicklyturnedBACKupontheirheelswhentheProphetpassed awayretreatingfromthelawsofthereligionwhentheyfoundescapetothat:And Mohammedisnomorethananapostle;theapostleshavealreadypassedaway beforehim;ifthenhediesoriskilled,willyouturnBACKuponyourheels?And whoeverturnsBACKuponhisheels,hewiltbynomeansdoharmtoAllahintheleast; andAllahwillrewardthegrateful.[2] ButthereweregreatfiguresamongtheOmayyads.Theirheartswerefullofbelief. Theystoodbythetruthagainstfalsehood.Nowonder,becauseAllah,theExalted, says:Hepingsforththelivingfromthedead.[3]Thereisnodoubtthatthecurse doesnotincludethembecausetheHolyBooksays:Oyouwhobelieve!takecareof yoursouls;hewhoerrscannothurtyouwhenyouareontheway.[4]Andnosoul earns(evil)butagainstitselfandnobearerofburdenshallbeartheburdenof another.[5] Whoeverdoesgood,itisforhisownsoul,andwhoeverdoesevil,itisagainstit.[6] Thereisnoway(toblame)againstthedoersofgood.[7] Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

******** 1AlAnml:42. 2AlUmren:143. 3AlAnam:144. 4aAlMaida:105. 5aAlAnam:164. 6Fussilat:46. 7AtTawba:91. BANUALABAS (33) (THEABASIDS) TheoppressionoftheOmayyadsincludedallmen.Itwasnotconfinedtothe righteousnortothefamilyoftheChosenProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily. Finallythepeopleofevilhatedthemasthepeopleofgooddid.Namely,onegroup weptforitsreligionandtheotherweptforitslifeinthisworld.Generallyspeaking, peoplesoughtescapetogetridoftheiroppressionandrule. TheOmayyadsthreatenedallthecountryofIslamwiththepeopleofSham(Syria) becausetheyweretheirobedientsoldierswhodidnotdeviatefromtheirQpiIliOn anddidnotdisobeytheirorders.WiththeOmayyadsandthepeopleofSham, MuffwyyawasabletodomiEgypt,Iraq,andaIHijazthoughalHijflzandIraqhad menofopinionandpavery,whosedivisionwasanampilionforthepeopleofSham, whowantedtoaddthemtotheirside.BinZyyadmovedthepeopleofKufaagainst thegrandsonoftheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,withthepeopleof Shambygivingmoney.AbdAlMaliktookIraqandalHijazfromaIZubairwiththose soldiers,too.Generallyspeaking,thepeopleofShamthoughtthattheOmayyads wereworthyoftheCaliphateandobediencewhiletheyweredominatingthevast country. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

WhentheOmayyadsdividedandbeganfightingeachother,thepeopleofSham divided,too.Theirworddisunitedaccordingtothedisunityoftheworldoftheir leader,whomisledthemandwentastraythroughthem. WhentheworldoftheOmayyadsdivided,somepeoplewereambitioustotaketheir supremeauthorityandcountry,butnoonewasabletodeclarehisambitionsbecause Shamfilledtheirheartswithterror. Inthemeantime,menstillrememberedtheircruelty,theiroppression,andtheir soldiers.MendidnotforgettheBattleofKarbala,atwhichtheOmayyadsshowed variouskindsofcruelty,andtheBattleofalHurra,atwhichtheOmayyadsshowed variousmeanactsandimmorality,violatedtheforbidden,andshedinnocentblood. MenwerestillrememberingthattheHouse(theKaaba)wasfirstbesiegedbyYazTd, andthenbyAbdalMalik,Whousedmangonelstothrowstonesatitandsetfiretoit, sotheydemolishedit.Also,menwererememberingthattheOmayyadskilledand burntZayd,killedYahya,andcommittedcrimespayingnoattentiontotheforbidden. So,itwasasifpeople,theexpensive,honor,anddignitywereabaitforthem,anda wayfortheirdesires.Then,duringthoseconditions,howcouldapersondeclarehis enmityfortheOmayyadsorplantooverthrowtheirdynasty? Yes,menthoughtthattherewasnopersonabletotakethecrownsfromthemand deprivethemoftheirauthoritybuttheHashimites,becausethey (34) werethemastersofthatthrone,whetherCaliphatewaswiththetextorblood relationshiportheoutstandingmerit.Thus,menbegansecretlyaskingandurging themtorise. ThereweremanygreatfiguresamongtheHashimites,whowereproperfor leadershipandgoodatmanagementandpolicy.Didthemasterofcaliphateandson oflmamate,AbflAbdAllahJafarb.MohammedalSadiq,peacebeonthem,lead themtorevolt,orAbdAllahb.Hasan,thebestandShaykhofbani(sons)ofalHasan, orhispother,whorefusedoppression,orIpahimb.Mohammed,theAbbasid,orhis twopothersalSaffahandalMansUr,themastersofzealanddetermination,orAbd Allahb.Muwiya,whosenoblequalitiesmadehimworthyofthatposition,orthe like?Ifanyofthemhadnominatedhimselfforleadership,hewouldhaveadornedit withhisnobletraits. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

But,ifaISdiq,peacebeonhim,hadnominatedhimselfforleadership,thennoone wouldhavematchedhimforthat,becauseofhisoutstandingmeritandhismany followers,butheopposedanddidnotanswerthosewhourgedhimtorise. AstheImamdisappointedthem,theytriedtofindanotherfigure.Sometimesthey appointedMohammedb.AbdAllahb.alHasan,sometimesAbflMuslimpropagated fortheAbbsidsinKhurasn,sometimesAbflSalamaalKhallfllpropagatedforal Rida,fromthefamilyofMohammed,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,inKufa,and sometimesb.JafarrevoltedinKufabutdidnotaccomplishhisaim,thenheappeared inPersiabutdidnotachievehisaim,too.So,heescapedandwenttoAbflMuslimin Khurasn,buthewaslikethepersonwhoseeksprotectionwithswelterfromfire, becausehisdeathwasfromhim.Notlongpassedafterthosedisorderlyconditions, theAbbasTdswereabletocontrolauthority. ItwasthefatethatdecidedthematterandputitinthehandsofalSaffahandal Mansr,whoweremovinginthedistricttellingpeopleabouttheoutstandingmerits ofAbflalHasan(ImamAli)toinclinetheirhearts,whoappointedthesonofal HasanonthedayoftheirmeetinginalAbwawithouthesitationtoobtaintherule, whowereunderthestandardofb.Jafarandamongofhissoldierswhenheappeared inPersia.Now,they(theAbbasids)tookthereinsofgovernmentanddismissedthe Omayyadsfromtheirthrones.NoonethoughtthataAbflMuslim,theirpropagandist, killedb.Jafar,theleaderoftherevolt,whiletheywerenothingbuthissoldiers.No onethoughtthatalMansrwithhisswordkilledb.alHasanandhispotherIpahim whompeopleappointedcaliphsanddecidedtodefendtilldeath. Thefateshelped,nooneovercomesfate,theAbbasidtositinthethroneandthe Omayyadstobebygone.So,noregretforthebygone,andno (35) happinessforthecomingdynasty.Acorruptdynastyhadgoneaway,andan oppressivedynastyfollowedit. AlSaffThbecameCaliph,Sotheworldlaughedwithhimafterfrowningandcameto himafterturningaway,butistheperson,evenifhepossessesalltheworld,safefrom themisfortunesofworry?BinAbbassbecamebetweentwoworries.Thefirstworry wastopurifythenationfromtheOmayyadS,andthesecondwastheworryof competitionwithImamAlisSonsforthethrone. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Thethronewhoselegsandbaseswerenotstable.So,histhronequicklyswungasthe revoltsbeganhereandthere.Afterhehadgottenridofhisfirstworry,hissecond worrybegan.Ofcourse,hewasnotsafefromtheAlawidsbecauseapartofthis nationandmanyoftheirsoldierswithwhomtheyoverthrewthethronesofbani (sons)MarwanregardedtheobedienceofAbAbdAllahalSdiq,peacebeonhim, asamust,andtheykilledAbuSalamaalKhallalbecausetheyfeltthathewantedto appointbani(sons)Aliascaliph.ThenalSaffahwasappointedcaliphwhenhe overcamehim,namelyhetookthecaliphatequickly. Also,hewasnotsafefromtheAlawidsbecausepeopleacknowledgedMohammedb. alHasanleaderonthedayofalAbwa,alSaftahandalMansflrshookhandswith him,andhewasworthyofthethronewhichtheysatin.Meanwhile,thosehopes werestillsoundinginhismind,thenwhydidhedisappearwhenalSaftahcameto power?Didntthelionkneeldowntogetreadytojump? BinAbbastriedtogetridofthatworry,sohesentsomementopingalSdiqtoal HTratowatchhimattentively,thoughhedidnothingagainsttheirauthority.When alSadiqarrivedatalHTra,b.Abbaskeptaneyeonhim,butwhenhefoundnothing tobeafraidof,hereleasedhim.So,alSdiqcameBACKtoMedinawhilesuspicions troubledhim. ThenhetriedtocapturethetwosonsofAbdAllahb.alHasan,whowereinahiding placebecausetheywereafraidofhiscruelty.Themorehetriedtofindthem,the moretheydisappeared. TheshortroleofalSaffahended,whilealSadiq,peacebeonhim,waslimitedin MedinaandthesonsofalHasanwereintheirhidingplace.Whenthedaysofal Mansflrcame,hetreatedtheAlawidswithcruelty.HedidnotleavealSadiqresident atthecityofEmigration,ratherhesentforhimfrequently,mistreatedandtriedtokill himeverytime.Hewentonmistreatinghimtillhekilledhimwithpoison. AlMansflrusedallmeanstocaptureMohammedandIpahimsometimes,he declaredsafetyforthem,andsometimestreatedfatherandtheSonsofalHasan cruelly,butthesemeansdidnothelphimtoreachandfindthem.Thenhepoughtthe sonsofalHasantoIraqandleftthemindarkprisons,somostofthemfacedugly death,butMohammedsurprisedhimwhenherevoltedinMedinaandBasrah.That wasthethingwhichhe (36) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

guardagainst,usedallmeanstohinder,andafraidof,butfateovercamehim. BanU(thesons)ofalAbbfissruled,sotheirdeceptionanddisloyaltyappeared.They paidhomagetothesonofalHasan,thentheysparednoefforttocaptureandkill himandhispother.Ibm(thesonof)Abbfisstriedtoshakehandswiththeminpeace, buttheyrefusedbecausetheirselveshadrefusal,honor,andhopeswhichmen supportedtourgthemtorevolt. Eveniftheirrevolutionaryselvessubsided,menmovedthemtorevoltagainstal Mansflr.Theystillhadsuchrevolutionarysoulsuntiltheyrevoltedagainsthimafter thatlongdisappearance. BanT(thesonsof)alAbblissnotonlyactedtreacherouslytowardthebanl(sonsof) alHasanduringtheirrule,butalsoalMansllrbetrayedAbMuslim,thebuilderof theentityoftheirdynasty,killedAbilSalamaalKhallffl,imprisonedYaqflbb. Dawtld,killedalFadlb.Sahl,andthelike.AlsotheytriedtokillthetwoministersAll b.YaqtlnandJafarb.MohammedaIAshath. Also,alMansrbetrayedIsab.MUsa,hiscrownprince.Hedismissedhimand appointedhissonalMahdrinstead.AlManstirhadmadeIsacrownprincebecause thelatterdistinguishedhimselfinbattlewithMohammedandIpAhim,sothathewas abletokillthemanddestroytheirrevoltthatmadealManstirworriedandthinkthat hisrulewouldperish. AlRashTdbetrayedhisBarmakiministersandtheHasaniYahyaaftergivingthem safety.AlAminbetrayedhispotherAlMamunwhenhedismissedhimformthe Crown.AlMamunappointedImamRids,peacebeonhim,thenhekilledhimwith poison. ButtheirgreatestdisloyaltywasthatagainsttheSonsofalHusayn,peacebeonhim. ThefollowersofthesonsofAliwerethesoldiersofthesonsofalAbbas.Aswe havementionedearlier,theyhelpedthemtoremovethedynastyofthesonsof Marwan,andtheirsloganwastorevengethebloodofthemembersoftheHouse(ahl alBayt).NoonebuttheTfflibiyyinwerekilledwiththeswordsoftheOmayyads,no onebuttheAlawidsweretreatedcruellybytheOmayyads.Ifotherthantheyfrom theHashimitesmetsomecrueltreatment,itcertainlywasnotlikethattreatmentthe familyofAbflTalibsuffered. TheA.bbfissTdssummonedpeopletorevenge(thebloodofalHusaynandhis Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

family),ratherpeoplesummonedthem(theAbbassTds)tothat.Thiswasthe strongestmeanstoobtaintheirambitions.Aftertheyhadcontrolledauthority,they beganchasingthefamilyoftheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.Itwasas ifthefamilyoftheProphetcommittedthosehorridcrimesattheBattleofKarbala, capturedthePropheticWomen,andkilledZaydandYahya,andthelike! ItwasasiftheykilledandthecaptiveswerefromthesonsofalAbbffssandthe criminalsweretheAlaatds!AnditwasasiftheAlawidsdidnot (37) movepeopletoavenge(thebloodofalHusaynandhisfamily)andtaketheir heritage! WhentheeventsresultedindismissingtheOmayyads,themembersoftheHouse werethevictimsofthoseevents,namelytheAbbfissrdsdidnothavemercyonthem asaarewardfortheirstruggleagainsttheOmayyads,besidestheAbbassidstookthe reinsofthatvastauthorityfromthem. ThuseverythingwasclearwhentheAbbissTdstookthereinsofgovernment.Mendid notforgetthosecrimestheOmayyadscommittedagainstthemembersoftheHouse. TheAbbasstdscommittedcrimeaftercrimeagainstthemwithoutmercy. Consequently,whydidallthathappen?WhywerethemembersoftheHouse(ahla! Bayt)noothersthanthey,ahouseformisfortunes?Wewilllookforthereasoninthe followingchapter. WHATWASTHECRIMEOFAHLALBAYT? (38) TheGloriousKoranhasmentionedmanyversesaboutahlalBayt(themembersof theHouse). Ithasorderedmentolovethem.Ithastoldthemabouttheirpurity.Ithasuigedmen Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

tocleavetothem.Ithasurgedthemtoobeythem.Ithasdeclaredthattheyhavethe mostoutstandingmeritandposition. Throughouthislifetime,theProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,followedthe HolyKoranshowingthathisfamilygatheredoutstandingmeritsandglorioustraits thatsometimesimposetheirobedienceandfollowingonmenandsometimesbind mentolovethemandsometimesmaketheheartsandselvesofmeninclinetoward them,andsoon.[1] Thatwasforthehappinessofmenthemselvestotakethereligionfromitspeopleand knowledgefromitsorigin.So,itisamustonpeopletorespectthem,cleavetothem, andrefrainfromotherthanthey. AhlalBayt(I.e.Ali,alZahra,theirtwosons,andatHusaynsSons,peacebeon them.)wereaprototypefortheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,inallhis outstandingmeritsandtraits. So,whoeverwantstheknowledgeoftheProphet,theyarethegateofhiscity, whoeverwantshisutterancetheyaretheaspectofhiseloquence,whoeverwantshis goodmannersfindsexamplesfromhisbehavior,whoeverwantshisreligionfinds themthelampsofhislaw,whoeverwantshisasceticismfindsinthemhismethod, whoeverwantstoobeyhisfamilytheyarethechosenofhisprogeny,andwhoever wantstolookathim,theyarethebeautyofhisface.Theseweretheoutstanding meritsofahlalBaytincomparisonwiththoseoftheOwneroftheBayt(House),this issomeofwhattheywereanexampleforhisHolyCharacter,mayAllahblesshimand hisfamily. WhoeverhasarelationwithAllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,can continuethisrelationthroughthem,orisatenmitywithIslamtheyarearighteous numberforit,orisatobjectionwiththereligiontheyarethestrongestshield,orisat warwiththeright,orfollowsthewrongbuttheyaretheenemiesofthewrong. Whengoodwasmentioned,theyweretheguidesforit,orcharitybegan,theywere thestandardforit,orjusticewasspread,theywerethefriendsofit,ormenwentinto gloriousdeeds,theywentdeeperintoit,orthepeopleofboastingcompetedtowin nobledeeds,theyweremorethanthemin 1InourbookAlShTaWaSilsilatUsuraha,Wehavementionedsomeofwhathas comeintheBookabouttheoutstandingmeritsofAhIaIBaytandtheSummonsto

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followthem. (39) round,andiftheyviedinnobility,thestopwouldbewiththem,soeveryvirtue beginsfromthemaiadtothemitbelongs. AsthemembersoftheHouse(ahlalBayt)wereaswehavementioned,BanOmayya (theOmayyads)adoptedahostile,stubbornattitudetowardsthem.TheProphet, mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,killedmanypeoplefromthemforAllah,sothey feltthatitwastimetotaketheirrevengeonahlatBayt. IftheyhadshuttheireyestotheprotectorsofIslamandthepropagandistsofthe religion,thentheProphetwouldhavecomewithhismission,itwasasifthatheand hismemoryhadnotdied,Islamanditslawsanditsregulationwouldhavetakenplace asAllah,theExalted,andtheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamilywanted.If theyhadtakenaneutralattitudetowardsthem,menwouldhaveknownthe outstandingmeritQfahlatBaytandtheirrightwouldhaveappearedfortheworld, nomeanswouldhavestayedwiththeOmayyadswhowentuponthepulpitsofIslam andnopretexttodominatetheMuslimhomelandandenslavepeople. TheOmayyadswerestillshowingandhidingtheirenmityforthemostpureProphet, mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,therewouldhavebeennoheresiesiftheir attitudesforthefamilyofthemissionweregood,andiftheyhadbeencontraryto whatthedaysknewfromthem,thatwouldhavebeeninnovationintheirnaturesand manners. AsforBanflatAbbass(theAbbassTds),whentheyruled(Muslims),andcrossedthe pidgetoachievetheirambitions,thepidgewhichtheybuiltontheshouldersofShTa, andmadeitspillarsoftheskullsofthosesimplepeople,knewthatifthesituation becamecalm,peoplewouldaskthemaboutthetruthanditspositionandthe caliphateanditspeople,becausetheystoodbythemtodestroythethronesofthe Omayyads,revengetheholybloodwhichwasshedwithoutcrime,andfoundthe CaliphateofatRida,whobelongedtothefamilyofMohammed,mayAllahblesshim andhisfamily.Meanwhiletheydidnotriseandresisted(theOmayyads)toappoint BanUatAbbass(theAbbassTds)inplaceofBanflAll(theAlawTds).So,the AbbssTdsdecidedtokillthosemenwhopavedthewayforthemtositinthethrone authority,suchasAbtlSalamaalKhalllandthelike,becausetheywereafraidof thatexamination.Also,theydecidedtolimitBanflAllandwatchandspyonthem, Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

becausetheywereafraidofthosetrendswhichwereontheirminds,orforwhich menurgedthem.Moreover,theydecidedtomuzzletheShTawithterrorismbecause theywereafraidofthatquestionandpunishment.So,thecrimeofBanflAllwith themwasbecausetheywerepeopleofright,andthepeopleofhomageandcaliphate whetherthroughthefamilyrelationshiportextualnominationoroutstandingmerit. (40) TherewasnothingsummoningtheAbbassidstoinflictblowsagainsttheAlawTdsbut becausetheywereworthieroftheCaliphatethanthey,hadaloftypositionamong people,andhadgreatfigureswhomtheheartsdesired.So,theAbbssidstriedtoput downthedignityofthefamilyoftheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,and killthosegreatfiguresunderthepretextofincliningtheheartstowardsthem.They triedtokillthemtopreventtheShVaofahlatBaytfromformingthepowerahlat Baytusedtorevoltagainstthem. ThedifferencebetweentheOmayyadsandtheAabbsidsisasfollows:TheOmayyads wagedwaragainsttheHashimitesfortwothingstogetrevengeforthemselvesfor theProphetandtaketheleadership,whiletheAbbsldswagedwaragainstthemto obtainthethronesandprotectthemonly,namelytheydidnotintendtowagewar againsttheProphetandhismissionthoughtheirwaragainstthemissionandits propagandists. IfyoutakeaquicklookatwhatahlatBaytsufferedbecauseoftheiroutstanding merits,youwillknowhowmenwagewaragainstreligionandhowtheygetusedto theloveofthisworldanditallies,andyouwillknowthattheAbbssidstookthe samecourseastheOmayyadsdidthoughthelatterwagedwaragainstalitaIBayt morethentheformer. (AttheBattleof)Karbala',BanuiOmayyakilledatHusaynb.Au,peacebeonthem,a purechoiceofhisfamily,andarighteouschoiceofhisCompanionswhenthey committedaforbiddenact,namelytheyplayedwiththereligionaccordingtotheir desires,andtheAbbass?dskilledAlib.atHusaynandmatchlessfiguresofthe Alawidsthroughatrapwhentheycommittedforbiddenactswithwhichthey angeredthereligionanditspeople. BanflOmayyapoisonedthreeImams:atHasan,alSajjad,andatBaqir,peacebeon them,andbanflatAbbasspoisonedsixImams:atSdiq,atKazim,atRida,at Jawad,atHadT,andatAskari,peacebeonthem. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Hishmb.AbdatMaliksentforatBaqirandatSdiq,peacebeonthem,(togo)to Shamtomistreatthem.WhentheyarrivedinSham,hefoundthathehadnochoice buttohonorandsendthemtoMedinabecauseheworriedthatpeoplemightbe charmedbythem,whilebaniiatAbbassdidnotleaveanyImamtoliveinhishouse: AlSaffahsentforatSadiq;atMansflrsentforhimseveraltimes,too;atRashid sentforatKazim,imprisonedhim,thenreleasedhim.Notlongafter,hesentforhim againandimprisonedhim.Hewasinprisontillhewaskilledwithpoisonanddonot askaboutwhathecommittedagainsthimandthewordshesaidtosummonpeople tocometogethertothepidge. AlMamflnsentforatRida(togo)toTfls.AlRidadidnotcomeBACKhome,rather hewaskilledwithpoison,inKhurasn.AlMamflnalsosentfora!Jawadbut releasedhimwithoutmistreatment.WhenaIMutasimtookthereinsofauthority, hesentforAbiiJafaratJawad,peacebeon (41) him,andimprisonedhim.Whenhereleasedhimfromprison,heavJeaplantokill himwithpOiSOfl.AlMutawakitsentforAbtiatHasanatHadi,peacebeonhim, and\wentonputtingdownhisdignitytillheperished.AtHadiwasliabletovarious kindsofmistreatmentbytheAbbassidkings.Hewassometimesimprisoned,and sometimesreleased,thenatMutazpoisonedhim.HissonAbflMohammedat Hasan,peacebeonhim,stayedatSamarfl.TheydidnotallowhimtogoBACKto Medinanordidtheyallowhimliveinhishouse,rathertheysometimesimprisoned himandsometimesreleasedhimtillatMutamidkilledhimwithpoison.Whenat MutamidknewatHadihadasoncalledAbatQasimagedfiveyears,hebegan lookingforhimtokillhim,buthe(AbtlatQasim)haddisappearedbecauseoftheir oppressionandassassinations(sincethen)tilltoday. TheOmayyadsdestroyedagroupoftheAlawidswithpoison,imprisonment, assassination,andhanging.AmongthemwereZaid,Yahya,andthelikeontheday(of theBattle)ofatHura.Besides,theykilledAbdAllahb.Mohammedb.atHanafiyya, andothers.TheAbbassidskilledalargenumberatFakhandintheirprisons. Moreover,everyAbbassidrulerwhosatonthethronekilledagroupoftheAlawlds. BecauseoftheoppressionoftheOmayyads,manyAtawTdsfled,suchasYahya,Abd AllahatJafari,andthelike.BecauseofthepersecutionoftheAbbasslds,many AtawTdslikeatQasimandAhmadthetwosonsofImamatKzim,peacebeonhim, Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Tsab.Zaid,andthelikefledtofarcountries,suchasIndiaandIran.Manyofthe AtawidsdidnotdeclaretheirancestrybecausetheywereafraidoftheAbbasid governors. IftheOmayyadsbetrayedsomeoftheAlawrdsandkilledthemwithpoison,thendo notaskaboutthosewhomtheAbbassidsbetrayed(i.e.theyweremany). Ifyourunover.(thebook)MaqatilatTlibiyytn,youwillknowwhatbanflatAbbs committedagainstthem. TheOmayyadsburntthetentsoftheSonsofthemissiononthedayof(theBattleof) Karbata,andtheAbbasTdsburntthehouseofImaniatS&iiqthoughheandhis familywereinit.AtSadiqwentouttoputoutthefir,butsomeofitenteredthe corridor. TheOmayyadsdeprivedthedaughtersofthemissionoftheir(ornaments)at(the Battle)ofKarbala,alsoatRashidsenthisleaderatJaltldytoMedinatodeprivethe Tatibiyyat(TalibTdwomen)oftheirornaments. AtJatudywasharderthanarockincarryingouthiswantsothathetookaltthe ornamentsoftheAtawTdandtheTtibTdwomen. WhenZaydwaskilled,HishfimbanishedallAlawTdsfromIraqtoMedinaandasked themtopingguaranteessoasnottogooutofit.(42)AlsoMflsaa!Hadybanishedall AtawtdsandtheirchildrenfromMedinatoBaghdadaftertheeventofFakh. Theymethim,andtheirfacebecameyellowbecauseoftheterrorism,tiredness,and accidentstheysufferedfrom. Ifwewanttomakeacomparisonbetweentheabusiveactionsofthetwodynasties towardsahlatBayt,wewillfindthattheAbbasTdscommittedactionstheOmayyads hadnotcommittedbefore.Forexample,alRashtdandatMansflrburiedsomeof theAlawTdsinsidethewallsofthebuildingsinBaghdad. AlRshrdcutdownthetreethatwasbythetombofa!Husayn.Thosewhovisitedhis tombshadedthemselvesunderthattree.AlMutawakildemolishedhistomb.Alsohe demolishedthebuildingsandthehousesaroundit.Moreover,heplowedandplanted thelandofKarbalatoremovethetombandwipeoutitsremains.Forthisreasonthe poetsaid Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

ByAllah,theOmmayyads,committedthekillingofthesonofthedaughteroftheir prophet. Whilehewaswronged. Thechildrenoftheirfathercommittedsomethinglikeit. So,byyourlife,hisgravebecamedemolished. Theyfeltsadnessthattheydidnottakepartinhiskilling,so,theyfollowedhimwhile heisdead. ThedaysofbantiOmayyawereonethousandmonths.Duringthosedays,theykilled theprototypesoftheAlawrds.Ifyoucountfromthebeginningofthedaysofbanflat Abbasstoonethousandmonths,youwiltknowthattheAbbassTdskilledthedoubles ofthosewhomtheOmayyadskilled.Theykilledthemwhiletheyknewtheir outstandingmeritandtheirbloodrelation.Msb.Isa,whowagedwaragainstthe peopleofFakh,saidaboutatHusayn,theownerofFakh,andhiscompanions:By Allah,theyarethenoblestofAllahscreatures;theyareworthierofwhatisinour handsthanus,buttheauthorityisbarren,iftheownerofthisgrave,namelythe ProphetmayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,disputedwithusforauthority,wewould hithisnosewiththesword.[1] Thisboldguilty(person)admittedhiscrime,buthedidnotmentionthetruth thoroughly,becausetheApostleofAllah,mayAllahablesshimandhisfamily,andthe choiceofhisfamilydidnotrequestitforreligion,enjoiningtherightandforbidding thewrong,andremovingheresiesandmisguidance.Iftheyrequestedauthorityfor authority,wewouldnotshowertheOmayyadsandtheAbbastdswiththearrowsof blame,thenisitrighttoblamethepersonwhoovercomeshisrivalwhentheydispute eachotherforauthority? 1MaqatilalTalibiyyin, MaqatilalHusaynb.Ali,SahibFakh (438) DoyouthinkthatalHusaynwithhisrise,Zaydwithhisrevolt,Yahywithhisjihad, andatHusayninFakhwithhisdefense,andthelikeoftheTlibi5withreligionand Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

intellect,sacrificetheirselvesandthevaluableforauthority? Whydidtheyrequestamerelifeinthisworldwhiletheywerethepropagandistsof religion,theleadersofrightguidance,andthelampsofmind?Whydidtheyrequest authoritywhiletheyknewthattheirpowerwasnotenoughtoobtainvictory?Yes, theysacrificedthosevaluableselvesandtherespectedbecausetheyknewthat religionwasmorevaluablethantheirselves.Whoeverfindsthecostexpensive,saleis easyforhim.Besides,peopleunderstoodtheplaintruthandcertainreligion,andthe truthovercamethefalsehoodthroughpleaandproofafterthosesacrifices. TheBattleofKarbalaandthesacrificesoftheAtawidswereexamplesforthemasters ofreligionandteachingsforthemenoftruthduringthecompetitionbetween guidanceandmisguidanceandtruthandfalsehood,andleftnoreasonforthe propagandistsofreligiontorefrainfromsacrificingthemselvesforsupportingthem. Throughtheiracts,theytaughtthemthatvictoryisobtainedwithsacrifice,lifeis achievedwithdeath,andthoseexperiencesweredonetopreventpeoplefrom advancingfeeblenessasanexcuse,becausevictoryisnotforanurgentvictory.In otherwords,thedayofalHusaynandthedaysoftheAlawidswerethedaysof victoriesfortheirenemies.Still,afterward,menrealizedthatvictorywasforthose revolutionaryAlawidswhohadsparednoeffortforreligion,andthedefeatinlifeand religionwerefortheirenemieswhowerevictoriousthen. Throughthoseevents,theworldunderstandsthereligionandjihadwhichahlalBayt adoptedtoenliventheMuslimLaw,andthereasonwhytheirenemieswagedthose waragainstthem.Thentheintentionsofthetwopartieshavebecameclear;other wise(wehavetherighttoask):Whatwasthecrimeofthatsucklingbabywhosemilk driedandwhoselipsfadedbecauseofthirst?Whydidtheykillhimwithanarrow whitehewasonthechestofhisfather?Whydidthatarrowmakehimflickeringlike theslaughteredbird?Whydidtheykillthoseinnocentchildrenwhiletheydidnot takepartatthatbattle? WhatwasthecrimethattedtheOmayyadstorobthewomenoftheProphet,may Allahblesshimandhisfamily,(i.e.hisgrandsons),oftheir(possessions)?Whydid theyforcethemtoridethin(camels)whiletheywerehittingandabusingthem?Why weretheymovedfromonecountrytoanotherastheslavesweremoved? IfalHusaynandhisfamilywagedwaragainsttheOmayyadsforauthority,thenthere wasnoneedtomaketheirhorsestreadonhisbody,noneedtoraisehisheadonthe spear,andnoneedtocapturehisfamilyandforcethemtoridethincamels.Iwonder;

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iscuttingtheheadsoff,peaking (44) thechestsandtheBACKswiththehoovesofthehorses,robbingthebodies(oftheir clothes),leavingthemnakedintheopenwithoutburying,andtakingthewomenas prisoners,theambitionofapersonwhorevolts(aga.7insttherulingregime)for propertyandauthority? Thethingthatthrowssaltintheinjuries,harmstheulcer,andincreasesthe misfottune,isthatthepeopledidnotcommitthoseuglycrimesagainstalHusayn andhisfamilybecausetheywereignorantabouthispositionortheythoughtthathe deviatedfromreligion,rathertheyknewthathewastheownerofreligion,the masterofthecaliphate,themasteroftheyoungmenofParadise,andthebasilofthe Prophet.Moreover,theyknewhiaoutstandingmerits. NotonlytheyknewalHusayn,peacebeonhim,butalsohisfamilyandcompanions, suchasYahya,Zayd,andthepeopleofFakh,whowereliabletothesword,poison, prison,andoppression. Consequently,therewouldbenoheresiesiftheworldclearlyunderstoodthose knownattitudestoknowthatthebattlebetweenahlalBaytandtheirenemieswasa battlebetweenthevirtueandthevice,andthosewhowantedtogetthethrones werenotabletogetthembutbywagingwaragainstahlalBayttowipethemoutof existencebecausetheythoughtthattheywouldnotbeabletoachievetheir ambitionswhileahlalBaythadastandingghostandshadepeoplesitin.Therefor,the crimeofahIalBayttowardsthosepeoplewasthattheywerethepeopleofreligion andthemastersofoutstandingmerits,somenwerenotabletositinthethronesof theCaliphatewhileahlalBaytwerethemostqualifiedforit.Thenationknewtheir positionamongthechildrenofIslam. THERELIGIOUSSCHOOLSANDSECTS (45)

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ThedaysofabuAbdAllahatSadiq,peacebeonhim,werethedaysofreligious schools,sects,ideas,desires,theology,research,misguidance,suspicion,anddoubts. Now,wewillmentiontheoriginofthosegroupingsandschoolsinapiefmanner, followingthemethodsthatwehaveadoptedinthisbookbecausetheenlargement upontheresearchwilltakeusoutoftheplanofthebook,andinthebooksonthe religiousschoolsandsectsaremanydetails. TheOriginoftheIslamicGroupings: Indeed,theMuslimnationdividedintoseventythreegroupings.Thatwaswhatour TruthfulTrustyProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,said:Mynationwill divideintoseventythreegroupings.[1] Inthischapter,wewanttostudythewellknowngroupingsinthetimeofatSadiq. Wewilldevoteourresearchtotheoriginsofthosegroupings.Wemayrefertosub groupingsafterwehavementionedtheorigins.Ofcourse,thiswillsuitourpurpose andplan. AllMuslimsectsbelongtofourgroupings:theMurjeia,theMutazila,theShTa,and theKhrijites.[2]SoeveryMuslimsectbelongstooneoftheseorigins.Alsoat Ghula"t,thoughtheothersectshaveregardedthemasunbelievers,isasubdivisionof theabovementionedorigins.Thesefouroriginsareasfollow: 1.TheMurjeia: Wemaysay:Indeed,theMurjeiameanstodaytheAsharrsonly,andtheyarethe Sunnlsingeneralaccordingtothebeliefinthistime,becausethereisnoonewho followstheschooloftheMutazilainthesetimes. BeforeatAshary,theMurjeiaweremanys&ts,andthosesetsweresubdivisionsof theSunnTsequivalenttotheShTaandtheKharijites.ButwhenatAshrysschoolof thoughtappeared,theMurjeiabecameanothertitlefordieSunnTsorforatAshrys schoolingeneral.In(hisbook)atMilalandatNihal,alShahrista"nysaid:Anditis said(that)atlrja(delaying)(means)thedelayingofAu,peacebeonhim,fromthe firstdegreetothefourth(degree).Asyousee,thisisthethoughtoftheSunnTsin general. 1Sunanb.Majah:2/1321. 2ThesectsofShTabyAbnMohammedalHasanalNobakhty:17.InalFasl:2/88, Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

b.HazmhasmentionedthattheyarefivebecauseheregardstheSunnisasagrouping equivalenttotheMurjeiaandtheMutazila. (46) ItisnotourpurposetoresearchthegatheringofthesenamesintheSchoolsofat Asharyortheirdepartingfrom,ratherourfirstpurposeistoknowthesituationofal Murjeiaonthatday.ThereisnodoubtthattheMurjeiainthattimeweresetsand schools.Theyweregatheredtogetherbytheiropinionthatsaid:itisenough(to show)faithwithwordsevenifthereisnoact,andevenifthepersonwhoclaims beliefcommitseveryatrocitystillheisabelieverandfollowsthefaithofJipiland Mikail,andtheydelayedforgivenessforthosewhocommitgreatsins,maybe,they werecalledtheMurjeiaforthisreasonorbecauseAllahhasdelayedtheir punishment.(itisderivedfromthewordatirjmeaningdelay)orbecausethey delayedAu,peacebeonhim,fromthefirstdegreetothefourthdegreeasat Shahrista~nyhasmentioned. WhatwehavementionedisthecommonideaamongthegroupsoftheMurjeia.This whatthebooksofthetwopartieshavereported,whichhasmentionedthemeeting ofthepartiesanddepartingofthereligioussects. WereabuHanifaandhisfellowerfromtheMsiryyaMurjeia,[1]wholivedinIraq? WereatSha"fiy,Ma'likb.Anas,b.abuLayla,Shuraykb.AbdAllah,andtheirfellower fromtheMurjeiawhowerecalledatShukka"koratBatariya,andtheywerethe peopleofatHashLiandthegreatmajoritywhowerecalledatHashawiya? Wecannotdecidethis,becausethebooksofthesectsaredifferentaboutthat ancestry.Alsotheydidnotdependonreliablereferencesthatmayhelpusto understandthecorrectviewpoints.Besidesthefanaticismofthoseauthorsfortheir sectsandschoolsmadetheothersectagoalforthem.Moreover,themenofthe secularauthoritiesinthosetimeshelpedthiscrimetohappen,becausethey propagatedasectandwagedwaragainsttheother.Toachievethispurpose,they hired,oratorstopreachandforthem,sothepersonwhohasnoknowledgeorstudies maymissthetruth. Maybe,thosebookshavethrownmanywritersintosnaresofconfusion.Inshort,itis noteasyforustodependonthosebookstounderstandthecorrectancestry.So,the onlysectwhichhascorrectlyrelatedtotheMurjeiaisatJahamyya,whowerethe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

followersofJahamb.Safwn,becausetheyfranklybelievedinwhatwehave mentioned,andtheauthorshaveagreedonthat.Alsothey(theauthors)have reported(traditions)fromtheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,which havecursedthem,whileweareinnocentoftheirresponsibility.Oneofthese traditionsis: TheMurjeiahadbeencursedbythetonguesofseventyprophets.Itwassaidtohim: WhoaretheMurjeia?Hesaid:Thosewhosaid:Beliefisspeech.[2] Insummary:ThereisnodoubtwhotheMurjeiawereatthattime.Alsotheywerea groupofsects.Wehavementionedtheirthoughtsearlier.Their 1alMiialWaalNihal,1/147. 2AlFarqBaynaaiFiraq:p.190. (47) thoughts,whichpoughtthemtogether,wasthatwordsareenoughtoachievebelief evenifthereisnoactiontomatchthesewords,rathereveniftheactioniscontraryto thewords.Weareinnoneedtostudythoroughlytheirsubdivisionsandtheir characteristicslestweshouldmissouraimandmakemistakes.WeaskAllah,the Exalted,toprotectusfrommistakes. 2.TheMutazila WehavenodoubtthatatItiza"l(isolation)wasbornatthetimeofatSadiq,peacebe onhim,andatthattimeitspread.ThatwaswhenAmrub.Ubaid,Washb.Atta", andthelikeisolatedthemselvesfromthetheologicalschoolofatHasanatBasry,so theycalledthemwiththisname(i.e.theMutazilaortheisolated.)Itisnotcorrect thatatItizal(isolation)wasbornduringthetimeofAmTratMuminTn(the CommanderoftheFaithful)whenSaadb.AbuWaqa"s,b.Amr,andUsmb.Zayd isolatedthemselvesfromthebattlesofAmTratMuminrn,becausethatisolation wasnotduetoanideaorsuspicioninrelation,ratheritwasdeviationfrom(theright leadership)ofAmTratMuminTn,peacebeonhim.Moreover,atItizalwasnot knowatthattime,theywerenotcalledatMutazila(theisolated)onthatday,and theMutaziladidnotbelongtotheirschool AftertheMutazilahadagreedwitheachotheronatItiza"l,theydividedintomany Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

sects,andinourpresenttime,thereisnoone,asIthink,belongingtothisschool.The authorofthebookAlFarqbaynaAlFiraq,p.94,hasreportedfromtheEssaysofat Kaby: "Indeed,theMutazilahadunanimouslyagreedthatAllah,theGreatandAlmighty,is athingnotlikethings,HeistheCreatorofbodiesandspirits,HehascreatedwhatHe createdoutofnothing,andmendotheiractswiththefate,whichAllah,theGlorified andExalted,hascreatedinthem.Hesaid:Andtheyhadunanimouslyagreedthat Allahdoesnotforgivehimwhocommitsgreatsinswithoutrepentance. ThisiswhatatKabyhasreportedaboutthecommonthoughtoftheMutazila.We aresatisfiedwiththeabovementionedtextabouttheirbeliefs,andwearenot concerningathoroughexaminationtoputthesewordsinthescalesofcriticismto knowthecorrectnessofwhattheauthoroftheabovementionedbookhasregarded asrighttowardsthisclaim.Alsothisreasonhassummonedustopassoverwhatb. Harm,atShahristany,andtheauthorofAlFarqbayanatFiraqhaveattributedto them.Worthmentioning,theyhavesaidmanyideasaboutthem. Afterthis,wedonotwanttotreatexhaustivelythesectsofthatgroupingandtheir peculiarbeliefs,becausetheenlargementinsuchamatterwilltakeusoutofthe limitedplanandwemaymakemistakes. (48) ArethefataliststheMutazila?OraretheytheAshristhemselves?Thisisanobjectof doubt,becauseifweregardthefatalistsasthosewhosay:theactsofmenare createdforthem,andthey(theacts)aredoneandestimatedbythem,andAllahonly createspowerandabilitywithwhichmendotheiracts,thentheyaretheMutazila accordingtotheearliercommonthoughtwhichhasbeenreportedfromthem.And accordingtothis,theyarenottheAsharisthemselves,becausetheAsharisare contrarytothis;theythinkthatallactsarecreatedandestimatedbyAllah,the Exalted,notbyman. Ifwemeanthefatalistsarethosewhosaythatthegoodandtheeviloffatearefrom Allah,theExalted,thentheyaresurelytheAsharis. FromtheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,alShahrystanyhasreported: ThefatalistsaretheMagiansofthisnation.ThefatalistsaretheopponentsofAllah infate.[1] Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

3.TheShIa: AlTashayy(shiism)wasatthetimeoftheHolderoftheHonorableMission,and someofthecompanionshadbeencalledShiasincethatday.Someofthemwere Salman,abuDharr,Ammar,Hudhayfa,Khuzayma,Jbir,abuSaTdalKhidry,Abti Ayyflb,Kha"lidb.Saidb.alAs,Qaysb.Saad,andthelike.[2] InArabic,thewordShTameansalatb(followers),atAnsa"r(supporters),andat Awa'n(helpers).ItwasderivedfromthewordalMushayaawhichmeansal Muta~waa(obedience),andalMutbaa(agreement).Butthiswordisrelatedto thosewhofollowAuandhisfamily,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.[3] ThefirsttoutterthewordShTea;meaningthosewhofollowAuandtheImams, wastheOwneroftheIslamiclaw,themasteroftheprophets,mayAllahblesshim andhisfamily,inthisconnection,manytraditionshavebeenmentionedfromhim.[4] ThesectsoftheShTaweremany.Thebooksonthereligiousschoolsandsectshave mentionedmorethanweknowaboutthem.Theyhavementionedmanysectsand manymentowhomthosesectswererelated,for 1SeeAlMilalwaAlNihal:1/5051. 2IbinabualHaddeed,SharihNahjalBalagha,4,225.MohammedKurdAll, KhutatalSham,5,251256. 3AlQamfls,LislinalArab,AlNahayyabyb.alAthTr,AlMuqadamabyb.Khaldfln: p.138,andmanyothers. 4SeealSawaiqafterverseeightandversetenoftheversesconcerningthe outstandingmeritsofthemembersoftheHouse(a/ilalBayt).AlsoSeealNaMyaby binalAthlrinQamh,andAlDunAlManthtlrbyalSyytltyabouttheWordsofAllah, theExalted:(Asfor)thoseWhobelieveanddogood,surelytheyarethebestof men. (49) example,alHfishmiya(theHfishymis)attributedtoHisMmb.alHakam,alZarariya (theZara"ris)ascribedtoZararab.Ayun, Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AlShaytfifliYa(theShaytfinis)relatedtoMuminalTiq,Mohammedb.atNuman b.alAhwal,alYtlnisiya(theYunisls)attributedtoYtlnisb.AbdalRabmafl,andso on.Infact,wefollowthemembersoftheHouse(ahilalBayt).AndahlalBaytknew whoweremtheHouse.Weknowneitherkindsnortracesofthosesects,northe heresieswhichhavebeenascribedtotheabovementionedmen. WhoeverseesthebooksoftraditionsandthebooksofmenbytheShTa,willknow thatthesemenwereamongthechOsencompanionsoftheImams,namelythe ImamsdependedonthemandtheShtarefertothem.Soiftheyhadideasand schoolscontrarytothoseoftheImams,thentheImamswouldhavebeenangrywith themanddismissedthem.Whoeverunderstandsthoroughlythesewritingsaboutthe menwhocreatedheresies,willknowthattheforegoingmenwereinnocentofwhat theyhaveattributedtothem.Theydisownedb.Saba,cursedhim,andwarnedmen againsthisheresies.TheydisownedalBqir,peacebeonhim,andclaimedthe falsehood.AlsoatSdiq,peacebeonhim,disownedAbatKhatta"bandhis company,andabualJa"rdy.ConcerningbanFuda"l,hesaid:Takewhattheyhave reported,andleavewhattheyhaveseen,andsoon.[1]Ifsuchachoicehadfollowed thismisguidancewhichhasbeenrelatedtothem,theImamswouldhavetreated themastheytreatedthosewhowentastray,namelytheywouldhavedisowned, dispraised,andcursedthem. Yes,theShTahadsectsbeforeandafterthetimeofatSdiq,peacebeonhim.They havebecomebygonebutthreesects.Theyare: 1.TheImmistheybelieveintheImamateofthetwelve(Imams),thebirthofthe twelve(Imams).TheybelievethatthetwelfthImamisstilllivingnow,andtheylook forwardtohiscoming. 2.TheZaydTstheybelieveintheImamateofZaydandofthesonsofFatima,who rosewiththeswordandhadoutstandingmerits. 3.TheIsmailTstheybelievethattheImamafteralSadiq,peacebeonhim,washis sonIsmil,notMsandhissons,peacebeonthem. Theabovementionedsectsaretheonlysectsthathavelastedtillnow.Inhisbook, FiraqatShTa,atNobakhtyhasstudiedthosesectswhowereinthepast.Theyall perished,exceptwhatwehavementionedabove. Here,wewanttodiscussthesectswhichwereduringthedaysofalSdiq,peacebe onhim,evenifthereisnooneofthematpresent. TheKayslnis:[2] Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

1SeealGhaybabyalShaykhalTtIsy,mayAllahbepleasedwithhim. 2concerningtheinformationabouttheKaysanTs,wehaveverymuchdependedon thebooks:FiraqalShVa,AlMilalwaAlNihal,andAlFarqBaynaalFiraq. (50) DuringthetimeofalSa"diq,peacebeonhim,amongthesectsoftheShTawerethe Kaysa"nTs,whoadoptedtheImamateofMohammedb.alHanafiya.Theauthors differaboutthereasonwhytheyarecalledtheKaysanrs.Andthey(theKaysa~nis) belongedtosects: Asectsaid:MohammedisalMahdy.Heisthetrustee(waspofAmTratMominTn (theCommanderoftheFaithful),andnooneofhisfamilyhastherighttodisobey him.AlHasan,peacebeonhim,madepeacewithMuwiyawithhispermission.Al Husayn,peacebeonhim,revolted(againstYa.zid)withhispermission.Andat Mukhtrrevoltedtorevengetheblood(ofalHusayn)withhispermission,too.A sectsaid:He(Mohammedb.alHanafiya)wastheImamafterhistwopothers alHasanandalHusayn,peacebeonthem.HeisalMahdyandhisfathercalledhim withthat(name).Heneverdiesand(hisdeath)isimpossible.Buthehasdisappeared andnooneknowswhereheis.Hewillreturnandruletheearth.Andtherehasbeen noImamsinehisdisappearancetillhisreturn.They(thissect)werethecompanions ofb.KarbandtheyarecalledtheKarbis. Asectsaid:He(Mohammedb.alHanafiya)livesamongRadwMountainsbetween MeccaandMedina.AndheistheawaitedImam(atImamatMuntazar). Asectsaid:Hedied.TheImamafterhimwashissonAbdAllah.Hiskunya(thelatter) (i.e.thenamebywhichanArabisusuallyreferredtoandwhichreferstohimasthe fatherofsomeone,usuallyhiseldestson)wasAbuHishm.Hewastheeldestofhis sons.Hewasthetrustee(wasi)ofhisfather.ThissectwascalledtheHashimitesas attributiontoAbHa'shim.Thissecthasmentionedabouthimasthefirstsectshave mentionedabouthisfather:HeisalMahdy.Heisstillliving.Andheenlivensthe dead.ButwhenAbHshimdied,hiscompanionssubdivided. SomefamousintelligentmenbelongedtotheKaysa~nis.AmongthemwasKuthayr Azzahwhosepoetryisalwaysreported. ThefamoussayyidIsmflilalHymyarywasoneofthem.Alsohispoetrysupplies Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

evidenceforwhattheyattributedtohim.Buthechangedhismindandbelievedin theImamateofalSdiq,peacebeonhimwhenalSa"diqdebatedwithhimand overcamehim.Hehasfamouspoetryconcerninghisrefrainingfromhissectandhis believingintheImamateofalSdiq. AmongthemwasHayya"nalSarra"j.OnedayhecametoalSadiq,peacebeonhim. SoabuAbdAllah(alSadiq)saidtohim:Hayyan,Whatdoyourcompanionssay concerningMohammedb.alHanafiya?Hesaid:Theysay:Heisstillliving.So,al Sa"diq,peacebeonhim,said:Myfather,peacebeonhim,saidtome:Iwasamong thosewhovisitedhimduringhisillness,andamongthosewhoshuthiseyes,entered himhisbit (51) (grave),marriedhiswives(toothermen),anddividedhisheritage(amonghis children).Sohesaid:AbeAbdAllah,Mohammedinthisnationislikeisab.Maryam, menbecameuncertaintohim,hisfollowersorhisenemies?Hesaid:Rather,his enemies.Sohe,peacebeonhim,said:DoyouthinkthatabuJafarMohammedb. Ali,peacebeonthemistheenemyofhisuncleMohammedb.alHnafiya?Sohe said:No.ThenatSdiq,peacebeonhim,said:Hayya"n,youhaveturnedaway fromtheVersesofAllahwhileHe,theBlessedandExalted,said:Wewillreward thosewhoturnawayfromOurcommunicationswithanevilchastisementbecause theyturnedaway.[1] BarTdalAjali[2]said:IcametoalSdiq,peacebeonhim,andhesaidtome:If youhadcomealittlebitearlier,youwouldhavemetHayynatsarraj,andhepointed toaplaceinthehouse.Thenhesaid:Hewassitting.overhere.Hementioned Mohammedb.alHanafiyaandhislife.Andhepraisedhim.SoIsaidtohim: Hayya~n,doyounotclaimandtheyclaim,andyoureportandtheyreport:thisnation hasthesamethingsthechildrenofIsrU(banflIsril)had?Sohesaid:Yes.Thenhe said:Haveyouortheyseen,youortheyheardthatascholardiedbeforemen,his wiveshavebeenmarried(toothers),andhispropertieshavebeendivided(amonghis children),whileheislivingandneverdies?So,hestoodupanddidnotanswerany thing.[3] TheKaysnTsareamongtheextinctsects,today,wedonotknowpeoplewhobelong tothem. TheZaydis: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

TheZaydisareamongthegroupingswhichareascribedtotheSliTa.Theybelonged toZaidb.Alib.atHusayn,peacebeonthem,becausetheybelievedinhisImamate. Zayd,peacebeonhim,didnotclaimtheImamateforhimself,rathermenclaimedit forhim.Nothingsummonedhimtorisebutthathewantedtosupportthetruthand wagewaragainstthefalsehood.Zaidwasfaraboveaskingwhatwasnotforhim. Ifhehadovercome(hisenemies),hewouldhaveknowntheplacewheretoputiC SometraditionswereattributedtohimshowingthatherequestedtheImamatefor himself.Butthereasoninthemisveryclear,becausealSadiq,peacebeonhim,was afraidtheauthorityoftheOmayyadswouldrelateZaidsrevolttohim,sotheywould punishhim,hisfamily,andhisfollowers(ShTa)forthatcrime.Sohedroveawaythat dangerwiththatattribution,andifZaydhadbeenasthosetraditionsmentioned, thenhis 1AlSadoq,IkmrnAlDin,22.AlKashy,AlRijal,203.Koran,aIAnam,157. 2OneofthefamousreliablecompanionsofalS&liq. 3AlKashy,AlRija"l,Hayyan,202. (52) twograndfathersalMustafaandalMurtada",peacebeonthemandtheirfamilies, wouldnothaveweptoverhimbeforehewascreated,andthememoriesofwhat wouldhappentohimwouldnothavepoughtaboutthatgreatsadnessand depressionforthem.Similarly,hisancestorshadsufferedfromthesadmemories whentheyrememberedhiskillingandwhathappenedtohimafterthat. Itisenoughthathisrevoltandinnocencewerefarabovewhatwasattributedtohim thatalSadiq,peacebeonhim,weptoverhimanddividedthepropertiesamongthe familiesofthosewhowerekilledwithhim.Also,heblamedthosewhodidnot supporthim.Andhecalledthosewhostoodbyhimbelievers,andthosewhowaged waragainsthimunbelievers. HowherequestedtheImamateforhimselfwhilealSa'diq,peacebeonhim,said: MayAllahhavemercyonhim.Truly,hewasbelieving,knowing,knowledgeable,and truthful.Verily,ifhehadwonavictory(overhisenemies),hewouldhavefulfilled(his promise).Indeed,ifhehadhadauthority,hewouldhaveknownhowtoputit.,,[1] Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Andhesaid:DonotsaythatZayddeviated.Surely,Zaydwasknowledgeableand truthful.Hedidnotsummonyouforhimself.Rather,hesummonedyouforalRida~ fromthefamilyofMohammed,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.Ifhehad overcome(hisopponents),hewouldhavefulfilledwhathehadsummonedyoufor. Heonlyrevoltedagainstthesupremeauthorityofagrouptochangeit.[2] AlRida,peacebeonhim,saidtoalMamUn:DonotcomparemypotherZaydwith Zaydb.ali,peacebeonthem,forMohammed,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.He becameangryforAllah,theGreatandAlmighty.So,hewagedholywaragainstHis enemiestillhewaskilledforHim.Indeed,Zaydb.Ali,peacebeonhim,didnot requestwhathehadnorightto.HewasmoredevoutthanthattoAllah.Hesaid:I summonyoutoalRidefromthefamilyofMohammed,mayAllahblesshimandhis family.[3] AlRidsaidthesewordsfranklyduringthetimeoftheAbbssTds.HissonYahy said:MayAllahhavemercyonmyfather.Hewasamongtheworshipers.Heprayed atnightandfastedatday.HestroveforAllahsincerely.So,Umayrb.atMutawakil alBalakhysaid:So,Isaid:Son(i.e.grandson)oftheProphetofAllah,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily,isthisthemannerandqualityoftheImam?So,hesaid: AbAbdAllah,surely,myfatherwasnotanImam.Buthewasamongthenoble masterandtheirascetics,andhewasamongthemujhahidinforAllah.Isaid:sonof theProphetofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,surely,your 1AlKashy,alRijrn,184. 2A1Wfffl,1,141. 3Ibid. (53) fatherrequestedtheImamateforhimselfandwagedholywarforAllah,andithas beenmentionedfromtheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,thatwhoever claimstheImamateisaliar.So,hesaid:Slowly!Slowly!AbuAbdAllah,indeed,my fatherwasmoreintelligentthantoclaimwhathehadnorightto.However,hesaid: IsummontoalRidfromthefamilyofMohammed,mayAllahblesshimandhis family.HemeantmycousinJafar,peacebeonhim.Hesaid:Isaid:So,today,he hasknowledge.Hesaid:Yes,heisthemostknowledgeableofBanflHa"shim.[1] ThistraditionhasshownthehighpositionofZaydinreligionandvirtueanddenoted thatwhattheyattributedtohimisbaseless.AlsothetraditionhasproventhatYahy Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

hadahighpositioninpiety,science,andknowledge. TherearemanytraditionswhichshowthatZaydwasmoresublimethanthat summons.Hewasmorepious,andpurerthantocorrupthimselfwiththesummons totheImamate.Butafterhisdeath,somepeopleclaimedthattheImamatewasfor Zayd,sotheywerecalledtheZaydlsforthatclaim. TheZaydishavemanysects.Thefollowingopinionpingsthemtogether:TheImamate isexclusiveforthesonsofFatima,peacebeonher.Theyhavenotpermittedthe surenessoftheImamateinotherthanthey.ButtheyhavepermittedeveryFatimid, whetherheisofthesonsofalHasan,peacebeonhim,orofthesonsofalHusayn, peacebeonhim,tobeanImamwithobligatoryobedience,providedthatheshould beascholarascetic,pave,generous,wagedholywarwiththesword.Thenasectof themprofessedtheImamateofMohammedandIpa"him,thetwosonsofAbdAllah b.alHasan,peacebeonhim.[2]IthinkthattheyhavemadetheImamateexclusive forthesonsofFatimaforthosewhomaybeImamsafterZayd,becausesomesectsof themprofessedthesurenessoftheImamateforthetwoShaykhsasyouwillknow. TheBatariya: TheBatariyawereamongthesectsoftheZaydis.Theywerethecompanionsof KathTralNawa",alHasanb.Sa"!imb.AbuHafsa,alHakamb.Ayyina,Salamab. Kuhai!,andalMiqda"mThabitalHadid.They(theBatariya)summoned(people)to theImamateofali,peacebeonhim,thentheymixedalisImamatewiththatofabu BakrandUmar,andprovedtheImamateforthem.TheydispraisedUthmIn,Talha, alZubayr,andAisha.Itissaid:TheywerecalledtheBatariyawhentheymentioned theirbeliefsbeforeZaydb.ali,sohesaidtothem:Youhavecutoffourinstruction whenyouhaveleftAllah.Anditissaid:They 1KiffiyatAlAthar,304. 2AlMilalwaA1Nihal,1,159. (54) werecalledtheBatarlsbecausetheywereattributedtoKathlralNawa"whosehand wasamputated.[1] Ifthisattributionwasright,thentheywouldbecalledalAbtariya,notalBatariya. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

TheSulayminis: AmongtheZaydTsweretheSu!aymanis,whobelongedtoSulayma"nb.Jarir.They believedintheImamateofthetwoShaykhs(AbtlBakrandUmar),butthey dispraisedUthman,Talha,alZubar,andAisha. Theyascribedthesepersonstounbelief.TheythinkthattheImamateismadewith consultation(Shflr),anditisconcludedthroughacontractbetweentwoofthegood menofthenation.TheyallowedtheImamateofthemafdl(lessexcellent)withthe existenceoftheafdal(themostexcellent),andtheyclaimedthatthenationleftthe mostexcellentduringthehomagewhentheyrecognizedAbBakrandUmaras caliphs,andtheyleftAli,peacebeonhim,thoughhewasworthierofImamatethan they.Butthemistakethattookplaceduringtheirhomagedidnotentailunbeliefnor transgression.[2] Consequently,weunderstandthattheclaimascribedtotheZaydis,whichsaysthat theImamateisnotprovedforotherthanthesonsofFatima,onlyconcernsthose whocameafterZaydandwhorosewiththesword. AlsowedonotknowthereasonwhythesetwosectsareregardedasshVtes. TheJaruldiya: TheJrudiyawasasectoftheZaydis.TheybelongedtoZiydb.alMundhirabual Jartld.TheymayalsobecalledtheSarhtlbiyya.Anditissaid:Indeed,theSarhubis thenameofablindSatan,wholivesinthesea,soAbUatJrdwascalledwithhis name.abualJarfldwasamongtheCompanionsofalBqirandalSadiq,peacebe onthem.WhenZaydrevolted,hechangedhismind. IthasbeenreportedthatalSa"diq,peacebeonhim,calledhimaliarandan unbeliever.WithhimwereKathlralNawa~andSalimb.AbuHafsah.Alsoithasbeen mentionedabouthim:(Hewascalled)AmaalBasar(blindsighted)andAmaal Qalb(blindart[3] 1AlShaykhabuAlialHary,ManhajalMaqalFialAlqab. 2AlFarqBaynaAlFiraq,23.AlMilalalaAlFasl,1,164. 3SeehislifeinthebooksofalRijal. (55) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

TheJirfidiyathinkthatmenwerencglectflilwhentheydidnottrytoresearchtoknow theImam,becausetheywereabletoknowhim,rathertheydisbelievedwhenthey paidhomagetoAbBakr.So,they(thejarildiya)donotbelieveintheImamateofthe threecaliphs,rathertheybelieveintheirunbeliefbecausetheyrequestedthe Imamateanddidnotpayhomagetoali,peacebeonhim.[1] TheSalihiya: Itissaid:Surely,amongthem(theZaydis)weretheSilihiya.Theyareascribedtoal Hasanb.Sftlih.YouhaveknownthattheywereagroupoftheBatariya,becauseal HasanwasamongthemenoftheBatariya.So,thereisnoreasontoregardthemas anindependentsect.Yes,therearesmalldifferencesbetweenhimandKathTral Naw&,thefirstmanoftheBatariya. ThusthereisnoneedtoparthissectfromtheBatariya. InhisbookFiraqAlShTa,alNobakhtyhasmentionedtheZaydisinanother mannerandincreasedit.Butwethinkthatwhatwehavewrittenisnearertowhat thebooksofalMi!alandalNihalhavementioned.Soseethemifyouwantmore explanation. TheIsmilis: AmongthesectsoftheShiaaretheIsmilis.TheviewconcerningtheImamateof IsmilstartedduringthedaysofalSdiq,peacebeonhim.SomeoftheIsmT!Ts thoughtthattheImamateshouldbefortheeldest(son)andIsmilwastheeldestof hispothers,andhehadoutstandingmerit.Whenhediedduringthedaysofhis father,theyknewtheirmistake. AsforthosewhoinsistedontheImamateofIsmil,theydividedintosects.Someof themdeniedhisdeathduringthelifetimeofhisfather,peacebeonhim.So,they said:Hisfatherhashiddenhimfrommenbecauseheisworriedabouthim.They claimedthatIsmailwouldnotdietillherulestheearthandassumestheaffairsof men.(Theythoughtthat)hewouldbetheonewhowillrise(qaim),becausehis fatherdesignatedhimasImamafterhisdeath.Butwhenhisdeathappeared,we Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

knewthathe(hisfather)wastruthfulandthattheonewhowouldrise(qim)would notdie. AndsomeofthemsaidthathediedandthattheImamatewasgiventohisson Mohammed,becausetheImamateisnotbutforchildren,andit(theImamate)isnot forpothersexceptalHasanandalHusayii,peacebeonthem.So,whenIsm&U died,itwasobligatorythattheImamafterJafar,peacebeonhim,hadtobe Mohammedb.Ismil,anditwasnot 1AlFarqBaynaalFiraq,22.AlMilalalaHmnishAlFasl,1,163. (56) permissibleforanyofthepothersofIsmailtobetheImam.AlsoMohammedb.al HanafiyahadnorightwithAllb.alHusayn,peacebeonthem.Thefollowersofthis viewwerecalledtheMubaraka.TheywerenamedaftertheirleaderalMubarak(the blessed). AsfortheKhattabiya,thecompanionsofabualKhattflbMohammedb.AbuZaynab alAsadyalAjda,theyjoinedthesectthatbelievedintheImamateofMohammedb. IsmailafterthekillingofAbtialKhattab.Theywereamongtheextremegroups.Then theydividedintosects.TheQaramitawereamongthem.[1] AbualKhattabwasacompanionofalSftdiqs,peacebeonhim.ButwhenalSadiq knewthathetoldhimlies,he(alSadiq)dismissedhim,disownedhim,andcursed him. ThenAbtialKhattbclaimedthathewasaprophetandMohammedb.Jafar,peace beonhim,wasagodandthathewashismessenger.Besides,heandhisgroupissued heresies,desires,andpermission(forunlawfulthings). Isab.MUsa,thegovernorofalManstlroverKufa,heardaboutthemannersofAbii alKhattabandhisgroup,whowereseventymen.Whiletheywereholdingameeting intheMosqueofKufa,he(thegovernor)attackedthem.Noonewasabletoescape. Hekilledallbuttwopersons,oneofthemwasbadlywounded. Hewasregardedasamongthekilled,sohewasabletoescape.Andtheotherwas AbtialKhttbhimself.HewascapturedandkilledbyIsab.Mflsaonthebankof theEuphrates.Isab.Miisacutofftheirheadsandburnedtheirbodies.Thenhesent Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

theirheadstoalMansUr,whohungthemonthegateofBaghdadforthreedays, thentheywereburnt.[2] TheImflmys: AmongthesectsoftheShIaaretheImamis.AlsotheyarecalledtheJafariyabecause theyareascribedtoJafarb.Mohammed,peacebeonhim,whobecameaschool.(In thefollowingpagesyouwillknow)howhehasbecomeaschooloutoftherestofthe Imamswhiletheywereallaschoolintherules. TheImamishavebelievedintheImamateofthetwelve(Imams):Ali,alHasan,al Husayn,Allb.alHusayn,Mohammedb.All,Jafarb.Mohammed,Mflsab.Jafar,Ali b.MsMohammedb.Ali,Alib.Mohammed,alHaaanb.All,andhissonal Mahdy,thehidden,towhosecomingtheylookforwardtheblessingsofAllahbeon themall. TheImmisbelievethattheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,haddecided theImamateoftheabovementionedImamswiththe 1FiraqAlShTa,67and76. 2FiraqAlShta,69. (57) clearpublicnominationfromAllah,theGreatandAlmighty,andthattheProphet, mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,nominatedtheImamateandCaliphateofthe CommanderoftheFaithful(AmiralMumintn)andhenominatedhimashispother andtestamentarytrustee.Thetextualnomination(nass)bytheProphetwason severaloccasions,forexample,theDayofalGhadlr.AlsotheProphet,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily,told(people)abouttheCaliphsandtheImamswhowould ruleonebyoneaftertheCommanderoftheFaithful(AmTralMuminln)peacebeon him,aswehavementionedtheirnamesearlier.ThentheImamshandeddownthat textualnomination(nass)fromonetoanother.So,AllnominatedalHasan,alHasan nominatedalHusayn,alHusaynnominatedhissonAu,Inthismannerthefather nominatedhissontillthetextualnominationendedatb.alHasan,(whocalled)al Munta.zar(theawaitedone).Besides,theImmTsbelievethatalMuntazarhasbeen alivesincehewasbornonthenightof15thofShabanintheyear255(A.H.)(869), andthathehasbeenawayfromviewbecauseoftheunjustrulersofhistime,and thatheisalMahdi(themostguidedone),whowillfilltheearthwithjusticeand Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

fairnessasitwasfilledwithoppressionandtyranny.[1] AlsotheImmisbelievethattheseImamsareprotectedfromthesin,themistake, forgetfulness,andheedlessnessasitisinourProphetandalltheprophets,peacebe onthem,andthattheirknowledgeisnotacquisitive,ratheritisinspirationand inheritancefromtheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.Thesoninheritedit fromhisfatherandthepotherfromhispotherasitisinalHasanandalHusayn. AstheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,wastheInheritorofthe knowledgeofProphetsandApostlesandhadtheknowledgeofthepastpeopleand ofthelastpeople,sotheCommanderoftheFaithful(AmTralMuminin)hadallthat knowledge,becausetheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,said:Iamthe cityofknowledgeandAllisitsgate.Apartfromthistradition,therearemany traditionsandversesoftheBook(theKoran).[2] Also,concerningtheImams,theImmTsbelievethattheyweretheservantsofAllah, theGlorified,createdbyHim,providedwiththemeansofsubsistencebyHim,and thattheydidnotdealconclusivelywiththeaffairsofmankind,suchaslife,death, giving,forbidding,andthelikebut 1ManySunnismentionedImanialMahdib.alHasanalAskary.Theyhave admittedhisexistenceandthatheisalMaund(thepromisedone)See:Matlhibal Satil,AlHjjabyb.Arab,LawaqihAlAnwar,AlTadhkira,SharhAlDfiira,Al.FusfII AlMuhima,FaraidAlSimtayn,andthelike.Rather,someofthemclaimedthatthey hadseenandmethim. 2IhavewrittenastudyabouthadythAlThaqalayn,whichprovesthattheImams areInfallibleandtheyknoweverything.Thisstudyhasbeenprinted.AlsoIhavea StudyabouttheKnowledgeoftheImamanditsquality.MayAllahgrantussuccessto printit. (58) withthepermissionfromAllah,theExalted,justastheProphet,mayAllahblesshim andhisfamily,didinconnectionwithmen.AboutTsfi,peaceonhim,theBook(the Koran)reports:ThatIdetermineforyououtofdustlikethefromofabird,thenI peatheintoitanditbecomesabirdwithAllahspermission.[1] TheImflnitshaveconcludedthatwiththeintellectualproofs,traditions,andreports. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Someofthesemaybementionedinthisbook. AlsotheImamishaveconcludedthetextualnominationconcerningthelmamswith thetraditionsoftheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily. Thesetraditionshavebeenreportedbythetwoparties(i.e.,theSunnTsandthe ShTa).Amongthemis:TheImamsarefromQuraysh,theyaretwelve,[2]theyare fromthesonsofAliandFatima,andtheirnominationiswiththeirnamesoneby one.[3] Moreover,theImamTsproducedAllahsfavor(Iutf)asevidencefortheImamate whenheconfinedittothem(theImams),theniftherewasanImam,(people)should followhisImamate,obeyandknowhim. TheImmisrefertotheselmamstoknowthecommandmentsofreligion,soevery commandmentwhichhasbeenprovedbytheProphetorbythem,theyadoptit.But ifthetraditionsaredifferaboutacertaincommandment,theyapplytherulesof equilipiumandpreferenceaccordingtotheestablishedfundamentalsofIslamic jurisprudence. ConcerningIslamiccommandments,apartfromtheBook(theKoran)andtheSunna (thetraditionsandactsoftheProphetorInfallibleImms),theImamTsadoptthe unanimousresolutionandtheirrefutablecommandmentofintellect.Whenthese foursourcesarenotabletogivethemtheIslamiccommandment,theyrefertotheir practicalfundamentalsaccordingtowhatsituationsrequire,whicharegeneral juridicalrulesprovenwithevidences. TheImfimisthinkthatthetraditionswhichhavebeenreported(bymen)fromthe Imamsaresomeofthesunna,becausetheyknewtheknowledgeoftheProphet,may Allahblesshimandhisfamily,byheart,andprotectedhislaw(Sharla),sowhatthey hadwasfromtheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,notfromtheirown independentreasoningandideas. ThesunnaisoneofthefoursourceswhichareusedtodeducepracticallawsofIslam. 1AlUmrfln,48. 2Muslim,apartoftheauthentictradition(reportedby)Jabir.Ahmad,Musnad,5/89, 2/29and129.BinHajar,AlSawaiq,chapterI,PartI,AlSyyflty,TarTkhAlKltulafI, andthelike. 3AlQindflzy,YanibTAlMawada,427an430and442. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

KiflyatAlAthar,AlMuqtadab,AlKanz,andthelike. (596) Thesefoursources,aswehavementionedare:TheBook(Koran),theSunna(the traditionsandactsoftheProphetorinfallibleImms),consensus(ijma),andintellect (aql).Theexplanationofevidenceofthesesourcesandhowtorefertothemhave beenmentionedinthebooksofthefundamentalsofIslamicjurisprudence. AsfortheirbeliefinAllah,themostExalted,theImmisbelievethatHe,theGlorified, isathingbutHeisnotsimilartootherthings.Hehasnobodyorphysicalform,and CannotbeseenbyeyesinthisworldortheHereafter. VisioncomprehendsHimnot,andHecomprehends(all)vision.HisAttributesarethe sameasHisself.He,theExalted,isjust,andHedoesnotoppressanyoneofHis servants,becauseoppressionisindecentbyasanemind,andHecreatedallthings outofnothing. AsfortheirbeliefinourProphetMohammed,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,the Immlsbelievethathewasinfalliblefromtheerror,theslip,forgetfulness, heedlessness,mortalandvenialsins,thathedidnotcommitanyofthembeforeor afterhisprophethood,andthathewassentforalltheworld.Thisistheirbeliefinthe infallibilityofapostlesandprophets TheImmisbelievethattheImamateisamongthefundamentals(ofIslam),which shouldbeprovedwiththerationalevidenceinadditiontothenarratedtexts,andof therationalevidenceistheruleofAllahsfavor(qaidatalLutt7). Concerningmaad(theReturn),theImimTsbelievethatAllah,theGlorified,will returnmenforresurrectionwiththosebodieswhichwereintheworld,andtheyare (thebodies)whichwillberewardedandwillliveeternallyinParadise(jann)orwill bepunishedandliveeternallyinhell(nlran). Asfortheactsofmen,theImfimTsbelievethattheyareamatterbetweentwo matters;neithercompulsionnorauthorization.Namely,Allah,theGlorified,doesnot forcementoachievetheiractionsoasnottooppressthemwhenHewillpunishthem fortheirsins,rathertheyhavetheabilityandoptioninwhattheydo.NorAllahhas authorizedthemtoactfreelywiththecreationoftheiractions,thenHehasnoability tocontrolHisservants,ratherHehasthedecisionandtheorder,andHeisabletodo Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

everythingandencompassesHisservants. Also,HemayholdBACKhimfromthefactorsofdisobedienceandmisguidanceasa favorfromHimforHisservant,andthisiswhatwecalltawfiq(Allahsblessingon someonefordoinggoodactions). ThesearesomebeliefsoftheImamTsabouttheexistenceandtheOnenessofAllah, theattributesofAllah,prophethood,theImhniatc,thehereafter,andtheactionsof men. WehavepieflymentionedthebeliefsoftheImamTs.Buttheyhavebeenexplainedin detailinthebooksoftheologyandbeliefs. (60) Today,theImrnisconstitutethegreatmajorityoftheShTaallovertheIslamic countries.Sincethefirstdayofthebeginningofwriting,theirbooksaboutallsciences havebeenspreadamongnations.Theurban,theBedouin,theignorant,andthe scholarreadtheirbooks. Atthepresenttime,theirisnoobviouswellknownsectexceptthatwereduringthe timeofalSadiq,peaceonhim,sowehaveneglectedthosesectsthattookplace afterhim,peaceonhim,suchastheFatahiya,theNwflsiya,andtheWAqifiya. 4.TheKharijites: Thissectappearedonthedayof(theBattleof)Sifffnduetothetrickofb.a1As whenheadvisedMuAwiya,whowasfeeble,tocontinuefightingtoraisecopiesof theKoranandtosummon(ImamAusArmy)toresorttothem.Whenthey (MawiyyasArmy)raisedthecopiesoftheKoran,agroupofthecompanionsofthe CommanderoftheFaithful(AmiralMuminin),peacebeonhim,mutiniedagainst himsayingthatthey(MuawiyasArmy)weresummoningthemtotheBookofAllah whilehewassummoningthemtothesword.So,heblamedthemforthat,triedto holdthemBACKfrombeingdeceivedbythattrick,andsaidtothem:Woeuntoyou! IamthemostknowledgeableintheBookofAllah.Buthisblame,hisdeterrence,and hisevidencewerealluseless.Moreover;theysaidtohim:PreventMalikfrom fightingtheMuslims;otherwisewewilldoagainstyouaswehaddoneagainst Uthmn.So,hewasforcedtoorderMaliktocomeBACKwhilehewasaboutto defeatMuwiyasArmyandthelatterwasabouttoescape.Thenthey(theKharijites) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

forcedhim(ImamAu)toacceptthearbitration.Thus,hewantedtosendAbdAllahb. Abbs,buttheyorderedhimtosendAbtlMasaalAshary.Whenthearbitrationtook place,theKhrijitiessaid:Whydidyouappointthemenasarbitratorsinthereligion ofAllah?ThereisnorulebutforAllah.Fromhere,theywerecalledalMuhakjma. TheCommanderofthefaithfulcameBACKfrom(theBattleof)Siffinwhiletheywere insistingontheirdeviationanddisobedienceThentheygatheredatHarawranear Kufa,sotheywerecalledtheHarawriyya TheCommanderoftheFaithful(AmTralMuminTn)opposedwithargumentalltheir claims,buttheycausedmischiefintheland,killedKhabboneofthegood Companionsandcutopenthebelliesofthepregnantwomen.So,theCommanderof theFaithfulwasforcedtokillthosewho.insistedontheirdeviationat(theBattleof) Nahrwan.Butthatbattlewasnotabletodestroytheiropinions,rathertherewere stillpeoplewhoadoptedtheirideasanddeviation.Suchpeopleannoyedthekings and (61) thegovernorsduringthosetimes.Wheneveragroupofthemperishedanothergroup appeared.Peoplewereinastateofterrorbecausetheysufferedfromtheirquick assassination,uglyactions,cruelty,andviolationoftheforbidden.Theywagedwar againstthekingsandthegovernorsoutofbeliefandtranquillity.Theyfoughtpavely, SOmenwerenotabletostandbeforethemeveniftheyweremorethanthey becausethemenhadnobelieftoresistthatbelief.Butifthey(thefollowersofthe Kharijites)feltthattheywereweak,theyattackedpeopleatnightandranaway.For thisreason,noplacewassafefromtheirevilactions. They(theKharijites)hadexternaldevotionandworship,theywerestillattractingthe rabblewiththoserighteousaspects,thepropagationfordisobeyingthefalse supremeruler,andthepropagationforactingaccordingtotheBookandtheSunna, eveniftheycontradictedthoseaspectsandpropagationthroughusingoppression andcausingmischief.Butthesimpleofmenmightbedeceivedbythatphenomenon ofdevotionandrighteousness.AlsosomeofthefollowersoftheDivineBooks(the Jews,theChristians,andtheMagians),andthosewhodidnotbelieveinthe correctnessofthereligionofIslamweredeceivedbythoseattractivephenomena,so theyaddedthemtotheirfightersandboastedofthem. AfterthatthestrengthoftheKharijitesbecameweakandtheirevilactsbecamecalm, andpeoplelivedinpeaceforaperiodoftime,buttheirimportanceappearedagain Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

duringthedaysofalSdiq,peacebeonhim,whenoneoftheirleadersAbdAllahb. YahyalKindycalledTlibalHaqroseinHadramoutafterhehadaskedtheadviceof AbAdiya..whowereinBasrah.Theymadetheriseincumbentonhim.Amongthem wereAbHamzaa1MukIitarb.AufalAzdyandBalakhb.AqabaalMasudy.Then twothousandmenpaidhimhomage.So,withtheirsupport,heappeared. Whenhisarmybecamebig,hewroteletterstotheKharijitesinSana,thenheheaded forit.So,battlestookplacebetweenhimandthegovernorofSana.AbdAllah defeatedthegovernorandcontrolledthetreasuriesofproperties.Thenhe dominatedYemen.Whenthetimeofhajj(pilgrimage)came,heformedanarmyofa thousandfightersundertheleadershipofAbnIlamza.AmongthemwereBalakhand Apahab.alSabbagh.HeorderedhimtostayatMeccawhenpeoplecameBACKfrom itandsendBalakhtoShim(Syria).So,theyenteredMeccaonthe8thdayofDhuAl.. Hijja.AtthattimeAbdalWhidb.Sulaymanb.Abda1Malikwasthegovernorof MarwanalHimaroverMeccaandMedina.So,AbdalWhidhatedtofightthemso asnottomakepeopleafraidofthem.Forthisreasonhewrotethemsomeletters.He askedthemnottopreventpeoplefromPerformingtheirhajj.Besidesheassured themthattheywouldbesafetillpeoplefinishedthethirddayofimmolation.When thatdaywasover,AbdalWahjdleftMeccaandallowedabuHamzatoenterit withoutfighting. (62) EnteringMedina,AbdalWhidpreparedanarmytofightAbHamza.Thetwo armiesmetatQadid.abuHamzadefeatedAbdatWahid.Hekilled2230menfrom thepeopleofMedina.ThenBalakhenteredMedinawithoutfighting.AbdatWahid leftforSham.So,Marwnformedanarmyoffourthousandmen,whowerethe horsemenandthegreatfiguresofhiscamp.Heprovidedthemwithwhateverthey needed.ThearmywasundertheleadershipofAbdatMalikb.AtiyaatSidy. WhentheKhrijitesheardaboutthemovementoftheArmyofSham,theyquickly constitutedanarmyofsixhundredfightersheadedbyBalakhb.AqabaatMasUdy. ThetwoarmiesmetatWadyalQuronsomedaysofJamadiatLilaintheyear130 (A.H.).TheArmyofShamdefeatedtheArmyoftheKharijitesAllwerekilledexcept thirtypeople.TheyescapedtoMedina.AlMufaddalatAzdywasthegovernorof Medina.So,Amrb.AbdatRahmnb.Zaydb.atKhattabsummonedpeopletofight theKharijitesinMedinabutnooneansweredhim.Anyhow,theBerbers,thengroes, andcommonpeoplesupportedhimtofighttheKharijites.So,hekilledalMufaddal andmostofhiscompanionsandtherestranaway.Thenb.AtiyacametoMedina Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

andstayedthereforamonth.ThenhewenttoMecca.Thereafiercebattletook placebetweenhimandAbiiHamza.ManyoftheKharijiteswerekilled.Fourhundred ofthemwerecapturedandkilled.Andb.AtiyahangedAbUHamza,IpahimaandAli b.atHusaynontheMountainsofatKhTf.WhentheAbbasidstookthereinsof authority,theywerepoughtdownduringthedaysofalSaffah.Thenb.Atiyawentto Tif.WhenAbdAllahb.YahyaThlibatHaq,whowasinSana,heardaboutthekilling ofAbUHamzaandhisgroup,heheadedforb.Atiyatowagewaragainsthim.So,b. Atiyaadvancedtowardshim.Whentheymet,alargegroupofthetwopartieswas killed.AbdAllahandathousandfightersdismounted. Theyfoughtuntiltheywereallkilled.AbdAllahwaskilled,too.BinAtiyasenthis headtoMarwn.AfterhehaddefeatedtheKharijites,b.AtiyastayedatHadramout. AletterfromMarwncametohimtogoquicklytoMeccatoleadpeopleduringthe hajj.B.Atiyawithnineteenhorsemenwenttherequickly.ButMarwnregrettedand said:Ihavekilledb.Atiya.HewillleaveYemenquicklytoreachMeccaatthetimeof Hajj.So,theKharijiteswillkillhim.Itwasashesaid.Adisguisedgroupoftheand othersmethimbychance.TheKharijitesknewhimandtheyattackedandkilled him.[1] Afterthat,theKharijiteswerenothingbutbeliefandidea.Theyhadnostrengthto wagewaragainstthekings.Tilltoday,someofthemhaveinsistedonthatdeviation. AndsomeofthemareinUman.Buttheyhaveneitherimportancenorstrength. 1SeeSharhAlNahj:1/455463.Inthisbook,youwillfindthedetailsofwhatwehave pieflymentioned. (63) TheKharijitesaredeviatedpeople.Aboutthem,theProphet,mayAllahblesshimand hisfamily,toldtheCommanderoftheFaithfulthathewouldwagewaragainstthem anddefeatthem. TheKharijitesweremanysects.TheyagreedonthebeliefthatAll,Uthman,thetwo arbitrators,theCompanionsoftheCamel,andallthosewhoweresatisfiedwiththe arbitrationofthetwoarbitratorswerealtunbelievers.Theyaccusedthosewho commitsinsofunbelief.TheymadeitobligatorytodisobeytheoppressiveImam,asit hasbeenmentionedfromatKabTinthe(book)AtFarqbaynaAtFiraq,p.55. ButithasbeenreportedontheauthorityofAbatHasanatAsharythatthey Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

deniedtheiragreementonaccusingthosewhocommitsinsofunbelief. Aboutthat,manydetailshavebeenmentionedontheirauthority.ManysectSafthe Kharijiteshavebecomebygone.Moreover,thosewhoareinUmantodaybelongto theAbdiyyaaccordingtotheirbeliefs. TheExtremistsandThosewhohavedisagreedwithIslamonsomeBeliefs: Inthebeginningofthischapter,wehavementionedthattheoriginsoftheIslamic sectswerefourgroupings. Fromthem,altsectspanched.Thesectsoftheextremistsbelongedtothepanchesof thoseorigins.So,everyoriginhadextremepanches. Suchamatterisappliedtothosewhoadoptcertainbeliefs,forexample, transmigrationofsouls,incarnation,andassimilationwhichareregardedasunbelief byMuslimsects.Butitisnoteasytoattackthemwithunbeliefbecauseofthebelief whichisascribedtothem.Whoeverhaslittleknowledgeofreligionshouldnotaccuse thosewhoconfesstheShahdatayn(thetwotestimoniesbyaMuslimAshhaduanla IthailtatthandAshhaddannaMohammedarRasulutlh)ofunbelief.So,he shoulddependonastrongidea.Aslongasweareinnoneedofthat,wewillnot discussthismatterandthrowourselvesdownatremendousheight,thenlookfora safeescape,especiallythosesectswhichareaccusedofdisagreementwithIslam becauseoftheirfalsebeliefshavebecomebygone.Nothinghasremainedofthem exceptsmallonesofnoimportanceamongthechildrenofIslam,andnooneisafraid oftheircorruptbeliefs.Inthemeantime,theyhavekepttheirbeliefssecretbecause theyknowthatthechildrenofreligionhavetheabilitytoovercomesuchbeliefswith argumentsandproofsandchargethemwithdisbeliefanddeviationfromIslam. Thecarefulnessofspreadingthesecorruptbeliefstotheignorantismoreimportant thanthatofthepastpeoplewhoresistedthoseheresiesandmisguidancewithevery means.But,today,wearesafefromthemisleading (64) ideasoftheirpresentsects.Justimaginehowmuchlessheresiesofthosedeadsects are! TheSuspicionsofAtheists: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Today,itisveryimportanttotakecareofspreadingsuspicionsofatheistswhose selvestrytogetrideofthecommandmentsofreligion.Whiletheyhaveforgotten thatthesecommandmentsputmanintheclassesofangelsandthespiritual,takes himoutofawfulsavagenessandlethaldesires,protectshimfromthosewhoshow enmitytowardshismostvaluableaimsinthislife:hislife,hisreputation,andhis property.AlsotheseIslamiccommandmentsguardtheabovementionedvaluable aimsagainstanyaggression.Thisisthefreedomwhichtheylookfor.Withthis freedomtheyhavedrawnawayfromthepeopleofintellectandchastityandfollowed thepeopleofcruelty,dissoluteness,andprostitution.Thisfreedomhasdeceived someyoungmenandmadethemfallintothesesnares,becauseyoungmenquickly followtheirdesiresandpeaktheclaimedshackleswithoutresortingtotheirmindand usingtheirintellectbeforetheyaredeceived. THEMIMAMATE (65) MuslimshaveunanimouslyagreedonthenecessityoftheImamate.Buttheyhave differentbeliefsaboutit,becausetheImamleadstheMuslimcommunity,guardsit againstmisguidance,enforcestheIslamiclaw,andspreadstheteachingsofIslam. ApartofthepolicyoftheOwnerofthereligiouslawandthemarvelousthingsofhis ruleisthatheordered(Muslims)toknowtheImam,sohesaid:Whoeverdiesand doesnotknowtheImamofhistimediesforjhiliya(preIslamicpaganismage).[1] Namely,hediesasifhedidnotadoptIslam. IftheMuslimsactaccordingtothisreligiousdutyandcarryoutwhatthisobligation ordains,toknowtheImamandlistentohiswordsaftertheyhaveknownhim,they willbeonearmyandtheirleaderistheImam.ThennoMuslimignoresthe commandmentsofthereligionorheknowsthembuthedoesnotactaccordingto them.Moreover,theflagsofIslamwillwageallovertheworld. ThecaliphateandImamatewasaracecourse,noonetakesitsreinsbuttheperson whowinstheraceevenifwithbloodshedandviolatingtheforbidden,ratherevenif Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

thecaliphhimse!f,aftertakingthereinsofauthority,isimpudentanddissolute payingnoattentiontowhathedoes. ButtheImmiShia,sincethefirstera,havenotattachedimportancetosuchan ImamateandnotacknowledgedsuchanImamate.Rathertheythinkthatthecaliph ortheImamshouldhaveallthequalitiesofperfection,freefromallthetraitsof defect,carryingoutthecommandmentsoftheIslamicLawsecretlyandopenly, refrainingfromtheoutsideandtheinsideforbiddenthings,andpreventpeoplefrom doingthem.Heshouldbeappointedaccordingtothetextualnominationbythe OwneroftheIslamicLaworbytheImambeforehim,tocarryouttheorderofAllah, theGlorifiedbecauseHe,theExalted,ismorethanhisservantsinchoosingthemost righteouspersonforthissensitiveposition. Themainisnothewholeadspeople,ratherthemainisthepersonwhomthe evidencessupport,evenifpeopledonotfollowhimorpreventhimfromcarryingout theobligationsofhisImamateandthedutiesofhisleadership. Theresistanceandappositionofpeopleagainstthemaindoesnotdecreasehisability toassumetheobligationsoftheImainate,rathertheymisstheirchanceandlosea wayofguidance. 1Inthismannerthetraditionhasbeenmentionedintheoriginofthebook.Wehave notfounditintheavailablebooks.Whatwehavefoundisthistext:Whoeverdies withoutanImaxndiesthedeathofjlhiliya.KanzAlUmIl:1/103. (66) So,themain,accordingtotheImmiviewpoint,isthepersonwhoisresponsiblefor theobligationsoftheImainatewhetherherisesornot,pronouncesitorkeeps silence,andadvancesfortheraceorfallsbehind,becausehisImaniateisnot achievedthroughtheborrowedclothing.NamelyhebecomeanImamwhenhetakes thisclothingfromtheothersandisoutoftheImaniatewhentheotherstakethis clothingfromhim. TheImamistheseriousevidence,soheshouldinformpeopleabouthisImainateand provideevidencesforitwhenthereisanecessaryneed.Alsopeopleshouldknowhim andobeyhimwhentheyknowhim. AsforprovidingevidencesfortheImamateofthemain,heshoulddeclareorhintit. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Enoughforevidencesthatheshouldstatehisoutstandingmeritsandmiraclesand showtheknowledgewhichpeoplearenotabletoshow,except,whentheswords preventhimfromshowingthat;yethisactsandhabitsdenotehispositionevenifhis tongueissilent. TheImamatehasbeenoneoftheresearcheswhichraiseargumentanddispute amongMuslimssincethefirstdayoftheOwnerofthemission(theProphet). Theargumentandthedisputeshavetakenplacethroughthepen,thetongue,the sword,andthespearhead. Today,thefoundationsoftheImamateisbuiltontheruinsofthe.Alsotodayand tomorrowitisthedifferenceamongthesectsasitwasyesterday,thoughtheMuslim haveagreedontheProphet,theBook,andtheqibla(theKabah).Todayand yesterday,amongthesectsaretheownersofpreferableintellectandcorrectideas, whohavetheabilitytounifythesesectsunderonebanner,tellthemaboutthe reasonswhichhaveledtheImamatetoBACKwardnessanddisunity,informthem abouttheadvantagesofunity,warnthemagainsttheevilofdisunity,andmakethem feelthedisasters,thedestruction,andthediscordfromwhichIslamhassuffered becauseofthatdisputeandargument.AstheImamateisthecrossways,sothis disunityshouldgatheratit. IfpeopleknewtodaytherealityoftheImamateandwhothemainis,they,evenif someofthem,wouldmovequicklytoformaunitytoincludeallthesectsatthis criticalhourwhenanarchyanddiscordprevailes. I(theanuthor)willtrytopointtosomequalitiestheImamshouldhave,evenifmy wordisinvain,toattracttheattentionoftheheedlesspersonandmovethemindful one.Thisdoesnotirritatemeaslongastheintentionisrightandthepurposeis valuable,anditistoseekthepleasureofAllah,theGlorified. I(theauthor)say:Indeed,theregimewhichtheLastoftheprophetshaspoughtpings twomaimerstogether;themannerofthepersonwiththeCreatorandhismanner withthecreated,andwhoeverpingssucharegimeshouldbeabletoenforceand carryitouttospreadhislawalloverthe (67) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

world.So,whentheProphetenforcedandcarriedouthislaw,hehadtwotemporal andspiritualpowers.Whenhepassedaway,thecommunityledeventuallytothe necessitywhichsummonedhimtoconcludetheImamateduringhislifetime. Thecommunitythoughtthatitwasobligatorytocarryoutthefunctionsoftheowner ofthemission,andnoonewouldassumethembutanmainwhohadageneral leadershipoveralltheMuslimnation,andhehadtohavethetwopowerswhichthe truthfulProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,had;otherwisetheregimewhich ensuredthetwohappyplaces(inthisworldandthehereafter)wouldbewithout execution.InthemeantimeallthoseeffortsfromwhichtheOwnerofthemission sufferedwouldbeuseless. AstheImamateisincumbentontheMuslimcommunityontheaccountofnecessity, thenwhoistheworthiestofthisgreatfunction?Iwonder:Istheworthiestonewho wasliketheOwnerofthemissioninknowledgeandact,guidedinhimselfandguides others,providedevidenceforhisideasandnoweaknesscomesuponhisevidence?If peopleaskedhimforamiracle,actsinwordsandhewouldpingiteasilyandwithout hesitation,convincedeasilythestubborn;knewallthatwhichtheOwnerofthe missionpoughtandacteduponit,knewtherevelationandinterpretationofthe Koran,fullofgoodqualities,ratherthebestofallmenineveryquality,hadnobad quality,generallyspeakingthemodeloftheProphetinallhisoutstandingmerits? Oristheworthiestofithewhodoesnotknowtheabovementionedqualitiesand theydonotknowhimorhassomeofthemandemptyoftheothers?Withoutdoubt, youwillsay:thefirstpersonisworthieroftheImamatethanthesecondpersonis. ButI(theauthor)thinkthatyouwillsay:Indeed,alltheimportanceistoprovetwo mattersinthisrespect:thefirstmatteritisobligatorytoappointanIinamacording totheabovementionedqualities.ThesecondmatteristhatheisintheMuslim communityandhehasallthesequalities.Ifitisprovedthatthemainshouldhave thesequalitiesandheisintheMuslimCommunity,thentorefusehisImainateand ordersisstubbornnesswhichthepossessorofreligionandintellectdoesnot Iwillprovethesetwomattersforyouhopingthatyouwillhearandunderstand. Asforthefirstevidence,itmaybesummarizedasfollows:Surely,theProphet,may Allahblesshimandhisfamily,wasawareofwhathedeclared.Hewasnotignorantof whathewasasked.Hislawisone.Thereisnodisunityinit.ItisimmortaltilltheDay ofJudgment.ThelawofMohammedislawfultilltheDayofResurrectionandwhathe declaredunlawfulisunlawfultilltheDayofResurrection.Ifhehadgivenafreehand Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

totheMuslimcommunitytochoosetheImaintocarryouthis (68) obligations,wewouldhavefoundtheMuslimcommunityignorantaboutthe commandmentsofthelaw,andnotdistinguishbetweenthelawfulandtheunlawful, becausetheMuslimcommunityhadnosoundjudgmentaboutthescienceoflawto refertoit,nordidithaveajustrulerwhohadtheabilitytoenforcethepunishments toobeyhim.Forthisreason,theMuslimsdividedintoschoolsandsects.Eachsect providedevidencefortheirideasandbeliefs.Thenthepeoplechoseoneamong themselvesasacaliphandmainforthemselves.Theychosethecaliphswhodidnot knowallwhattheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,pought,andhadno knowledgeofwhattheywereaskedabout.Asthosecaliphsbecame,aftertheyhad beenelected,thejustruler,andaspeopledidnotfindtheirpurposeconcerningthe governmentandthecommandments,everysectbeganshowingitsbeliefsandideas. Butnosecthadassortedargumentsandclearevidencetorefutethesuspicionsof thoseschoolsandthedoubtsofthoseideas.Thesectsopposedeachother.Eachsect attributedtheirbeliefstotheIslamicLawandreligionthoughthelawfulandthe unlawfulareunchangeabletillthelasthourofthisexistenceandtheislamiclawis oneandimmortalthroughouthistory.Nevertheless,aftertheProphetofIslam, legislators,laws,beliefs,andschoolshaveenteredIslam. Thischangeanddeviationwascreatedbymenbecausetheyhadelectedthosewho hadlittleknowledgeoftheIslamicLawtobethescholarandruler.Atthesametime theyrefutedsometimestheproofsofmenwithevidenceandsometimeswiththe swordtoforcepeopletoobeyhimandhisbeliefs.SoitisincumbentupontheMuslim communitytochoosethemainwhoisknowledgeableofwhathascomeinthe PropheticLaw,followstheactsoftheProphet,hasknowledgeofwhatheisasked, andhastheevidencetoremovedoubts,falsehood,ignoranceandmisguidanceso thattheIslamicLawwilllastforeveraccordingtotheordersoftheProphet,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily,andthelawfulandtheunlawfuloftheProphetare unchangeablethroughoutlife,otherwise,therewillbenolaws,nolegislators,no schools,andnobeliefs. ButhowcantheMuslimcommunitychoosesucharuler?Fromwherecanitknow him? Iftheyknewhim,howwouldtheyagreeonhimbecausepeoplehavedifferenttrends andpurposes? Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

So,itisincumbentonAllah,theExalted,toappointanmainfortheMuslim communityandnominatethatjustsuccessorandmodelscholarthroughtheProphet becauseAllah,theGlorified,knowstheadvantageofhisservantsandknowsthe personwhoisworthyofthissensitivefunctionandgreatposition. Therefore,ifthenominationofthemainisincumbentonAllah,theExalted,thenitis impossible,accordingtothewisemen,forHim,theGlorified,toneglectthe incumbentthatsetsrighthisservantsandguides (69) hiscreation.ItisalsoimpossiblefortheProphettoneglectAllahsnomination concerningthismain.ThenifitwaspossiblefortheProphettoneglectsuchasan incumbent,itwaspossibleforhimtoneglectotherthanthatincumbent. Consequently,astheProphetisanincumbent,theImamisanincumbent,too.As Allahsendsaprophet,Heappointsanmain.So,thereisnoProphetwithoutanImam andnolawwithoutexplanationandexecution. Asfortheevidenceforthesecond;whichistheexistenceofthisImam,itiseasyto proveitafterwhatwehavementionedabove,becauseifwebelievethatthe appointmentofthemauiaccordingtotheoutstandingmeritsisobligatory,andthat Allah,theExalted,appointshimforHiscreation,wewillbelievethatAllahdoesnot makethenameandancestryofthemainunknown,andthatitdifficultfortheMuslim nationtoknowhim.WeknowthatthereisnoImamintheMuslimCommunityfor whomthatincumbentisattributedandwhoclaimedsuchanincumbentisattributed butAuandhissons,peacebeonthem.IftheythemselveswerenottheImarns,the Imamateandthatincumbentwouldbenonsense. Therefore,wehavetoknowthattheywerescholarswhohadnoignorance,thejust personswhodidnotwrongpeople.Asforjustice,nooneofthemhadthe opportunitytoapplyitbuttheCommanderoftheFaithful.(ArnTralMuminln),and hismatterisinnoneedofexplanation.Andasfortheirknowledge,theirsayingsand traditionsdenoteit.So,studytheirknowledgeandyouwillfindthatwhathasbeen reportedaboutthemistrue.Andthisbook,whichisbetweenyourhands,isan extractofthatabundantawledge.[1] IfyouwanttoknowmuchmoreabouttheImainate,thenseeourprintedstudyAl Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

ShTawaAlImania. WHOWASALSADIQ? (70) Indeed,thewritershouldgiveageneralideaaboutthepersonwhomhewritesabout beforehegoesdeeperintohiswritingsothereaderdoesnotmisunderstandsucha personwhenhereadseachchapterofhislife. HereIwouldliketomentionagroupoftheviewpointsofthereligiousscholars concerningJafaralSadiq,peacebeonhim,becausesuchviewpointsexpressthe ideasofgenerationsaboutthisgreatfigure.Theyareasfollows: In(thebook)MTznAlItidal(1:192),mentioningtheImam,alDhahahbi[1]said: Jafarb.Mohammedb.Alib.alHusaynalHshmyAbAbdAllahwasofthegreat Imams.(Hewas)righteous,truthful,andofgreatimportance. In(thebook)TahdhTbAlAsmawaAlLught(1:149150),alNawawy[2]said: Mohammedb.Ishq,YahyaalAnsry,Mlik,thetwoSufyanis,b.JarTh,Shuba, YahyalQattan,andthelikereportedfromhim.TheyagreedonhisLmamate,his greatness,andhissupremacy.Amrub.AbualMuqdmsaid:WhenIlookedatJafar b.Mohammed,IknewthathewasfromthedescendantsoftheProphets. IbinKhulakan[3]said:(Hewas)amongthetwelveImamsaccordingtothedoctrineof theImamis.HewasamongthemastersofthemembersoftheHouse(ahlalBayt).He wassurnamedalSadiqbecausehisspeechwastruthful.Andhisoutstandingmerit wasmorefamousthantobementioned.Headded:HispupilAbuMusaJabirb. HayynalSufialTartusi[4]wroteabookofonethousandsheetshavingthestudies ofalSdiq,whicharefivehundredstudies.Andadded:HewasburiedataIBqIin thegravewherehisfatherMohammedalBqir.hisgrandfatherZaynalAbidin,and theuncleofhisgrandfatheralHasanb.Ali,peacebeonthem.So,whatagenerous andhonorablegraveitis! 1Thememorizer(oftheKoran)andrepresentativeofthescienceofHadith,Shamsal Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

DinAbuAbdAllahMohammedb.UthmanatDimashqy,bornin673,diedin748. 2Thememorizer(oftheKoran)AbuZakariyaMuhiyyalDTnb.SharafalDTn,died 676. 3Ahmadb.Mohammedb.Ipahimb.AbtlBakr,b.Khu1akan.Hewasbornatthetown ofArbTInearMousil(inIraq).HemovedtoMousil,traveledtoElope,enteredEgypt. HereplacedatSakhwyinjudgeship.ThenhebecameajudgeinShimfortenyears. HediedinDamascusin681.HisbiographyhasbeenwritteninTabaqatatShafiiyah: 5/14,FawatalWafiyat:1/55,alSiyflty(HusinalMuhadara):1/267,Mujamat Matb0at:1/98,andthelike. 4InthescientificlifeofalSadiq,wewillpointtohisknowledgeofchemistryandto JabirsstudyingunderhimandapartofJabirslife. (71) In(theBook)NOralAbsar,p.13[1],alShiblanjTsaid:Hisoutstandingtraitswere many.Theyareabouttoexceedthelimitofthecounter.Andtheunderstandingof themindfulwriterisbewilderedattheirKindsHeadded:Thereisanadvantagein (thebook)HayatAlHaywanAlKupa,intheBookAdabAlKatib,binQutayba said:ImamJafaralSadiqb.MohammedalBaqirwrotethebookofalJafr (divination).Init,thereisallthattheyneedofhisknowledgetilltheDayof Judgment.AbtlaIAla(apoet)pointedtothisjafr(divination)andsaid: Verily,theybecameastonishedatthefamily ofMohammedwhentheirknowledgecainetothem writtenontheskinofafullgrownhegoat. Themirroroftheastrologer,thoughsmall(insize), showshimineverypopulatedanddesolate(lands). InhisbookIsafAlRaghibinprintedinthefootnoteofthebookNurAlAbsr, p.208,MohammedalSabbn[2]said:AndasforJafaralSdiq,hewasanoble Imam.Headded:Hissupplicationwasaccepted.IfheaskedAllahforsomething,it wasbetweenhishandsbeforehecompletedhiswords. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

In(thebook)LawaqihAlAnwr,alShaarany[3]said:Ifhe(alSdiq),peacebeon him,wasinneedofathing,hewouldsay:0Allah,Iaminneedofsoandso.That thingwasputbesidehimbeforehecompletedhissupplication. InhisbookTadhkiratKhawflsAlUmma,p.192,Sibtb.alJawzy[4]said:The biographistssaid:Hewasbusyworshipping(Allah)insteadofseekingleadership. Headded:AmonghisnoblemannersiswhatalZamakhshary,inhisbookRaMAl Apr,hasreportedfromalShaqranytheservantofAllahsApostle,mayAllahbless himandhisfamily,whosaid:AlAttawentoutduringthedaysofalMansflrandI hadnointercessor,soIstoodatthedoorwithbewilderment. Suddenly,Jafarb.Mohammedcametowardsme,soItoldhimaboutmyneed.He enteredandcameout.Suddenly,myneedwasinhishand.Hegaveittomeandsaid: Thegood(thing)fromanyoneisgoodandfromyouisbetterbecauseofyourplace fromusandthebadthingfromanyone 1(Hisnamewas)Muminb.HasanMuminalMasry.Shiblanjisamongthevillagesof Egypt.HestudiedthesciencesatatAzharMosque.HewasbornatNajafin1250.His deathhasnotbeenmentioned.2 2(Hisnamewas)Mohammedb.AlialShIfiratHanafi.HewasborninEgypt.His biographyhasbeenmentionedin(thebook)MujamAlMatbOat:2/1194. 3(Hisnamewas)AbtIatMawlhibAbdatWahfibb.Ahmadb.AualAnsliryalShaii 1alMasrycalledalShaarlny.HeenteredCairoin911anddiedthere.Hisbiography hasbeenmentionedinMujamAlMatbtiAt:1/1126. 4(Hisnamewas)AbtiMuzafarShamsalDTnYousifb.QuzAli(thefamouspreacher) alHanaiY.Hewasbornin582or581,anddiedonDhialHijja21st,654. (72) isbadandfromyouisworsebecauseofyourplacefromus.IndeedJafarsaid(these words)toalShaqrAnybecausehe(thelatter)drankwine.So,amongtheoutstanding traitsofJafaristhathewelcomedhimandmethisneedthoughhe(Jafar)wasaware ofhisbehaviorandpreachedwitheuphemism,andthisisamongtheethicsofthe Prophets. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

In(thebook)MatlibAlSaUl,p.81,Mohammedb.Talha[1]said:He(alSdiq)was amongthegreatfiguresofahlalBaytandtheirprogeny.Hehadmanysciences, plentifulworshipping,andcontinuouspartsoftheKoran,clearasceticism,andmuch recitation(oftheKoran). HeunderstoodthemeaningsoftheHolyKoran,tookoutjewelsfromitssea,and concludeditswonders.Hedividedhistimesaccordingtothekindsofobedience,so hepunishedhimselfforthem.Hisfacereminded(theperson)oftheHereafter, listeningtohiswordsputanendtoonesdesireforlife,inthisworld,followinghis guidanceinheritsParadise,theprogenyoftheprophethood,andthepurityofhisacts disclosedthathewasamongtheprogenyoftheProphet.Andhesaid:Asforhis laudabledeedsandqualities,theywereabouttoexceedthenumberofthecounter. Theunderstandingoftheknowing(person)wasperplexedattheirkinds,aswellas theruleswhosecausesarenotunderstoodandthescienceswhoserules understandingisunabletoencompassareaddedtohimandreportedfromhim,(that is)becauseofhismanysciencesthatflewoutofhisheartduetothecompetitionof piety. In(thebook)AlSawaiq.IbinHajar[2]said:Andmenreported(alotof)sciences,and hisreputationspreadalloverthecountries. InYanbiAlMawada,[3]printedinIslambUl,p.380,:AndamongtheImamsofahlal BaytwasAbUAbdAllahJafaralSdiq.Headded:Andhewasamongtheprogeny ofahlalBat.Andheadded:In(theBook)TabaqtAlMashaykhAlSufiyan,Shaykh AbUAbdurrahinnalSlimysaid:JafaralSdiqovershadowedallhisfellowsfrom ahlalBayt.Hehadabundantknowledge,greatasceticismintheworld,perfectpiety indesires,andperfectgoodmannersinwisdom. InHulyat.AlAwliya3:192thememorizer(oftheKoran)AbUNaTm[4]said:And amongthemwasthearticulateImamandthefirstreinAbtiAbdAllahJafarb. MohammedalSdiq.Hedevotedhimselftoworshippingandobediehce(toAllah), fayoredisolationandsubmission,andprevented(men)fromleadershipandparties. ThenhereportedhisforegoingwordsontheauthorityofAmrflb.AbOAlMuqdam. Andhereportedfromal2 1(Hisnamewas)Kama1tdintheShafiT.Hediedin654. 2(Hisnamewas)ShbutdTnAlimadb.HajaratHaythainy.HelivedinMecca. 3ByShaykhSutaimanb.Ipahim.knownasKhajaKaIan.Hecompletedthebookon Ramadan,1291.4 Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

4(Hisnamewas)Ahmadb.AbdAllahalAsbihany.Hediedintheyear430A.H. (73) Hayjb.Bastim,[1]whosaid:AndJafarb.Mohammedgavefoodandleftnothing forhisfamily. InAlFusOlAlMuhima,IbinalSabbaghalMftliky[2]said:Onlyheofhispothers wasthecaliphofhisfatherandhistrusteeofauthorityandresponsibleforthe Imamateafterhim.Heexcelledhisgroupinfavor.Hewasmorefamousthantheyand greaterthantheyinimportance.Peoplereportedfromhimthescienceswhichthe passengersspread.So,hebecamefamousalloverthecountries.Attheendofhis words,hesaid:ThedeedsofAbilAbdAllahwerelaudable,histraitsin.honorwere perfect,hisdignitythroughoutthedayswasrunning,andtheclubsofgloryandhonor werefullofhisgloriousdeeds. InSabkAlDhahab,p.72,alSiwTdy[3]said:Onlyheofhispotherswasthecaliph ofhisfatherandhistrusteeofauthority,manyscienceshavebeenreportedonhis authority,andhewasanImaniintradition.Andhesaid:Andhisgoodtraitswere many. InUmdatAlTalib,[4]p.184,:HewascalledAmfldalSharaf(thepillarofhonor), hisgoodtraitsaresuccessiveamongmen,famousamongtheShTaandnonShTa, andalMansfiralDawnTqytriedtokillhimseveraltimes,butAllahsavedhimfrom that. InAlMillalwaAlNihal,alShahristany[5]said:Andhehadabundantknowledge ofreligionandliterature,perfectioninwisdom,strongasceticismandperfectpietyin desires.HelivedinMedinaforaperiod(oftime)toavailtheShTawhofollowedhim andteachthesupportersthesecretsofsciences.ThenheenteredIraqandlivedthere foraperiod(oftime). HeneverhadwordswiththeImamatenordidhedisputedwithanyoneforthe caliphate.Whoeverisdrowningintheseaofknowledgedoesnotwishfortheriver, andwhoevergoesupthepeakofthetruthisnotafraidof 1AlTamTmyAlHanzalyAlHarawy.HetraveledtoIraq,heardthescholarsofhis time.HeenteredBaghdadandreportedtraditionsinit.Hediedin177.AlKhadTbal aaghdadywrotehisbiography:14/80. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

2(Hisnamewas)NuridinAub.MohammedalSabbaghalMaliky. Hewasbornin784anddiedin855.AlSakhawywrotehisbiographyinthebooksAl DawAlUmi:5/283. HehasmentionedhisshaykhsandhisbookAlFuslAlMuhima. 3(Hisnamewas)MohammedAm!nalBaghdady.ThefamilyofatSiwTdyareamong theeminentfamiliesinBaghdadtilltoday.Hewasamongthegreatfiguresofahe pastcentury.HeendedhisbookinShawwal,1229(A.H.). 4BythefamousgenealogistJamllidinAhmadb.AuatDUwtldyatHusayny,who diedintheyear828(A.H.) 5(Hisnamewas)AbOatFathMohammedb.ANtalQlsim.Hewasatheologian jurisprudent.HeadoptedthedoctrineofalAshary,HeenteredBaghdadintheyear 510(A.H.),andlivedinitforthreeyears.HewasborninShahristananddiedinitin theyear548.HisbiographyhasbeenwritteninAtWafayat,MujamAlUdabl, Tabaqfl.tAlSabky,RawdltAlJinan,MiftahAlSaIda,iandthelike. (74) himwhocomesdown.AnditissaidthatwhoeverfeelsAllahisinnoneedofmen, andwhoeverassociateswithotherthanAllah,scrupleplundershim. InMira'tAlJinn(1:304),concerningthosewhodiedintheyear148(A.H.),al Yfiy[1]said:Init(theyear148)diedthegreatSayyidImam,thedescendantofthe Prophetandthejewelofgenerosity,AbAbdAllahJafaralSadiq. AndhewasburiedatatBaqTinthegravewherehisfatherMohammedalBaqir,his grandfatherZaynalAbidin,andtheuncleofhisgrandfatheralHasanb.Au,may Allahbepleasedwiththemall,(wereburied).Howgenerousthatgraveis!Andhow generousthosenoblemenwithgoodtraitsare!HewassurnamedalSdiqbecauseof histruthfulnessinhissaying.Hehadvaluablespeechaboutthesciencesof monotheism(Tawhid). AndhisstudentJbirb.HayynalSfywroteabookofonethousandsheetsonhis studies,whicharefivehundredstudies. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

InhisAmaly,Majlisno.42,alSduq[2],mayhisgravebefragrant,reportedfrom Sulaymanb.DawfldalManqary[3]ontheauthorityofHafsb.Ghayyth[4],thatif hetoldusaboutJafarb.Mohammed,peacebeonhim,hesaid:Thebestofthe JafarTshastoldme. InMajlisno32,alsohereportedontheauthorityofMohammedb.ZydalAzdy,[5] whosaid:IhaveheardMalikb.Anassaying:IcametoalSadiqJafarb.Mohammed, peacebeonhim,sohehandedmepillowandrespectedme.Hewasnotfreefrom oneofthreetraitshewaseitherfasting 1(Hisnamewas)AbuMohammedAbdAllahb.Saeedb.Aub.SulaimanAfifutdinat YafiyatYamflny. Helivedatthetwoscaredsanctuaries.Hediedin768(A.H.). 2(Hisnamewas)Mohammedb.Atib.BbawayhalQmmy. Hewasagreattraditionalist.Hewroteaboutthreehundredvaluablebooks.He enteredBaghdadintheyear352(A.H.).Theshaykhofthesect(theShTa),heard fromhimthoughhewasyoung. HediedinRayintheyear381(A.H.). 3Hewasknownasb.alShathktiny.HereportedfromatSadiqandhisreporters.He wasamongthetrustworthyreporters. 4AlKufiAtQady(thejudge).Hewillbementionedinthechapter:TheFamous ReliableReportersofalSadiq,peacebeonhim.Apparently,hewasamongthe Sunnis. 5Hewasknownasb.AbuUmayr.HemetalKazim,atRids,andalJawal,peacebe onthem.AlRashTdimprisonedhimtoassumejudgeshipand,itwassaid,showhini theplacesoftheShiaandtheCompanionsofalKazim.Itwassaidthathewas whippedandhurt.Buthedidnotadmit.Hereportedthebooksofahundredmenof theCompanionsofalSadiq,peacebeonhim.Hehasmanybooks.Hewasamong thosewhodidnotreportbutfromareliableperson.AllCompanionsacceptedhis reports. Thetwoparties(theShTaandtheSunnTs)haveagreedonhisrelianceandhighrank. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Anditwassaid:Theyacceptedhisreportsbecauseheburiedhisbooksbeforehe wasimprisoned.Sohereportedwhathehadinhismind.Hediedintheyear217 (A.H.). (75) orprayingorremembering(Allah).Hewasamongthegreatworshippersand devoteeswhofearedAllah,theGlorifiedandAlmighty.Histalksweremany.His sittingwasgood.Hisadvantagesweremany.Ifhesaid:TheProphetofAllah,may Allahblesshimandhisfamily,saidsometimeshebecamegreenandsometimes becameyellow.So,whoeverknewhimbecameignorantofhim.OneyearIwentwith himtoperformthehajj.WhenhiscamelarrivedattheHaram,thevoiceceasedinhis throatwheneverhetried(tosay)thetalbiya[ariteduringthehajjbysayinglabbayka (hereamI0Allah)].Hewasabouttofalloffhiscamel.So,Isaidtohim:Sonofthe ProphetofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,youshouldsay(labbayka Allahummalabbayka).So,hesaid:SonofAmir,howdareI(theauthor)saylabbayka Allahummalabbayk,andIamafraidthat(Allah),theGlorifiedandAlmighty,willsay: NeitherIabbayknorSadayk. InhasbookAlManaqibfiAhwlAlSdiq,peacebeonhim,b.Shahrshb[1] reportedontheauthorityofMalikb.Anas,whosaid:Noeyehasseen,noearhas heard,andnoonehascomeintomansmindbetterthanJafaralSdiqinthe outstandingmerit,knowledge,worship,andpiety.AndinhisAmSli,Majlisno.81,aI Sdflqincreasedhiswords:ByAllah,ifhesaidhewastruthful. Alsohesaid:IntheMusnadofAbuHanifa,[2]AbualQasimaIBaghSrhas mentionedthatalHasanb.Ziyadsaid:IhaveheardAbuHanifawhenhewasasked: Whoisthemostknowledgeable(person)youhaveeverseen?Hesaid:Jafarb. Mohammed.WhenalManstlrpoughthim,hesentformeandsaid:AbuHanTfa, indeed,menhavebeencharmedbyJafarb.Mohammed.So,prepareforhimyour mostdifficultquestions.So,Ipreparedfortyquestionforhim.Thenhesentforme AbuJafar,whowasatHTra.So,Icametohimandgreetedhim. HeledmetosittingandIsatdown.Thenheturnedtosaid:AbuAbdAllah,thisisAbu Hanifa.Hesaid:Yes,Iknowhim.Thenheturnedtomeandsaid:AskAbuAbdAllah someofyourquestions.So,Ibeganaskinghim.Heansweredmeandsaid:Yousay soandso,thepeopleofMedinasaysoandso,andwesaysoandso.Wemayagree withyourorwemayagreewiththemorwemaydisagreewithyouandthem.Iasked Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

himallthefortyquestions.Buthedidnotcommitapeachofthem.ThenAbu 1(Hisnamewas)Mohammedb.AlialMazindaranyRashTdildrn.Hewasamongthe Shaykhsandjurisprudentsofthesect(theShTa).Hewasaneloquentpoet.Hehas manybooks,suchasMaalimAlUlama,AnsabAtAbiTlib,ManaqibalAbiThlib.In thisbookwehavereportedmany(traditions)fromhim.2 2HewasalNumanb.Thabit.HewastheImamoftheseconddoctrineofthe SunnTs.AlsohestudiedunderalSadiq,peacebeonhim.TheHanfyisattributedto him.Wewilltellyouabouthiminthechapter:TheCompanionsofAlSadiq,peacebe onhim. (76) Hanifasaid:Isntthemostknowledgeableofmenmostknowledgeableofthemin thedifferenceofmen. AlManstlr,whowasdispleasedwithAbuAbdAllah(peacebeonhim),sometimes saidthetruthwhenhementionedormethim:Thissuffocation(ofmortification)(i.e. alSa7diq)inmythroatsisthemostknowledgeableofmeninhistime.[1]Andheis amongthosewhowanttheHereafter,notthelifeinthisworld.[1]Certainly,every houseofprophethoodhasatraditionalistand,today,ourtraditionalistisJafarb. Mohammed.[3]AddressingalSdiq,peacebeonhim,alMansrsaid:Wearestill dipoutfromyoursea,"[4]wedrawneartoyou,make(people)awareofblindness (ignorance),andyoumakethedifficultiesclearwithyourlight(knowledge).So,we floatonthecloudsofyourholinessandthefloodofyoursea,Andhesaidtohis chamberlain:AndtheseareamongthesonsofFatima.Nooneignorestheirrightbut theignorantwhohavenoluckintheIslamicLaw.[5] Ismailb.Alib.AbdAllahb.alAbbssaid:Oneday,IcametoAbuJafaralMansUr (andsawthat)hisbeardhadbecomewetbecauseofthetears.Hesaidtome: Haventyouknownwhathashappenedtoyourfamily?So,Isaid:Whathas happened,0AmTralMuminin?Hesaid:Indeed,theirchiefandscholarandthe restofthegoodonesofthempassedaway.So,Isaid:Whoisit?Hesaid:Jafarb. Mohammed. So,Isaid:MayAllahmaketherewardofAmiralMuminingreatandprolonghis lastingforus. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

So,hesaidtome:Surely,JafarwasamongthoseaboutwhomAllahsaid:ThenWe gavetheBookforaninheritancetothosewhomWechosefromamongOur servants.[6]HewasamongthosewhomAllahchose.Andhewasamongthosewho werethefirsttodogood.[7] Moreover,theinfidels,inspiteoftheirinfidelityandenmitytowardsIslamand Muslims,honoredhimandacknowledgedhisabundantknowledgeandhisholy spiritualqualitiesandtalents.Thoseinfidelswereb.alMuqaffa,b.AbuaIAuja',al Daysany,andthelike.(Forexample),b.alMuqaffasaid:Doyouseethiscreation? Andhemadeasignwithhisownhandtotheplaceofthetawaf(goingaroundthe Kabaasaritualactofthehajj.).Nooneofthemisworthierofthenameofhumanity thanthatsittingShaykh(i.e.alSa'diq,peacebeonhim.).IbinAbualAujasaid: Thisisnotahumanbeing.Thoughheisspiritualinthisworld,he 1AlMasudy,AlWasiyah. 2KashifAlGhuma:2/209. 3AlKafc:1/475. 4BiharAlAnwar:47/l99 5IbinTauws,MuhajAlDaawat,p.192.BiharAlAnwar:47/199. 6Koran,35,32. 7TgrtkhAlYaqtlby:3/117. (77) becomesincarnateifhewishesandbecomesinternallyspiritualifhewishes.So,heis this,namelyalSdiq,peacebeonhim.[1] Whenb.AbualAujaaskedoneoftheCompanionsofalSdiq,peacebeonhim, thenthecompanionpoughthimtheanswerafterawhileandhe(b.AbualAuj) approvedit,hesaid:This(theanswer)hasbeenpoughtfromHijaz. AlDaisanyadoptedthesamemannerfortheCompanionsofalSdiq(peacebeon him),whopoughthimhisanswer. ThisisadropofrainofwhattherighteouspeoplereportedconcerningalSadiq, peacebeonhim,thoughtheylivedindifferentcountriesandtimes,andhaddifferent tastesandideas.I(theauthor)havementionedtheseideasbeforediscussingthe detailedlifeofalSdiqtogiveyouageneralpictureaboutthisremarkablefigure, becausethesewords,thoughpief,tellthereaderabouttheoutstandingmeritsand Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

sciencesofalSadiq,peacebeonhim. ******** AlKafi:1/74. THEPROTECTION (78) (TAQIYAJHIDINGONESRELIGIONINTIMESOFDANGER) NooneofthelmamsbutalSadiq,peacebeonhim,sufferedfromtheMarwaniand theAbbasiddynasties,whichwagedwaragainsttheIslamicLawanditsOwnerthe TrustyProphetthroughobeyinglustsandmasteringpleasures. Thenfromamongthosestringedinstrumentsandsongstersandthatinjusticeand dissolutenessappearedtheleadersoftheheresiesandtheschoolsandtheideasand thedesires,settingtrapsforreputationbecausetherewasnoonetopunishthemand preventthemfromdoingthat,ratherthesupremedoctrineofahlalBaytand decreaseditssupporters. AbuAbdAllahalSadiq,peacebeonhim,sawthatlastingconflictbetweenreligion andthetwodynasties,betweenthetruthandthemastersofthoseheresies. So,whatwastheattitudeofalSadiqtowardsthatdisorderlysituation?Wasit suitableforhimtodeclarewaragainstthesupremeauthorityandtheheresieswhile heknewpeopleandtheirweaknessforthetruth? HowmanyatimehesawandheardabouttheassassinationofanAlawidorAhashimi. AndthatdidnotconcernhimifheknewthathewouldachievehisaimasImam Husayn,peacebeonhim,didbecausehislifewasnotmorevaluablethanreligion. Buthesurelyknewthathewouldperishhislifewithoutanyadvantageforreligionor forhimself.Inthemeantimeifhekeptsilenttowardsthatconflict,hewouldshoulder agreatresponsibilitybeforeAllahandtheOwneroftheIslamicLaw.So,hehadto thinkofawaytosavereligionfromthatconflictandprotecthimselfandhischosen Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

companionsfromtheclawsOfthosesavagelions. So,alSadiqadoptedawisepolicytospreadsciences,knowledge,Islamic commandments,wisesayings,andvirtues.Meanwhile,hetriedtosuppress misguidancethroughproducingevidenceinsupportofhisbeliefs.So,headopted taqiyaasashieldtocarryouthiswisepolicy.Therefore,histeachingswereaservice fortheIslamicLaw,hisworshipswereguidanceformen,andhisdebateswerewar againsttheheresies.Forthisreason,hewentonjihadtillhepassedaway. Nowweneedtoallotacompletechapterfortaqiya(protection). EvidenceforTaqiya: (Theword)taqiyaisderivedfromthewordwiqayya(i.e.protection).Soitisashield youusetorepulsefearsanddangers.Anditssourceisthefear(oflosing)the valuable,suchaslife,andthelike. (79) Evidencefortaqiyais:theBook,theSunna,intellect,andtheShTiteconsensus.Asfor theBook,itisenoughtomentiontheseWordsofAllah,theExalted,:Letnotthe believerstaketheunbelieversforfriendsratherthanbelievers;andwhoeverdoes this,heshallhavenothingof(theguardianshipof)Allah,butyoushouldguard yourselvesagainstthem,guardingcarefully;andAllahmakesyoucautiousof (retributionfrom)Himself;andtoAllahistheeventualcoming.[1]So,Allah,the Exalted,permitsthebelieverstopretendtobefriendsoftheunbelieversduring protectionandfearoftheirevil(deeds),apartfromthisverse,therearesomeother verseswewillmentionforyouinthefollowingpages. AsfortheSunna,whathasbeenmentionedontheauthorityofahlalBayt,andother thantheyisinnumerable.Wewillmentionapartofitwithinthischapter.Itisenough oftheSunnawhichthetwoparties(theShTaandtheSunnis)havereported abouAmmar. Nevertheless,Allah,theExalted,forgavehimwhenHesentdownthisverse concerninghim:HewhodisbelievesinAllahafterhishavingbelieved,nothewhois compelledwhilehisheartisatrestonaccountoffaith.[2] AsfortheShTiteconsensustherightfulnessandnecessityoftaqiyaisveryclear.So Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

wewillnotdiscussitormentionitssources,becausenotwopersonsdifferinopinion aboutthematterandnecessityoftaqiyawiththeShTaandtheirfollowers. Asforintellect,itisintuitivethatapersonshouldprotecthimselfandhisvaluable thingsasmuchashecan.Inthemeantimeitpreventshimfromcastinghimselfto perdition.Also,theHolyBookpreventshimfromdoingthat.So,Allah,theExalted, said:AndspendinthewayofAllahandcastnotyourselvestoperditionwithyour ownhands.[3]Anddonotkillyourselves;surelyAllahisMercifultoyou.[4] Thelineofconductofthewisementakesplaceaccordingtothisrationaljudgment. Rather,thehumanbeingpracticestaqiyabynature.Forexample,ifyouhaltatthe houseofpeoplewhodisagreewithyouonyourpoliticaldoctrineandprincipleand youareafraidofthemknowingyourbeliefs,youwillbynaturekeepwhatyouhavea secretwithoutknowingthejudgmentofintellectandreligiouslawinthisconnection. IfyoustudythehistoryofIslamfromthebeginning,youwillfindthattaqiyawasa necessitypeopleresortedto.Forexample,theProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhis family,concealedhismissiontillhesummonedBanTHshimtobelievehim.Then Allah,theGlorified,orderedhimtodeclareit.TheearlyMuslimskepttheirfaitha secretbeforetheappearance 1AlUmran:28. 2AlNahi:106. 3AlBaqara:195. 4AlNis:94. (80) andspreadofIslam.AbIlTfihibconcealedhisIslamtoprotecttheProphet,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily,andavoidtheaccusationofhisprotectionfortheProphet. ButwhenIslamspread,theunbelieversinMeccaandMedinapretendedtobe Muslimswhiletheconcealedunbelief. TheBeginningofTaqiyaanditsJustifications: ThetaqiyaoftheShVadidnotbeginatthetimeofalSfldiq,peacebeonhim.Rather itbeganatthetimeoftheCommanderoftheFaithful(AmTralMuminrn),because hehimselfusedtaqiyamanytimesduringhisdays.Forinstance,heuseditwhenthe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

caliphatewastakenfromhim.Heandsomemenknewthatthecaliphatewashisown right.Buthekeptsilentbecausehehadnosupporters. Ifhehadhadfortyresolutepersons,ashestated,hewouldhavewagedwaragainst thosepeople.Men,eventhosewhoopposedhim,knewhisviewpointtowardsthose people(whotookthecaliphatefromhim).Andduringtheconsultation,thepeoplein sessiondecidedtopayhimhomage,providedthatheshouldfollowthepolicyofthe twopreviouscaliphs,butherefusedthatandinsistedonfollowingtheBookofAllah andtheSunnaofHisProphet. TheCommanderoftheFaithfulwentonusingtaqiyaafterhehadtakenthereinsof authoritybecauseheknewthatsomepeoplewerereadytoopposehimifhetold themabouteverythinghehad. Theevidenceforthiswasthatmanyofhisfollowersmutiniedagainsthim(atthe BattlesofAlJamalandSiffin).So,ifhehadstatedallwhatheknewandthought,all overthecountrywouldhaverevoltedagainsthim. ThoughKufawasdominatedbytheShTaandwasthecapitaloftheauthorityofthe CommanderoftheFaithful,hewasnotabletochangewhattheyhadlearnedfrom thepreviouscaliphsandwasnotabletodeclarewhatheknewbutverylittlewhilehe wastheOwnerofthetwoauthorities:thespiritualandthetemporalauthorities.Just imaginehowmuchmorethestatewaswhenhehadnosupporterandthepowerwas againsthissons! TheImamsusedtaqiyaasashieldbecausetheyknewwhatthatdeclarationwould causeforthemandtheirfollowers.Moreover,theCommanderoftheFaithfulhad useditbeforehissons.Inthisconnection,inhisbookAlIhtijlj,alTipisy[1]has reportedwhatAmTrAlMumininsaidabouttaqiya:AndIorderyoutousetaqiyain yourreligion. Withthatyoumaykeepthosewhowereknownofourfollowersandpothers.Indeed, (touse)thatisbetterthantosubjectyourselfto 1(Hisnamewas)Ahmadb.Aub.AbuThIib.Hewasamongthescholarsand shaykhsoftheSh!a. HisbookAlIhtijajisofmanyadvantagesandgreatimportance.

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(81) destructionwithwhichyouceaseanactioninthereligionandrighteousnessofyour believingpothers.AndbecarefulnottoleavetaqiyawhichIhaveorderedyou(to use)becauseyouwillshedyourbloodandthebloodofyourpothers,subjectyourself andtheirselvestovanishing,abasethemwiththehandsoftheenemiesofreligion whileAllahordersyoutohonoryou.Thenifyoudisobeymycommandment,your harmagainstyourpothersandyourselfwillbemorethanthatofthosewhoshow enmitytowardusanddisbelieveinus. ShiismandtheShTaappearedduringthedaysoftheCommanderoftheFaithful (AmTralMuminln)becausehewastheImanithen.So,theenemiesoftheShTa knewthemthroughoutthecountries. Forthisreason,whathappenedtothemafterhisrulinghadbeenundermined. Mu.awiyawagedwaragainsttheShIausingallmeans,suchasabusingAbualHasan (ImamAli),killingtheirfamousfigures,andappointingZyyadoverKufaandBasrah wheretheShValived.ConcerningZyyad,alMadinysaid:So,hekilledthemunder everystoneandmud(everywhere),terrorizedthem,cutofftheirhandsandlegs, knockedouttheireyes,hangedthemonthetrunksofthedatepalms,dismissedand banishedthemfromIraq.So,therewasnofamousfigureinit.[1] Butthosewhowereunabletoescape,becausetheywerefamousinthecountry,or escapedbutwerecaptured,facedhorribledeath.AmongthemwereHajrb.Adyand hiacompanions,Amrub.alHamqandthelike. InhisbookalTarikh,p.87,alTabarysaid:MuawiyaspreadspiesagainsttheShTa ofAli,sohekilledthemwhereverhefoundthem. Onmentioningthedisastersthathithimandhisfollowers,alSadiq,peacebeonhim, said:Thegreatest(disasters)wereduringthetimeofMuawiyaafterthedeathofal Husayn,peacebeonhim,soourShTa(followers)werekilledineverycountry,the handsandthelegswerecutoffforthedoubt,andwhoeverlovedusanddevoted himselfforuswasimprisoned,hispropertywasplundered,andhishousewas demolished.[2] MuawiyawasafraidofalHasan,peacebeonhim,becausepeoplewaitedforhis rise.HemadepeacewithMuawiyaprovidedthatthelattershouldgivehimthe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Caliphateafterhisdeath.So,hepoisonedhimandmistreatedhisfollowers. WhenYazTdbecamecaliph,b.Zyyadbecamestrongerthanhewasbefore.So,he killedMuslim,Hany,RashTdalHajary,MaythamalTammar,andtheyoungmenof theShVaandtheirprominentfigures. InhisprisonsweretwelvethousandpeopleoftheShia.Thenhecommittedthe massacreofalTaf(Karbala). 1SharhAlNaj:3/15. 2SharhAlNahj:3/15. (82) Peoplewerestillrememberingthosecrimesanddisasters.Nevertheless,alHajjaj cametocompletethatcruelrole.Now,letuslistentoourImamMohammedal Baqir,peacebeonhim,tellusaboutthatterroristrolehehimselfwitnessed.He says:ThenalHajjajcameandcommittedvariouskindsofcrimeagainstthem(i.e. theShTa),andpunishedthemforeverydoubtoraccusation.So,theperson preferredtobecalledZandiq(duelist)orKfir(unbeliever)tobecalledtheShTaof Ali,peacebeonhim.[1] AlsotheAbbasiddynastyadoptedtheterroristpolicyoftheOmayyadsagainstthe Alawidsandtheirfollowers.Wehavetoldyouabouttheirenmityandcrueltytoward ahlalBayt. Afterthosedisasters,wasitpossibleforahlalBaytortheirShTatodeclaretheiranti governmentattitude? Byyourconscience,intelligentman,whatwouldyoudowhenthosedisastershityou andyourfollowers?Wouldyoutellthemtodeclaretheirattitudesothattheywould beliabletokillingandtorture?Orwouldyouforcethtokeeptheirattitudeasecretto avoidkillingandseveretorture? AlUtra(theProphetsfamily)wasoneofthethaqalayn(thetwomostvaluable thingstheProphetlefttheKoranandahlalBayt). They(theProphetsfamily)protectedthereligionanditslaws.So,iftheyhadbeen killedatthebattles,whowouldhavecontinuethewayofIslam? Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Therefore,itwasimpossibleforahlalBayttoleavetaqiyabecausetheywantedto spreadtheteachingsoftheKorananddisclosethemisguidanceandignoranceof thoseheretics. Forthisreason,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:Thetaqiyaismyreligionandthe religionofmyfathers.Andwhoeverhasnotaqiyahasnoreligion.And,indeed, whoeverdisclosesoursecretislike(thepersonwho)disbelievesinit.He,peacebe onhim,saidtoagroupofhiscompanions:Donotdisclosesoursecretanddonottell (anyone)aboutitbuttheappropriatepeople,becausewhoeverdisclosesoursecretis moredangerousthanourenemy,goaway,mayAllahhavemercyonyou,anddonot revealoursecret.[2] He,peacebeonhimsaid,Thepeathofthepersonwhoissadonaccountofthe injusticewesufferedfromisglorification(ofAllah).[3] He(alSadiq),peacebeonhim,saidtoMudrikb.alHazhaz[4]Mudrik,itisnotonly toacceptourdoctrinebutalsotosafeguardandkeepitasecretfrominappropriate people.SendAllahspeaceandmercyandblessingstoourcompanions. 1Ibid. 2BihErAlAnwar:2/74/42. 3Ibjd:2/64/I. 4Orb.ANtalHazlzalNakhayalKuff.HereportedfromalS&liq,peacebeonhim, Andthereliablepersonsreportedfromhim. (83) Andsaytothem:MayAllahhavemercyuponthepersonwhomakespeopleloveus andtellsthemwhattheyknowandleaveswhattheydisprove.[1] Theywerepersistentonthosecommandmentsfortheircompanions.Forexample, JbiralJafa,areliableperson,said:Ihavereportedfiftythousandtraditions.No onehasheardthemfromme.Rather,itwassaidthatthey(thetraditions)were seventy.AnditwassaidthattheywereninetyfromalBaqironly.Andbedidnottell anyoneofmenaboutthem.[2] Forthisreason,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,saidtoalMaallab.Khani:Donotbe captivesinthehandsofmenonaccountofourtradition:iftheywishtomakeyou Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

safe,theydo.Andiftheywishtokillyou,theydo.Andhe,peacebeonhim,said:Al Maallwasnotkilledbutbecausehedisclosedourdifficulttradition.[3] AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,saidmanytraditionstopreventtheirfollowersfrom revealingtheirsecretsandsayings.Headdealthatwhoeverdisclosedthemwouldkill themintentionally,notbymistake.[4] So,thesetraditionsandothersshowyouthereasonwhyahlalBaytadoptedtaqiya.It isasifthattheyknewpeoplewouldblametheShiafortaqiya,sotheydenotedthe reasonforthat. TheEffectoftheTaqiyaontheServiceofReligion: NooneignorestheeffectoftaqiyaontheserviceofreligionandtheShTitesociety. ThatisbecausethenumberoftheShTaatKufadecreasedduringthedaysofZyyad toanextentthattherewasnofamousShTitefigure.AndthesateoftheShTaduring thedaysofalHajjajbecameworsethanitwasduringthedaysofZyyad.So,the personaskedpeopletocallhimZandiq(duelist)orKafir(unbeliever)andnottocall himaShTite. Inspiteofthatcruelpolicy,thenumberofthereportersofalSadiq,peacebeonhim, iiacreasedtofourthousandormorebecausetheyadoptedtaqiyaandwere indifferenttopolicy.ThisnumberhasbeenmentionedbyIbinUqda,ShaykhTflsT (mayhisgravebefragrant)inhisbookAlRij7l,alTipisyinAlgmAlWars,alHilly inAlMutabar. MostthosereporterswerefromKufa.AlHasanb.AlialWasha[5]said:IfIknew thatthistraditionwasdemandedverymuchinsuchaway,Iwouldincreaseit becauseIknew,inthismosque,(i.e.themosqueofKufa)ninehundredshaykhs.Each ofthemsaid:Jafarb.Mohammed, 1BiharAaAnwar:2/77/62. 2Ibid:2/6a/2I22 3Ibid:21/71/34. 4Ibid:2/74/45. 5AlBajalyalKafi.HewasamongtheprominentfiguresoftheShTa.Hewasamong thecompanionsandreliablereportersofalRid[HehasbookssuchasMasilAlRida, peacebeonhim.Allbiographershavewrittenabouthim. (84) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

peacebeonthem,hastoldme.AlWashadidnotknowofthatclassbutfew. Fromhere,youareabletounderstandthereasonwhythereportersofalS&iiqwere many,whyalSadiqbecamethesourceofsciences,knowledge,commandments,and judgment,whyhebecameaschoolfortheSunnTswhoreportedfromhimsuchas Malik,AbflHanrfa,thetwoSufaAnis,AyyflbalSikhtiyany,Shuba,b.JarTh,andthe like. ThathappenedbecausealSadiq,peacebeonhim,wasfarawayfrompeoplewho accusedhimofseekingleadershipandcaliphate,andbecausehespreadknowledge andethicssecretly.Becauseoftaqiyathesciencesandtheoutstandingmeritsofal Sadiqappeared,peoplehaveknowntheimportanceofahlalBaytandthetruthofthe Koranandthesciencesofthereligion,theoppressionofthemastersofthetwo dynastieshasbecomeclear.Manyofthefalsesectsdiedandbecameobviousforthe Muslimjurisprudentsandtheoaogians,andtheShiahasbecomeseventymillionsand spreadeverywhere.[1] Fromhere,youunderstandtheeffectoftaqiyaontheserviceofthereligionandthe IslamicLaw,removingoppressionandmisguidance,makingpeopleknowthefactsof faithandthefalseSuspicionsandheresies. So,I(theauthor)thinkthatyou,afterthisexplanation,willnotlistentoanyslander abouttaqiyaoraboutascribingtheShTatotheBtiniyya(theBataniansorassassins) becausetheyhidetheirbeliefsanddoctrine. Wehavestatedtheabovementioneddetailstotellthetruthtothosewhoclaimthat taqiyahasunknowngoodtraitsbecauseitislikeathickcurtainandtheremaybea thousandshortcomingsbehindthecurtain.Andwhoeveradoptstaqiyainhisreligion, howcanpeopleknowwhathehasandseethebeautyofwhathehides?But,isthis slandertruewhenwehavetoldabouttheadvantagesoftaqiya? But,today,becauseofprinters,thesciencesoftheShiaandtheirbeliefshavespread, sowhereishiding?Andwhereistaqiya? TaqiyawasonlyatthattimewhentheShiawerefewinnumber,andiftheswordhad removedthem,ahlalBaytwouldhavehadnoremempance,knowledge,proof,and report. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

But,today,theShTaarenotafraidofpublishinganybook.Rather,theirbooksare everywhereandfullofinformationnecessaryforeverywriterorreaderwhomay claimthatthedoctrineoftheImamisishiddenadoptingtaqiya.Theydonotknowits principlesandbeliefs,noritsfundamentalsandpanches. ******** 1InourbookTarikhAlShYaa,WehaveindetailwrittenabouttheShTa,their numberandtheircountries. ALSADIQANDTHEADVERSITIES (85) Thislastingconflictbetweenthereligionandtheworld,whicharerarelyunited duringacertaintime,isatrialforreligiouspeople.Thisconflictcausedtaqiyaand thoseadversitieswhichhitahlalBayt. TheconflictbetweenahlalBaytandtheOmayyadsandtheAbbsldswasnotnewas longasahlalBatrepresentedthereligionandthelatterrepresentedthelifeinthis world. TheMarwanTsandtheAbbasldsknewthatalSfldiq,peacebeonhim,wastheleader ofthisconflict.Althoughhekeptsilentanddidnotwagewaragainstthemwiththe sword,theydidnotfeelsafefromhim.Maybethatsilenceitselfwasthemeansofthe conflictoritwastheconflictitself,becausesilencemaybeananswerastheysay. TheMarwanTsandtheAbbsidssubjectedalSadiq,peacebeonhim,toadversities everytime.Thoughhedevotedhimselftoworshippingandknowledge,theywcre afraidofhim,becausesuchdevotionmeantwarintheirviewpoint.Moreover,the phenomenonofreligionwouldturnpeopleseyestohim.So,hispositionwouldbe strong.Accordinglythereligionwouldbestrong,thepeoplewholovethisworld wouldbedefeated. WhentheOmayyadswereunited,theykilledalSadiqsfathers.Butwhetheybegan Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

fightingeachother,theykeptalSadiq,peacebeonhim,alive.Yes,itisasiftheyleft suchamattertohisnearcousins:Andthepossessorsofrelationshipsarenearerto eachother.[1] ThedaysofalSaffahwerefouryears.Thistimewasnotenoughtocleantheland fromtheOmmayyads,buildthefoundationofthesupremepowerandstrengthenits pillars.Nevertheless,thatdidnotdiverthimfromalSadiq,peacebeonhim.When hewasabouttodestroytheOmmayyadsandbuildhisauthority,hesentforalSadiq toleaveMedinaforHTratokillhim,buttheappointedtime(ofdeath)isaguard. WhywasalSadiqamongthecaresofalSafffihwhilehe(alSdiq)washiscousin, whowasbusyworshipping,teaching,andguiding(people),whotoldthemthatthey wouldgaingreatauthorityinsteadofBanyalHasan,whosufferedfromtheOmayyds andwereafraidofthem? ThereasonthatledalSafiThtodothatshamefulactwasthatpeopleturnedtheir eyestoalSadiqbecausetheyknewhisposition.Moreover,peoplethoughtthatthe caliphateshouldbetemporalandspiritual.Theythoughtthatthecaliphateshould notbeseparatedfromreligion.So,theythoughtthatalSadiqhadtobethemanof thecaliphateandreligion. Forthisreason,alMansurwasverycarefulofalSadiq,peacebeonhim.Accordingly, hesubjectedhimtovariouskindsofpainsandadversities.Hewentondoingthattill hekilledalSadiqwithpoison. 1ALAnfal:75. (86) NowonderthatAbAbdAllah(alSadiq),peacebeonhim,sufferedfromthose adversities,becausetheadversitiesofthepersonareaccordingtohispositionamong peopleandhisambitionforhighranks. BetweentheruleofalMansrandthedeathofalSadiq,peacebeonhim,were twelveyearsinwhichalSadiqfoundneitherrestnortranquillitythoughtheylived apartfromeachother:alSffdiqwasinHijzandalMansurlivedinIraq. InthebookMuhajAlDaawat(prayers),chapteronDaawatofalSadiq,IbinTauws AbualQasimAli,[1]mayhisgravebefragrant,said:Indeed,alMansursentforaI Sdiqseventimes.SomeofthemwereinMedinaandRabadhaatthetimewhenal Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Mansurperformedthehajj,someofthemwereatKufa,andsomewereinBaghdad. Eeachtimehemistreatedhimandtrytokillhim.Wewillmentiontheseseven attemptsindetailasfollow: Thefirst(attempt):IbinTuwsreportedontheauthorityofalRabi,thechamberlain ofalMansur,whosaid:WhenalMansur[2]performedthehajjandarrivedin Medina,hestayedawakeforonenight.So,hesummonedmeandsaid:RabT,atthis time,ifyouwanttobebyyourself,thendo.GoasquicklyaspossibletoAbuAbd AllahJafarb.Mohammedandsaytohim:Thisisyourcousin.Hehassentyouhis Salmandsaidtoyou:Evenifthehouseisfarawayandtheconditionisdifferent, butwebelongtothewombofyesterday...andheasksyoutocometohimatthis time.Ifheagreestocomewithyou,thenbesoft.withhim.Andifdisagreesfora certainreasonorthelike,thenleavethematterforhim.Andifhecarefullyorders you(thatIshould)cometohim,thenmakeeasyanddonotmakedifficult,andaccept forgivenessanddonotbeharshinneithersayingnoract,AlRapsaid:ThenIarrived athisdoor(thedoorofalSaqidshouse).Ifoundhiminthehouseofhisisolation.I cameintohishousewithoutpermission.Ifoundhimcoveringhischeekswithdust, invokingAllahwiththepalmofhishands.Thedustaffectedhisfaceandhischeeks. 1(Hisnamewas)RadiuldrnAbalQasimAlib.MflsaalHasanyalHilly.Hewas fromthefamilyofTauws.Hewasamanofmanyabilities,suchasknowledge, worship,asceticism,poetry,literature,composition,andeloquence.Highmiraculous actsareattributedtohim.Itwassaid:Hewasthebestworshipperandasceticofthe peopleofhistime.Insomeofhispermissions,alAllfmahalHillysaid:Radiuldrn Auhadmiraculousacts.Someofthemhavebeenreported.Alsomyfatherhastold mesomeofthem.Andhewasthebestasceticofthepeopleofhistime. 2alMansurperformedthehajjduringthedaysofalSffdiq,peacebeonhim,for threetimesintheyears140,144,and147.AlsoafterthedeathofalSffdiq,he performedthehajjfortwotimesintheyears152and158,buthedidnotcomplete thehajj.SeeTarikhalYaqtlby,printedinNajaf.Apparently,alMans(lrsentforal Sadiq,peacebeonhim,duringthefirstthreeyears. (87) So,Iconsidereditgreattosayanythingtillhefinishedhisprayersandsupplication. Thenheturnedtome.So,Isaid:Assalamualayka,AbuAbdAllah.Hesaid:Wa alaykassalam,mypother,whathaspoughtyou?Isaid:Yourcousinsendsyouhis salem,thenItoldhimallthewords.Hesaid:Woeuntoyou,RabI(Thenheread Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

theseverses):Hasnotthetimeyetcomeforthosewhobelievethattheirhearts shouldbehumblefortheremempanceofAllahandwhathascomedownofthe truth?And(that)theyshouldnotbelikethosewhoweregiventheBookbefore,but thetimebecameprolongedtothem,sotheirheartshardened,andmostofthemare transgreSSorS.[1] Woeuntoyou,ORabT:What!dothepeopleofthetownsthenfeelsecurefrom Ourpunishmentcomingtothembynightwhiletheysleep?What!dothepeopleof thetownsfeelsecurefromOurpunishmentcomingtotheminthemorningwhile theyplay?What!dotheythenfeelsecurefromAllahsplan?Butnonefeelssecure fromAllahsplanexceptthepeoplewhoshallperish.[2] IsentAmiralMumininassalmandtheMercyofAllahandHisblessings.Thenhe wentonpraying.So,Isaid:AftertheSalm(greetings),isthereanyanswer?He said:Yes,saytohim:HaveyouthenseenhimwhoturnshisBACK?Andgivesalittle and(then)withholds.Hashetheknowledgeoftheunseensothatheansee?Or,has henotbeeninformedofwhatisinthescripturesofMusa?And(of)Ipahimwho fulfilled(thecommandments):Thatnobearerofburdenshallbeartheburdenof another;andthatmanshallhavenothingbutwhathestrivesfor;andthathisstriving shallsoonbeseen.[3]ByAllah,AmiralMuminin,wefearedyouandthewomen whomyouknowbetterwereafraidbecauseoffear.Andwemustexplainit[4]:You shouldrefrainfrom(us);otherwisewewillpingyournamebeforeAllah,theGreat andAlmighty,fivetimesaday[5].Andyouhavetoldusfromyourfatherfromyour grandfatherthatAllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,said:Four supplicationsarenotcurtainedfromAllah,theExalted:thesupplicationofaparent forhis/herchild,thepotherforhispotherintheabsence,andthefaithful.... alRabisaid:Whenhehadfinishedhiswords,themessengersofalMansurcameto tracemeandknowmyplace.So,IcameBACKandtoldhimaboutwhathad happened.So,hewept,thenhesaid:GoBACKandsaytohim:Asforyourmeeting withusandyoursittingawayfromus,doasyou 1AlHadrd:15. 2AlAref:a799. 3AlNajm:3334.Theseverseshaveareminder,preaching,andthreat.Theydenote thatmanispunishedaccordingtohisactsnotaccordingtoothers 4Ithinkthathewantedtosaythatitwasnecessarytoexplainthetruestateof affairs. 5HewantedthathewouldinvokeAllahagainsthimaftereacfrprayer.Suchprayers

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areapartofthesupplicationoftheoppressedperson,whichisnotcurtained. (88) please!Andasforthewomenwhomyouhavemention,sopeacebeonthem,surely Allahhavemadetheirfearsecureanddriventheirworryaway.He(alRabP)said:So, IcameBACKtohim(alSfidiq)andtoldhimaboutwhatalMansurhadsaid.So,he (alSadiq)said:Saytohim:Youhavelinkedbloodrelations,andyouhavebeen rewardedagood(reward).Thenhiseyeswerebathedintearssothatsometearsfell onhislip. Thenhe(alSdiq)said:RabT,indeed,evenifthisworldenjoys(man)withits splendoranddeceives(him)withitsembellishment....[1] So,Isaid:AbuAbdAllah,IaskyoubyallrightnessbetweenyoandAllah,theAlmighty andExalted,toletmeknOwwhatyouhadprayedhumblytoyourLord,theExalted, andmadeitasacurtainbetweenyouandyourcareandfearsothatmayAllahseta poken(heartedperson)withyourcureandmakeapoor(person)richwithit,by Allah,IdonotmeananyonebutImyself.AlRabisaid:Sohe(alsdiq)raisedhis handsandadvancedtohisprayingplace.Hewasreluctanttorecitethesupplication, forforgivenessanddidnotpingthatwithintention.So,he(alsadiq)said:Say:0 Allah,Iamaskingyou,0YouWhoovertakestherunaway,0YouWhoistheshelterof theafraid....[2] Duringthisattempt,apparently,alMansurhadnobadintentionwhenhesentforal Sadiq,peacebeonhim.So,whattroubledalSadiqandscaredhiswomenandmade himbeseechAllahtostoptheevilofalMansiir.Surely,AbuAbdAllah(alSadiq)was awareofhispeople.Throughthefollowingattempts,youwillclearlyunderstandthe evilaimsofalMansurtowardsalSdiq,peacebeonhim,whenhesentforhim. Thesecond(attempt):IbinTuwsreportedontheauthorityofalRabi,too.Hesaid: IperformedthehajjwithAbuJafaralMansr.Whenwecovereddistance,al Mansursaidtome:RabT,whenIarriveinMedina,remindmeofJafarb. Mohammedb.Alib.alHusaynb.Au,peacebeonthem.ByAllah,theAlmighty,no onewillkillhimbutI.Bewarenottoremindmeofhim.He(alRabi)said:Whenwe arrivedinMecca,he(alMansur)saidtome:RabT,hadnotIcommandedyouto remindmeofJafarb.MohammedbeforeweenteredMedina? He(alRabi)said:SoIsaid:Mymaster,AmiralMuminin,Ihaveforgottenthat. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

So,hesaidtome:WhenwecomeBACKtoMedina,remindmeofhim.Ishouldkill him.Ifyoudonotdothat,Iwillbeheadyou!SoIsaidtohim: Yes,AmiralMuminin.ThenIsaidtomycompanionsandmyservants:Remindme ofJafarb.MohammedwhenwearriveinMedina,Allahwilling.He(alRabi)said: Mycompanionsandmyservantswerestillremindingmeofhim(alSadiq)inevery housewhichwe 1Wewillmentionthissayinginthechapter:HischosenCommandments. 2WehavecollectedthesupplicationsofalSEdiq,peacebeonhim,inabookof400 pages.WehavecalledthisbookDuaAlSadiq. (89) enteredanddwelledintillwereachedMedina.WhenwearrivedinMedina,Icameto alMansr,stoodupbeforehimandsaid:AmiralMuminYh,Jafarb.Mohammed. He(alRabi)said:Sohe(alMansur)laughedandsaid:Yes,RabT,goandpinghim beforeme.Anddonotpinghimbeforemeunlessheispulled.He(alR.abl)said: SoIsaidtohim:Ihearandobey.He(alRabi)said:ThenIgotupwhileIwasina weightystatebecauseofdoingthat.He(alRabi)said:ThenIcainetoImamJafarb. Mohammed,peacebeonthem,whilehewassittinginthemiddleofhishouse,soI saidtohim:myIbeyourransom:Surely,AmiralMuminrnsummonsyou.Sohe said:Ihearandobey.Thenhegotupandbeganwalkingwithme.He(alRabi)said: So,Isaidtohim:SonoftheProphetofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,he (alMansur)hasorderedmenottopingyouunlessyouarepulled.He(alRabi)said: SoalSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:Obey,RaM,dowhathehasorderedyou.Al Rabisaid:SoIbeganpullinghimfromhissleeve.WhenIpoughthim(alSdiq)in.I sawhim(aIMansfir)sittingonhisbedholdinganironbarinhishand.Hewantedto killhimwithit.AndIlookedatJafarb.Mohammedwhilehewasmovinghislips.So,I didnotdoubtthathe(alMansur)wouldkillhim.AndIdidnotunderstandthewords withwhichMohammedb,Jafarmovedhislips,soIstooduptolookatthemboth. alRabisaid:WhenJafarb.Mohammedapproachedhim,alMansursaidtohim: Comenearertome,cousin,thenhisfacebeamedwithjoy.He(alMansur)pought him(alSadiq)tohimandseatedhimwithhimonthebed,thenhe(alMansOr)said: Servant,fetchmethesmallpot.Theservantpoughthimthesmallpot.Init(thesmall pot)therewasacupfullofamixtureofperfume.He(alMansure)putalotofthis perfumeonhim(alSadiq). Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

He(alMansure)ordered(theservant)togivealSadiqtenthousanddirhamsanda gar,ment.ThenalMansr(orderedtheservanttoping)alSadiqamuleandordered him(alSdiq)togo.He(alRabi)said:Whenhe(alSdiq)lefthim(alMansur),I accompaniedhimtohishouse.(There)Isaidtohim:Maymyfatherandmotherbe yourransom,SonoftheApostleofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,when youcametoalMansur,Ihadnodoubtthathewouldkillyou.AndIsawyoumoving yourlips.So,whathadyousaid?Hesaidtome:Yes,RaM,knowthatIhadsaid: SufficientuntomeistheLordfromthosewhoarelordedover,sufficientuntomethe Creatorfromthecreatures. Thethird(attempt):aboutsendingforalSadiqatalRabdha[1]forthethirdtime, IbnTauwssaid:MakhramaalKindysaid:WhenAbuJafaralManstarstoppedat alRabadhaandJafarb.Mohammed,peacebeonhim,hadbeentherethen,hesaid: WhoridsmeofJafar?Hewashesitating 1AlandbetweenMeccaandMedina.Beforehebecame,AbaDharr,mayAllahbe pleasedwithhim,hadlivedit.Hewasbanishedtoit.Hediedandwasburiedatit. (90) andsaying:IwillgetridofMohanimed.[1]Ifhewinsavictory,theauthoritywillbe forme,orotherwise,Iwillprotectmyself.Surely,byAllah,Iwillkillhim.Thenhe turnedtoIpShimb.Jublaandsaid:sonofJubla,gotohim(alSAdiq),puthisclothing roundhisneck,andpullhimtillyoupinghimbeforeme.Iphimsaid:So,Iwentout andcametohishouse.ButIdidnotfindhim.So,IwenttoAbuDahrrMosque.I foundhimatthegateoftheMosque.He(Ipahim)said:Ifeltshametocarryout whatIhadbeenorderedto,soItookhimbethesleeveandsaid:AnswerAmiral Muminln(theCommanderoftheFaithful).Hesaid:ToAllahwebelongandtohimis ourreturn.Letmesaytworikaas.ThenheweptbittertearswhileIwasbehindhim. Thenhesaid:OAllah,youaremyrelianceineverygriefandmyhopeinevery adversity.Thenhesaid:Carryoutwhatyouhavebeenorderedto.So,Isaid:By Allah,IwillcarryitoutevenifIthinkthatIwillbekilled.Itookhim.No,byAllah,Ihad nodoubt,buthe(alMansur)shallkillhim.He(Ipahim)said:WhenwearrivedatBb AlSitr,he(alSadiq)said:0lordofGapielandMiklandIsrfflandlordofApaham andIsaacandMohammed,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,inthisearlymorning, takecareofmyhealthanddonotempoweranyoneofyourcreatures(todo)whatI cannotendure.Iphimsaid:ThenIpoughthimbeforealMansur.Sohesatfirmly. Thenherepeatedthewordsforhim.Sohe(alMansur)said:Iamhesitating.By Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Allah,Iwillkillyou,Sohe(alSadiq)said:AmiralMuminin,ifyoudo,thenbelenient towardmebecauseIwillrarelybepresentwithyou.SoAbuJafarsaidtohim:Go away.He(Iphim)said:Thenhe(alMansur)turnedtoIsab.Ali[2]andsaid:Abual Abbas,runafterhimandaskhim:Doyoumeanmeoryourself?He(Iphim)said:So he(Isa)wentoutrunningquicklytillheapproachedhimandsaid:AbuAbdAllah, indeed,AmiralMumininsaystoyou:Doyoumeanyourselforhim?Hesaid: myself.AbJafar(alMansur)said:Hehassaidthetruth. Iphimb.Jublasaid:ThenIwentout.Ifoundhimsitting.Hewaswaitingformeto thankmeformygooddeed.Andsuddenly,hebeganthankingAllah:Praisbprbeto AllahwhomIask,soheanswersmeevenifIamslowwhenHeasksme. TheFourth(attempt):TheSharTfb.Tauwssaid:Inthisfourthattempt,he(al Mansur)sentforhim(alSfldiq)tocometoKufa. He(frTauws)said:Afterhehadmentionedtheauthorityofthereporttohim,al Fadlb.alRabisaid:AbualRabisaid:alMansursentIphimb.JublatoMedinato pingJafarb.Mohammed.AhehadpoughtJafar,Ipahimtoldmethatwhenhecame tohimandtoldhimaboutAlMansursletter,heheardhimsaying:0Allah,Youare myrelianceineverygriefandmyhopeineveryadversity.Whentheypought 1Mohammedb.alHasan. 2IbinAbdAllahb.alAbNts.AndhewasaIManstlrsuncle. (91) hiscamelandhewentouttomountit,Iheardhimsaying:0Allah,Iimploreyoufor thebeginningandsuccess.He(Ipahim)said:WhenweenteredKufa,he(alSadiq) dismountedandsaidtworukas.Thenheraisedhishandstowardtheskyandsaid:0 Allah,LordoftheskiesandwhattheyshadeandLordofthesevenearthsandwhat theycarry.AlRabTsaid:Whenhe(alSadiq)becameinthepresenceofalMansilr, IenteredandtoldhimaboutthecomingofJafarandIphim.Sohe(alMansr) summonedalMusayyabb.ZuhayralDabby,gavehimaswordandsaidtohim: WhenJafarbinMohammedenterandIaddresshimandbeckontohim,thenbehead himanddonotasktheadviceof(anyone).So,Iwentouttohim.Andhe(alSadiq) wasthefriendwhomImeetandassociatewithwhenIperformthehajj.Isaid:Sonof theProphetofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,thistyranthasgivenmean orderwhichIhatetomeetyouwith,soifthereisanythinginyourself,thentelland recommendaboutthat.Hesaid:Donotletthatscareyou,becauseifhe(alMansur) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

seesme,allthatwillfinish.Thenhe(alSadiq)tookholdofMaqamalsitrandsaid: Allah,lordofGapielandMIkilandIsrfitandlordofApahamandIsaacand Mohammed,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,takecareofmeinthisearlymorning anddonotempoweranyoneofyourcreatures(todo)whatIcannotendure.Thenhe enteredandmovedhislipswithathingwhichIdidnotunderstand.Ilookedatal MansurandIdidnotlikenhimbuttoafireonwhichwaterwaspouredandwas extinguished.Thenhisangerbecamecalm.So,JafarbinMohammed,peacebeon them,approachedhimandsatbesidehimonhisbed.ThenalMansrjumped,shook handswithhim,raisedhimtohisbed,andsaidtohim:AbnAbdAllah,itisdifficult formetomakeyoutired,Isentforyouonlytocomplaintoyouofyourfamily,who cutofftheirrelationswithme,defamedmyreligion,andprovokedpeopleagainst me.Ifapersonotherthanmetpokthereinsofauthority,theywouldhearandobey himSoJafar,peacebeonhim,said:Youshouldfollowyourrighteousancestors Ayub(Job)(peacebeonhim)wasafflictedbutwaspatient,Yosuf(Joseph)(peacebe onhim)wasoppressedbutheforgave,andSulaiman(Solomon)wasgivenandhe thanked.ThenalMansursaid:Ihaveendured,forgiven,andthanked. Thenhe(alMansur)said:AbuAbdAllah,tellusaboutthetraditionwhichIhave alreadyheardfromyouconcerningobservingandstrengtheningthetiesofkinship. He(alSadiq)said:Yes,Ihaveheardmyfather(reporting)frommygrandfatherthat theProphetofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,said:obeying(theparents), andobservingandstrengtheningthetiesofkinship,cultivatesthelandsandincrease theages.He(alMansur)said:Itisnotthis(tradition).He(alSadiq)said:myfather toldmefrommygrandfather,whosaid:AllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhis familysaid:Whoeverwantshisdeathtobe (92) delayedandhisbodytobehealthy,thenheshouldobserveandstrengthenthetiesof kinship.He(alMansLir)said:Itisnotthistradition.He(alSadiq)said:Yes,my fathertoldmeontheauthorityofmygrandfatherthatAllahsApostle,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily,said:IsawabloodrelationclingingtotheThrone, complainingtoAllahofthosewhoendtheirrelationshipwithit.SoI(theProphet) said:Gapiel,andhowmany(descendants)wereamongthem?He(Gapiel)said: SevenfathersHe(alMansur)said:Itisnotthistradition.He(alSdiq)said:Yes, myfathertoldmeontheauthorityofmygrandfather,whosaid:AllahsApostle,may Allahblesshimsndhisfamily,said:Apiousmanwhoseneighborwasimpiouswas neartodeath,soAllah,theGreatandAlmighty,saidtotheangelofdeath(Azrael): Angelofdeath,howmany(years)haveremainedoftheageoftheimpious(man)?He Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

(theangelofdeath)said:Thirtyyears.He(Allah)said:Addthemtothepious (man).[1]SoalMansursaid:Servant,fetchmethemixtureofperfume.He(the servant)poughthimtheperfume.He(alMansur)beganperfuminghim(alSadiq) withhishand.Thenhegavehimfourthousanddirhams,andordered(theservant)to pingalSadiqscamel.He(theservant)poughtit.He(alMansur)begansaying: Advance(it)!Advance(it)!Thenhe(theservant)poughtitnearhisbed. So,Jafarb.Mohammed,peacebeonthem,mountedit.AndIbecamebeforehim. So,Iheardhimsaying:PraisebetoAllahwhomIaskandHeanswersme.SoIsaid: SonoftheApostleofAllah,indeed,thistyrantsubjectsmetotheswordeverytime. AndhesummonedalMusayyabbinZuhairandgavehimaswordtobeheadyou.And whenyouentered,IsawyoumovingyourlipswithathingwhichIdidnot understand.Sohe(alSdiq)said:Thisisnotits(appropriate)situation.Iwentto himatnight.Hesaid:Yes,mayfathertoldmeontheauthorityofmygrandfather thatAllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,saidthefollowing.Wordsof AllahwhentheJews,Fazra,andGhatfanprovoked(people)againsthim:Whenthey cameuponyoufromaboveyouandfrombelowyou,andwhentheeyesturneddull, andtheheartsroseuptothethroats,andyoubegantothinkdiversethoughtsof Allah.ThatwasthemostdifficultdayforAllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhis family.So,hebegancomingin,goingout,lookingatthesky,andsaying:Benarrow, youwillbewide(Hewasaddressingthatdifficultsituation).Thenhewentoutat some(time)ofthatnightandsaidtoHudhayfa:Look!Whoisthat?He(Hudhayfa) said:ThatisAlib.AbuTlib,AllahsApostle.SoAllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshim andhisfamily,saidtohim(Au):AbualHasan,areyounotafraidthataneyemay discoveryou?Hesaid:IhavegrantedmyselfforAllahandHisApostle.AnIhave goneoutasa 1AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,wasawareofthetradition.Buthepoughthimsome traditionstomakehimknowhisattitudetowardsbloodrelations. Alsadiq'sattitudeswithalmansurandhisgovernors (102) Allah,theExalted,grantedahlatBaytmanyoutstamerits.Wisdomwasamongthem. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

YoumaybeastonishedattheattitudesofalSadiqtowardsalMansrandhis governorsbecausehesometimesusedsoftwordsandsparednoefforttojustifahis innocenceandsometimesfacedthemwithintensityandviolence,admittingnothing eventhoughhisattitudewouldmakethemangry. AlSadiqwasmoreknowledgeable(thanothers)inwhathesaidandacted.Hemight belenientwhenheknewthatlenitywasbetterandmightbeviolentwhenheknew thatviolencewasbetter.Butlenityisnotpraisedinallstatesandtimes.Inother words,makingadistinctionbetweenattitudesneedswisdomandknowledge.So,al SadiqsometimesaddressedalMansurinthismanner:ByAllah,Ihavenotdonethat, norhaveIregardedthataslawful,norhaveregardeditofmydoctrine.I,among thosewhobelieveinyourobedienceinallcircumstances.IhavebecomesooldthatI havenoabilitytodothat.AndifIwantthat,thenputmeinoneofyourprisonstill deathcomestomebecauseitisneartome.Andhe(alSdiq)sometimesaddressed himinsuchamanner:Youshouldrefrainfromme;otherwiseIwillinvokeAllah againstyoufivetimesaday!Apartfromtheattitudesoflenitywhichwehave mentionedearlier.Now,youwiltknowthefollowingattitudesofintensity. Althoughwedidnotliveinthatera,weknowthepsychologicaltraitsofalSdiqand thatofalDawnTqy(alMansur).Alsoweknowthehistoricaleventswhichtook placeduringthatera. ThoughalMansrpossessedtheMuslimcountrieswiththenameofthecaliphate, heknewthattherealownerofthecaliphatewasalSadiq,peacebeonhim,andthat hewastheownerofeveryoutstandingmerit,andthatifhe(alSadiq)hadwanted authority,he(alMansur)wouldhavenotpreventedhimfromobtainingthat.So,al MansrirsometimesoverlookedtheviolentattitudesofalSadiq,peacebeonhim, becausehe(alMansr)didnotwanttoincreasethedisputes.Throughhis discussionswithalSftdiq,whichmighthavestirreduphatesorwhichmighthave inflamedariseorarevolution.Buttheintensityofloveforauthority,authorityis barrenandlovemakes(theperson)blindandmakes(him)deaf,ledalMansrto mistreatalSadiqandstrivetokilthim.ForthisreasonalSadiqadoptedtwo attitudes:Hesometimesbecameseveretorevealthetruthandsometimesbecame lenienttosavehislifefromalMansursoppressionandaggression. ThefollowingaresomeofalSadiqssevereattitudeswhichheadoptedtorevealthe truth,payingnoattentiontotheauthorityofalMansurandthecrueltyofhis governors:OnedayalMansuraskedalSadiq,peacebe (103) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

onhim,aboutthoseflieswhichwereattackingandannoyinghim:AbuAbdAllah, whydidAllahcreateflies?AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,answered:Tohumiliatethe tyrantswiththem.[1]AlMansfIrkeptsilentbecauseheknewthatifheansweredin kind,alSadiqwouldgivehimasevereranswer. AlMansurwrotealetterinwhichheaskedalSadiq:Whydoyounotfearusas peopledo?alSadiq,peacebeonhim,answered:Wehavenothingtofearyoufor, norhaveyouathingforwhichwehopeyouinthehereafter,norareyouinablessing (forwhich)wecongratulateyou,norseeyou(authority)wrath(fromAllah)forwhich wecondoleyou,thenwhydowefeetfearofyou?SoaIMansurwrotehimaletter: Beacompanionofustoadviseus.alSdiqanswered:Whoeverlikesthelifeinthis worldshouldnotadviseaou,andwhoeverlikesthehereaftershouldnotbea companionofyou.[2] I(theauthor)say:Indeed,alMansurdidnotwantadviseforwhatimprovedhim.If hehadwantedtoimprovehimself,hewouldhavewithdrewfromauthoritytesthe shoulddrawonhimselfthesinofthisnation.Buthewantedtomakefriendswithal Sdiqtomakehimamonghisfollowers.So,menwouldknowthatalMansurbecame theImambeyonddispute.InthemeantimetheShVawouldnotconsultalSadiq underthepretextthathefollowedalMansurwhiletheImamwouldnotbea followerforthemastersofauthorityoptionally.AndalSadiqwasawareofal Mansursintention. TheabovementionedwordsofalSdiqgivesusanimportantlessonaboutthe attitudesofmentowardskingsandrulersandaboutthepositionsofthosewho flatterthem,andhowtheattitudesoftheclergymenshouldbetowardsthem. Oneday,alMansrwasfullofanger.HesummoncdalSadiq,peacebeonhim. WhenalSadiqcametohim,he(alMansr)saidtohim:Jafar,Ihaveknownthat AllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,saidtoyourgrandfatherAlib. AbuTtib,peacebeonhim:Ifnotthatsometribesofmypeoplesayaboutyouasthe JewshavesaidaboutalMaslh(JesusChrist),Iwouldsaysomewordsaboutyou,the wordswouldmakethepeoplewhomyoupassbytakesomeofthedustofyourfeet tocurethemselveswithit.Ali,peacebeonhim,said:Two(persons)willperish becauseofmewhileIhavenosin:anextremeloverandanextremehater.He(al Sdiq)said:Thisisanexcusemadebyhim(Ati)toshowthathedidnotacceptwhat theextremeloverandtheextremehatersayconcerninghim.Uponmylife,ifIsab. Maryam(Jesus,thesonofMary) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

1AlShiblanjl,NflrAlAbsar,p.14I. 2IbinHamdfln,KashifAlGhuma:2/208. (104) hadkeptsilenttowardswhattheChristianssaidconcerninghim,Allahwouldhave torturedhim.Andyouknowthatpeoplesayfalsehood(toflatteryou)andyouknow thatifyoudonotpreventthemfromthatandacceptit,youwilldrawonyourselfthe wrathofAllah.ThemeanofHijazandtherabblehavesaidthatyouarethescholarof thistimeanditslaw,theproofofAllahandHisinterpreter,thebagofHisknowledge andthescalesofHisJustice,andHisburnerwithwhichtheseekercoverthepeadth ofdarknesstopightnessoflight,andAllahwillnotaccepttheactofthepersonwho doesnotknowyourposition,sothey(men)haveattributedyoutootherthanyour position,andsaidconcerningyouwhatyouhavenot,thensaybecauseyour grandfatherwasthefirsttosaythetruth,andthefirsttobelievehiminthatwasyour father,andyouareappropriatefortracingtheirtraditionsandfollowtheirway. So,he(alSdiq),peacebeonhim,said:IamamongthepanchesoftheOliveTree, amongtheLampsoftheHouseoftheProphethood,thepolite(person)ofthedining table,thefostersonofthegenerousandrighteous(ones),amongtheLampsofthe Lanterninwhich(thereis)theLightofthelight,andthetopoftheremainingwordin thechildrenoftheChosen(Ones)tilltheDayofResurrection. So,alMansurturnedtothosewhoweresiftingwithhimandsaid:Indeedthis(i.e. alSdiq)hassentmetoaroughseawhoselimitcannotbereachedandwhosedepth cannotbeattained,inwhichthescholarsarebewildered,inwhichtheswimmers drown,andthewidthofthevastspacebecomesnarrowfortheswimmer,this suffocation(ofmortification)inthethroatsofthecaliphs,whosebanishmentisnot permitted,whosekillingisunlawful,andifnotthatIamgatheredwithhimbythe Treewhoseoriginisgood,whosepanchislofty,whosefruitispleasant,whichis blessedinprogeny,andwhichisholyintheBooks,anactofunlovableresultswould issuefromme.Thatisbecausehisseverecriticismandhisbadwordscometomy ears. So,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:Donotacceptthewordsofthepersonwhom AllahwilldepriveofParadise,andwhoseabodewillbethefire,becausetheslanderer isafalsewitnessandthepartnerofSataninseductionamongmen.Verily,Allah,the Exalted,said:0youwhobelieve!ifanevildoercomestoyouwithareport,look Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

carefullyintoit,lestyoushouldharmapeopleinignorance,thenyoubesorryfor whatyouhavedone.[1] Andweareyoursupportersandhelpersandthesupportsandpillarsofyourauthority whenyouenjoingoodandforbidevil,spreadthecommandmentsoftheamongmen, anddoagainstthewiltofSatan 1AlHojarat:6. (105) throughyourobedienceforAllah.Itisobligatoryforyou,accordingtoyour understanding,abundanceofyourscience,andyourknowledgeofthemannersof Allah,tolinkhimwhoabandonsyou,givehimwhodeprivesyou,forgivehimwho oppressesyou,becausethegiverisnotlikethemaintainerthemaintainerishewho maintains(friendlyrelationswith)hisbloodrelativeswhentheyabandonhim.So keepup(friendlyrelationswith)yourbloodrelativessothatAllahwillincreaseyour life,andcommuteyourpunishmentoftheDayofJudgment.SoalMansursaid:I haveforgivenyouforyourimportanceandexcusedyouforyourtruthfulness,then tellatraditionofyourowntolearnalessonfromitandbearestraintoftruthfulness formeagainstgravesins.So,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:Cleavetoclemency becauseitisthepillarofknowledge,controlyourselfdurinathereasonsofability becauseifyoudowhatyouareableto,youwillbelikethepersonwhogivesventto hisangerorcuresaspiteorwantstobementionedthroughthepower,andknow thatifyoupunish(thepersonwhois)worthy(ofpunishment),thenyouwillbe regardedasajust(man),andthestatewhichmakesthankfulnessincumbentisbetter thanthestatewhichmakespatienceincumbent.So,alMansursaid:Youhave preachedinagoodmanner,andyouhavesaidpiefly.[1]I(theauthor)say: Suchattitudesteachimportantlessonsaboutthepolicy,knowledge,andfaithofthe peopleofthatera.Fromherewecanunderstandthefollowing: 1.AlMansurwantedalSAdiqnottoappearasanImam.So,hetriedtocheathim withthesesoftwordsbeforepeople.Fromhereyouunderstandtheclevernessofal Mansur,becausetheAbbsidssatonthethroneinthenameoftheImamateand caliphate.Iftherehadbeenapartofthenationwhoknewthattherewasanother Imamwhowastheownerofthepulpitandthecrown,they(theAbbsYds)would havenottakenthereinsofauthority.So,alMansurdidnotwantanyonetooppose hisauthority.Inotherwordshesometimesdefendedhisthronewithseverityand Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

sometimeswithlenity.So,itwasapartofhispolicytoansweralSadiqwiththese wordsbeforeagroupofpeople.AlsohethoughtthatalSdiqwouldabolishwhat peoplesaidconcerninghim,thenthroughthishewouldbeabletogetwhathe wanted.AndheknewthatalSfldiqwouldnotanswerhim,becausehe(alSdiq) Wasverycarefulofhisauthority. 2.AlSdiqwasanImamaccordingtotheDivinenomination.HeandtheShVa believedinthat.Moreover,theImamateofahlatBaytandofalSadiqwasnotborn duringtheeraofalMansur.Rather,ithasbegunsincethetimeoftheOwnerofthe mission.Forthisreason,alSadiqwasbeforetwochoices..Ifhehadfollowedal Mansur,hewouldhaveabolishedtheDivineImarnateAndifhehadopposedhim,he wouldhavesubjected 1BiharAlAnwa:47/168. (106) himselftohisevilacts.Thusheansweredhimwithpiefwordswhichdidnotdeclare hisImamate,norcouldtheyabolishthewordsofmenconcerninghim.Forthis reason,alMansursaid:Indeedthis(i.e.alSadiq)hassentmetoaroughseawhose limitcannotbereached.... 3.TheShTahasbelievedintheImamsincethatday.Thisiswhatthefundamentalsof theirdoctrineneed.AndthereportsofalitatBaytandtheirtraditionshavedenoted that. 4.ThatalSdiqkeptsilentdoesnotmeanthatheabolishedtheImamate.Andifhe hadabolishedit,hewouldhavesaid:Thisideaandbeliefisabolished.Moreover,it wasobligatoryforhimtotellpeoplethattheJmamatewasabolishedandprevent themfromthisbelief. 5.ManypeoplebelievedintheImamateofalSdiq,peacebeonhim.Thismadeal ManstlrthinkofalSadiqandmadehimafraidofhisgreatposition.So,hetriedtoget ridofhimunderanypretext. 6.IftherewerenoreportsandtraditionsaboutalSdiqsgreatposition,hiswords andattitudetowardsalMansrwouldbeenoughevidenceforhisgreatposition.For example,healteredtheanswerwhichalMansurwantedinthemannerthat bewilderedhim.Thenhepreachedinthemannerthatwassuitableforthepositionof Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

kingsandtheirmanytribulations. Oneday,alSdiqcametoalMansur.So,alRabTreceivedhimatthedoorandsaid tohim:AbUAbdAllah,heissodispleasedwithyouthatIhaveheardhimsay:By Allah,Iamgoingtocutdownhisdatepalms,plunderhisproperty,andcapturehis children.WhenalSadiqcametohimgreetedhim,andsatdown,alMansursaidto him:Ihaveintendedtocutdownyourdatepalms,plunderyourproperty....So,al Sdiq,peacebeonhim,said:Indeed,Allah,theGreatandAlmighty,afflictedAyyub andhewaspatient,gaveDawUdandhethanked(Him),madeYousifable(torevenge himselfonhispothers)andheforgave(them),andyouarefromthatprogeny,then youmustbelikethem. So,he(alMansr)said:Youhavesaidthetruth.So,Ihaveforgivenyou.AlSadiq said:Ifanypersonkillsoneofus,weahlatBayt,Allahwilldeprivehimofhis authority.So,alMnsUrwasfullofanger.ThusalSdiqsaid:Slowly!Thisauthority wasinthehandsofthefamilyofAbllSufyfln.WhenYazidkilledalHusayn,peacebe onhim,Allahdeprivedhimofhisauthority.ThenthefamilyofMarwninheritedit. WhenHushamkilledZayd,Allahdeprivedhimofhisauthority.ThenMarwnb. Mohammedinheritedit.WhenMarwankilledIpahim,theImam,Allahdeprivedhim ofhisauthorityandhasgivenittoyou.AlMansursaid:Youhavesaidthetruth.[1] I(theauthor)say:IndeedalSadiqdidnotapologizedto(alMansur)forhisfirst saying.Rather,heproducedevidenceforit,exceptthathementionedhispother Iphimtoavoidhisevilacts. 1AlKafi:2/563. (107) AlSadiqhadmanysimilarattitudes.Butwethinkthattheabovementionedonesare enough. AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,hadattitudestowardssomeofthegovernorsofal Mansur.TheywereassevereasthoseattitudestowardsalMansur.Afterthekilling ofMohammedandIphim,alManstlrappointedamancalledShaybab.Afalasa governoroverMedina.Inthisconnection,AbdAllahb.SulaymfiflalTimimysaid: WhenIattendedtheFridayprayer,he(i.e.AbdAllah)enteredtheMosqueofthe Prophet(mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily),satinthepulpit,thankedAllahand praisedHim,thenhesaid:SurelyAlib.AbflTalibsoweddissensionamongMuslims, Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

wagedwaragainstthebelievers,wantedauthorityforhim,andpreventedthe appropriatepersonsfromobtainingit(authority)].So,Allahdeprivedhimofthatand madehimdiewithhispang.Andforthosereasons.Theyarefollowinghiswayin corruptionandaskingauthoritywithoutanymerit.So,theyarekilledaltoverthe earthandarestainedwithblood. His(AbdAllahs)wordswerepainfulforthosepeople,butnoonedaredsayevena wordexceptonemanwhostoodupandsaid:AndwepraiseAllah(andaskhim)to blessMohammed,thelastoftheProphetsandtheMasteroftheApostles,andallHis prophetsandApostles,asforgoodyouhavementionedwearetheappropriateones forit,andasforthebad,youandyourcompanionaremoreappropriateforit(than us).Thentry,youwhohaveriddenotherthanyourcamelandeatenotherthanhis food.ComeBACKandyouaresinful! Thenthemanturnedtothemenandsaid:ShaltItellyouaboutthepersonwhose scaleswillbeemptiestofallmenontheDayofJudgmentandtheclearestofthemin loss?Itishewhosellshislifeinthehereafterforthelifeofotherthanhiminthis world.Itisthatsinner.So,themenkeptsilent.Andtheaovernorwentoutofthe Mosqueanddidnotsayevenaword.So,Iaskedabouttheman.Itwassaidtome: ThisisJafarb.Mohammedb.Aub.aIHusaynb.Alib.AbTalib,theblessingof Allahbeonthemall.[1] OntheauthorityofalSadiq,peacebeonhim,whosaid:IwassittingwithZiyadb. AbdAllahandagroupofmyfamily,sohesaid:Whatisyouroutstandingmeritofall men?Theykeptsilent,soIsaid:Wedonotliketobelongtoanyoneexceptus,and noonehatesofmenbelongingtous"[2] I(theauthor)say:Indeed,hepoughthimirrefutableevidence.Thesewords,though pief,hasgatheredthevirtuesandservedinsteadofproofs. AlMansrappointedDawUdb,Alib.AbdAllahb.alAbbasasagovernorover Medina.ThelattersentforalMaallab.Khanls,theservantofalSdiq,peacebeon him,andwantedhimtoshowhimthecompanions 1AlShayknalThsy,alMajllis,Majlisno.2. 2BiharAlAnwar:47/166/8. (108) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

ofalSdiq,peacebeonhim,andhisreliablefigures.ButAlMuattapretendedthat hedidnotknowthem.Heinsistedonthatandthreatenedhimwithdeath.AlMualla said:Doyouthreatenmewithdeath?ByAllah,iftheywereundermyownfoot,I wouldnotliftmyfootfromthem.Andifyoukillme,youwillmakemehappy,andI willmakeyouunhappy.WhenDawdunderstoodalMaallsstrongattitude,he killedhimandplunderedhispropertieswhiletheybelongedtoalSadiq,peacebeon him. Whenthat(news)cametoalSadiqsear,hestoodupwithanger,pullinghiscloak,he wenttoDawud,andsaidtohim:Youhavekilledmyservantandplunderedmy properties.Didyounotknowthatthemanwasverypave? ThenalSadiq,peacebeonhim,askedDawfldtogivehimthemoney.Dawtidoffered hispolicecommissionertoalSadiqtokillhim.Whentheypoughthimtobekilled,he beganshouting:Theyordermetokillmenforthem,thentheyhavepoughtmeto killme. Then,DawiidsentfiveofhisguardstopingalSadiqandsaidtothem:pinghimto me.Ifherefuses,thenpingmehishead.So,they(theguards)cametoalSdiq whilehewasperforminghisprayers.Theysaid:AnswerDawd!He(Sadiq)said: WhatifIdonotanswer(him)?Hehasgivenusanorder,theysaid.Hesaid:Go away,becauseitisbetterforyour.lifehereandinthehereafter.Buttheyinsistedon hisgoingwiththem.So,heraisedhishands,thenheputthemonhissides,thenhe stretchedthemout,thenheprayedwithhisforefinger.So,hewasheardsaying:This hour!Thishour!Thenloudcryingwasheard.So,hesaidtothem:Surety,your companion(i.e.Dawfld)hasdied,nowgoaway. I(theauthor)say:Thesearesomeofhisattitudestowardsthegovernorsofal Mansur.Theangerforthetruthsummonedhimtobeseverewhenhethoughtthat speechwasbetterthansilenceeventhoughhesubjectedhimselftothesword. ******** ALSADIQINIRAQ (109) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

TheskillfulpolicyoftheAbbsidsdestroyedtheauthorityofbanuMarwfin(theSons ofMarwan),preventedalHasanandalHusaynfromgainingvictoryandstoppedthe ideaoftheImamatefromspreadingamongmenforalHasanandalHusayn.But they(banMarWafl)madegravefaultawhentheypracticedterroristpoliciesagainst alSadiq,peacebeonhim.Forexample,theysummonedhimtocometoItaqseveral tunes.Forthisreason,theyservedtheImamateandrevealedtheimportanceofaM alBaytverymuch.TheIraqishavelovedahlalBaytsincethebeginningofIslam, especiallywhenIraqbecamethecapitaloftheirauthorityforaperiodoftime. Besides,somegreatfiguresofahlalBaythavebeenburiedthere.Also,inIraq,they facedimportanteventsliketheeventofalTaf(theBattleofKarbala)andtheevent (killing)ofZayd,whichmenandhistorywillnotforgetaslongasthereisahuman beingonthesurfaceoftheearthandaslongasthereiswrittenhistory. Seeingandwitnessinghasstrongerinfluencethanhearing.Indeed,ifbeautyattracts goodsoulsandgentlefeeling,thenthathappensthroughtheeyes,notthroughthe ears.Yes,hearingathingmayhaveaninfluence,becausetheearsometimesloves beforetheeye.Buthearingisnotlikeseeingeventhoughitreachesthelevelthat charmstheheartsandthefeelings. Alsotheoppressedmaymovethepityoftheheartandthemercyoftheself, especiallywhentheoppressedpersonisamongtheoutstandingmenandthe greatestscholars. So,whentheloveforalSadiq,peacebeonhim,dominatedtheheartsthrough hearing,andmenbelievedinhisImamatethroughevidence,thenseeinghim, witnessinghisproofs,andhearinghiseloquencehadagreaterinfluence.Thusthe comingofalSdiqtoIraq,thecountryoflovefortheProphetsfamily,seeinghis qualitiesandhisoutstandingmerits,andhearinghissayingandproofshadastrong influenceonmenaswellaswhattheyheardabouthim.Forthisreasontheheartsof meninclinedtowardhim.Peoplenotonlytooktraditionsfromhimwhentheywent toperformthehaji,butalsotheytookthemfromhimwhenhecametoIraqseveral times. Moreover,alSadiqwasanoppressedperson.Allpeopleormostofthem,knewthat hewasforcedtocometoIraq.AlsotheyknewthattheAbbsTdsmistreatedhimand preventedhimfromspreadinghissciencesandknowledge. TheShtaknewtheimportanceandknowledgeofalSadiqmorewhenhecameto Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Iraq.Thatwasbecausetaqiya(protection)andthehostile (110) authoritypreventedpeoplefrompropagatinghisoutstandingmerits.AndalSadiq, peacebeonhim,wasasAmrub.alMuqdamsaid:WhenIlookedathim(alSadiq), IknewthathewasamongthedescendantsoftheProphets.Andasb.Talhasaidin hisbookMatalibAlSaOl:Lookingathimreminds(theperson)torefrainfromthe lifeinthisworld,followinghisbehaviorleadstoParadise,thelightofhisfeatures bearswitnessthatheismongtheprogenyoftheProphet,andhispureactsshow thatheisamongtheownersofthemission. Hushmb.alHakam,whobelongedtoJahnt,changedhisdoctrineandbelievedin theImamateasaresultofhisdiscussionwithalSadiqandhislookingathim.That lookingmadehimfullofrespectforalSdiq.So,hefeltthatsuchimportancedoes nothappenbutfortheprophetsandtheirtrusteesofauthority.So,amongtheeffects ofthecomingofalSdiqtoIraqwasthatheguidedHushm,whoplayedan importantroleinservingthereligionandahlalBayt.[1] AmongtheeffectsofthecomingofalSadiqtoIraqwasthathebuiltthegraveofthe CommanderoftheFaithful(AmiralMuminTnImamAli).Andheshowedittothe prominentfiguresoftheShTa,formostofthemdidnotknowexactlywherethe gravewasexceptthatItwasatKufainNajafbecausehissonsdidtheirbesttohideit topreventtheenemiesofImamAufromdemolishingit.So,theShiabeganvisiting it.Ateveryvisit,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,tooksomeofhisnearcompanionswith himtothegrave.AlsoheorderedSafwanb.MahranalJammaltobuildthegrave. InhisbookAlTahdhib,theShaykhoftheShTtesectMohammedb.alHasanal TflsyhasmentionedmanyvisitationsofalSa'diq,peacebeonhim. SuchvisitationshavebeenmentionedbyShaykhalKulainy,mayhisgravebe fragrant,inhisbookalKafi,Sayyidb.TawtisinhisbookFarhatAlGharT,Shaykh alHuralmiliinhisbookWasilAlShTa,alMajlisiinhisbookalBihar,andthe like. ThefollowingaresomeofthevisitationsofalSadiqandhisevidenceforthat.Shaykh AbOJafaralTsysaid:Surely,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,visitedthegraveofAmir alMuminTn,peacebeonhim,severaltimes.AmongthemwaswhenalSffah summonedhimtocometoalHTra.AndsomeofthemhavebeenreportedbyAbd Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Allahb.TalahalHindy[2],whosaid:IcametoAbuAbdAllah,peacebeonhim,and he 1IhavewrittenaresearchaboutHushamb.alHakam.Itriedasfaraspossibleto collecthisreportsandwritings. 2AnArabmanfromKufa.HereportedfromalSadiq.Agroupofthereliablepersons suchisAlib.IsmaiI,alMaythamy,Mohammedb.Sanln,andb.Mahbtlbreported fromhim. (111) said:So,wewentwithhimuntilwearrivedatGhary.He(alSadiq)cametoaplace (thegrave)andsaidhisprayersatit. AlsoShaykhAbuJafaralTOsThasmentionedthecomingofalSadiqfromalHira forthesecondtime.Ytlnusb.Zabyan[1]waswithhim.He(alSadiq)prayedatthe grave,andtoldYUnusthatthegravewasforAmiralMuminiflwhileYflnushadnot knownwherethegravewasbutthatitwasinthedesert. AlKutainy,mayhisgravebefragrant,reportedontheauthorityofZaydb.Amrub. Thlha[2]whosaid:WhenhearrivedatalHrra,AbtiAbdAllah,peacebeonhim, said:DoyounotwantwhatIhavepromisedyou?Isaid:Yes.Hemeantthegoing tothegraveofAmiralMuminln,peacebeonhim.He(Zayd)said:So,he(alSdiq) mounted(hiscamel),IsmTtmounted,andImountedwiththem.Whenhearrivedat alThawiyanearthewhitehillsbetweenalHTraandNajaf,hedismountedIsmaTl dismounted,andIdismountedwiththem.Sohe(alSadiq),IsmaTl,andIperformed ourprayers. AlsoalKulinyreportedontheauthorityofAbnb.Tghlub,[3]whosaid:Iwaswith AbuAbdAllah,peacebeonhim,whenhepassedbyKufa.So,he(alSdiq) dismounted(hiscamel)andperformedtworukas,thenheadvancedforalittle (distance)andperformedtworukas,thenhewalkedforalittle(distance)and performedtworukas.ThenhetoldAbanthatthefirsttworukaswereatthegraveof AmiralMuminin,peacebeonhim,thesecond(tworukas)wereattheplaceofthe headofalHusayn,peacebeonhim,andthethird(tworukas)wereattheabodeof alQam(ImamalMahdy). ShaykhalHurmentionedthatalSadiq,peacebeonhim,visitedthegraveofAmiral Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Mumininseveraltimes.Hehasmentionedsuchareportontheauthorityofal Saduq,mayAllahhavemercyuponhim,ontheauthorityofSafwanb.Mahrnal Jamml,whosaid:AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,madeway,andIwaswithhim, throughQdisiya(aprovinceinIraq)tillhearrivedinNajaf.Thenhewentonmaking waytillhearrivedatalGharyand.stoppedatit.Thenhecametothegraveand begansayingassatamualafromAdam,andIwassayingwithhim,totheProphet, mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.Thenhesanktothegrave.Hegreeteditandhis cryingbecameloud.So,Isaid:SonoftheApostleofAllah,mayAllahblesshimand hisfamily,Whosegraveisthis?Hesaid:ThegraveofmygrandfatherAlib.Abu Talib. 1AlKafi.HewasamongthosewhoreportedfromalSadiq,peacebeonhim.Some reporterspraisedhimandsomedispraisedhim.Butmanyreliablepersonsreported fromhim.Someofthemadoptedconsensus. 2AlKafi'.Wedonotknowanythingabouthimbutthisreport.Hewasareliable PersonbecausealKulainyreportedfromhim. 3WewillmentionhimwiththereliablecompanionsofalSadiq,peacebeonhim. (112) Inadditiontowhathasbeenmentionedabove,alMajlisyhasmentionedother visitations.AndhehasmentionedthevisitationreportedbySafwLiinanotherreport. Inthisvisitation,alSadiqsmelttheearthof(thegrave)ofAmirAlMuminrn.So,he sobbed.Ithoughtthatheleftthelifeinthisworld.Whenhebecameconscious,he said:ByAllah,hereisthegraveofAmirAlMuminrn.Thenhedrewaline.So,I said:WhathaspreventedtherighteousmembersoftheHousefromrevealinghis grave.?Hesaid:BecausetheywereafraidthatbanUMarwanandtheKharijites mightdestroyit. He(alMajlisy)reportedontheauthorityofAmrb.Yazrd[1]thathe(aAmrb.Yazfd) cametoAbdAllahb.Sanan.TheywenttogethertothehouseofHafsalKana'sy.He wentwiththem.ThentheyarrivedatagraveatalGhary.So,he(Hafs)saidtothem: Dismount.ThisisthegraveofAmirAlMuminln.AbdAllahsaidtohim:From wherehaveyouknownthis?Hesaid:IcametoitwithAbtiAbdAllah,peacebeon him,whenhecametoalHTra,andtoldmethatitwashisgrave. He(alMajlisy)reportedfromYUnusb.ZabyanthathewaswithalSadiq,peacebeon him,atalHirawhenhecametoAbtiJafarataclearmoonynighttillhesaid:So,he (alSdiq)mounted(hiscamel)andImountedwithhim.Andhemadewaytillwe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

arrivedattheredhills.He(Yuns)said:Thenhe(alSadiq)approachedthehilland saidhisprayersatit.Thenheleanedagainstitandwepttillhesaid:Itisthegraveof AmIralMuminTn,peacebeonhim.Maybe,thisreportisthefirstreportofYunUs. He(alMajlisy)reportedontheauthorityofAbIlalFarajalSindy,[2]thathecame fromalHTrawithalSadiq,peacebeonhim,toalGharyandvisitedthegraveof AmiralMuminTn,peacebeonhim. He(alMajlisy)reportedasimilarreportontheauthorityofAbdAllahb.Ubaydb. ZaydandmentionedthatAbdAllahcalledtoprayerandestablishedtheregular prayerandprayedwithalSfldiq,peacebeonhim. Apparently,thisvisitationtookplaceduringthetimeofalSafThhbecausehe summonedAbdAllahb.alHasanashesummonedalSdiq,peacebeonhim.[3] 1Thebiographershavementioned.thatthereweretwopersonscalledAinrb.YazTd: OneofthemwasBayyaalSabiryandtheotherwasalSadiq. (1)TheybothreportedfromalSadiq.Maybe,theywerebothreliablepersons. (2)Willmentionhimwiththefamousreliablefigures. (3)HewasthesonofAbdrbba.Hewasregardedasamongthecompanionsofal Sadiq.ThebiographersdenotedthathewasImlmi 2Hisnamewasisa.HeisregardedasamongthecompanionsofalSadiqandhis reporters. 3Thebiographershasnotmentionedhiminthisname. (113) He(alMajlisy)alsoreportedontheauthorityofAbalAlaalTy,[1]along traditioninwhichhehasmentionedthecomingofalSdiqtoalHira,spreadingthe newsinKufa,hissittingtowaitforhim,hisquestionaboutthegraveofAnitral Mumintn,peacebeonhim,andthefollowingwordsofalSadiq:Yes,Shaykh,by Allah,itistrue. He(alMajlisy)reportedontheauthorityofSafwinthathe(Safwn)cametothe graveafteralSadiq,peacebeonhint,hadtoldhimaboutitandprayedatitfor twentyyears. InhisbookFarhatAlGhary,thegreatSayyidAbdAlkarTmb.Twtishasreported Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

theabovementionedvisitationsandmanyothers.Itisnotourpurposetotellyou abouteveryvisitationwhichhasbeenreportedfromhim(alSadiq).Butourpurpose istotellyouaboutthatfoolishpolicywhichtheAbbasTdsadoptedagainstAbuAbd Allah,peacebeonhim,andtheeffectsofhisfrequentcomingtoIraq.Inotherwords, hewasabletorevealtheimportanceofahlalBayt. AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,poughtoneoranotherofhiscompanionswithhimin eachvisitationtoshowthemthegrave.Thenhepoughtotherthantheminthe followingvisitationtomakemanypeopleknowandvisitthegrave.So,manyofhis companionsreportedthesevisitations.SomeofthemwereSafwanalJantmal, Mohammedb.MuslimalThaqafy,AbUBasTr,AbdAllahb.Ubaydb.Zayd,Abtial FarajalSindy,Abanb.Taghlub,MubArakalKhabbfizz,[1]Mohammedb.Marflfal Hilly,[3]AbalAlaalTay,alMaallab.KhanTs,Zaydb.Talha,Amrb.Zayd,YazTd b.Amril,AbdAllahb.TalhaalHindy,Yflnusb.ZabyAn,andthelike. AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,gaveSafwanalJammalsomedirhamstorebuildthe gravebecauseafloodhadsweptitaway.Fromhereyouknowthatthegravewas apparenteventhoughahlalBaytandtheircompanionsvisiteditsecretlytokeepit hiddenfromtheKharijitesandbanDMarwan.Forthisreason,AbnalAlfiaskedal SSdiqwhetherthegravewasforAnhirAlMuminTnornot.WhenalSadiqsankto thegrave,Safwfinaskedhim:Whosegraveisthis?Thismeansthatthegravewas apparentforthem.PeopleknewthegraveduringthetimeofalSadiq,peacebeon him,becausetheyvisiteditfrequently.So,theydidnotaskalSfidiqab9uttheplace andtheownerofthegraveasMohammedb.Muslim,Safwfin,YDnusb.Zabyan,and thelikedid.Rather,theyaskedhimaboutthemannersnecessarytovisitit. AmongtheactsofalSadiq,peacebeonhim,inIraqishismihrab(prayerniche).Itis totheeastofthemosquenearSurahnearthegraveof 1notacquaintedwithhisbiography. 2onereporthasbeenmentionedonhisauthority. 3HehasmentionedsomereportsfromalSldiq,peacebeonhim. (114) Muslim,peacebeonhim.Itisapparentandknowninthemosquebecausethereisno mihrabnearit.Therearecertainprayersandsupplicationforit.AlSadiqsmihrab wasinthemosqueofSuhayl(alSabla)anditisinthemiddleofthemosque.And therearecertainprayersandsupplicationforit.Thereasonforthatisclearoneday, Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

alSidiq,peacebeonhim,wasinKufa:BashsharalMikfiiy[1]cametohim.Hetold himthattherewasapolicemantakingawomantoprisonandhittingherheadwhile thewomanwasshoutingloudly:IamcallingforthehelpofAllahandhisApostle,but nooneishelpingher.AlSftdiqaskedBashsMr:Whyishetakinghertoprisonand hittingher?Bashsharanswered:Iheardpeoplesaying:Shestumbledandsaid:May Allahcursethosewhooppressedyou,Fatima.So,thepolicemanbehavedinsucha manner.AlSadiqstoppedeating,somedatescalledTabarzad(i.e.verygood,sweet dates)thatwerebeforehim.Hecontinuedweepingtillhishandkerchief,hisbeard, andhischestbecamewetduetothetears.Immediately,alSdiqandBashsharwent toalSahlamosque.Thereheperformedtworukasandrecitedasupplication.[2] Whenhehadgoneoutofthemosque,amancameandtoldhimthatthewomanhad beenreleased.So,he(alSadiq)becamehappyandsentthewomanagiftwhileshehad refusedtotakeanythingfromthegovernorwhogavehertwohundreddirham, thoughshewasinneedofthem.[3]Menalwaysgotothemosqueandthemihrab, theyrecitethatsupplicationtoseektheirneeds ThereisamihrabonthebankofalHusayniyariverinKarbala.Themihrabis attributedtoalSadiq.Maybe,heprayedinthisplaceonthedaywhenhevisitedal Husayn,peacebeonhim.Inhislongtraditionwhichwehavementionedearlier,al Husaynb.AbfiAlAlaalTyhasmentionedthevisitationsofalSadiqtoImam Husayn,peacebeonhim.InhisbookFarhatalGhary,b.TRwilshasmentionedhis visitations.InhisbookMazarAlBihar,alMajlisyhasmentionedthem.Alsothey havebeenmentionedinthistradition:Maymyfatherandmotherberansomforis this,gravefromwhichyouhavecomeforyou,isthisgravealHusayns?He(al S&diq)said:Yes,byAllah,Shaykh,itistrue. Tothenorthofthewesternpidge,todayknownastheancientpidge,overtheriver Tigris,atthewesternsideofBaghdad,thereisaplacewhich 1Iamnotacquaintedwithhisbiography. 2Wehavementionedthissupplicationwithwhatwehavecollectedofhis supplications. 3BiharAlAnw5r:100/440/21. MazlrAlBihlr:221103. (115) thepeopletherecalltheSchoolofImamSldiq(MadrasatalImamalSidiq).Today, Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

thereisnoapparentmonumentofit.Maybe,he(alSadiq)availedpeopleinitwhen hecametoBaghdadduringthetimeofalMansflr. Inhisbook,Thrlkh,alKhatlbhasnotmentionedalSldiq,peacebeonhim,with thosewhocametoBaghdadwhilehehasmentionedhissonalKzimandhis grandsonalJawd,peacebeonthem. WhatwehavementionedaboveisenoughevidencefortheeffectsofalSidiqinIraq whenalSaftIhandalMansflrsentforhim.So,heincreasedtheimportanceofahlat Bayt.Andthestickglowswithburning. ******** HISSCIENTIFICLIFE (116) HisknowledgewasInspiration: Thereisnovirtuelikeknowledge.Withknowledgenationslive,becomehappy, progressive,andimmortal.Withknowledgethepersonbecomesfamous,getsahigh position,andpurifieshimself. Thereisnowonderwhenknowledgeisbetterthanworshipahundredfoldbecause theworshipperisrighteousonthewayofsalvation.Hehassavedhimselfonly.But thescholaristhereformerwhoisabletotakegreatworldsoutofthedarknessof misguidance.Alsohehimselfisrighteous.Hehasopenedhiseyesforhisway.Andhe hasseenthewaythroughopeninghiseyes. Thereisnovirtuelikeknowledgeinreformingpeople,availingthem,andremainingin existenceforever.Thatisbecauseworship,pavery,generosity,andthelike,avail peopleaslongastheirownerexistsinthisworld.Whenhedieshewillhavenothing exceptthegoodspeech,whiletheadvantageofthescientistsremainsaslongashis scienceremains. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

TheSunnahaspraisedscienceandscientistsverymuch.AlsointheKoran,thereare manyverseswhichlaudscienceandscientistsThisisaclearmatter,sothereisno needtoproducequotationorevidenceforit. Yes,theimportanceofthispraiseconcernsreligiousknowledgeandscholarsorit concernseveryscienceandeveryscholar.Ithinkthatthispraiseconcernsreligious knowledgeandscholars.ThatisbecausetheProphetictraditionshavedenotedthat. ItisenoughtomentionthefollowingWordsofAllah,theExalted,fromthebook: ThoseofHisservantsonlywhoarepossessedofknowledgefearAllah.[1]Besides, perhaps,thispraisedoesnotconcernnonreligiousscholarsbecausetheydonotfear AllahandsomeofthemdonotbelieveintheExistenceofAllahandHisOneness. Religiousscholarsareworthyofthispraisebecausetheysparenoefforttodogood formen.Everywhereandeverytime,theyareguidesandsavers. Religiousknowledgeisobtainedthroughtwoways.Theyare:inspirationand acquisition. Acquisitionmayleadthescholartoerrororcorrectness.So,theerrorofthescholar leadalltheworldtotheerrorbecausepeoplefollowthescholarinCommandments, thelawful,andtheunlawful,whileAllah,theGreatandAlmighty,wantspeopletoact accordingtoHisLawandCommandments.Therefore,thescholarshouldbeinfallible toleadmentoAllahsLawandCommandments.Andthatdoesnothappenexcept whentheknowledgeofthescholarisinspirationorrevelation. 1Fatir:28. (117) Fromhere,theknowledgeoftheprophetsandtheirtrusteesofauthorityshouldbe inspirationtoprotectthemandtheirnationsfromcommittingerrors. Allah,theExalted,hasrevealedonelaw,notmanylaws,onecommandmentforevery matter,notmanycommandments.AndHeappointedoneguidefornationsinevery time,notmanyguides.But,today,foreverynation,therearemanylaws,notone law;manylegislators,notonelegislator.Wefindmanycommandmentsforevery matter,notonecommandment.Ineverytime,therearemanyguidesnotoneguide. Theyopposeeachother,hateeachother,accuseeachotherofunbelief,anddeny eachother.Thisisnotwhatthegreatestreformer,AllahsApostle(mayAllahbless Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

himandhisfamily),haspoughtandwantedforhisnation.Then,thereisnowonder whenintellectjudgesthatitisincumbentonAllah,theExalted,toappoint,inevery time,themostknowledgeableonetoleadpeopletothelawasithasbeenrevealed andteachthemthecommandmentsastheyhaverevealed.Thatisnotappropriate foranyonebutAliandhissons.Thesearetheirscientificsayings.Thenreadthemto findguidancethroughtheirlight.Ifwehadnotraditionexceptthefollowing traditionsoftheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,:Iamthecityof knowledgeandAliisitsgate.[1]Iamgoingtoleaveamongyouthethaqalayn(the twoweightyandmostvaluablethings):theBookofAllahandmyfamily,the membersofmyHouse.[2]theywouldbeenoughforahlalBayttobethemost knowledgeableonesintheIslamicLawandtheBookbecausetheylearnedknowledge fromitsoriginandtookitfromitsspring.Andiftheylearnedtheirknowledgethrough acquisition,thentheProphetwouldnothavemadethemthescholarsoftheBook forever.Andwhatdistinguishedthemfrommeniftheyhadsharedthesamedegree ofknowledgewiththem. Whatattractsattentionisthatpeoplealwaysneedtheirknowledge.Whenever peoplerefertothemforacertainmattertheygetitsanswerquicklywhileahlalBayt neverneededtheknowledgeofpeople. Wedonotwantyoutofeelthistruthwiththereportsonlybutalsowithacts, becauseactsareveryimportantforyoutounderstandthereality.Nowconsider carefullytheknowledgeofahlalBaytthroughtheseacts:ImamalJawdbecame Imamwhilehewassevenyearsofage.HeassumedtheImamateanddidashis fathersdidsuchasteachingandguidance.Thescholarslearnedfromhim.For example,Alib.Jafar,theShaykhoftheAlawidsstoodupandkissedthehandofal Jawadwhenhecametohimandpreparedhisslipperswhenhewantedtogoout.He (Aub.Jafar)wasaskedabouttheImamafteralRid,peacebeonhim,hesaid:His son 1ThrThhBaghdad:2/377.Kanzal1JmaI:6/156 2Ahmadb.Hanbal,AlMusnad:4/366. AlTirmidhy,AlSalith:2/308. (118) AbuJafar.So,itwassaidtohim:Youareanoldman,youhaveahighsocialrank, andyourfatherwasJafarb.Mohammed;neverthelessyousaythesewords concerningthisboy!Hesaid:IdonotseeyoubutaSatan.Thenhetookhisbeard Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

andsaid:MypowerisuselessbecauseAllahhasseenhimworthyofthat(the Imammate)andhasnotseenthiswhitehairworthyofit.[1]Worthmentioning,Ali b.JafarwasthepotherofalKzim,peacebeonhim,andalKazimwasthe grandfatherofalJawftd.Inotherwords,therewasagreatdifferenceinageamong them.Moreover,AlllearnedfromhisfatheralSdiq,hispotheralKzim,andhis nephewalRid.Therefore,ifthey(ahlalBayt)gotthereknowledgethrough acquisition,thenAllwouldbethemoreknowledgeablethanthey.AndiftheImam atewasachievedaccordingtoage,thenAllwastheoldestofallAlawTds. Besides,alJawadpartedhisfatherwhenhe(hisfather)traveledtoKhurasan.Andal Jawadwasfiveyearsoldthen.So,ifahlalBaytgottheirknowledgethroughteaching andeducating,thenwhotaughtalJawdtogetthatveryhighpositionafterhis father?AndwhytheteacherortheeducatornotbetheowneroJthepQsition? AlJawddiedwhilehewastwentyfiveyearsold.Andyouknowthattheperson whohassuchanagedoesnotgetanythingofknowledgeevenifhespendsallthisage inseekingit.So,howcouldalJawadbecomethescholarofthenationanditsleader, theteacheroftheteachersandtheireducator?Furthermore,theShTaandtheir scholarshadconsultedhimsincethedeathofhisfatheralRida,peacebeonhim. ThesamestatehappenedtohissonAllalHady,peacebeonhim.AlJawaddied whilehissonalHadywassixoreightyearsold.So,whotaughthimandmadehim occupythathighsocialposition?HowdidthescholarsandtheShTaconsulthim duringthatage.Doesthepersonwhohassuchanagedothingswellifhegetshis knowledgethroughacquisition? LiketheotherImams,alSadiqdidnotgethisknowledgethacquisition.Hedidnot learnfrommenortheirschools.Andifthathappened,thenfromwhomdidhelearn andunderwhomdidhestudy?HistorydoesnottellusthattheImamsstudiedunder certainpersonsevenduringtheirchildhood.Noonehasmentionedthattheyentered schoolsduringtheirchildhoodlikeotherchildren.Consequently,theImaminherited knowledgefromhisfatherfromhisgrandfatherfromtheProphetfromGipilfrom Allah,theExalted.WewilldiscussalSa'diqsscientificachievements,histeachingfor hisstudents,andthelike. HisScientificSchool: 1AlKashy,AlRijal:269270. (119) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

ThewayoflearningfromalSadiqanddiscussingforevidencewasnotasthewaywe findtodayintheIslamictheologicalcenters.Rather,hisstudents,exceptsomeof them,believedinhisImamate.Aswehavementionedearlier,theImmisbelievethat theknowledgeoftheImamdidnotdependontheideaandijtihd(capabilityfor issuingaverdictaccordingtoIslamicLaw).So,theImamwasaskedaboutthe reference.Rather,hisknowledgewasinheritedanddivine.Yes,hewassometimes askedaboutthereasonfortherule.Suchquestionswereaskedforlearningand advantage,notfordiscussion. ThenonImamTslearnedfromalSadic1becausetheybelievedinhisgreatness,his excellency,andhisImamate.[1]Theyregardedtheirlearningfromhimasavirtue.[2] IbinAbualHadTdattributedtheknowledgeofthefourjuristicdoctrinestohim.[3] ThequestionercametoalSdiqtoaskhimaboutthedifficultmattershemet.Most ofalSdiqsstudentspoughtsheetsofpaperandinkpotstowritewhatalSadiq dictatedtothemtoreportitcarefully. IfyouwanttoknowthedegreeofalSdiqsknowledge,thenthinkaboutthegreat numberofthosewholearnedfromhim.Theirnumberwasoverfourthousand students.WhydidtheyallreportedfromalSadiqanddidnotreportfromotherthan himthoughthereweremanyscholarsduringhistime? ImamalSdiq,fromwhoseschoolthatgreatnumbergraduated,didnotteachthose sciencesforreputationandboastingandhonor. Inthemeantime,hisstudentslearnedthosesciencestoservereligionandtheIslamic Law.Whoeverpoketheseaims,alSadiqdismissedhimfromhisschool. HisTeachingforHisStudents: AlSadiqhadmanyteachings,lessons,andadvice.Wewilldevotespecialchapters forthem.Thefollowingareteachings,lessons,andadviceforthestudentsof knowledge. Amrub.alMuqdm[4]said:WhenIcametohimforthefirsttime,AbflAbdAllah peacebeonhim,saidtome:Learntruthfulnessbeforethespeech.[5]I(theauthor) say:Howvaluablethisadviceis! Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

He(alSadiq)advisedhisfollowerstoadopttruthfulnessandtopaythetrust.These thingsareimportantforthepersontolivehappilyinthisworld, 1TahdhibAlAsmawaAlLughat.YanabiAlMawada. 2MataljbAlSaOl. 3SharhNahjAlBalagha. 4Wewillmentionhimwithhisfamousreporters. 5alKafi. (120) toberichandfamous.Andpeoplewilltrusthimandaccepthimforjudgmentamong them. Asforseekingknowledge,alSadiqhasmanydirections.He,peacebeonhim, sometimessaid:Iliketoseetheyoungmenofyoufollowingtwostates:eithera scholaroralearner.Ifhedoesnotdo(thesetwostates),thenhewastes(histime);if hewastes,heloses;andifhewastes,hecommitsasin.[1]Andhesometimessaid: Seekknowledgeandwithitadornyourselveswithclemencyandrespect.[2]AlSadiq notonlyurgedhisstudentstoseekknowledge,butalsourgedthemtoadopt clemencyandgravity.Concerninghumbleness,he,peacebeonhim,said:Be humbleforhimwhomyouteachknowledge,behumbleforhimfromwhomyouseek knowledge,donotbehaughtyscholars,so,yourfalsehoodremovesyourright.[3] I(theauthor)say:Howexactthisadviceis!Andhowhighforteachingitis!Thatis becauseknowledgedoesnotavailitsownernorpeopleunlessitisaccompaniedby humbleness,whetherthepersonwhohasknowledgeisateacheroralearner.And menabandonthehaughtyperson,thenhaughtinessremoveshisright. Advisingthosewhoseekknowledge,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:Anddonot seekknowledgeforthree(things):fordissembling,forboasting,andfordisputing. Anddonotseekit(knowledge)forthree(things):forseekingignorance,for abstainingfromknowledge,andforfeelingshameofpeople.Andpreserved knowledgeislikethelamp.[4] I(theauthor)say:Indeed,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,wantedseekingknowledgefor knowledgeandforadvantageofthenation.Ifthepersonseeksknowledgefor hypocrisyorboastingorargument,hewillnotavailhimselfnorpeople.Rather,hewill Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

harmhimselfandpeople.Andifthepersonleavesknowledgeforignoranceand abstainingfromknowledge,hewillshowhisfoolishness.Alsothereisnoneedin shamefulnesswhichleadsyoutotheviceandpreventsyoufromgettingthevirtue. Andpeopledonotavailthemselveswithknowledgeunlessitisspread. Becauseknowledgeisverydear,alSadiqurgedpeopletoseekitatanycost.Inthis respect,hesaid:Seekknowledgeevenifyousacrificeyourheartsandcoverthe depthofthesea. Asknowledgemaybetakenfromvariouspeople,soalSdiqpreventedhisstudents fromtakingitfrominappropriatepeople.He,peacebeonhim,said:Seekknowledge fromtheoriginofknowledge.Andbewareofthosewhointrudeuponknowledge becausetheypreventyoufromAllah. 1ShaykhalSadaq.alMajalis,Majlisno.11. 2AlKaft:1/36/1. 3ShaykhalSadllq,Majlisno.17,BiharAlAnwar2/41/2. 4AlKaiY:1/35/5. (121) I(theauthor)say:Weseewithourowneyesthatthelearneradoptsthethoughtsof histeacher.So,iftheteacherisdeviatedfromwhatisright,surelyhewillmisleadhis student.Andiftheteacherisrighteous,hewillleadhisstudenttorighteousness.That isbecausethestudentimitateshisteacherbynature. AlSadiqnotonlyurgedhisstudentstoseekknowledge,ratherhewantedthemto applyit,peacebeonhimsaid:Learnwhateveryouwantofknowledge,indeedAllah doesnotavailyouwithknowledgeunlessyouapplyit,becausetheconcernof scholarsistoprotect(knowledge)whiletheconcernofthefoolishistoreport(it)[1] Alsohesaid:Theknowledgewhichisnotputintopracticeislikethetreasurefrom which(nothing)isspent.(Theperson)makeshimselftiredthroughcollectingit(the treasure)whilehedoesnotavailhimselfofit.[2]Hesaid:Thepersonwhoknows goodbutdoesnotapplyitislikethelampwhichgiveslightforpeoplewhileitburns itself.[3] He(alSdiq)said:Ifthescholardoesnotputhisknowledgeintopractice,his preachmentslipsfromtheheartasrainslipsfromtherock.[4] Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AlSdiqshowedhisstudentshowtomemorizewhattheylearned.He,peacebeon him,said:Write(whatyoulearn)downbecauseyoudonotmemorize(it)unlessyou write(it)down.[5] SomeofwhathesaidtoalMufaddalb.Amris:Writeandspreadyourknowledge amongyourpothers.Ifyouareabouttodie,letyourchildreninherityourbooks becausethetimeofcommotionwillcome,whentheywillnotliketobewithanything excepttheirbooks.[6] Hesaid:Keepyourbooksbecauseyouwillbeinneedofthem. AlaSadiq,peacebeonhim,didnotwantthevirtueofknowledgeforthepeopleof histimeonly.Rather,hewanteditforeverygenerationandtime.Also\headvisedhis studentstoaddallvirtuestoknowledge.Youwillknowthisthroughhis commandments.Alsoyouwillknowthisthroughhisfollowingwords:Ifthemanof youbecomespiousinhisreligion,becomestruthfulinhisspeech,paysthetrust, behavesinagoodmannertowardspeople,itwillbesaidthatsuchapersonisJafari. Suchqualitiesofhispleaseme;otherwisedispleasesme.Anditwillbesaidthatthese areJafarsmanners.[7] Indeed,alSadiq,hisgrandfathers,andhischildrendidtheirbesttourgetheMuslim communitytoadoptvirtuesandtopreventthemitfrom 1BiharAlAnwar:17/270. 2Ibid:2/3/55. 3Ibid:2/38/56. 4lbid:2/39/68. 5AlKafi1152/9. 6Ibid:1/52/11. 7Ibid:2/636. (122) practicingviceswithvariousmeans.Butpeoplerefusedtofollowtherighteousway. AlSadiqurgedMuslimstotakecareofscholarsandhavepityonthem.So,he,peace beonhimsaid:Surely,Ihavemercyonthree(persons)andpeopleshouldhave mercyonthem:thedear(person)whomabasementhashit,therich(person)whom needhashit,andthescholarwhomhispeopleandtheignoranthavescorned.[1] Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,said:Three(persons)complaintoAllah,theGreatand Almighty:theemptymosquewhereitspeopledonotpray,thescholaramongthe ignorantandthehangingKoranonwhichdusthasfallen,andwhichnoonereads.[2] Ishaqb.AmmaralSayrafa[3]said:IsaidtoalSadiq,peacebeonhim:Whatabout standingupfortheman?He,peacebeonhim,said:Itisreprehensibleexceptfor themaninthereligion.Andhe,peacebeonhim,said:WhoeverrespectsaMuslim juriseprudent,AllahwillbepleasedwithhimontheDayofJudgment.Andwhoever insultsaMuslimjuriseprudent,AllahwillbeangrywithhimontheDayof Judgment.[4] TheTradition: OverfourthousandpersonsreportedtraditionsfromalSadiq,peacebeonhim. Writingdown(traditions)wasbeforehimandit(writingdown)becameverymuch duringhistime.Andthetraditionswhichwerereportedonhisauthoritywereabout allsciences. TheShTalearnedtraditionsfromalSadiqasthosewholearnedthemfromtheChief oftheprophets,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.ThatisbecausetheShTathought thatalSadiqdidnotcreatethosetraditions.Rather,theProphethadsaidthem.For thisreason,theShTalearnedthemfromhimwithoutanydoubtorobjection.Also, theyaskedhimabouteverythingwhichtheyneeded.So,hisreportedtraditionshave everything. Ifthereporterswereoverfourthousandpersons,thenwhatwouldbethenumberof thetraditions?ThebiographershavementionedthatAbnb.Tghlubreportedthirty thousandtraditionsfromhim,Mohammedb.Muslimreportedsixteenthousand traditionsfromhim,andthirtythousandtraditionsfromalBaqir,andJabiralJufy reportedalotoftraditionsfromalSdiq.Thencanyoucountthetraditionsreported onhisauthority?Manyofthesetraditionshavebeenlost,andsomeofthemhave beenneglected.Still,thetraditionswhichwerereportedontheauthorityofalSadiq areverymany. 1AlSadaq,alKhisal,87. 2BiharAlAnwTha:92/195. 3Wewillmentionhiminthechapter:TheFamousReliableReportersofAlSHdiq. 4BiharAlAnwar:47/44/13.

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(123) FromthefourbooksAlKafi,ManLaYahdarahuAlFaqTh,AlThdhlb,andAl Istibsar,Ihavecollectedapartofthosetraditionswhichhavebeenreportedonthe authorityofalSdiq,hisgrandfathers,andhischildren.Thesetraditionsareabout etl1iics,manners,andrulesonly.ThenMullaMuhsinalFaydalKAshany[1]has collectedtheminthebookAlKafi. AlHuralAmily[2]foundothersuitablebooksforIslamicrules.Hehasaddedtheir contentstothoseofthefourbooksmentionedabove.So,hehaswrittenhisbook calledTafsTlWasilAlShTa.So,hehasreportedeightytraditionbooksfromal Sdiqwithoutmeansandseventytraditionbookswithmeans. Finally,alAllama(thescholar)alNflryMlrzaHusayn[3]studiedmanybooks.He foundthemgoodforissuingIslamicrules.So,hehaswrittenhisbookcalled MustadrakAlWasail. TheabovementionedbookshavebeenspecializedtoIslamicrules.Ethicsand mannershavenotbeencollectedinthefourbooksexceptalKa'fi.Mosttraditions whichhavebeenmentionedinthesebooksareontheauthorityofalSadiq,peacebe onhim.Andifyouwanttocountthebooksonthetraditionsontheauthorityofal Sadiq,hisgrandfathers,andhischildren,youwillbetiredofcounting.Forexample, ShaykhalSadflqMohammedb.Alib.Babawayhhaswrittentensofbookswhich containthetraditionsofahlalBayt. WhatalMajlisyhascollectedinhisbookBiharAlAnwardenotestheplentiful traditionsofAhlalBayt. Althoughthisbookhasstrongandweaktraditionsastheotherbibookshave,youwill findtheirplentywhenyoureadsomevolumesofit.[1]Itisstrangethatthis comprehensivebookdoesnothaveallthetraditionsofahlalBaytSo,thegreat scholarMTrzaMohammedalTehranicollectedmanytraditionsofahlalBaytinhis bookcalledMustdrakalBihar. 1Hehasmanyvaluablebooks.Itissaidthattheyareaboutahundredbooks.Someof themareAlWIll,AlSIll,AlShall,AlMahjjaalBaydff,AlHaqKiq,MalatThAl Sharli,IlmalYaqeen,andsoon.Hediedintheyear1091. 2HisnamewasMohammedb.alHusaynb.AlialHuralImily.HisbookAl Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

WasIilisthemostvaluablebookinclassification.HefinishedthebookonRajab15th, intheyear1082A.H.HehasanotherbookcalledAinalAlEmIl.Hewasbornat MashghamvillageatJabalAmilonRajab8thinthea1033A.H.Andhediedin KuraslnonRamadan21st,intheyear1104A.H. 3Hehasmanyvaluablebooks.Heusedtocollectandwrite.Hediedintheyear1320 A.H. 1HewastheShaykitofIslam.HewasShaykhMohammedBaqirb.Shaykh MohammedTaqyalMajlisy,mayhisgravebefragrant.Hewasaninfluentialfigure duringthestateofthekingHusaynalSafawy.Histheologicalcenterhadathousand Students.HehasgreatbooksotherthanBihlrAlAnwlr.Hewasborninthe3ear 1037.HediedinAsfaanintheyear1110or1111A.H.peoplevisithisgravethere. (124) AlSIdiq,peacebeonhim,encouragedhiscompanionstoreportthetradition.Inthis connectionhesaidtoMuawiyab.Wahab,[1]thereporterofthetradition: Whoeverisknowledgeableinthereligionisbetterthanathousandworshipperswho haveneitherknowledgenorareport. I(theauthor)say:Idonotthinkthatyouareastonishedatthispreferencebecause Allah,theExalted,wantsHisservantstoavaileachotherandreformeachother.The worshipperisrighteous.Andtheknowledgeabletraditionalistisarighteousreformer. IslamicJurisprudence Fiqh(Islamicjurisprudence)istheknowledgeofthepanchrulesbeginningfrom tahra(ritualpurity)todiya(bloodmoney).Theserulesaretakenfromthefour proofs.ThemostimportantoneofthesefourproofsistheSunna.TheSunnasimply meansthetraditionsoftheProphetandofthemembersofhisHouse.Ofcourse,this isaShTtedefinitionfortheSunna.So,theShVtejuristicbooksaretakenfromthese fourproofs.AlSdiqhadmoretraditionsthanthemembersoftheHouse.So,his traditionshelpedtheMuslimscholarstoconclUdemostoftheIslamicrules. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

NotonlytheShTtejurisprudencedependedonalSdiq,butalsomanySunni jurisprudence,wholivedduringhistime,learnedjurisprudencefronthim.Someof themwereMlik,AbflHanTfa,thetwoSufyanis,Ayytlb,andsoon.Besides,inhis bookSharhNahjulBalagha,vol.1,p.6,b.AbIIalHadeedhasattributedthe jurisprudenceofthefourdoctrinestoalSadiq.AndinhisbookMukhtasarAlTuhfa AlIthnAshariya,p.8,alAlttsysays:AndthisisAbtlHanifa,whowasamongthe Sunnis,boastedandsaidwiththemosteloquenttongue:Wereitnotforthetwo years,alNumn(AbHanTfa)wouldhaveperished.Hemeantthetwoyearswhich he(AbflHanlfa)spenttolearnjurisprudencefromImamJafaralSftdiq,peacebeon him. Forthisreason,itwasnaturalforAbuAbdAllah,peacebeonhim,tobetheunique jurisprudenceinIslam.Manyreportsandreportersjustifyhismuchjurisprudence. AndwhoeverstudiescarefullythetraditionbookswillknowalSadiqsmany traditionsandreporters.ManyjurisprudencelivedduringalSdiqstime.Buttheir reporterswereveryfew.AndnooneofthemreachedalSadiqsknowledgeand jurisprudence.So,alSadiqwasreadytoansweranyquestion. Fiqh(jurisprudence)isthegeneralsystemformen.Withoutit,religionisnotknown. Fromhere,alSdiqorderedhisfollowerstunderstandreligiondeeply.He,peacebe onhim,said:Thetraditionaboutthelawful 1Apparently,hewasalBajalialKtlfi.Hewasagreat,reliablefigure.Hereported traditionsontheauthorityofalSldiqandalKfizim,peacebeonthem.Hehada book.Agroupofthegreatfigureshasreportedthebook. (125) andtheunlawfulwhichyoulearnfromatruthfulpersonisbetterthanthisworldand thegoldandthesilverwherein Also,alSdiq,peacebeonhim,said:Seekingyourlifeinthisworldshouldnotbusy youfromseekingyourreligion.Thatisbecausethepersonwhoseekslifeinthisworld mayachieveitoritmayescapehim.So,hewillbeperishedbywhathasescapedhim ofit(life). Tourgehiscompanionstounderstandreligioncarefully,alSadiqsaid:Wouldthat thewhipswereovertheheadsofmycompanionstounderstandthelawfulandthe unlawfuldeeply! Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Also,alSEldiq,peacebeonhim,said:Understandreligiondeeply.Thatisbecause whoeverdoesnotunderstanditdeeplythenisIrbi(nomad).[1] He(alSdiq)wasaskedaboutthewordhikma(wisdom)inthefollowingwordsof Allah,theExalted,Andwhoeverisgrantedwisdom,heindeedisgivenagreat good.[2]So,alSdiqsaid:Indeedwisdomisknowledgeandunderstandingreligion deeply.[3] AlSdiqthoughtthatthejurisprudentwasthepersonwhounderstoodthetradition deeply.So,he,peacebeonhim,said:KnowthepositionofourShTa(followers) throughtheirgoodreportsfromusbecausewedonotregardthejurisprudentof themasajurisprudentunlesshebecomesatraditionalist.[4] Ethics: Ethicswasnotclassifiedinthebeginning.Rather,ethicswerederivedfromtheverses oftheHolyKoran,[5]fromthetraditionsoftheChiefoftheprophetsandtrusteesof authority,andfromtheirwisechildren,peacebeonthem.TheShTabeg6nwriting booksaboutethicsduringthelastyearsofthesecondcentury(A.H.).Duringthose years,IsmaTlb.Mahranb.AbeNasTralSukUny,aCompanionofalRidas(peace beonhim)andareliablereporter,wroteabookaboutethics.Hehascalledthebook SifatAlMuminwaAlFjir. Inthethirdcentury(A.H.),greatfigureswrotebooksaboutethics.Someofthem wereAbeJafarb.Mohammedb.KJilidalBarquqy.Hewasamongthereliable reporters.HisfatherMohammedwasamongthecompanionsofalRid,peacebeon him,andamonghisreliablereporters.ThebookofAbuJafarwasoneofthebest books.He(AbuJafar)diedinQumintheyear273or280(A.H.).AndalHasanb.Ali b.Shubahas 1BiharAlAnwlr:1/215/19. 2AlBaqara:269. 3BiharAlAnwar:1/215/25. 4Ibid:2/82/1. 5Ihavecollectedmanymoralversesandexplainedthempieflyinabook.Ihave calledthebookAlKoranTallmahuwaIrshldahu. (126) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

writtenavaluablebookaboutethics.HehascalledthebookTuhafalUqfll.The bookhaswisesayings,preachments,andethics.Thenwritingaboutethicsspread.So, thereliablepersoninIslamalKulainy,mayhisgravebefragrant,spentmanyyears writingabookaboutethics.Hehaschosenthemostcorrecttraditionsinthisfield. Finally,hewasabletowritethebestbookonethics.HehascalledthebookalKaft Ifyoureadthisbook,youwillknowtheIslamicethics,theknowledgeofalSadiqand ofahlatBaytinthisfield. Alsoifyoureadthisbookcarefully,youwillknowthatitisthebestreferencefor ethicsaftertheHolyBook(Koran),andthatithasthewordsoftheverypolite Prophetandthewordsofthosewhoinheritedallknowledgeandvirtuesfromhim. YouwillknowthistruthwhenyoureadthechosenwordsofalSdiq,peacebeon him,inthisbook. Exegesis: Therearemanysourcesforexegesisinthewordswhichwehavealreadymentioned aboutahlatBayt.Someexegeteshavemainlydependedontraditionstoexplainthe HolyKoran.IfyouwanttoknowsomethingaboutthewordsofalSadiq,peacebeon him,inexegesis,thenreadthebook,MajmaAlBayan.SometraditionsofalSdiq andtheideasofahlatBaytabout,exegesishavebeenmentionedinthisbook. Also,thereareseveralbooksabouttheversesofrules.Theauthorshavecommented onthemusingthetraditionsofahlatBayt.Wecanunderstandtheknowledgeofahl atBaytintheexegesisoftheKoranwhenwereadtraditionssuchas:Iamgoingto leaveamongyoualthaqalayn,theBookofAllahandmyfamilythemembersofmy House.Ifyouholdfasttothem,youwillnevergoastrayafterme,becausetheywill notleaveeachothertilltheycometomeatthehawd(theriverinParadise).al Sdiqhimselfsays:ByAllah,surelyIknowtheBookofAllahfromthebeginningto theendasifitwereonthepalmofmyhand,init,thereisthenewsoftheskyandof theearth,thenewsofwhathadhappened,andthenewsofwhatwillhappen,Allah, theGreatandAlmighty,said:init(theKoran)Thereisexplanationforevery thina.[1]Also,alSadiqsaid:ByAllah,wehaveallknowledgeoftheBook.[2] Definitely,anexpertintheKoranshouldbeateverytimeasthetraditionofal thaqalayndenotesthistruth.ThatisbecausetheKoranisasilentImam.Ithasclear anddifficultverses,abstractandobviousverses,apogatingandapogatedverses, publicandspecificverses,unlimitedandlimitedverses,andotherverseswhich peoplecannotunderstand.Every Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

1Hewantedtorefertothisverse:AndWehaverevealedtheBooktoyouexplaining clearlyeverything. 2AlKfi:1/229/5. (127) MuslimsectclaimsthattheKoranisthesourceofitsbeliefsandthatithas understooditsmeaningsandobjectives.Also,everysectproducesevidenceforthat. Accordingtotheclaimofthefollowersofthesesects,theKoranisthesourceofthe differencesamongthem.Then,whoisthedecisivearbitratorwhosewordsareableto answertheclaimsofthesesects?Worthmentioning,thetraditionofalthaqataynhas denotedthatthescholarsoftheKoranwereahlatBayt. So,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,wasthescholaroftheKoranduringhistime.Besides, thereisnopersonwhoclaimthattherewasamongahlatBaytmoreknowledgeable thanalSdiqintheexegesisoftheKoranandothersciencesduringhistime. Theology: TheologymeansthesciencewhichstudiestheexistenceofAllah,Hisoneness,andHis attributes,inadditiontoProphethood,theImamate,andthereturn.Allthesematters arestudiedthroughtherationalproofsbasedonthecorrectlogicalrules.Theology doesnotmeanthedebatethroughwhichpeoplehavelosttheirwaywhenthey dependonsomeillogicalideas.Somepeopleusesuchideastodefeattheiropponents whentheydebatewiththem.Theydonotdependonafirmproofnordotheytake knowledgefromitsrealorigin. Sometraditionsdispraisetheologians.However,theydonotmeanthemall.Rather, theymeanthosewholearndebateforboastingandovercoming,donotlearn knowledgefromitsoriginalsource,andpaidnoattentiontothecorruptresultsof theirdebates.However,suchtraditionspraisethosewholearnknowledgefromits originalsource,builditonrightfoundationsandstrongpillars.Alsothetraditions describesthemasthetonguesandguidesforthetruthandtheleadersand propagandistsofbelief. AmiralMumintn(ImamAli),peacebeonhim,wasthefirsttoproducerationaland materialevidencefortheexistenceofAllah.Thosewhoignoredorwereignorantat theknowledgeofAbualHasanonAllahwereabouttodoubthisorationsaboutthe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

abovementionedmatters,claimingthatpeopleatthattimehadnoknowledgeto provesuchmatters.ButtheyforgotthatImamAlilearnedhisknowledgedirectly fromtheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,whosaid:Iamthecityof knowledgeandAliisitsgate. ThechildrenofImamAlihadthesamedegreeofknowledgeabouttheexistenceof Allah.So,theytaughtpeoplewhattheywantedabouttheexistenceofAllah.Thatis becauseitisillogicalforpeopletoworshiptheLordwhomtheydonotknow,obey theprophetwhotheydonotknow,andfollowtheImamwhosepositiontheydonot understanddeeply.So,toknowAllahisthefirstandthebestscience.alsSdiq,peace beonhim, (128) said:ThebestworshipistoknowAllah.[1]Hearingisnotoneoftherulesand fundamentalsadoptedtoknowtheexistenceofAllah.Thatisbecausethewisemen sayitisnotrightforpeopletocopyothersintherationalmatters. PeoplemayuseKoranicversesandtraditionsasevidencefortheexistenceofAllah. Butsuchversesandtraditionsguidemantousehisintellectortheyindicatethe instinctlikethisverse:IstheredoubtaboutAllah,theMakeroftheheavensandthe earth?SuchaversedoesnotforceyoutobelieveintheexistenceofAllaah.Rather, itdrawsyourattentiontothatthroughshowingAllahsreaturesliketheskyandthe earth.[2] WhentheProphetandhisfamilyproducedevidenceforthesefundamentals,they urgedmantoadoptthejudgmentofintellect.Nowlistentothefollowingwordsofal Sdiq,peacebeonhim,inthisrespect:Intellectistheguideofthebeliever.The pillarofmanisintellect.Hewhodoesnotthinkdoesnotsucceed.[3]Ifyoureadwhat alKizim,peacebeonhim,toldHishmb.alHakamaboutintellectandthewise,you willknowthat(a/ila!Bayt)knewtherealityofintellect.So,theyguidedandurged mentomakeuseofitslight.[4] AhlatBaytproducedmuchevidenceforthesefundamentals(i.e.theexistenceof Allah,HisOneness,etc.).WemayfindsuchevidanceinbookslikeNahjatBataghaby ImamAli,AlIhtijajbyalTupisy,IslllalKff,AlTawhidbyalSadtiq,thefirstand thesecondvolumesofalBihar,andsoon. ThefollowingaresomepiefproofsofalSadiq,peacebeonhim,ontheabove Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

mentionedfundamentals. ExistenceandOnenessofAllah: AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,hadmanyproofsabouttheexistenceandonenessof Allah,theExalted.Someofthemare:TawhidalMufaddalItisagroupoflessons.Al SadiqgavethemtoalMufaddalb.AmralJufyalKuff,whowasamongthe companionswhohadbothactionandknowledge.His(alSadiqs)messagecalledal IhlIjawhichalMufaddalreported,too.AlMufaddallearnedTawhld(theOnenessof Allah)fromalSadiqorallyandthemessagethroughwriting.ThoughalTawhidand themessagehavenostrongauthorityofalSadiq,theirstyleindicatesthatWecan mentionthembothwithpiefcomments,butwewiltexceedour 1BiharAlAnwar:21/215. 2Ipahim:10. 3AlKKtI:1/26/29. 4lbid:1/13/12. (129) drawnplan.Nevertheless,wewillmentionsomeofthemlestthisbookshouldbe emptyofthesepreciousmasterpieces. TawbtalMufaddat: IntheMosqueoftheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,alMufaddalheard b.AbflalAwjaandhisfriendmentioningtheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhis family.Theywereastonishedathiswisdomandhighposition.Thentheymentioned theexistenceofAliah.IbinAbuAlAwjarefusedit(Allahsexistence)andclaimed thatthingsbeganthroughnegligence.TheirviewsannoyedalMufaddal.Hewasfull ofanger.So,heabusedb.AbfialAwji.Afteradebatehadhappenedbetweenthem, alMufaddlstoodupandwenttoalSadiq,peacebeonhim.Hewasverysad.Inthe meantimehewasthinkingaboutsuchatheistideasfromwhichIslamsuffered.When alSadiq,peacebeonhim,sawhissorrowfulsight,heaskedhimaboutthematter. AlMufaddaltoldhimaboutwhathehadheardfromtheatheistsandabouthis debatewiththem.Then,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:Iwilltellyousomething aboutthewisdomoftheMaker,theGreatandExalted,increatingtheuniverse,the beastsofprey,livestock,vermins,birds,everythingwithsouloftheanimals,plants, fruitfulandnonfruitfulfrees,seeds,eatableanduneatablegreens,andallthings Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

fromwhichpeopletakealesson,inwhichbelieverstrust,andinwhichtheatheists becomeconfused,socometomeearlyinthemorningtomorrow. Indeed,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,toldalMufaddalthingswhichenlightenedthe proof,madethesuspicionclear,andremovedthedoubt.Heshowedhimwordsofhis wonderfulmannersandexcellentdeeds,whichperplexedthewise.Andherevealed forhimsomeofhishiddenwisesayingsofwhichthewisewerenotabletoreveal. WheneverI(theauthor)triedtochoosesomeofhismasterpieces,Iwasnotable becauseIhavefoundthemallgood.IwasnotablebecauseIhavefoundtheminthe samecolorandfragrance.Therefore,Ihavementionedthefirstpartofevery masterpiece.Andthesemasterpiecesarefour.Theyare: 1 Havingmentionedtheignoranceoftheatheists,thefactorsoftheirdoubt,the creationofthisworld,andtheregulationofitsparts,alSadiq,peacebeonhim, said:Mufaddl,wewillstartwiththecreationofman.Takealessonfromit(mans creation).Firstofall,thinkofthecreationofthefetusinthewomb.Itishiddenin threedarkness:thedarknessoftheabdomen,thedarknessofthewomb,andthe darknessoftheplacenta, (130) whereithasnoabilitytoseekitsfood,nortogetridoftheharm,nortogetan advantage,nortogetridofdamage.Indeedsomeofthemenstrualbloodflow throughitsbodytofeeditaswaterfeedsplants.Thiscontinuestobeitsfood.When itscreationisperfect,itsbodybecomesstrong,itsskinbecomesstrongenoughto facetheair,anditssightbecomesstrongenoughtofacethelight,itsmotherlabors. Thisannoysit(thebaby)verymuchtillitisborn.Whenit(thebaby)isborn,that bloodwhichfeedsitseparatesfromthebloodofitsmotherandgoestoherpeast.So, thetasteandthecolorturnintoanotherkindoffood.Itismoresuitableforthenew bornbaby.It(thefood)comestoit(thebaby)whenit(thebaby)needsit.Whenif (thebaby)isborn,itsmacksandmovesitslipstoseeksuckling.It(thebaby)findsthe peastsofitsmotherlikethehangingskinbagsbecauseitalwaysneedsthem.It(the baby)goesonfeedingonmilkaslongasithasawetbody,thinintestines,andflexible limbs.Whenitbeginsmovingandneedsaharderfoodtostrengthenitsbody,its teethcomeouttochewfood.Itgoesonthatstatetillitattainspuberty.Whenhe attainspubertyandisamale,hairgrowsonhisfaceasamarkofthemaleandthe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

honoroftheman,whichdistinguisheshimfrom.theboyandthewoman.Andifsheis afemale,herfaceiswithouthairsothatbeautyandfreshnessremaintomovethe malestocontinueprogeny. Mufaddal,takealessonfromthethingwhichregulatemanduringthesevarious states.Then,doyouthinkthatthesestateshappenthroughnegligence?Doyounot thinkthatifblooddoesnotflowthroughitsbodywhileit(thebaby)isinthewomb,it willfadeanddryasplantsdowhentheylosewater?Iflabordoesnotannoysitwhen itbecomesperfect,willnotitstayinthewombjustlikethedeadpersoninthe ground?Ifmilkdoesnotsuiteitduringitsbirth,willnotitdieofhungerorfeedson thefoodwhichdoesnotsuiteitanditsbodydoesnotgrowduetoit?Ifteethdonot comeoutintheirlimitedtime,willchewingfoodnotbedifficultforit?Orwillitnot goonsuckling,soitsbodydoesnotbecomestrongandisnotsuitableforanywork, thenitsmotherisbusy(suckling)it,payingnoattentiontootherthanitofthe children?Andifhairdoesnotgrowonhisfaceinthelimitedtime,willhenotstayin theshapeofboysandwomen,soyoudonotseehisloftinessandgravity?So,whois thiswhotakescareofit(thebaby)andsuppliesitwithalltheseneeds?Surely,noone butHewhocreatesitwhenitwasnothing,thenHe(Alpah)takescareofit(thebaby) wzzzzhenitbecomesahumanbeing.Thus,ifnegligencecreatessucharegulation, thenintentionandestimationmayleadtotheerrorandimpossibilitybecausethey areoppositetonegligence.Andthesearehorriblewordswhoseownerisignorant. Thatisbecausenegligencedoesnotcreatecorrectnessandcontradictiondoesnot createorderlines.AllahisfreefromthethingstheyascribetoHim!I(theauthor)say: Indeed,negligencealwayscausesanerrorasweseewithourowneyes.For (131) example,doyouthinkthatthewaterwillcovertheplantswhenyoudirectitforthem whileyouneglecttodistributeitequallythroughthefields?Doyouthinkthatthe plantswillcomeoutorderlywhenyousowtheseedsdisorderly?Anddoyouthink thatyouareabletomakeachairwithoutanorderwhenyoucollectpiecesofwood andjointhemwithnails? ThenalSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:Ifthebabywasbornwithanderstafldingand intellect,thenhewoulddenytheworldathisbirthday,andwouldbeperplexedwhen hesawwhathedidnotknow,andcometohimofwhichhedidnotseesuchasthe differentpicturesofanimalsandbirdsintheworldandthelikewhichhesawanhour afteranhourandadayafteraday.Wemaylikensuchababytoapersonwhois takenfromonecountrytoanotherwhileheisintelligent.Thepersonbecomes Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

perplexedandisnotreadtolearnthewordsandtoacceptliteratureasquicklyasthe personwhoistakenwhilehehasnointellect.Thenifthebabywasbornwith intellect,hewouldfinditdefectwhenhesawhimselfcarried,suckledwrappedwith piecesofcloth,laidoutinthecradle.Thatisbecauseheisinneedofallthesethings becauseofthesoftnessandwetnessofitsbody.Thenhewouldfindnosweetness andimpressionwhichthe(normal)babyfindsinthehearts.So,it(thebaby)comes outtothisworldwhileitisstupidandheedlessaboutthethingswhichitsfamilyhas. Thus,itmeetsthethingswithweakintellectandincompleteknowledge.Thenitisstill increasingitsknowledgelittlebylittle,thingbything,andconditionbycondition,till itgetsusedtothings,practicesthem,andgoesonthem.So,it(thebaby)comesout ofthelimitofscrutinyaboutthemandfheperplexityatthemtotheactionandthe movementtogetitslivelihoodwithitsintelligenceandpowerandtolearningalesson fromthem(things),obedience,inattention,heedlessness,anddisobedience.Also,in this,thereareotherviewpoints:ifthebabywasbornwithperfectintellectand independentonitsownself,thentheobjectofthesweetnessoftheeducationof childrenwouldbefutile,theparentswouldhavenointerestthrougheducatingthe children,theywouldgetnocharityandkindnessfromthechildrenduetotheir educationforthem.Thenthechildrenwouldnotgetusedtotheirparentsneither wouldtheparentsgetusedtotheirchildrenbecausethechildrenwouldbeinno needoftheeducationandcareoftheparenta.So,they(thechildren)wouldseparate themselvesfromthemwhentheywereborn.Forthisreason,themanwouldnot knowhisfatherandmother,andwouldnotabstainfrommarryinghismother,his sister,andhisbloodrelativesbecausehewouldnotknowthem.Suchathingisugly. Andthemoreuglierthingthanitisthatwhenheisborntoointelligenttoseethe forbiddenpartofher(mothr).Consequently,howWaseverythingofcreationwas establishedveryaccurately?Andhowisitemptyofthesmallandthegreaterror? I(theauthor)say:SomeofthiswonderfulexplanationoftheImamaboutthephases ofthebabyisenough,accordingtothejudgmentofintellect,toIndicatethatthe babyhastheMakerwhocreatesitaccordingtoknowledge,wisdom,estimation,and arrangement. (132) ThenalSadiq,peacebeonhim,mentionedtheadvantagesofweepingofthebaby. HementionedthatSuchweepinghastheabilitytodrythewetnessofthepainand thatsuchwetnesscausesdangerstotheeyesightandthebody. ThenalSadiq,peacebeonhim,mentionedtheintimateparts.Hedenotedthatthey Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

aresuitableforeachother.Thenhementionedthepartsofthebody.Andindicated thereasonwhytheywerecreatedinsuchashape.Fromhere,alMufaddalsaidto him:Mymaster,somepeopleclaimthatallthesethingswerecreatedbynature. So,themansaidtohim:Askthemaboutthisnature:isitathingwithknowledgeand abilitytocreatethesethingsornot?Iftheyclaimthatithassuchknowledgeandan ability,thenwhatpreventthemfromprovingtheCreator?BecausethisisHis attribute.Andiftheyclaimthatitcreatesallthesethingswithoutknowledgeand purposeanditsactionsarecorrectandwise,thentheyshouldknowthatthese actionsbelongtotheWiseCreatorandwhattheycallnatureisHisLawwhichHehas decidedforallHiscreation. I(theauthor)say:Considercarefullythewordsofthenaturalists.Theyhaveadopted thesameideasincethetimeofalSadiq,peacebeonhim,tothepresentday,asif theyhadnotunderstoodthisdecisiveanswerfortheirclaimsortheyhadignoreditto insistonstubbornnessandunbelief. Indeed,theImamhaslimitednaturebetweentwoideas:eitherithasknowledge, wisdom,andabilityorotherwise.Iftheyadmitthefirstidea,thenthisiswhatwe provefortheCreator.So,thereisnodifferencebetweenthemandusexceptthe name.Andiftheyadmitthesecondidea,thentheactsofnatureshouldbedisorderly; thereisnoestimationandarrangementinthemlikethepersonwhohasnoabilityto understand,seeandhear,butwefeelthatallthingsinthisworldarebasedon knowledge,wisdom,power,andarrangement.Therefore,theseactsdonotbelongto blind,deafnature,andnatureisathingotherthanAllah,theKnowing,theAlmighty, andtheCreator,BesidesnatureisAllahsLawinHiscreation,notanindependent thingfromtheCreatoroftheuniverse. Thenthemain,peacebeonhim,cameBACKtohisfirstspeech.Liespokeaboutthe arrivalofthefoodtothebodyandhowthepurifiedfoodmovesfromthestomachto theliverthroughthinveinswhichjointhem.Theyhavebeencreatedliketherefinery forfood.Thenthethinveinsmakethefoodblood.Thenthebloodcirculatesall aroundthebodythroughtheveinspreparedforthat.ThentheImamspokeaboutthe distributionofthebloodalloverthebodyandaboutthewastematerialsasifthe Imamwereapeerlessdoctorinmedicineandaskillfulscientistwhospenthislifein surgery.Rather,throughthisexplanation,theimamhasdiscoveredtheblood circulationwhichtheEuropeansclaimthattheyhavediscovered.Indeed,themain discovereditbeforetheminabouttwelvecenturies. Thenthemainspokeabouttheformationofthebodiesandtheirgrowthphaseby phaseandaboutthequalitiesofman,whichAllahhasgivenforhimtodistinguishhim Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

fromanimals.ThenhementionedthesenseswhichAllahhasgivenformanandthe advantagesoftheirpresentshapesand (133) theirdifferentfunctions.Thenhespokeaboutthesignalandthedoublepartsofthe bodyandthereasonswhyAllahhascreatedtheminsuchshapes.Thenthemain spokeabouttheblessingslikefoodandwaterwhichHehascreatedformanand abouttheirvariouscreation,sotheydonotresembleeachother. Themain,peacebeonhim,wentonspeakingtothepoint:ifyousawmansstatue engravedinawallandapersonsaidtoyou:Thatstatueovertherehasappeared automatically;nomakerhasmadeit,wouldyouaccepthisviewpoint?So,whydoyou refusehisviewpointaboutthisstatueandacceptitaboutthelivingmanwho speaks? I(theauthor)say:Howstrongthisproofis!Andhowloftythisexplanationis!And everywisepersonthroughoutcenturiesisabouttosay:TheImamgavethisexample forthepeopleofhistimeandproducedSuitableevidenceforit. 2 Then,onthesecondday,theImamtoldAlMufaddalaboutthesecondpart.Itwas aboutthecreationoftheanimal.So,he,peacebeonhim,said:Wewillstartwith theanimaltoknowitsformationasyouhaveknowntheformationofthosethings beforeit.Thinkoftheformationofthebodyoftheanimalanditspresentshape.Itis notassolidasthestone.Ifit(thebody)wassolid,thenitwouldnotbend.Norisit verysoft.Ifitwasso,thenitwouldhavenoabilitytobear(things).So,itwascreated fromsoftmeatwhichhastheabilitytobend.Therearesolidbonesamongit.Nerves catchit.Andveinstieitandpingittogether.Then,thereistheskinwhichcoversall thebody. Likethebodiesoftheanimalsarethesestatueswhicharemadeofsticks,wrapped withpiecesofcloth,tiedwiththreads,thentheyarecoveredwithgum.So,thesticks representthebones,thepieceofclothrepresentthemeat,thethreadsrepresentthe nervesandtheveins,andthegumrepresentstheskin.So,ifitispossibleforthe movinganimaltohappenthroughnegligence,withoutmaker,too.Asitisimpossible forthestatuestohappeninsuchaway,thereforeitisimpossiblefortheanimalto happeninsuchaway,too. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Afterthis,thinkofthebodiesoftheanimals.Theywerecreatedasthebodiesofmen werecreated.Theyhavemeat,bones,andnerves.Alsotheyhaveearsandeyes. Theywerecreatedinsuchawaytohelpmangethisneedsfromthem.Ifthey(the animals)wereblindanddeaf,themanwouldnotavailhimselffromthem,andthey wouldnotbehavetoachievehisaims.Thenthey(theanimals)weredeprivedof intellecttoobeyman,(inotherwords)theyobeyhimwhenhemakesthemverytired andcarriesaheavyloadonthem.Ifapersonsays:Manmayhavesomeslaveswho obeyhimwithseveretiredness;stilltheyhaveintellect.Theansweris: (132) Suchaclassofpeopleisveryfew,andmanypeopledonotobeyastheanimalsdo whenthelattercarryloads,goods,andthelike.Thenifpeoplecarryoutsuchwork withtheirownselves,theywillnotbeabletoachievetheirotherworkbecausethey willbeinneedofmypeopletoachievetheworkofonecameloronemule.So,there willbenopeopletoachieveotheracts.Inthemeantimetheywillbeverytiredwhen theytrytogettheirownliving. ThentheImam,peacebeonhim,mentionedthequalitiesofthethreekindsof animal:Man,thecarnivorous,andtheherbivorous.Alsohespokeabouttheirorgans. TheImamtellsyouaboutthereasonwhytheeyesareprominentinthefaceofthe animalandwhysomemouthsofthemarespiltinthelowerpartandwhytheir mouthswerenotcreatedlikethemouthsofmen,andsoon. TheImamguidesyoutotheclevernessofsomeanimals.Forexample,theibexwhich eatssnakesdoesnotdrinkwaterbecausedrinkingwaterkillsit.TheFoxliesBACKand swellsitsabdomenwhenitbecomeshungrytopretendthatitisdead.Whenthe preybirdlandstoeatthefox,thefoxjumpsandcatchesit,andthelike.So,alSdiq, peacebeonhim,said:Whohasmadethistricknatureinthisanimal? ThentheImam,peacebeonhimamentionedvariouskindsofanimalandtheir qualitiestoshowtheundeniablewisdomoftheCreator. 3 Then,earlyinthemorning,onthethirdday,alMufaddalcametoalSdiq,peacebe onhim.AlSdiqsaidtohim:Mufaddal,Iexplainedtoyouthecreationofman,what Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Allahhasregulatedinhim,thevariousphasesofhislife,andthelessonswhichmaybe takenfromhisformation.AlsoIexplainedtoyoutheformationoftheanimal.Now,I willtellyousomethingaboutthesky,thesun,themoon,thestars,theorbit,night, day,warmth,coldness,thewind,rain,rocks,mountains,clay,stones,minerals, plants,datepalms,trees.AlsoIwillexplaintoyoutheproofsaboutthesecreatures andthelessonswhichmantakesfromthem. Thinkofthecoloroftheskyandtheexacregulationinit.Indeed,thiscoloristhemost suitableofallcolorsinstrengtheningthesight.Forthisreason,thedoctorshave prescribeditforthosewhosesighthasbeenharmed.Thedoctorsadvisesuchpersons tolookatthecoloroftheskyfrequently.Alsotheskilleddoctorsadvisethosewhose sightisweaktolookforalongtimeatagreencontainerfullofwater.So,thinkofthe reasonwhyAllahhasgiventheskysuchacolor.Withoutdoubtthiscolordoesnot harmtheeyesofmenwhentheylookattheskyforalongtime.Thus,thiscolor, whichmenhaveknownthroughreason,carefulconsideration,andexperiments,has indicatedstrongwisdomincreationto (135) makebelieverstakealessonfromitandtomakeunbelievers,mayAllahdestroy them;howtheyareturnedaway,thinkofit(thecolorofthesky). Mufaddal,thinkoftheriseandthesetofthesuntocausedayandnight.Ifthesun didnotrise,theregulationofalluniversewouldbenull,forpeoplecouldnot,seek theirlivelihoodandmanagetheiraffairswhentheworldisdark.Besidestheywould notfeelthepleasureoflifewhentheylosethepleasureoflightanditsessence.The objectiveofthesunriseisclear;itisinnoneedofwordiness.Mufaddal,consider carefullytheadvantageofthesunset.Ifthesundidnotsetdown,peoplewouldhave nocalmnessnortranquillity,thoughtheyareinneedofcalmnessandresttomake theirbodiesinactive,theirsensessilent,andtohelpthealimentarycanaltoreviveto digestthefoodandtocarryittoallpartsofthebody.Moreover,eagerness(forlifein thisworld)wouldforcethem(people)togoonlongworkingwhichdoubledamages intheirbodies.Fortherearemanypeople,ifitdidnotgetdark,wouldhaveneither calmnessnorrestbecauseofeagernessforearning,collecting,andsavingup.Besides theearthwouldbecomehotbecauseofthepermanentriseofthesun.Accordingly, allthingsontheearth,suchasanimalsandplants,wouldnotliveduetotheintense heat.So,Allahhasregulatedit(thesun)withHiswisdomtoriseforatimeandtoset foratime.It(thesun)islikethelampwhichisraisedforatimeforthepeopleofthe housetofulfilltheirneeds,thenitisputoutforthesametimetobecalmandtotake Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

arest.So,thoughlightanddarknessarecontradictory,theyhelpeachotherto reformtheworld. Attheendofthismeeting,alSdiq,peacebeonhim,said:Mufaddal,thinkofthese drugsandtheiradvantageswhichAllahhascreatedtocurecertaindiseases.Someof themlikeShitrijareappliedonthejointstopingouttheirsecretion.Someofthem likeAftiimondrainsthebile.SomeofthemlikeSkabinjexpelthewind.Someof themreduceswellings,andsoon.Thenwhohasputtheseadvantagesinthesedrugs? Andwhohascalledtheattentionofmentothem? AlsoalSdiqsaid:Knowthattherankofthethingisnotaccordingtoitsvalue. Rathertheyaretwodifferentvaluesintwodifferentmarkets.Thecheapthinginthe marketofearningmaybeexpensiveinthemarketofscience.So,donotregardas littlethelessontakenfromthethingwhosevalueislow.Ifchemistsknowwhatisin thehumanexcrement,theywillbuyitforexpensiveprices. 4 Then,earlyinthemorning,onthefourthday,alMufaddalwenttoalSadiq,peacebe onhim.AlSdiqsaidtohim:Mufaddal,Iexplainedtoyousomeproofsaboutthe creationandgaveyousomeexamplesaboutthe (136) exactregulationonpurposeinman,theanimal,plants,trees,andthelike,from whichmenmaytakealesson.Now,Iwilltellyouaboutcalamitiesandcatastrophes whichmayoccasionallyoccur,andwhichsomeignorantmenhaveusedasapretext todenytheCreator,creatures,purpose,andregulation.Itwilltakeusalongtimeto answertheclaimsoftheMuattila,theManicheanists,thenaturalists. Someignorantmenhaveadvancedthesecalamitiesandcatastropheslikethe epidemicdisease,mildew,cold,grasshopperswhichmayoccasionallyoccurasa pretexttodenycreatures,regulation,andtheCreator.Toanswerthat,wemaysay:If therewasnoCreatorandRegulator,thenwhywouldmoreanduglierthingsnot occur?Forexample,theskyfallsontheearthandtheearthgoesinvain.Thesun neverrises.Riversandspringsbecomesodrythatthereisnodropofwater(to quenchthethirst)ofthelip.Thewindsbecomesocalmthatallthingsbecomehot andspoiled.Andseawaterflowovertheearth. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Then,whyarethesecalamitiesandcatastrophesnotlastforeverandnotspreadall overtheworld?Whydotheyoccuroccasionallyanddonottakelongbeforetheyare raised?Doyounotseethattheworldispreservedandprotectedfromthesegreat eventsofwhichoneisenoughtodestroyitthoroughly?Theworldisoccasionallyhit bythesesimplecatastrophestopunishandtoreformpeople.Thenthese catastrophesareraisedfromthemwhenthereisadespairofthem.So,the occurrenceofthesecatastrophesisasermonforpeopleandraisingthese catastrophesismercyforthem.TheMuattila,liketheManicheanists,havecriticized thesecalamitiesandcatastropheswhichhitpeople.Theybothsay:Iftheworldhada compassionate,mercifulcreator,thesehatefulthingswouldnottakeplaceinit. Thosewhobelieveinthisideathinkthatmanshouldliveinthisworldwithoutany disturbance.Ifthisideawasputintoeffectmanwouldbesoinsolentandarrogant thatnoreligionwouldreformhim.Forexamplethosewholiveinluxury,greatness, andpeaceleadsuchalife.So,theyforgetthattheyarehumanbeingsorthattheyare creaturesorthataharmoranadversarywouldbefallthem.Besides,theyforgetto havemercyupontheweak,tohelpthepoor,tofeelpityfortheafflicted,tofeelpity fortheweak,andtohaveaffectionforthegrieved.Accordingly,whenthe misfortuneshitsuchpeople,theylearnalessonfromthemandknowmuchoftheir ignoranceandheedlessness.Thosewhodispraisethesepainfulmisfortunesarelike theboyswhodispraisetheugly,bitterdrugs,whoareangrywhentheyareprevented fromtheharmfulfood,whohateeducationandwork,wholiketogivealltheirtime toplayingandunemploymentmeanwhiletheyliketoobtaineveryfoodanddrink. Theydonotknowthebadeducationandthebadhabitsthatresultfrom unemployment.Theydonotknowtheharmfuldiseasesthatresultfromthedelicious food. (137) Therefore,theyarenotreformedbyeducation,noraretheycuredbydrugs,evenif somemisfortunesmixwiththat. I(theauthor)say:AlShdiq,peacebeonhim,gaveexamplesabouttheclaimsofthe unbelieversconcerningcatastrophesandproducedclearevidenceforthat.Thenhe explainedAllahsregulationtowardtheclaimsofunbelievers.Hesaid:HowhasHe (Allah)orderedtheweakservanttorecognizeHimwithgentlereasonwhileHedoes notencompasshim? He(alSidiq)answered:He(Allah)hasorderedmentorecognizeHimwithwhatthey areabletodoitistobelieveinHim,toputHisordersintoeffect;andtorefrainfrom Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

whatHehasprohibited.InthemeantimeHehasnotorderedthemtoencompassHis characteristics.He(Allah)islikethekingwhodoesnotorderhissubjectstoknow whetherheislongarshort,andwhetherheiswhiteorpown.However,he(theking) ordersthemtoyieldtohisauthorityandtocarryouthisorders.Doyounotthinkthat thepersonwhostopsatthedoorofthekingshouseandsays:showmeyourself, otherwiseIwillnothearyourwords,willexposehimselftopunishment?Alsothe personwhodoesnotbelieveinAllahunlessherecognizesHischaracteristicsshall subjecthimselftoAllahswrath. I(theauthor)say:Accordingtothesewonderfulexplanationsandplainproofs,al Sdiq,peacebeonhim,finishedhislessonswhichhetaughttoalMufaddalb.Amr. So,he(alSdiq),attheendofhisspeech,said:Mufaddal,learnwhatIhavetaught you,beamongthegrateful(toAllah),beamongthepraisersofHisboons,abeamong thosewhoobeyHisfriends.Ihaveexplainedtoyousomeproofsconcerningthe creationandgivenyousomeexamplesabouttheaccurateregulationandpurpose. Then,considerthemcarefullyandlearnalessonfromthem. AlMufaddalsaid:IleftmymasterandIhavelearnedwhatnoonehadlearned before. I(theauthor)say!Itisincumbentonthemastersofknowledgetomakeuseofthese greatwisesayingsasalMufaddaldid.Withthesewisesayings,AbAbdAllah(al Sadiq)wasabletoexplaintheworldlywisesecretswhichmencannotunderstand. TheselessonshaveindicatedthewisdomofAllahinHiscreation.Alsotheyhave indicatedthatalS&diq,peacebeonhim,wasaquatintedwiththephilosophyofthe creation.Rather,hewasascientistintheDivinephilosophy,theology,medicine, chemistry,andagriculture.Besideshewasthemostknowledgeableofallmeninthat whichisbetweentheearthandthesky,andhewasabletoexplainthewisesecretsin thatcreation. AlIhIKlja(myrobalan): ThiskindofOneness(ofAllah)hasbeencalledalIhlTlja(myrobalan),foralSidiq, peacebeonhim,debatedwithanIndiandoctorinwhose

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(138) handtherewasaniyrobalan(IhlIlja).ThatwasbecausealMufaddalb.Ainrwrotea lettertoalS&diqthatsomefollowersofthereligionbegantorenounceAllahand theyproducedevidenceforthat;andheaskedhimtoanswertheirclaimsandto produceevidencefortheminthesamemaimerhefollowedtorefutetheclaimsof thosewhowerebeforethem. So,alSIdiqwrotealettertoalMufaddal.Intheletterhedenotedasfollows:Ihave receivedyourletter,soIhavesentyou,inmyletter,adebatewhichImadewith somepeopleoftheotherthoughts,whohaverenouncedAllah:AnIndiandoctor cametomefrequently.Thedoctordebatedme.Oneday,whilehewaspowderinga myrobalan(Ihlilija)tomakeamedicineforme,hedebatedwithme.Amonghisclaims isthattheworldhasbeenonetreegrowsandanotherdies,andonepersonisborn andanotherdies.AlsoheclaimedthatIhavenoevidenceformyknowledgewhichI .havetakenfromAllah.Heclaimedthatthelatergenerationstookknowledgefrom theearlierones,andtheyoungtookitfromtheold,andthedifferentthings,the hannoniousones,thehiddenthings,andtheapparentonesareallknownthroughthe fivesensessight,hearing,smell,taste,andtouch.Thenheledhisthinkingaccording totheoriginheestablished.He(thedoctor)sakkNooneofmysenseshasfallenona creatorleadingmyhearttodenyAllah,theExalted. Thenhesaid:Tellme,whatisyourevidencefortherecognitionofyourLordwhose divinityandpoweryouhavedescribed,fortheheartknowsallthingsthroughthe proof(i.e.thesenses)Ihavedescribedtoyou? I(alSdiq)said:ThroughthereasoninmyheartandtheevidenceIproduceforHis (Allahs)recognition.Hesaid:Howdoeswhatyousayhappen,andyouknowthat theheartknowsnothingbutthroughthesenses?HaveyouheardHisWordswith yourear?Haveyousmelthimwithyournose?Haveyoutastedhimwithyourmouth? Andhaveyoutouchedhimwithyourhand?Haveyouusedallthesesensesto establishknowledgeinyourheart? I(theauthor)said:YouhaverenouncedAllah,foryouhaveclaimedthatyoucannot feelhimwithyoursenseswithwhichyouknowthings,whileIhavebelievedinhim. Then,doyouthinkthatoneofusisrightandtheotheriswrong?Hesaid:No.I said:DoyouworryaboutmebecauseofahethingswhichIusestomakeyouafraid ofthepunishmentofAllah?No,hesaid.Isaid:DoyouthinkthatIwillbesafeof AllahspunishmentbecauseIhavebelievedinhim,whileyouwillsufferHis Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

punishmentbecauseofyourunbeliefanddenial?Yes,hesaid.Isaid:Whichofusis worthierofresolutionandnearertosafety?Hesaid:You,butyouclaimanddoubt aboutyourmatter,whileIamsureandconfidentofmine,forIdanotthinkthatmy fivesenseshaveperceivedHim,andthethingwhichmysensesdonotperceiveisnot existentasIthink.Isaid:WhenyoursensesareunabletoperceiveAllah,youhave deniedhim,while (139) IhavebelievedinHimwhenmysensesareunabletoperceiveHim.Howisthat;he asked.Ianswered:Becauseeverythingwhichhasaformandtheeyeattainsandthe sensesperceiveisnotAllah,forHe(Allah)doesnotresemblecreaturesmoving throughthechangeanddisappearance,andeverythingwhichresemblesthechange anddisappearanceislikethem,andthecreatureisnotlikethecreatornoristhe recentliketheEternal. Then,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:Isaidtohim(thedoctor):Tellme,haveyou seenalldirectionsandreachedtheirends?No,hesaid.I(alS&iiq)said:Haveyou ascendedtotheskywhichyousee?Havedescendedtothelowerpartoftheearth andwanderedaboutitsregions?Haveyouwadedintotheplentifulwaterofthe seas?Haveyoupenetratedallthedirectionsoftheair?doyouknowthatallthese (places)areemptyofawise,knowing,discerningregulator?He(thedoctor)said: No.I(alSadiq)said:Thenhowdoyouknowthatthereisnocreator?Thatwhich pourhearthasrenouncedmaybeinsomeofwhatyoursenseshavenotperceived andyourknowledgehasnotencompassed?Hesaid:Idonotknow,theremaybea regulatorinwhatyouhavementioned,andIdonotknowthathemaybenotina thingofthesethings. I(theauthor)say:PeoplemayimaginethatthewordsofalSftdiqdenotethatthere isGodwithbody,forhe(alSadiq)endorsedthatHe(Allah)maybefoundinacertain direction,andthisisamongthequalitiesofthebody.However,alSadiqprotested againstthedoctorwhowantedtoconcludenonexistenceafterexistence.Alsoal SdiqwantedtorefutethedoctorwhoclaimedthattherewasnoGod.So,alSadiq wantedtoindicatetothedoctorthatAllahwaspossibletobefoundinthedirection whichthedoctordidnotreach.Accordingly,thepossibilityoftheexistenceofAllahin acertaindirectionisenoughtorefutethedoctorwhoclaimedthattherewasnoGod. Thisproofforcestheopponenttogiveuphisideaandtorefutehisproof.Alsothis proofdenotesthatalSadiqdidnotwanttoprovethatAllahwasinacertain direction.Moreover,wehaveunderstoodthatalSdiqrefusedtherecognitionof Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Allahthroughthesenses.So,thethingwhichisfoundinacertainplaceisperceived withthesenses. Then,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:Isaid(tothedoctor):Asyouhavegoneoutof theideaofdenial(ofAllah)andcomeintotheideaofdoubt,Ihopethatyouwill comeoutofthisideatorecognition(ofAllah).He(thedoctor)said:Doubthas entered(myheart)becauseofyourquestionaboutthatwhichmyknowledgehasnot encompassed.However,howcanIbecertainofwhatmysenseshavenotperceived? I(alSadiq)said:Throughyourmyrobalan(Ihlllija).Hesaid:Therefore,this (myrobalan)underlinestheproof,foritisamongthemedicalrulesforwhichIyield. Then,alSadiqbeganputtingquestionsbeforethedoctorconcerningthecreationof themyrobalanandconcerningsimilarthingsintheworld. (140) However,thedoctortriedtoescapefromtheanswerbecausehedidnotwantto admitthatthecreationofthemyrobalanindicatedthecreator.AlSadiqwenton puttingquestionsbeforethedoctortillheforcedhimtoconfessthatthemyrobalan cameoutofatree. ThenalSadiqsaid:Haveyouseentheunripemyrobalan?Doyouknowthatitis waterinitscalyx?Doyouknowthatithasnopulpnorfleshnorskinnorcolornor tastenorsolidity?He(thedoctor)said:Yes.AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:Isaid tohim:IftheCreatordidnotdilutethatthinwaterwhichislikethemustardin littlenessandsimplicity,didnotstrengthenitwithHispower,didnotcreateitwith Hiswisdom,didnotestimateitwithHisestimation,thendoyouknowthatthewater willincreaseandoverflowitscalyx? He(thedoctor)said:Fromthdescriptionofits(themyrobalan)tree,itscreation,its fruit,itsgrowingparts,anditsdetailedformation,youhavetaughtmetheclearest proofsabouttherecognitionoftheCreator.Yourarerightwhenyouhavesaidthat thethingsarecreated.However,Idonotknow.Perhaps,themyrobalanandthings havecreatedthemselves. ThenalSadiq,peacebeonhim,provedtothedoctorthatthemyrobalanwas createdbecauseitwasprecadedbynonexistence,andbecauseitscreationindicated thatithadacreator,andsoon. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AlSadiqwentonspeakingwiththedoctor,theaxisoftheirspeechwasthe myrobalan,tillheforcedhimtoconfesstheOneCreator.Then,alSadiqdebated uponstarsandastrologerswiththedoctor. Then,alSdiqwentonexplainingtothedoctortheproofsforthatwiseCreator throughHiscreatures,suchasthesky,theearth,trees,plants,animals,andthelike. Then,alSdiqexplainedAllahsattributes,suchasmercy,knowledge,power, hearing,sight,compassion,will,andsoon.[1] I(theauthor)say:Ihavementionedthesubjectsoftheletter,nottheletteritself becauseIwantedtoconformtoapidgment.Apartfromthestrongproofandthegood explanation,theletterhasvariouskindsofknowledge.Theaxisofthedebateinitwas themyrobalan,whichistheweakestandthesmallestofallcreaturesinsizeand importance. HispiefProofsontheExistenceandOnenessofAllah: Theplentifultalentsareknownthroughtheabilityofexplanation.Al.Sadiq sometimesgavedetailedproofs,asinTawhidAlMufaddal,sometimesgivingpief proofswithfullmeaning.Forexample,whenhewasaskedabouttheevidenceforthe Creator,heanswered:Aslongasmenhaveneeds.[2] 1BiharalAnwar,3/152170. 2TuhafalUqu1 (141) I(theauthor)say:Whatpiefthissentenceis!Andwhatgreatproofitis!Thatis becausemenalwaysfacemanyneeds.Theseneedsindicatethattheyalwayssearch foranauthoritytofulfilltheirneeds.Andtheseneedsindicatethatthisauthorityis One;otherwisethemovementandregulationoftheuniverseisdisorderly. Oneday,Hishfimb.alHakamaskedalSadiq:WhatistheproofthatAllahisone? AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,answered:Theunitedregulationandtheperfect creation.[1] I(theauthor)say:Indeed,eachoneofthesetwophrasesisenoughtobeaseparate proof.Thatisbecausetheunitedregulationisevidencefortheonenessofthe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Regulator,forifthereweretwoorthreeregulatorsinthecosmos,surelytheywould conflictwitheachother,sotherewouldbenoconnectedregulation.AlsothePerfect creationisanotherprooffortheonenesspftheRegulator,fortheequalregulators arenotalwaysinagreementoneverythingasitisinthepersonswhorunacertain country.Whentheydisagreeevenforawhile,theycorruptthecreatures,thenwhere istheperfectCreation?So,theperfectcreationisaseparateproof,too. AbuShakiralDaysaniaskedalSidiq:WhatisyourproofthatyouhaveaCreator? AlSfldiq,peacebeonhim,said:IhavefoundmyselfbeforetwoideaseitherIhave createditorotherthanmehascreatedit.IfIhadcreatedit,thenIwouldbebefore twoIdeaseitherIcreateditanditwasexistent,surelyitwouldbeinnoneedofits creatorbecauseofitsexistenceoritwasnonexistent,surelyyouknowthatthe nonexistentcannotcreateanything.So,thethirdideahasbeenproved,whichisthatI haveacreator,WhoistheLordoftheworlds.[2] Oneday,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,askedb.AbGalAwja:Areyoucreatedornot created?IbinAbflalAwjasaid:Iamnotcreated.AlSadiq,peacebeonhim, saidtohim:Describetome,Ifyouwerecreated,howwouldyoube? IbinAbiialAwjaloweredhisheadforalongtime.Hewasnotabletoanswer.There wasapieceofwoodinhishand.Hebeganplayingwiththatpieceofwoodand saying:Long,wide,deep,short,moving,motionless,alltheseareamongthe qualitiesofhiscreation.AlSSdiq,peacebeonhim,saidtohim:Ifyoudonot distinguishthequalitiesofthecreatedfromthequalitiesofthenoncreated,then regard.yourselfascreated.IbinAbOalAwjasaid:Youhaveaskedmeaquestion ofwhichnoonehadaskedmebefore,andnoonewillaskmeafteryou.[3] I(theauthor)say:Allthesequalitiesindicatethatmaniscreated;thereforethe createdisinneedofacreator.2ud,alTawhid,243. 1alSIdSelf. 2alTawhid,chapteronAllahcannotbeRecognizedexceptthroughHisOwn 3alSlduq,alTawhld,ChapteronprovingtheOccurrenceoftheWorld. (142) NegationofBody: Perhaps,someunbelievershaveoriginatedthesuspicionofbody.Then,ithascrept Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

intothebeliefsofsomeMuslimsectswhodependonthesurfacemeaningofthe religion.Whenthoseunbelieverswereunabletoabolishthereligionthrough spreadingunbelief,theyhaveinsertedtheiratheisticbeliefsintothereligion,forwe havefoundmyanswerstotheirbeliefsatthattime,andwehavereadaboutthem verymuchthroughthequestionsputbeforealSadiq,peacebeonhim.Concerning thismisleadingidea,hesaid:Thebodyhaslimits,andtheformhaslimitsandanend. Whatissubjecttolimitisalsosubjecttogrowthanddecay,andwhatissubjectto growthanddecaymustbeacreatedobject. Thequestionersaid:WhatshallI(theauthor)say?AlSadiq,peacebeonhim, said:He(Allah)isneitherbodynorform.Heembodiesallbodiesandformsallforms. Hecanneitherbeanalyzednorlimited.Hegrowsnot,nordoeshedecay.Ifthefact wasastheysay,thentherewouldbenodifferencebetweentheCreatorandthe created,theMakerandthemade.However,HeistheCreatorandtheMaker,andHe Whomakesdistinctionanddifferentiation(betweenHinUandthattowhichHehas givenbody,formandmolding,fornothingresemblesHimnordoesHeresemble anything.[1] I(theauthor)say:Thisdescriptionisabouttoflowsoftnessandgentlenesswiththe strongproofandthefirmstructure.Itsclearnessisinnoneedofexplanation. AlsoalSdiqsaid:WhoeverclaimsthatAllahisinathingoronathingormoves fromathingtoathingorathingisemptyofHimorthingcontainsHim,Surely describesHimwiththequalitiesofcreatures,whileAllahistheCreatorofeverything. Allahisnotmeasuredwiththemeasurenorishelikenedtomen.Thereisnoplace emptyofHimnordoesaplacecontainHim.AllahisnearinHisfarness,farinHis nearness.SuchisAllah,ourLord.ThereisnogodbutHe.[2] I(theauthor)say:HowwonderfulthisdescriptionofalSdiq,peacebeonhim,is. Howexactthemeaningofhiswordsis!HeisnearinHisfarness,farinHisnearness! Torecognizethesewordsneedwidemercyandinnate. Inthisconnection,manytraditionshavebeenreportedonalSa'diqsauthority. However,wehavecontentedourselveswiththeabovementionedtraditionsfrom him.Theonlythingwhichwemustknowisthatthejudgmentofreasonneeds negationofbodyandformfromAllah,mayHisEntitybehallowed.Thetheological bookshavefullyexplainedthissubject.TheProphetandhisfamilyunderlinedit,too. Thatisbecausethey 1alKafi,ChapteronNegationofBodyandFonn. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

2BiharalAnwlr,3/287/2. (143) frequentlyguidedmentothejudgmentofreason.Manytraditionshavebeen reportedontheauthorityofthemasteroftheapostles(i.e.ProphetMohammed), mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.ThesetraditionsdenotethatAllahhasnobodynor form,nothronenorhand,etc.AlsothesetraditiOflShaveorderedMuslimsnotto dependonthesurfacemeaningofsomeverseswhichunderlinethatAllahhasa throne,ahand,andsoon.Someoftheseversesare:TheBeneficentGodhasfirmly satontheThrone.Thisverseshouldbeunderstoodasfollows:TheBeneficentGod isinfirmpower.Alsoconsidertheseverses:ThehandofAllahisabovetheir hands.(i.e.ThepowerofAllahisabovetheirpower.)Whitheryouturn,thitheris Allahspurpose.)IbinAbbassaid:AJewcNathalcametotheProphet,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily,andsaid:Mohammed,Iwanttoaskyouaboutsomething alwayssoundinmymind.Ifyouansweredthem,IwouldbeaMuslim.TheProphet said:AbiiAmara,ask.TheJewsaid:Mohammed,describeyourLordtome.The Prophet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,said:TheCreatorcannotbedescribed exceptwiththatwhichHehasdescribedHimselfwith.HowcantheCreatorbe described,whilethesensesarefeebletoattainHim,imaginations(arefeeble)toget Him,ideas(arefeeble)tolimithim,eyes(arefeeble)toencompasshim.FarbeHe fromwhatthetheydescribe.HeisfarinHisnearness;HeisnearinHisfarness.He originatedmodalexistence,butHeHimselfiswithoutmodality.AndHeoriginated space,butHeHimselfisspaceless.So,HeisOneandSelfdependent.Hehas describedHimself.ThedescriberscannotencompassHisattributes.Hebegetsnot, norisHebegotten.AndnoneislikeHim. TheJewsaid:Mohammed,youareright.Informmeaboutyourwords:Allahisone. NothingresemblesHim.So,HisOnenessisliketheonenessofman. TheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,said:Allahisonewithonemeaning, whilemaniswithdualisticmeaningsubstanceandaccident,bodyandsoul.So,the likeningisinmeaningsonly.TheJewsaid:Mohammed,youareright.[1] I(theauthor)say:ThesewordsoftheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily, clearlydeemAllahforabovethequalitiesofcreatures.IntheKoran,Allahsays: VisioncomprehendsHimnot,andHecomprehends(all)vision.[2] TheQualitiesofOccurrence: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

lherearequalitiesthatneedoccurrencelikespace,time,modality,direction, movement,mobility,andthelike.Accordingtothesurface 1BiharalAnwar,3/303/40. 2alAnajn,104. (144) meaningofsomeverses,somepeopleimaginethatthesequalitiesareofthebody. So,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,refutedsuchclaimswithhisstrongproofs.Alsosome peoplethinkthatAllahisbodydependingonHisWordsinHisGloriousBook: NowhereisthereasecretcounselbetweenthreepersonsbutHeisthefourthof them,nor(between)fivebutHeisthesixthofthem.[1]InrespecttheseWordsof Allah,AbuAbdAllah(alSdiq)said:AllahisaUnityinHisentity,Allahdifferentfrom HiscreaturesandsohasHedescribedHimself.AndAllahencompassesallthings. EverythingisunderHisfullsupervision,controlandpower.FromHimisnothidden, theweightof(even)anatomintheheavensandnorintheearth,noristhereaught lessthanthisandnoraughtgreater.Allahencompassesallthings(andnothingcan behiddenfromHim)withHisfullsupervisionandknowledgeandnotbyHisentity, sincethespace(whichencompasseseverythingmaterially)isconfinedtofour boundaries.IfAllahhadencompassedallthethingsbyHisOwnentity,HeHimself wouldhavebeensubjecttothelimitsoftheboundaries.[2] Inanothertradition,alSadiq(peacebeonhim)says:WhoeverclaimsthatAllahis fromsomething4aasdeterminedHimasbeingoriginated(afternonbeing).Whoever claimsthatAllahisinsidesomething,hasdeterminedHimasbeingconfined. WhoeverclaimsthatAllahisonsomethinghasdeterminedHimassomethingwhich canbecarried.[3] Mohammedb.alNumanaskedalSdiqaboutthefollowingWordsofAllah,the Exalted:AndHeisAllahintheheavensandintheearth.[4]alSadiq,peacebeon him,said:SuchisAllaheverywhere.Mohammedasked:WithHisEntity?alSdiq, peacebeonhim,said:Woeuntoyou!Indeed,placeshaveboundaries.Ifyousay thatAllahisinsideaplacewithHisEntity,thenyoushouldsaythatAllahisinside boundariesandthelike,whileAllahistotallydifferentfromHiscreatures.He encompasseswhatHehascreated(with)Hisknowledge,power,encompassmentand authority.Hisknowledgeofthatwhichisintheearthisnotlessthan(Hisknowledge) ofthatwhichisintheheavens.NothingisfarfromHim.Allthingsareequallyknown, Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

controlled,owned,andencompassedbyAllah.[5] Sulaymanb.alAmash[6]askedalSdiq:IsitpossibletosaythatAllahisinsidea place?AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,answered:Allahisfarabovethat.IfHewas insideaplace,hewouldbeoriginated,forthethingwhichisinsideaplaceneedsthe place.NeedisnotamongthequalitiesoftheEternal.[7] 1alMujadala,7. 2alKafi,alTawhld,ChapteronMovementandMobility. 3alKafi,alTawhid,ChapteronMovementandMobility. 4alAnIm:3. 5BiharalAnwHr,3/323/20. 6HewillbementionedwiththeFamousReliableNarrators. 7AlSaduq,alTawhld,ChapteronNegationofTimeandSpace. (145) AlSadiqsaidtoAbuBasir[1]:Indeed,Allah,theBlessedandExalted,cannotbe describedwithtime,space,movement,andstillness.Rather,HeistheCreatorof time,space,movement,andstillness.Allahisveryfarabovewhattheysay.[2] AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,saidtoAbdAllahb.Sanfln[3]:Allahcannotbedescribed intermsofanymodality,space,anddirection.HowcanIdescribeHimintermsofany modalitywhenHeHimselfhascreatedmodalexistence,sothatithascomeintobeing andwehaveknownamodalitythroughthemodalexistencewhichHehadfixedfor us.HowcanIdescribeHimintermsofthespacesinceHeHimselfhadmadespace,so thatit(thespace)hascomeintobeingandwehaveknownspacethroughthespace whichHehadfixedforus.HowcanIdescribeHimintermsofdirectionwhenHe Himselfhasmadedirection,sothatit(direction)hascomeintobeingandwehave knowndirectionthroughthedirectionwhichHehadfixedforus.Hence,Allah,the BlessedandExalted,isinsideeveryplacebutisoutofeverything.Theeyesattain Himnot,butHeattainstheeyes. I(theauthor)say:Themeaningofmodality,space,anddirectionisaquestionoran answeraboutthepossiblethingswhichcanbemeasured. WhenpeopleaskaboutthemodalityandspaceofAllah,thenhewillhaveamodal existenceandspace.AndwhentheyaskaboutAllahsdirection,thenHeisinsidea place.IfAllahissuch,theneyesattainHim,fortheeyesattainthepossessorofthe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

bodywhichisinsideacertainplace,whitetheeyesattainAllahnotbutHeattainsthe eyes. Duringaconversation,b.AbualAwja[4]saidtoalSadiq,peacebeonhim:You havementiQnedAllahand(inthisway)youhavemadeareferenceto(something) absentandunseen.AbuAbdAllah(alSadiq)said:Woeuntoyou!Howstrange! HowcanHe,WhoisawitnesstoHiscreatures,Whoisnearertothemthanthe jugularvein,Whohearstheirtalking,seesthemintheirpersonandknowstheir secrets,beabsentandunseen?Again,b.AbualAwjaasked:IsAllahatevery place?WhenHeisintheheavens,howcanHebeontheearth?AndwhenHeisinthe earth,howcanHebeintheheavens?AbuAbdAllah(alSadiq),peacebeonhim, answered:Youhavekeptinyourviewtheattributesofthecreatedwhichoccupythe spacetowhichtheyaretransferred,vacatingtheonetheyaretransferredfrom, withoutknowingwhathappenedtotheformerspace.ThereisnospacewithoutAllah ofthehighesteminenceandMonarchtobe 1HewillbementionedwiththeFamousReliableNarrators. 2AlSaduq,alTawhld,ChapteronNegationofTimeandSpace. 3alKafi,alTawhld,ChapteronForbiddinganyAttributeofAllahnotDescribedbyI JimforHimself. 4HisnamewasAbdalKartm.InhisbookalAmflhi,SayyiedalMurtad5has regardedhimasoneQfthefamousunbelieversoftheArabs.Mohammedb. Sulaiman,al.MansarsgovernoroverKufa,killedhimforhisunbelief. (146) obeyed,WhomnospacecanconfineandWhoinrelationtooneplaceisnotnearer thananother.[1] I(theauthor)say:ManytraditionshavebeenmentionedontheauthorityofalSfldiq. TheyallindicatethatAllah,theExalted,isfarabovetheattributesofHiscreatures. However,Ihaveconfinedmyselftotheabovementionedones. EyesAttainHimnot: SomeMuslimsectsthinkthateyescanattainAllahinthehereafteronly,orbothin hereandinthehereafter.However(ahla!Bayt),especiallyalS&iiq(peacebeon him),didtheirbesttoabolishthisattributeandtounderlinethateyescouldnot attainHim.ThefollowingaresomeproofsofalSdiqinthisrespect. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Hishmsaid:IwaswithalSftdiq,peacebeonhim,whenMuAwiyab.Wahaband AbdalMalikb.Ayun[2]cametohim.Muawiyab.WahabaskedalSdiq:Sonof AllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,whatisyourviewpointaboutthe traditionwhichsaysthatAllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,hadseen hisLord?Howdidheseehim?Andwhatisyourviewpointaboutthetraditionwhich saysthatthebelieverswillseetheirLordinParadise?HowwilltheyseeHim?Al Sadiq,peacebeonhim,smiledandsaid:Muwiya,itisuglythatthemanwho becomesseventyoreightyearsoaage,livesinAllahsKingdom,andeatsfromHis boons,buthedoesnotknowAllahtotally.Then,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,said: Muflwiya,Mohammed(mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily)hadnotseentheLord, theBlessedandExalted,throughthefacultyofsight.Visionisoftwokinds:thevision oftheeye,andthevisionoftheheart.Whoevermeansthevisionoftheheart,thenis right.Andwhoevermeansthevisionoftheeye,disbelievesinAllahandHisverses duetothe(following)traditionoftheProphet,myAllahblesshimandhisfamily: WhoeverlikensAllahtoHiscreaturesdisbelieves(inHim).Myfathertoldmeonthe authorityofhisfatherontheauthorityofalHusaynb.Ali,peacebeonthem,who said:TheCommanderoftheFaithful(i.e.ImamAli)wasasked:potherofAllahs Apostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,haveyouseenyourLord?Hesaid:How doIworshipHimWhomIhavenotseen,theeyeshavenotseenHimwiththefaculty ofsight,buttheheartshaveseenHimthroughtherealitiesofbelief.Ifthebeliever sawhisLordwiththefacultyofsight,theneverythingseenbytheeyeandvisionis created.So,itisinevitablethatthecreatedhaveacreator.Therefore,youhavemade Allahoriginatedandcreated.WhoeverlikensAllahtoHiscreaturesadoptsapartner withHim.Woeuntothem!Have 1alSadiqalTawhid,ChapteronMovementandMobility. 2TheywereamongthefamousreliablecompanionsofalSldiq,peacebeonhim. (147) theynotheardtheWordsofAllah,theExalted:TheeyesattainHimnotandHe attains(all)eyes,[1]andHisWords:Youcannot(bearto)seeMe.butlookatthe mountain,ifitremainsfirminitsplace,thenyouwillsetMe;butwhenhisLord manifestedHisglorytothemountainHemadeiicrumble.[2]ThoughAllahsLightwas aslittleasthelightwhichpassesthroughtheeyeoftheneedle,Itmadethemountain crumbleandMtisfelldowninaswoon.Thenwhenhe(Musa)recovered,hesaid: GlorybetoYou,IturntoYou,andIamthefirstofthebelievers.[3] Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Thenhe(ImamAli),peacebeonhim,said:Thebestdutiesimposedonmanare: (man)shouldknowtheLord,andacknowledgethatheistheservantofAllah.The leastnecessaryknowledgeoftheLordisthat(man)shouldknowthatthereisnogod butHe,Hehasneitherlikenorpeer.He(man)shouldknowthatAllahiseternal, positive.HeisanentitynotannihilateandverilynothingislikeHim.Heisdescribed withoutlike.NothingresemblesHim.AndHeishearing,seeing.AfterHim(Allah),is theknowledgeoftheProphetandtoacknowledgehisProphethoodandwhathehas poughtsuchastheBook,theOrder,andtheProhibitionareallfromAllah,theGreat andAlmighty.Afterhim(theProphet)istheknowledgeoftheImamwhomyoufollow throughhisfavor,attribute,andnameduringhardshipandease.Theleastnecessary knowledgeoftheImamisthatheisliketheProphetexceptthedegreeofthe Prophethood.TheImamistheinheritoroftheProphet.ToobeytheImamistoobey AllahandtoobeyAllahsApostle.(Men)shouldyieldtohisorders,toconsulthim, andtocarryouthiswords. Then,alSadiqmentionedtheImamsandtheirnamestoMuawiya.Then,hesaid: MuAwiyaIhavemadeanorigintoyouinthis(religion),thenactaccordingtoit.If youhaddiedfollowingyourbeliefs,yourconsequencewouldhavebeentheworst one.So,donotbedeceivedbythewordsofthosewhosaythattheeyecanattain Allah. Then,alSdiqmentionedtoMuawiyathehatefulfalsethingswhichtheyhave ascribedtoprophetsingeneral,theProphetinprivate,and(Imam)Au,peacebeon themall. ThisissomeofwhathasbeenmentionedontheauthorityofalSAdiqonthe impossibilityofseeingAllahbytheeye.AlsoalSadiq,peacebeonhim,hadwaidea ineverychapterontheOnenessofAllahandineveryverseoftheallegoricalverses. Whatwehavementionedisenoughtoexplainthesubject. Medicine: 1alAnim,104. 2alArlf,143. 3alAnam,104. (148) Allah,theExalted,hassentdowntheBook(theKoran)toexplaineverything.The Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Bookhasapoughtmedicinetogetherintwowordsastheysay.Theyarethefollowing wordsofAllah,theExalted:Eatanddrinkandbenotextravagant.[1]Thenno wonderwhenthescholarsoftheKoranbecomescholarsinmedicine,too.Their explanationsonthenaturesofthings,moods,advantages,harms,showusthatthey hadthisscience.Someoftheearlierscholarshavecollectedmanyoftheir(the Imams)wordsonthisscienceandcalledthemtheMedicineoftheImams(Tibal Aimma).Ithinkthisbookisnotfoundtoday.However,alMajlisi,mayhisgravebe fragrant,hasreportedmanythingsfromthebookinhisbookBiharalAnwr.Alsoal HuralAniilihasreportedthingsfromitinhisbookalWasii. ThetraditionswhichhavebeenmentionedinTawhrdalMufaddalontheadvantages ofdrugsandknowledgeofalSadiqinthemembersofthebodyindicatethatal Sdiqhadknowledgeinmedicine.Also,hisdebates,whichwillbementionedinthe followingchapters,indicatethat,too.Theauthorisabletowriteabookonwhathas beenmentionedontheauthorityofalSdiqconcerningthecharacteristicsofthings andtheiradvantages,thetreatmentofdiseasesandaches,anddietandprevention. They(alSadiqstraditions)arelyingaboutthetraditionbooks,andthelike.Perhaps, noonehaddiscoveredthesetraditionsbeforecontemporaryscience.Forexample, feveristreatedwithcoolwater.Somepeoplementionedtoaa'1Sdiq.So,hesaid: We,themembersofthehouse,treatourselveswithcoolwater.Concerningwashing fruits,hesaid:Everyfruithaspoison.Whenyoupingfruit,dipthemintowater. SeealWasiI,3,276311,chapteronFoodandDrinks. AlJafr(Divination): InArabicalJafrmeansafullgrownhegoat.Perhaps,inthebeginning,thisscience waswrittenontheskinofafullgrownhegoat.Divination(aljafr)isthescienceof theletterswithwhichthefutureeventsareknown.Ithasbeenmentionedonthe authorityofalSdiq,peacebeonhim,thatthey(ahlalBayt)haddivination(aljafr). AlSSdiqexplaineddivination(aljafr)asacontainerfromAdam.Init(thecontainer) wastheknowledgeoftheprophetsandtheknowledgeofthescholarsfromthe childrenofIsrael,whodied.Manytraditionshavebeenmentionedontheauthorityof ahlalBaytondivination(aljafr)whichtheyhad.Althoughwedonotknowthe meaningofthissciencethoroughly,weknow,throughthetraditionswhichhave mentionedit,thatitisagoodscienceAllahgaveto 1alAraf,31. (149) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

(ahlalBayt).ManytraditionshavebeenmentionedinalKMondivination(aljafr) which(ahlalBayt)had. SomeSunnischolarshavementionedthatalSadiq,peacebeonhim,taught(his companions)divination(aljafr).Forexample,alShiblanjhasmentionedthatinhis bookNOralAbsflr,p.131.InhisbookAdabalKhtib,b.Qutaybahassaid:Imam JafaralSadiqb.MohammedalBiqirhaswrittenthebookofdivination(aljafr).In thebook,thereiswhatthey(people)needonthissciencetilltheDayofJudgment. AbOalAlaalMaarrihasmentioneddivination(aljafr)asfollows: IthasbeenmentionedinthebookalFuslatMuhima:Somescholarshave mentionedthatthebookofdivination(aljafr)whichisinMorocco,andwhichbanu (thesonsof)AbdalMumininherited,belongstoJafaralSfldiq.Thebookis regardedasalaudableactandanoutstandingmeritforalSdiq. ChemistryandJibirbinHayyan: ManyauthorshavementionedtheknowledgeofalSadiq,peacebeonhim,in chemistry.AlsotheyhavementionedthathisstudentJbirb.Hayynal50ffal TartOsilearnedthissciencefromhim.Jabirhasmentionedfivehundredtreatisesof onethousandpagesonchemistry.ThesetreatisesincludedthetreatisesofJafaral Sdiq,peacebeonhim.[1] Theearlierandthecontemporaryorientatistshavesaidmanywordsconcerning JbTr.InhisbookalFihrast,pp.498503,b.alNadlmhasmentionedJabirand spokeatgreatlengthabouthim.Alsohehasmentionedhisbooksandtreatiseson varioussciences,suchaschemistry,medicine,philosophy,theology,andthelike.Of course,noone,duringhisnormallifetime,isabldtowritesuchsciencesbutthose uniqueoneswhoaregrantedsharpwitandcleverness,andwhoareabsorbedin writing.Alsob.alNadlmhasmentionedthatJabirhaswritingsontheShltedoctrine. ThenJaLbirbecameaShVte.Perhaps,JbirlearnedthesesciencesfromalSadiqand alSadiqdependedonhisevidenceforJabirsShiism. TheauthorofthebookalDhatVa,2,pp.451452,whenhehasmentionedJ&birs bookcalledalIDhinchemistry,hasregardedJ&birasoneoftheShTteauthors. WhenyouskimthroughJabirstreatiseswhichhavedrawntheOflentalsattention, youwiltbesureofhisShiimandthathelearnedthesesciencesfromalSOdiq.Forhe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

obeyedalSfldiqandfollowedhisideas,andthatyoawillknowthatJbirnotonly learnedchemistryfroma!S&iiqbutalsotheologyandthelike. 1BinKhilkan,alTarikh,1,105. (150) MuslimauthorshaveadmiredJ&birsrankandregardedhimasanobjectofprideof Islambecausehehaswrittenoverthreethousandbooksandstudies. TheorientalistshaveregardedasgreatthataMuslimArab,whobelongedtothe peopleofthesecondcentury(A.H.),hadsuchcorrectideas,andhistheorieshave becomethegeneralbasesonwhicholdandmodernchemistryhasstood.So,the orientalistshavediscussedJabirsbooksatrandom.Theysometimesdoubthis existence,sometimeshistime,sometimesthebookswhichhasbeenascribedtohim, sometimeswhathereportedontheauthorityofhisteacheralSfidiq(peacebeon him),andsometimesclassificationplanandstyle,andsoon. ThewriterIsma?1Muzhir,theOwnerofalUstirMagazine,refutedthedoubtsand theclaimsofthoseorientalists.AlsoDr.AhniadZakySatihscientificallyrefutedtheir doubtsandclaimsthroughhiswritingsinthealRislaEgyptianMagazine,8thyear, pp.12041206,12301237,12681270,12991302. JAbirdeclaredhisShiismseveraltimes.Generallyspeaking,JabirwasaShVte.Hewas excellentinmanysciences,suchastheology,philosophy,medicine,physics.Hisideas havebecomethegeneralfoundationsofchemistry,forhelearnedthissciencefrom itscorrectorigin,namelyImamalSadiq,peacebeonhim. OtherSciences: WehavementionedsomeofalSadiqssciences,andpeoplehavelearnedthese sciencesfromhim.However,thisdoesnotmeanthatalSadtqhadonlytheabove mentionedsciences.Rather,accordingtotheImamiideatheImamshouldknow everything,shouldbethemostknowledgeableofallmenineveryscience,art,and lamiguageasthejudgmentofreasonneeds[1].Whenweconsiderthetraditions carefully,withoutprovingtheDivineImamatetohim,wewillunderstandthatthere wasineverytime,ascholarintheBookandtheSunnabelongingtothemembersof theHouse(ahlalBayt)asitinthetraditioncalledalthaqalayn(thetwovaluable onestheKoranandahlalBayt).ThescholarintheBook,awhichhasbeenrevealed Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

totheProphettoexplaineverything,shouldbeknowledgeableineverything.Aslong astheBookisexistent,thescholar,whobelongto(ahlalBayt),isexistenttilltheday ofJudgment.So,thescholarduringthelifetimeofalSadiqwashehimself,forthere wasnoonefrom(a/mialBayt)moreknowledgeablethanhimduringthatperiod. Alsohistraditionsarestrongevidenceforhisknowledge. 1SeealShi'awaalImama. (151) Accordingly,alSidiqwasthescholarof(a/mialBayt)duringhislifetime.Besides,he wasthemostknowledgeableoneintheBook,whichcofltRiflSallsciencesandarts. So,wehaveconfinedourselvestotheforegoingexamplesaboutalSadiqs knowledge,andthereisnoneedtomentioflotherexamplesabouthisknowledgein theothersciences.Then,nowonderwhenwereadinatraditionthatalSldiqspoke tothePersianswiththeirlanguageandotherpeopleswiththeirlanguage,andthat hedebatedwiththepeopleofeveryscienceandartandovercamethem.For examnple,hedebatedwiththedoctors,andsoon.Manytraditionshaveunderlined that. ******** HOWDIDALSADIQBECOMEASCHOOL? (152) InthetermsofMuslims,theschool(madhhab)meansthegreatIslamicauthorityin theIslamiccommandments.ThismeansthatatSadiqwasnotaschoolbyhimselfor separatefromtheothertwelveImams,fortheImamiShiathinkthattheyshould followthewordsoftheImamsandputthemintoeffect,beginningfromthe CommanderoftheFaithful(ImamAu)totheabsentandawaitedImam.Forthe knowledgeoftheImams,accordingtotheShTtebeliefs,isoneandinheritedfrom theProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.TheImamsareequalinlearningand followingtheknowledgeoftheProphet.TheknowledgeoftheImamsisasachain. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Thesoninheriteditfromhisfatherwithoutcreatedapersonalviewpoint. However,theopportunitiesdidnotpresentthemselvestoanyoneoftheImamsto revealwhattheProphethadtaughtthem,whiletheopportunitypresenteditselfto atSdiq,peacebeonhim.Hewasabletospreadthescienceswhichheinherited fromthemasteroftheApostles(i.e.ProphetMohammed),mayAllahblesshimand hisfamily,forthefollowingreasons: 1.TheImamateofatSadiqlastedforoverthirtyyears.AlthoughtheImamateofhis grandfather,ZaynatAbidTn,hissonMOsa!Kzim,andhisgrandsonAtiatHadi (peacebeonthem)lastedforoverthirtyyearstoo,theirconditionswerequite differentfromhis. 2.ThedaysofalSdiqwerethedaysofknowledgeandjurisprudence,theologyand debates,traditionsandreports,heresiesandmisguidance,andideasandschools.This wasanimportantopportunityforatSdiqtoshowhisknowledge,tosuppress misguidanceandthefalse,torefutetheideasandthedesires,todeclareandspread thetruth. 3.AtSdiqandbanU(thesonsof)HOshimlivedduringaperiodofwelfare,whitethe previousImamsdidnotleadsuchalife.Inotherwords,thepreviousImamssuffered fromtheirkings.Forexample,thekingsexertedpressuresontheImams,prevented themfrommeetingpeople,andpreventedpeoplefrommeetingthem.So,the previousImamswereunabletospreadtheirknowledge. NooneoftheImamstookthereinsofpowerexcepttheCommanderoftheFaithful (ImamAu),peacebeonhim.However,hespenttheshortdaysofhisImamatein fightingtherebels.Moreover,hewasforcedtofollowinescapablewaysofrule. Duringhisdays,knowledgedidnotspreadamongpeople.Desires,ideas,sects,and schoolsdidnotappear.Generallyspeaking,allthesethingsdidnothappenduringthe daysofImamAtiastheyhappenedduringthedaysofalSadiq. AlSadiqwasacontemporaryoftheMarwaniandtheAbbasiddynasties.Helived duringaperiodoftimewhenhewasnotafraidofthe (153) poweroftheoppressiveandthethreatofthetyrannicalruler.Thatperiodoftime wasbetweenthelastdaysoftheMarwnjdynastyandthefirstdaysoftheAbbsid Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

dynasty.ThatisbecausewhentheOmayyadsandthepeopleofSham(Syria)attacked andkilledalWatTdb.YazTd,allpartsofthecountryrevoltedagainstthem.So,their authoritybecameweak,andpeoplebeganpavingthewaytobanfl(theSonsof) Hashim.AllthesethingsdivertedbanU(thesonsof)Marwanfromthescientificlifeof atSdiq.WhenthedynastyofbanflMarwnwasover,theAbbsTdstookthereins ofpower.So,theybeganpurifyingthelandsfromtheOmayyadsandestablishing theirnewauthority.ThesethingsdivertedthemfromatSadiqforaperiodoftime. Forthisreason,atSa'diqwasabletospreadhisknowledgeandsciencesthoughat Sffahwasverycarefulofhim.ThenwhenalMansflrcameandtookthereinsof power,hebeganshowingenmitytowardatSdiq.Hesometimesexertedpressures onatSdiqandsometimesoverlookedhim. InhisbookalManqib,ontheconditionsofatSdiq,thegreatscholarb. ShahrashflbhasreportedthefollowingontheauthorityofatMufaddatb.Amr:At MansflrtriedtokillAbuAbdAllah(alSadiq),peacebeonhim,severaltimes.Hesent forhimandsummonedhim.Whenhelookedathim,herespectedhimanddidnot killhim.However,he(atMansflr)preventedpeoplefrommeetinghim(atSdiq), andpreventedhimfrommeetingthem(people).He(atMansr)exertedsevere pressuresonhim.Peoplewhohadnoreligiousknowledgeofmarriageanddivorce couldnotreachhim.So,themanwasforcedtoleavehiswife.Thisconditionbecame hardforhisfollowers.ThenAllah,theGreatandAlmighty,urgedatMansursheart toaskatSadiq,peacebeonhim,forathingofwhichnoonehad.AtSdiqsenthim thescepteroftheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.Thescepterwasa cubitlong.AlMansarwasveryhappytoreceiveit.Thenheordered(hisservant)to divideitintofourparts.Thenheputthefourpartsinfourplaces.Thenhe(al MansUr)saidtoatSdiq:Yourrewardwithmeistopermityoutospreadyour knowledgeamongyourfollowers(ShTa).AndIwillnotpreventyounoryour followers(fromdoingthat).Sitsownwithoutfearandgivepeoplereligiousopinions. DonotbeinthecountrywhereIam.So,alSadiqspreadknowledgeeverywhere. Forthisreasonandothers,atSdiqwasabletospreadknowledge,whiletheother Imamswereunabletodothatbecausetheirconditionswerequitedifferentfromal.. Sdiqs.Thebooksoftraditions,jurisprudence,ethics,andthelikeindicatethat.His manynarratorsandthereportsonhisauthorityindicatethat,too.Agroupofauthors havewrittenabouthisnarratorsTheyhavementionedthattheirnumberwasover fourthousand (154) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

narrators.Amongtheseauthorswasb.Uqda[1].Ifthenarratorswhoreported traditionsontheauthorityofatSdiqwerefourthousands,thenhowmany traditionsdidtheyreport?Andifonenarratorreportedthirtythousandtraditionson theatfthorityofatSadiq,thenhowmanytraditionsdidtheothernarratorsreport? Andhowmanyscienceswerereportedonhisauthority? Generallyspeaking,atSadiq,peacebeonhim,hasbeenknownasaschooltowhich theImamisandtheJafarisareascribedbecauseofhismanysciencesandtraditions. BesidesmostofthetraditionsintheShVtebookshavebeenreportedonhis authority. NotonlytheShVtenarratorshavereportedtraditionsontheauthorityofatSdiq, butalsothegreatSunnifigureswhowerecontemporaryofhim.Amongthemwere Malik,AbflHanifa,SufynatThawri,Sufyanb.Ayyna,Ayyllb,b.JarTh,Shba,andthe like.Besides,b.AbflatHaddTdhasascribedthejurisprudenceofthefourSunni schoolstohimasinSharihNahjatBalgha,1,6.TheShTahaverelatedtoatSdiq sincehislifetime.Itwashewhosaidtohiscompanionsinhiscommandments:When amanamongyouispiousinhisreligion,truthfulinhisspeech,paysthetrust,his mannersaregoodtowardpeople,itwillbesaid:ThisisaJafari.Andthatdelights me.Andwhenheiscontrarytothat,histribulationandshamefulnesswiltincludeme anditwiltbesaid:ThisisJafarseducation.[2] TherelationoftheShTatoalSdiqwasknownatthattime.Forexainj,le,two, ShTtesgavetestimonybeforeShurayhatQdi(thejudge).TheywereMohammedb. Muslim,thefamousreliablecompanionofatSdiq,andAbUKuraybaatAzdi.So, Shurayhtooaedattheirfacesforalongtime,andthenhesaid:TwoJafaris, Fatimids.[3] FromthisweknowthattherelationoftheShiatoatSadiqhasbeen sincehislifetimeuptothepresenttime. ******** 1HisnamewasAhmadb.Mohammedb.SaeedalKufY.HewasZaydi,Jarfldi.He wasgreat,important,andreliable.Hememorizedmanytraditions.Ithasbeen mentionedthathehassaid:Ihavememorizedonehundredandtwentythousand traditionswiththeirauthori.Now,Iamgoingtomemorizethreehundredthousand traditions.Hehasmanybooks.Amongthemisthebookofthemenwhohave reportedtraditionsontheauthorityofalSadiq,peacebeonhim.Nooneknows Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

wherehisbookis.HediedinKufa,intheyear233(A.H.). 2a1Kaft,2/636/5. 3BiharalAnwar,47/393/115. HISDEBATES (155) AbuAbdAllah(atSdiq),peacebeonhim,hadmanyStrongproofswithwhichhe revealedthetruthandrefutedtheproofsofothers.Wewilltellyousomethingabout them,fortheyareapartofhisscientificlifefulloflessonsandsermonswhichthe Muslimmuststudy. HisDebatesonOnenessofAllah(alTawhid): WehavealreadymentionedsomethingofthespeechofatSdiq,peacebeonhim, onOnenessofAllah.Amonghisspeechweresomedebates.Here,wewiltmention additionaldebates. SomeofthesedebateshavebeenreportedontheauthorityofHishamb.atHakam, whosaid:TherewasanunbelieverinEgypt.TheunbelieverheardsomethingofAbu AbdAllah(alSdiq),peacebeonhim.HewenttoMedinatodebatewithAbflAbd Allah,buthedidnotfindhimthere.Itwassaidtohim:He(AbtiAbdAllah)hasbeen inMecca.So,hewenttoMecca.We(Hishamb.atHakam)werewithAbflAbdAllah (atSadiq),peacebeonhim.Whitewewereperformingtheprocessionaroundthe Kaaba,he(theunbeliever)metusbychance.His.namewasAbdalMalik.Hiskunya wasAbflAbdAllah.HisshoulderhittheshoulderofAbflAbdAllah(alSadiq),peace beonhim.So,he(alSadiq)saidtohim:Whatisyourname?AbdalMalik, answeredtheunbeliever.Whatisyoukunya?askedalSadiq.AbflAbdAllah, answeredtheunbeliever.So,AbflAbdAllah(alSdiq),peacebeonhim,said:Whois thisking(Matik)whoseservantisyou?Isheamongthekingsoftheearthoramong thekingsoftheheavens?Thentellmeaboutyourson,ishetheservantoftheGodof theheavensortheservantofthegodoftheearth?Saywhateveryoulike. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

ThenatSdiqsaidtotheunbeliever:WhenIhavefinishedtheprocessionaround theKaaba,cometome.WhenAbiiAbdAllah(atSdiq),peacebeonhim,finished that,theunbelievercameandsatbeforeAbflAbdAllah(atSdiq),peacebeonhim. We(HishamandHisCompanions)weresittinginthepresenceofatSdiq.Then,AbO AbdAllah(atSdiq)saidtotheunbeliever:Doyouknowthattheearthhasupper partandtowerpart?Yes,saidtheunbelIever.Haveyoucomeinitslowerpart? askedatSdiq.No,answeredtheunbeliever.Doyouknowthatthereissomething initslowerpart?askedatSadiq.Theunbelieveranswered:Idonotknow.However, Ithinkthatthereisnothinginitslowerpart.AbAbdAllah(atSadiq),peacebeon him,said:Merethinkingisfeebleness.Whyarentyoucertain?Then,AbOAbdAllah (atSdiq),peacebeonhim,said:Haveyouascendedtothesky?No,answeredthe unbeliever.AtSadiqask:Doyouknowthatithas (156) somethingornot?No,answeredtheunbeliever.So,atSdiqsaid:Howwonderful! Youhavenotreachedtheeastnorthewest,youhavenotdescendedtothetower partoftheearthnorhaveyouascendedintothesky,norhaveyougoneanyfurther toknowwhatisbeyondthem.However,youhavedeniedwhattheyhave,thendoes thewisemandenywhathedoesnotknow?TheunbelieversaidtoalSdiq:Noone hastoldmeaboutthatexceptyou. Then,AbtiAbdAllah(alSadiq),peacebeonhim,saidtotheunbeliever:Thenyou havedoubtaboutthat(theCreator).Perhaps,Heisexistent,andperhapsHeis nonexistent.Theunbelieverpersonsaid:Maybe.So,AbAbdAllah(alSdiq), peacebeonhim,said:Thepersonwhodoesnotknowhasnoproofoverhimwho knows.Theignorantpersonhasnoproof.potherofthepeopleofEgypt,understand mywords:WeneverdoubtAllah.Doyounotknowthatthesunandmoon,dayand nightcomesuccessively,whiletheydonomistake,nordotheycomeBACK?They havebeenforcedtodothat.Theyhavenoplaceexcepttheirpalaces.Iftheywere abletoleavetheirplaces,thenwhydotheycomeBACK?Besidestheonewhohas forcedthemtodothatiswiserandgreaterthanthem.So,theunbelieversaid:You areright. ThenAbaAbdAllah(atSdiq),peacebeonhim,said:potherofthepeopleofEgypt, youthinkthatthetimeforcesthem(thesunandthemoon,dayandnight)tocome successively,thenwhydoesthetimenotforcethemtocomeBACK?Andifthetime wasabletoforcethemtocomeBACK,whydoesitnottakethemaway?potherofthe peopleofEgypt,iftheyareforced(todothat),whyistheskyraised?Whyistheearth Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

set?Whydoestheskydonotslopedowntheearth?Whydoestheearthdonotslope downitslayers?Whydotheskyandtheeartfrdonotsticktogether?Whydoes whatsontheearthnotsticktogether?Theunbelieveraiersonsaid:TheirLordand Masterhaspreventedthem(theskyandtheearth)fromstickingtogether. He(Hishamb.atHakam)said:So,theunbelieverbelievedinAllahwiththehelpof AbAbdAllah(atSdiq),peacebeonhim.Then,Hamranb.Ayunsaid:MayIbe ransomforyou,theunbetieversbelievedinAllahwiththehelpofyourfather,too. ThentheunbelieverwhobelievedinAllahwiththehelpofAbLiAbdAllah(atSdiq), peacebeonhim,saidtoatSdiq:Makemeamongyourstudents.So,AbUAbd Allah(atSfldiq),peacebeonhim,said:Hisham,theteacherofthepeopleofSham (Syria)andEgypt,teachhimbelief.So,theinnerselfoftheunbelieverbecamegood. ThenAbUAbdAllah(atSdiq),peacebeonhim,wassatisfiedwithhim. AnotherunbelievercametoatSadiqandaskedhimaboutsomething.Thefollowing aresomeextractsofthem.Theunbelieveraskedhim:Howdothecreaturesworship Allah,whiletheydonotseeHim?AbuAbd (157) Allah,peacebeonhim,said:TheheartshaveseenHimthroughthelightofbelief. Reasonhasprovenhimthroughitsattentionasthefacultyofsight.Theeyeshave seenHimthroughHisgoodformationandfirmregulation.Then(peoplehaveknown Allah)throughtheapostlesandtheirproofs,theBooksandtheirclearverses.Andthe scholarshavelimitedthemselvestowhattheyhaveseenofHisGreatnesswithout seeingHim.Theunbelieversaid:IsHenotabletomanifestHimselftopeopleto knowHimandtoworshipHimwithconviction?He(atSadiq),peacebeonhim, said:Thereisnoanswertotheimpossiblethings. I(theauthor)say:Thevisionisprovenforbodies.AsAllahisnotbody,thenseeingI Jimisimpossible.Theimpossiblethingcannotbeachievednotbecausethereisa defectinpowerbutbecauseofthedefectintheimpossiblethings. Then,theunbelieversaid:Howdoyouprove(thepositionof)theprophetsandthe Divinemessengers?He(atSdiq),peacebeonhim,answered:Aswehaveproven thatthereisOneCreatorforus,Whoisfaraboveus,andalsofaraboveallthathas beencreated.AndthatHeisAllwise,MostHigh,andtheOne.whocannotpossible beseenorsensedbyHiscreaturessothattherecouldbeanydirectrelationbetween HimandHiscreaturesorHiscreaturesandHim,andsothatHecouldarguewithHis Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

creatures(toconvincethem)andHiscreaturescouldarguewithHim(intheirturn).It is(therefore)provedthatthereareenvoys(mabflthTn)toestablisharelation betweenHimandHiscreaturestoexplainHispurposetoHiscreaturesandservants andtoguidethemtowardswhatisgoodandprofitableforthem,andalsotowards thatwhichpreservestheirexistenceandwhich,avhenitisabandoned,pings annihilation.ThusithasbeenproventhattherearethoseamongHiscreatureswho commandandforbidonbehalfof(Allah),theAltknowing,theAllWise,andwho speakonbehalfofHim,towhombelongMightandMajesty.Theyaretheprophets, theselectedamongHiscreatures,thewisewhoteachwisdom,andwhoaresentwith wisdom(forHiscreatures).Althoughtheyhavetheirformincommonwith(other) creatures,theirstatestheydonotsharewiththem.Theyhavebeenaidedwithwise proofs,suchasgivinglifetothedead,healingtheblindandtheleprous,by(Allah)the AllWise,theAllKnowing. Then,theunbelieversaid:FromwhichthinghasHe(Allah)createdthethings?He (atSdiq),peacebeonhim,said:Fromnothing.He(theunbeliever)said:Howis thethingcreatedfromnothing?He(atSadiq)said:Eitherthethingshavebeen createdfromathingorfromnothing.Ifthethingswerecreatedfromathing,then thethingwouldbeeternal,andtheeternal(thing)wouldnotbeoriginatedor changed.Besidesthatthingwouldbeoneessenceandonecolor,thenfromwhere havethesedifferentcolorsandmanyessencescomeinthisworld?Fromwherehas deathcome (158) ifthethingfromwhichthethingshavebeencreatedisliving?Andfromwherehaslife comeifthatthingisdead? I(theauthor)say:Althoughthismatterisverydifficult,theImamhasclearly explaineditaccordingtologicalreasons. Thentheunbelieversaid:Fromwherehavethey(people)believedthatthethings areeternal?He(atSdiq),peacebeonhim,said:Thisisthethoughtofthepeople whodeniedtheCreatorofthethings,accusedthemessengersandtheirthoughtsof lying.They(people)calledtheBooksoftheprophetsfables.Theyputreligionfor thefliselvesaccordingtotheirideasandapproval,whilethethingsindicatetheir creation,suchastherotationoftheorbitandwhatithas;theyaresevenorbits,the movementoftheearthandwhatisonit,thechangeoftime.... Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,hadmanydebateswithb.AbatAwj.Oneofthemis asfollows: Oneday,b.AbflatAwjaandb.atMuqaffawereinatMasjidatHarm(theHoly MosqueinMecca).BinatMuqaffasaid:Lookatthosepeople,whoareperforming theprocessionaroundtheKaaba.Nooneofthemisworthyofthenameofhumanity exceptthatShaykh(hemeantAbuAbdAllahJafaratSdiq,peacebeonhim)the restaremererabbleandbeasts.BinAbflatAwjaaskedhim:Whyhaveyou excludedthatShaykh?IbinatMuqaffaanswered:Becausehehasoutstanding qualitiesofwhichnonehas.Imusttestyourwords,binAbflatAwjaanswered. BinatMuqaffasaidtohim:Donotdothat,forIamafraidthathewillapogateyour beliefs.Thisisnotyourpurpose.However,youareafraidthatyouropinionwillbe weakwithmewhenIdiscoversomethingcontrarytohisrankwhichyouhave describedtome.Bina!Muqaffasaid:Donotworry!Goandtesthim.Bewareof givingfreereintoyourideassoasnottoovercomeyou.IbinAbAlaAwjwentto alSdiq.ThenhecameBACKandsaid:BinatMuqaffa,woeuntoyou!Thisisnota humanbeing.Whathashappenedtoyou?askedb.atMuqaffa.BinAbat Awjaanswered:Iattendedhismeeting.Whentherewasnoonethere,hesaidto me:Ifthematterisaccordingtowhatthosebelieve,anditisaccordingtotheir belief,thentheywillbesaved,whileyouwiltberuined.Andifthematterisaccording towhatyoubelieve,anditisnotaccordingtoyourbelief,thenyouandtheyare equal.I(BinAbatAwj)said:MayAllahhavemercyuponyou,whatisthe differencebetweentheirbeliefandours?Theirbeliefandoursisthesame.AtSadiq said:Howcanyourbeliefandtheirsbethesame?TheybelieveinResurrection,the reward,thepunishment.TheybelievethattheskyhasGod,anditisinhabited,while youclaimthattheskyisdestructionandhasnoone.He(BinAbDatAwja)said: So,Iseizedtheopportunityandsaidtohim:Ifthematterisaccordingtotheirbelief, thenwhathaspreventedHim(Allah)frommanifestingHimselftoHiscreature (159) tosummonthemtoworshipHimaasnotwopersonsaredisagreedonHim?Whyhas hehiddenHimselffromthemandsentthemessengerstothem?IfHemanifested Himself,peoplewouldbelieveinHimeasily.atSffdiqsaidtome:Woeuntoyou! HeWhohasshownyouHispowerinyoursetfahowhasHehiddenHimselffromyou? Hehascreatedyouwhileyouwerenothing,madeyougrowupwhileyouwerea child,madeyoustrongwhileyouwereweak.Now,thinkofyourillnessafteryour health,yourhealthafteryourillness,yourpleasureafteryouranger,yourangerafter yourpleasure,yoursorrowafteryourhappiness,yourhappinessafteryoursorrow, Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

yourloveafteryourhatred,yourhatredafteryourlove....He(atSdiq)wenton mentioningAllahsfavorswhichareinmyselfandwhichIcannotdeny.So,Ithought thatHe(Allah)wouldappearbetweenhim(alSdiq)andme.[1] AbuShakiratDaysany,anArabunbeliever,sometimesdebatedwithatSdiq,peace beonhim,andsometimeswithHishmb.atHakam.However,Hishmwenttoat Sadiq,peacebeonhim,whenatDaysanyaskedhimacertainquestion.Oneday,at DaysnysaidtoHishm:ThereisaverseintheKoran,whichisoursaying,(that therearetwogods).Hishmsaid:Whatisit(theverse)?AlDaysnyanswered: AnditisHeWhoinheavenisGodandinearthisGod.[2]Hishamsaid:Ididnotknow howtoanswerhim.So,IwenttoperformthehajjandItoldAbAbdAllah,peacebe onhim,aboutthequestion.AlSadiqsaid:Thesearethewordsofanunbeliever. WhenyoucomeBACK,askhim:WhatisyournameinKufa?Surety,hewillsayby suchandsuchname.Thenaskhim:WhatisyournameinBasrah?Suretyhewilt replybysuchandsuchname.Thenyoutellhim:SuchisourLord,Allah,Whoin heavensisGod,inearthisGod,inseasisGod,indesertsisGod.Thus,HeisGodat everyplace.Hishmsaid:IcameBACKtoKufaandwenttoAbShkirandgave himthereply.So,hesaid:ThesewordshavebeenpoughtfromHijaz.[3] TheOutstandingMeritoftheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily: AbuKlianTsatKufisaid:IattendedthemeetingofatSadiq,peacebeonhim,anda groupoftheChristianswasinhispresence.They(theChristians)said:The outstandingmeritofMUsE,Isa,andMohammedisthesame,forthey,peacebeon them,aretheOwnersoftheLawsandtheBooks.AtSadiq,peacebeonhim,said: Mohammedisthebestandthemostknowledgeableofthem,peacebeonthem. Allah,theBlessedandExalted,hasgrantedhimknowledgeofwhichHehasgranted none.They 1A1Kaft,aITawhTd. 2a1Zukhruf,84. 3alKHti,ChapteronMovementandMobility. (160) (theChristians)said:HasanyverseoftheKoranbeenrevealedinthisrespect?Al Sadiq,peacebeonhim,said:Yes.TheseverseofAllah,theExalted:AndWe ordainedforhiminthetabletsadmonitionofeverykind.[1]HiswordstoIsa:And thatImaymakecleartoyoupartofwhatyoudifferin.[2] Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Allah,theExalted,saidtoMohammed,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,:AndWe wiltpingyouasawitnessagainsttheseandWehaverevealedtheBooktoyou explainingclearlyeverything.[3]So,thatHemayknowthattheyhavetrulydelivered themessagesoftheirLord,andHeencompasseswhatiswiththem,andHerecords thenumberofallthings.[4]Then,byAllah,he(Mohammed)isthemost knowledgeableofthem.IfMUsa'andIsaattendedinmypresenceandaskedme,I wouldanswerthem,andIaskedthem,theywouldnotanswer.[5] I(theauthor)say:AstheCommanderoftheFaithful(ImamAti)isthegateofthe knowledgeoftheProphet,andhissonshasinheritedhisknowledge,thenthey(his sons)arethemostknowledgeableofallmen,theProphetsandthelike. TreatingtheWomenwithJustice: AnunbelieversaidtoAbUJafaratAhwat[6]:TellmeaboutthefollowingWordsof Allah,theExalted:Thenmarrysuchwomenasseemgoodtoyou,twoandthreeand four;butifyoufearthatyouwiltnotdojustice(betweenthem),thenmarryonly one.[7]andtheseWordsofHis:Andyouhaveitnotinyourpowertodojustice betweenwives,eventhoughyoumaywish(it),butbenotdisinclined(fromone)with totaldisinclination.[8]aThereisadifferencebetweenthese.twoverses.AbiiJafar atAhwatsaid:Ihadnoanswer.So,wenttoMedinaandcametoAbAbdAllah, peacebeonhim,andaskedhimaboutthedifferencebetweenthetwoverses.At Sdiqsaid:Asfortheverse:Butifyoufearthatyouwillnotdojustice(between them),thenmarryonlyone,He(Allah)hasmeanttheexpenses.Andasfortheverse: Andyouhaveitnotinyourpowertodojusticebetweenwives,eventhoughyoumay wish(it),He(Allah)hasmeantlove,fornooneisabletodojusticetotwowivesin 1alA'raf,145 2alZukhruf,63. 3alNahl,89. 41Jinn,28. 5BiharalAnwar,10/215/15. 6Mu'minalTaq.WewillmentionhimwithHisReliableNarrators. 7a1Nisl3. 8Ibid,129. (161) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

love.ThenAbElJafarcameBACKtotheunbelievercaringtheanswer.Butthe unbelieversaid:YouhavepoughtthisanswerfromHijaz.[1] TheMutazelitesduringtheNominationofMohammed: AgroupoftheMutazelitescametoatSadiq,peacebeonhim.Amongthemwere Amrub.Ubayd,Wsilb.At,Hafsb.Slim,andthelike.TheycametoatSdiq afteratWat?dhadbeenkilledandthepeopleofSham(Syria)differedinopinion. Theytalkedverymuch.So,atSdiq,peacebeonhim,saidtothem:Youhavetalked verymuchtome,thenentrustyourmattertoamanofyoutospeakpieflyaboutyour proof.So,theyentrustedtheirmattertoAmrub.Ubayd,whospokeatgreat lengthaboutthematter.Someofhisspeechisasfollows: ThepeopleofShamkilledtheirCaliph.Allahhashitsomeofthemwithsomeof them.So,thehavedifferedinopinion.Wehadthoughtofaman(toleadus),thenwe havefoundthemanwithreligion,reason,manhood,worthinessoftheCaliphate.He isMohammedb.AbdAllahb.atHasan.Wewanttonominatehim,supporthim,then wedeclareourmatterthroughhim,andsummonpeopletonominatehim.So, whoevernominateshim,wewillbewithhimandbewithus.Whoeverisolates himselffromus,wewillisolateourselvesfromhim.Whoevershowsenmitytoward us,wewillfightagainsthimandshowenmitytowardhimduetohisenmityandping himBACKtothetruereligionanditspeople.So,wehavedecidedtosubmitthis mattertoyoubecauseweareinneedofyou,andyouhaveoutstandingmeritsand manyfollowers(Shia). WhenAmruhadfinishedhisspeech,AbElAbdAllahsaid:DoyouacceptAmrus words?Yes,theysaid,Then,AbElAbdAllahpraisedAllahandlaudedHimandasked AllahtoblesstheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,andthenhesaid: Indeed,webecomeindignantwhenAllahisdisobeyedandwebecomepleasedwhen Heisobeyed.Amru,tellme:Ifthecommunityentrusteditsaffairstoyouandyou ruleditWithoutfightingnorprovisions,thenitwassaidtoyou:Nominatetheruler whomeveryouwantoverit(thecommunity),whomwiltyounominate?Amrusaid: Iwillmakeit(authority)consultationamongtheMuslims.AlSadiqsaid:Among themalt?Yes,saidAmrii.AlSadiqsaid:Amongtheirjuristsandtheirgoodones? Yes,Amrflsaid.AlSadiqsaid:Qurayshandotherthanthem?Arabsandnon Arabs,AmrTisaid:Yes.AlSadiqsaid:AmrIl,wiltyouSupportAbilBakrandUmar orrenouncethem?Iwillsupportthem,saidAmrti.AtSadiqsaid: 1BiharalAnwTha,10/202/6.

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(162) Amru,ifyouareman,thenrenouncethem,foritispermittedforyoutodisobey them.Ifyousupportthem,thenIdisobeythem.ThatisbecauseUmarnominated AbElBakranddidnotasktheadviceofanyone.Then,UmarmadetheCaliphate consultationamongsixpersons.HeexcludedtheAnsrandchosethosesixpersons fromQuraysh.Thenhegavehisorderstomenconcerningthosesixperson.Ithink thatneitheryounoryourcompanionsacceptthem.WhatdidUmarordermento do?askedAmru.AlSadiqanswered:UmarorderedSuhaybtoleadpeoplein prayersforthreedays.Thosesixpersonsshouldasktheadviceofeachother.Noone shouldbeamongthemexceptUmarsson.TheyshouldasktheadviceofUmarsson buthehadnorightintheCaliphate.HeorderedtheMuhajrTn(immigrants)and Ansrs(thesupporters)tobeheadthosesixpersonsiftheydidnotelectoneofthem duringthethreedays.Andiffourofthesixpersonsheldameetingbeforethethree daysendandtwopersonsabsentedthemselvesfromthemeeting,thenthetwo personshadtobekilled.Doyouacceptthesedeedsconcerningconsultationwhich youintendtosummonMuslimsto?No,theysaid.AtSEldiqsaid:Amrfl,leavethis. SupposethatyouhavenominatedyourcompanionandallMuslimcommunity acceptedthat,thenwillyoureachtheatheists?Yes,thesaid.AlSEldiqsaid:What willyoudo?Amrsaid:WewillsummonthemtoIslam.Whentheyrefusethat,we willimposepotttaxonthem.AtSdiqsaid:Whatwiltyoudowhentheyare magians,fireandanimalworshippers,andarenotfromthefollowersoftheDivine Books?Theyareequal,Amrflanswered. AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,said:Tellme:DoyoureaaJtheKoran?Yes,AmrU answered.AtSadiqsaid:Read(this)verse:FightthosewhodonotbelieveinAllah, norinthelatterday,nordotheyprohibitwhatAllahandHisApostlehaveprohibited, norfollowthereligionoftruth,outofthosewhohavebeengiventheBook,untilthey paypotltaxinacknowledgmentofsuperiorityandtheyareinastateof subjection.[1]AmrUsaid:Allah,theGreatandAlmighty,hasregardedthemas equal.Fromwhomhaveyoulearnedthat?askedatSadiq.Ihaveheardpeoplesay that.answeredAmru. AlSadiqsaid:Now,leavethat.Supposethatthey(nonMuslims)refusedtopaypoll taxandyoufoughtagainstthemanddefeatedthem,thenhowwouldyoudividethe booty?Amrtianswered:Itakeoutonefifth(Khoms)anddividedfourfifthsamong thefighters.AlSadiqaslaed:Youdividethebootyamongallthefighters?Yes, Amrtianswered.AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:ThenyoudisagreewithAltaha Apostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,onhisactsandbehavior.Betweenyou Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

andIarethejuristsofMedinaandtheirShaykhs.Askthem.Theyareallinagreement thatAllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,made 1alTawba,29. (163) peacewiththeBedouins(ArAb)toletthemliveintheirhousesandthattheyhadnot toimmigrate.However,whenhisenemiesattackedhim,hemobilizedthem(the Bedouins)andgavethemnothingofthebooty,whileyousaythatyoudividebooty equallyamongthem.So,youareindisagreementwithAllahsApostle,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily,onhisbehaviortowardtheatheists. AlSfidiqsaid:Now,leavethat.Whatisaboutalms?AmrUreadthisverse:Almsare onlyforthepoorandtheneedy,andtheofficials(appointed)overit(alms)....[1]Al Sdiqsaid:Yes,howdoyoudivideit(alms)amongthem?Amrflanswered:Idivide itintoeightshares.So,Igiveeachgroupashare.AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:If onegroupistenthousandspeople,andonegroupisoneortwoorthreepeople,then youhavemadetheshareofthesecondgroupastheshareofthefirstgroup?Yes, Amrflanswered.AtSadiqsaid:Doyoudividealmsequallyamongthepeopleof townsandthepeopleofthedeserts?Yes,Amriianswered.AlSadiqsaid:Then, youareindisagreementwithAllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,on hisbehavior.AllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,dividedthealmsof thedeserts,thealmsoftownsamongthepeopleofthetowns.Hedidnotdivided almsequallyamongthem.Hedividedalmsamongthosewhocametohimandthose whomhesaw.Then,ifyouhavedoubtaboutwhatIhavesaid,thejuristsofthe peopleofMedinaandtheirShaykhsareallinagreementthatAllahsApostle,may Allahblesshimandhisfamily,didthat. Then,atSadiqturnedtoAmriiandsaid:AmrU,fearAllah.You,people,fearAllah, too.Thatisbecausemyfather,whowasthebestofthepeopleoftheearthandthe mostknowledgeableoftheminAllahsBookandtheSunnaofHisApostle,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily,hastoldme:Whoeverhitspeoplewihisswordand summonsthemtohimself,andthereis(aperson)moreknowledgeablethanhim amongtheMuslimsisastrayandpretending.,,[2] HisDebatesonReligiousDevotion: SufyanatThawrycametoatSadiq,peacebeonhim.Hesawhimwearingclothesas Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

whiteastheshelloftheegg.Hesaidtohim:Theseclothesdonotsuiteyou.Al Sadiqsaidtohim:Listentomywords.Itisbetterforyousoonerorlaterwhenyou followtheSunnaandthetruthanddonotfollowtheheresy. ItellyouthatAllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,livedduringthe timeofdestitution.However,whenlifeisprosperous,then 1alTawba,60. 2alTupisy,aIIhtijaj. (164) thosewhoareworthyofitaretherighteousnotthesinners,thebelieversnotthe hypocrites,andtheMuslimsnottheunbelievers.Thenwhyhaveyoucriticizedme, Thawri?ByAllah,IhaveadoptedwhatyouseesinceIbecameagrownup.Inthe meantime,IalwayscarryoutAllahsordersconcerningmyproperty. Agroupofpeoplewhoaffectedreligiousdevotionandsummonedpeopletobelike theminrenouncingworldlypleasure.Theysaidtohim:Ourcompanionisunableto expresshimselfandhisproofsdonotcometohismind.AlSdiqsaidtothem:Give meyourproofs.Theysaidtohim:OurproofsarefromAllahsBook.AlSdiqsaid tothem:Saythem,fortheyarethebestthingswhichweshouldfollowandputinto effect.Theysaid:TellingaboutagroupofthecompanionsoftheProphet,may Allahblesshimandhisfamily,Allah,theGreatandAlmighty,says:Andpreferthem beforethemselvesthoughpovertymayafflictthem,andwhoeverispreservedfrom theniggardlinessofhissoul,theseitisthatarethesuccessfulones.[1]So,Allahhas laudedtheirdeeds.Inanotherplace,Allahsays:Andtheygivefoodoutoflovefor Him(Allah)forthepoorandtheorphanandthecaptive.[2] Amanofthosewhoweresittingsaid:Wehaveseenthatyouorderpeopletorefrain fromgoodfood,whileyouorderpeopletopayashareoftheirpropertiestoenjoy yourselveswithit.AbAbdAllah(atSadiq)saidtothem:Putasidewhatdoesnot availyou.Tellme,people,areyouacquaintedwiththeapogatingandapogated versesoftheKoran,theclearandallegoricalversesofit?Thatisbecausemany peopleofthiscommunitygotruinedduetosuchkindofverses.Theysaidtohim: Someoftheseverses,notallofthem.AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,saidtothem:From here,youhavecome.AlsoyoushouldbeacquaintedwiththetraditionsofAllahs Apostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.Asfortheverseswhichyouhave mentionedtousfromtheBookofAllah,andwhichareconcerningthepeoplewhose Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

deedsAllahpraised,theirfoodwaspermitted,andAllahdidnotprohibitthemfrom that.AlsotheirrewardswillbefromAllah,theGreatandAlmighty.ThenAllah,the BlessedandExalted,prohibitedthemfromthat.So,Hisorderapogatedtheir (previous)acts.AlsoHisorderwasasmercyfromHimtowardthebelieverssoasnot toharmthemselvesandtheirfamiliesbecausetheyhadweakchildren,oldmen,and oldwomen.(Forexample),IfIgavemyloafofpeadasalms,whileIhadnoloafother thanit,thenthey(myfamily)wouldgetruined.Forthisreason,AllahsApostle,may Allahblesshimandhisfamily,said:Whenthepersonhasfivedatesorfiveloavesof peadordinnersordirhamsandhewantstospendthem,thenthebestpersonstobe spenton 1alHashr,9. 2alDahr,8. (165) arehisparents,himselfandhisfamily,hispoorrelatives,hispoorneighbors,andin thewayofAllah. TheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,saidtotheAnsfiri,whoreleasedfive orsixslavesduringhisdeathwhilehehadnoneotherthanthemandhehadlittle children:Ifyouhadtoldmeabouthisdeed,Iwouldhavenotallowedyoutobury himwiththeMuslims.Thatisbecausehehasforcedhischildrentoaskpeoplefor alms. Then,alSadiqsaid:MyfatherhastoldmeontheauthorityofAllahsApostle,may Allahblesshimandhisfamily,whosaid:startwiththosewhomyoumaintain,the nearest,thenearer,thenear. Then,atSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:Now,listentothisversefromtheBook, whichisregardedasananswertoyourwordsandanimposedorderfromAllah,the Almighty,theWise:Andtheywhowhentheyspend,areneitherextravagantnor parsimonious,and(keep)betweenthesethejustmen.[1]Donotyouseethatthese WordsofAllah,theBlessedandExalted,arecontrarytowhatyouhavesummoned peopleto? So,people,conformtothemannerswhichAllahhaslegislatedtothebelievers. ConfineyourselvestowhatHehasbiddenandwhatHehasforbidden.Leavewhat youdonotknow.LearnknowledgefromitspeoplesothatAllah,theBlessedand Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Exalted,shallforgiveyouandrewardyou.Learntheapogatingandapogatedverses, theclearandallegoricalverses,thelawfulandunlawfulintheKoran.Altthesethings drawyounearertoAllahandmakeyoufarfromignorance.Leaveignorancetoits people.Thatisbecausethepeopleofignorancearemany,andthepeopleof knowledgearefew.So,Allah,theGreatandAlmighty,hassaid:Andaboveevery ownerofknowledgeistheAllknowingone.[2] HisDebateonTruthfulness: Withoutdoubtpeoplebecomeignorantandastraywhentheydependontheirown viewpointsanddonotconsultthepeopleoftrueknowledge.So,theignorantperson goesastrayinthemethodsofignorance.However,hethinksthatheisknowledgeable inthetruereligiouslaw. TherewasadebatebetweenatSadiq,peacebeonhim,andanignorantpersonwho affectedknowledgeintruthfulness.AlSadiqhimselfhastoldusaboutthisdebate. Hehassaid: Indeed,whoeverfollowshisdesireandadmireshisideabecomeslikethatperson whomignorantpeopleregardedasgreat.IsawagroupofPeoplesurroundinghim. So,Iwantedtomeethim.Hedeceivedthatgroupofpeople,thenheleftthem.I followedhim.Soon,hepassedbyabaker.Liemadethebakerheedlessandtooktwo loavesofpeadfromhisbakery.I 1a1Furqan,67. 2YousIf,76. 2WasaiIaIShia,2/57. (166) wasastonishedathim,thenItalkedtomyself:Perhaps,heishiscustomer.Then,I said:Whyhashestolenthetwoloavesofpead?Then,Iwentonfollowinghim.Soon, hepassedbypomegranateseller.Hemadehimheedlessandtooktwo pomegranates.Iwasastonishedathim,andthenIsaidtomyself:Perhaps,heishis customer.ThenIsaid:Whyhasbestolenthem?ThenIwentonfollowinghimtillhe passedbyasickperson.Heputthetwoloavesofpeadandthetwopomegranates beforeasickperson. ThenI(atSadiq)askedhimabouthisact.Hesaid:perhaps,youareJafarb. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Mohammed?Yes,Isaid.Hesaidtome:Whatdoesyournoblporiginavailyou whileyouareignorant?WhichverseoftheKoranamIignorantat?Iasked.Hesaid theseWordsofAllah,theGreatandAlmighty:Whoeverpingsagooddeed,heshall havetenlikeit,anjwhoeverpingsandevildeedheshaltberecompensedonlywith thelitaeofit.[1]WhenIstolethetwoloavesofpead,theyweretwoevildeeds.And WhenIstolethetwopomegranates,theyweretwoevildeeds,too.Sathesearefour evildeeds.WhenIgaveeachoneofthemasalms,Allahhaaasubtracted4evildeeds from40gooddeeds.So,Ihave36gooddeeds.L(atSdiq)said:Mayyourmother loseyou!ItisyouwhoareignorantattheBookofAllah.Haveyounotheardthat Allahsaid:(Allah)accepts(deeds)fromthepiousonly.Whenyoustolethetwo loavesofpead,thoy,weretwoevildeeds.Andwhenyoustolethetwo pomegranates,theyweraatwoevildeeds,too.Andwhenyougavethemtoother thantheirownerwithoutthepermissionoftheirowner,youhaveaddedfourevil deedstoafourevildeeds,andyouhavenotaddedfourevildeedstofortygood deeds.So,hebeganlookingatme.ThenIlefthimandwentaway.a AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,said:They(theianorant)mislead(people)aandgoastray withthisugly,hatefulexplanation.[2] 1alAnflm,160. 2Wasailalshi'a,2/57. HISLIFEANDHISGOODMANNERS (167) prelude: Thelifeofapersondenoteshisinnerself.Andhisinnerselfishiddeninhislife.The seducersoffraudwhopretensetoconcealwhattheirheartshavethroughshowing goodmannersandguidance.Theirwordsandactsquicklyexposetheirinward thoughts.Indeed,theslipsoftheirtongueandtheiractsshowwhathasbeenhidden intheirbeans. Thegarmentofpretenserevealswhatisunderit. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

So,ifyoucoveryourselfwithit,thenyouarenaked. Goodmenwithknowledgealwaystrytohidetheirpureinnerselvestoavoid enchantmentandfame.However,theirgooddeedsspread.Andthegloryoftheir holysoulsshines.(Asthepoetsays): Andwhateveraqualitythepersonhas evenifhethinksthatitremainssecretforpeople, it(thequality)isknown. Yes,perhapsagroupofpeoplestandsuptoprotectthisdeceivingbandbecauseof thepartyordeceptionbythesurfaceofthosegoodaffairs.Besides,agroupofpeople mayrushtodamagethegreatfigurestofollowsomepersonswhomthediseasesof envy,spite,ignorance,andstubbornnesshavemined,buttheclearheadedperson doesnotignorethetruth.Andthesievecannotcoverthesun. ThelifeofalSdiq,peacebeonhim,guidesustohisqualitiesandinformsusabout hisinnerself.Hewasamongthemembersofthehouse(ahlalBayt),whomAllah droveawayuncleannessandpurifiedthemthoroughly.Hewasamongthefamily whomtheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,leftamonghiscommunityto explainthesilentBookofAllah.Besides,hisfamilyandAllahsBookformedthe firmesthandlewhichshallnotpeakoff.Andwhoeverholdsfasttoitshallbesaved fromthewaysofmisguidance. Thus,.throughhisrighteouslife,atSdiqwantedtopingpeopleoutofmisguidance, andignorance.Alsohewantedtomakethementerguidanceandknowledge.Midhis innerselfwasembodiedinthecareerofhislife.So,wewillmentionsomeexamples ofhislifetoindicatehisgreatmannersandhisholyAlawidsoulwhosparednoeffort toleadpeopletowardguidanceandrighteousness. HisSocialMannera: Laudablemannersmaybepsychologicalinstinctsandnaturalhabits,suchas generosity,pavery,cheerfulness,andeloquence.Alsotheymaybe (168) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

acquisitive,suchasworship,religiousdevotion,knowledge,sciences,arts,andsoon. WhoeverconsiderscarefullythelifeofHshimandofhisSonsunderstandsthatthey hadthenaturalandthelearnedmanners.AlsoAllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshim andhisfamily,hadthoseoutstandingmannerswhichsuitedhisDivineoffice.Thenhis progenyadoptedthesamemanners. WhoeverstudiescarefullythelifeofAbUAbdAllah(atSadiq),peacebeonhim, knowsthatheempacedtheoutstandinglifeofhisgrandfather(theChosenone),may Allahblesshimandhisfamily.Thenthepersonisknownthroughhisdeeds. AlthoughatSdiqdidnotspeakabouthislife,hisdeedshaveindicatedhisqualities. Oneday,atSadiqandhiscompanionswenttocondolehisreaativewhosechilddied. WhilealSdiqwaswalking,thethongofhissandalpokeoff.So,alSadiqpickedup hissandalsandwalkedbarefooted.Oneofhiscompanionscattedb.AbElYafar[1] lookedathim,andthenhetookoffhisownsandal,cutoffitsthongandhandeditto AbiiAbdAllah(atSdiq),peacebeonhim.However,atSadiqbecameangryand refusedtotakethethong.Thenhesaid:No,theownerofthemisfortuneisworthier thanothersinenduringit.Thenhewentonwalkingbarefootedtillheenteredthe houseofthepersonwhomhewantedtocondole. WhenatSadiqspreadthetable,heurgedhiscompanionstoeatandmadethem enjoythefood.Perhaps,hepoughtsomefoodaftertheyhadbecomesatisfied. However,theyrefusedtoeat.So,hesaid:Youhaveeatennothing.Indeed,those wholoveusverymucharethosewhoeatverymuchwithus.Thenhetoldthem sometraditionsontheauthorityoftheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily, toencouragethemtoeatthefoodandtoappealtoadditionalfood.Heusedto reportthefollowingwordswhichtheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily, saidtoSalman,alMuqdad,andAbtiDharr:Thosewholoveusverymucharethose whoeatmuchfoodwithus. Inspiteofhisimportanceandoldage,atSadiqpreventedhisguestsfromfulfilling anyneed.Whenhefoundnoonetofulfilltheirneeds,hehimselfstooduptoserve them,andthenhesaid:AllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily, prevented(theMuslims)fromputtingtheguestintoservice.[2] AsatSdiqwantedtheguesttostayforalongertimewithhim,hedidnothelphim togoashedidwiththepeopleofJuhayna.Heorderedhis Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

1HewillbementionedwithHisFamousReliableCompanions. 2BiharalAnwar,47/40/48. (169) servantsnottohelpthemtodepart.So,theysaidtohim:SonofAllahsApostle,may Allahblesshimandhisfamily,youentertainedusinanexcellentmanner,andyou offeredusmanygifts,thenyouorderedyourservantsnottohelpustodepart.So, he,peacebeonhim,said:We,themembersofthehouse(ahla!Bayt),donothelp ourgueststoleaveus.[1] HisLiberality: AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,saidtoalMuallab.KhanTs:Mualla,showlovetoyour pothers(friends)throughsendingthemgifts.Indeed,Allah,theMostHigh,hasmade givingloveandpreventinghatred.ByAllah,Ifyouaskme(forsomething)andIgive you(thatthing)ismoredesirablethanthatyouaskme(forsomething)andIdonot giveyou(thatthing),soyouhateme.[2] Oneday,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,gaveapoormanfourhundreddirhams.The poormantookthem,thankedhimforthem,andwentaway.AlSdiqsaidtohis servant:pingthepoormanBACK.Thepoormansaid:Master,Iaskedyou(fora need),andyouhavegivenme(theneed),thenwhatdowanttogiveme?AlSadiq saidtohim:AllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,said:Thebestalms isthatwhichpingsaboutriches.Wehavenotmadeyourich.So,takethisring.I wantedtosellitfortenthousanddirhams.Whenyoubecomesinneedofit,thensell itatthiscost.[3] Oneday,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,wasill.AcompanionofhiscalledAshjaat Salami[4]cameandaskedhimabouthisillness.AlSadiqsaidtohim:Leavemy illnessandaskmeforyourneed.Then,he(alSdiq)said:Servant,haveyou anything?Theservantsaid:Fourhundreddirhams.AlSadiqsaid:Givethemto Ashja.[5] AlMufaddalb.Qaysb.Rummna,areliablenarratorofatSadiq,cametoatSdiq andtoldhimabouthispoorconditionandaskhimtopraytoAllahforhim.AlSdiq said:Femaleslave,givemethebagwhichAbUJafarhassenttous.Thefemale stavepoughtthebag.ThenatSdiqsaid:Therearefourhundreddinarsinthisbag. Helpyourselfwiththem.Ashjasaid:No,mayIberansomforyou,byAllah,Idonot Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

wantthese(dinars),Ionlywantyoursupplication.AlSadiqsaidtohim:Iwillsay thesupplicationHowever,donottellpeopleallaboutyou,fortheywilldisdain you.[6] 1alSKdilq,alMajmis,Majlisno.18. 2A1Thsi,alAmEli,Majlisno.11. 3BihfiralAnwar,47/61. 4agoodpoet.HelovedahlalBaytverymuch. 5BinShahrlshflb,alManlqib,4/274. 6alKashy,aIRijal,121. (170) HisSecretGifts: AtnightaIS&liq,peacebeonhim,carriedonhisshoulderbagfullpead,meat,and dirhams.HewenttotheneedypeopleofMedma.dividedthosethingsamongthem, whiletheydidnotknowhim.Afterbiadeath,theyaskedaboutthosegifts.So,they knewthatAbAbdAllah(aIaSadiq),peacebeonhim,sentthem.[1] AlSadiqsgrandfathersempacedthatcustom,thenhisgrandsoaadoptedit,too. AlSadiqsentsecretgiftstothepeopleofMedina.Inthemeantimesentsuchgiftsto theHashimites.Hesentthemparcelsofdinarsandsaidthemessenger:Saytothe HashimitesthattheseparcelshavebeensentyoufromIraq.Whenthemessenger cameBACK,atSa"diqaskedhimWhatdidtheysay?Themessengersaid:They said:Asforyou,inAllahrewardyougoodbecauseyoupinggiftstotherelativesof AllaaiApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.AndasforJafar(atSa"dimay Allahjudgebetweenusandhim.So,AbflAbdAllah(atSa"dipeacebeonhim,sank tothearoundandsaid:Allah,humiliatemynformygrandfatherschildren.[2] Oneday,alSdiqgaveAbtIJafaratKhthami[3]aparcel(ofdinars)aiajorderedhim tosenditsecretlytoamanoftheHashimites.WhenKhthamipoughttheparcelto theman,he(theman)said:MayA1larewardhim(i.e.thesenderoftheparcel) good.Healwayssendmejparcel.Ilivewiththeparceltillanotheronecomes. However,Jafar(4Sdiq)sendsmenodirhamthoughhehasalotofmoney.[4] AlsoatSadiq,peacebeonhim,sentsecretgiftstothosewhoshowajenmitytoward him.Forexample,heallottedasumofmoneytoatb.alAftas. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

So,itwassaidtohim(alSa"diq):Willyougivethemanwhoattackcayouand wantedtokillyouwiththesword?AlSa"diq,peacebeonhiuasaid:Woeuntoyou! HavenotreadtheseWordsofAllah:Andthosewlajointhatwhichhasbiddentobe joinedandhaveaweoftheirLordandfeatheevilreckoning.[5]Indeed,Allahhas createdParadiseandmadeagood.[6] 1Biha"ralAnwar,47/38/40. 2lbid, 3HenamewasMohammedb.HakTm.Hewasamongthereliablecompanionsof aISUdiq. 4BinShahrLhflb,alManEqib,4/273. 5a1Rad,21. 6a1Tusi,alGhayba.BinShaplshUb,alManlqib,4/273. (171) HisCIemency WhenatSa"diq,peacebeenhim,heardsomeonedefamedhimorBACKbitedhimor abusedhim,hepreparedhimselftoprayers.Then,heinvoked1Allahforalongtime nottopunishtheSinnerandtoforgivehimhisSins.[1] Concerninghisbloodrelatives,atSdiqwasveryclement.So,hesaid:IwantAllah toknowthatIhavehumiliatedmyneckformybloodrelatives.AndIsendgiftstothe peopleofmyhousebeforetheyareinnoneedofme.[2] AlsoatSa"diqwasclementwithhisservantsandallpeople.Forinstance,hesenta servantofhistogethimacertainneed.Theservantwaslate.So,atSa"diqwentout tolookforhim.Hefoundtheservantsleeping.AtSdiqsatbyhisheadfanninghim tillhewoke.Whentheservantwoke,atSa"diqsaidnothingbut:Servant,whydo yousleepdayandnightnightisforyou,anddayisforus.[3] Oneday,atSa"diqsentanonArabservanttopinghimacertainneed.Whenthe servantcameBACK,alSfldiq,peacebeonhim,questionedhim,buthewasunableto answer.AlSkliqrepeatedthequestionseveraltimes,buttheservantwasstillunable toanswer.Anyhow,atSa"diqdidnotbecomeangrywithhim,hemereLooked sharplyathim,andthensaidtohim:Ifyourtongueistired,thenyourheartisnot tired.ThenalSdiq,peacebeonhim,added:Indeed,modesty,chastity,and Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

tiredness(thetirednessofthetonguenotoftheheart)areactsofbelief,while obscenity,abusiveness,andinsolenceareactsofhypocrisy.[4] AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,preventedthemembersofhishousefromgoinguptothe house.Onedayafemaleslave,wholookedafterhischildren,wentuptothehouse carryingachildofhis.Suddenly,atSadiqcameintothehouse.Whenthefemale slavesawhim,shetrembledwithfear.So,thechildfelldownthegroundanddied. AtSa~diqturnedpaleandwentoutofthehouse.Whenhewasaskedaboutthe reasonwhyhehadturnedpale,heanswered:IhaveturnedpalebecauseIhave terrifiedthefemaleslave,notbecauseofthedeathofthechild.Moreover,hesaidto her:Dontworry!YouarefreeforAllah![5] AlSa"dfq,peacebeonhim,wasclementwithallpeople.Forexample,amanofthe pilgrimsinMedinaslept.Themanthoughtthathisbag(ofmoney)hadbeenstolen. Hewentout.HesawatSa"diqpraying.Heaccusedhimofstealing,sayingtohim: Youhavetakenmybag!WhatMushkatalaal. 1MushkatalAnwar,217. 2alKafi,2/156/25. 3lbid,8/87. 4BihIralAnwar,47/61. 5alManKqib,4/275. (172) wasinyourbag?askedatSadiq.Onethousanddinars,answeredtheman.So,at S&IiqtookthemanwithhimtohishouseandgavehimOnethousanddinars.The mancameBACKhomeandfoundhisbag.ThencameBACKtoatSa"diq,gavehimthe money,andapologizedtohimthat.Thenthemanaskedsomepeopleaboutat Sdiq.Theysaid:ThisJafaratSa"diq.Nowonder!saidtheman. AlSa~diq,peacebeonhim,wasclementevenwithhisarchWhenatMansflr permittedatSdiqtoleaveatHIra(atowninIraq),(atSdiq)leftitatnight.When hereachedtheplaceofthearmedmconeofthemsaidtohim:Iwillnotletyougo! AlSa"diqbeggedhizseveraltimes,butthearmedmanrefusedthat.Murazim(at Sdiqcompanion)andMusdif(hisservant)accompaniedatSdiq.Musdifsajto him:MayIberansomforyou!Thisdog(i.e.thearmedman)hashi1you!Ithinkthat hewiltpingyouBACK.IdonotknowhowAbJafarMansflrwilttreatyou.So,permit MurzimandItobeheadhimandthrowhimintotheriver.No,saidatSdiq.Then Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

hewentonconviithatarmedmantillmostofnightwasover.Atlast,thearmedman letpass.So,atSdiqsaid:Mura"zim,isthisbetterorwhatyouhave(Murzim) said:MayIberansomforyou,thisisbetter....[1] HisKindness: AlSa"diq,peacebeonhim,treatedAltpeoplekindly.Onedaysummonedhisservant Musdifandsaidtohim:ThemembersofIfamilyhavebecomemany.So,prepare yourselfandgowiththetradersEgypt.WhentheyreachedEgypt,acaravanreceived themoutof.Theyaskedthemaboutthegoodswiththemandtoldthemthatthere nothingofthosegoodsinEgypt.So,thetradersfromMedinasoldtgoodsadit)arfor adinar.Whentheytooktheirmoney,theycameBACKMedina.MusdifcametoAbfl AbdAllah(atSadiq),peacebeonhim,.carryingtwobags.Therewasathousand dinarineachbag.MusdifsaidtoatSadiq:MayIbeyourransom,thisisthecapital andthesearetheinterests.AlSdiqsaidtohim:Theseinterestsaremany.How didyousellthegoods?Musdiftoldhimallaboutthegoods.So,atSdiqtookone ofthetwobagsandsaid:Thisismycapital.Iaminnoneedoftheinterests.Then headded:Musa~dif,duelingwithwordsiseasierthseekingthelawful.[2] AbHanTfaatHa"jj[3]quarreledwithhissoninlawaboutinheritance.Suddenly, atMufaddleb.Amru,atSa"diqsagentinKufa,passedbythem.Whenhe understoodtheirmatter,heorderedthemtogowithhimto 1RawdatalKafi,7/87/49. 2BiharalAnwar,47/59/111. 3HisnamewasSaeedBayBn.HewasareliablereporterofalSadiq. (173) hishome.Hemadepeacebetweenthemandgavethemfourhundreddirhaflls.When theybecamepleasedwitheachother,hesaidtothem:Thesefourhundreddirhanis arenotmine.However,AbUAbdAllah(atsftdiq),peacebeonhim,orderedmeto settlethequarrelbetweentwomenofourcompanionswithhismoney.So,these fourhundreddirhamsbelongtohim.,,[1] HisPatience: IsmTlwastheeldersonofatSdiq,peacebeonhim.Hehad0atstandingmerits, suchasvirtue,reason,worship,andthelike.AlSa"diq,peacebeonhim,lovedhim Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

verymuch.So,somepeoplethoughtthathewouldbetheImamafterhisfatherat Sa"diq.WhenIsma"Tlbecameill,atSadiqbecamesad.Stil,heinvitedhiscompanions andofferedthemgoodfood.Hedidnotmakethemfeelthathewassad.They thoughtthathewouldbeimpatientorweep.So,theyaskedhimabouthisfirm patience.AlSa"diqsaidtothem:Ishouldbepatient,fortheProphetsaid:Iwilldie asyoudie. OnedayaboyofatSdiqswaswalkingbeforehim.Suddenly,theboydied.So,at Sadiqweptandsaid:You(Allah)havetakenandleft,Youhavetriedandhealed. Then,hecarriedtheboytothewomen.Whentheysawhim,theycried.So,atSdiq orderedthemnottocry.Thenhetookhimouttoburyhimandsaid:GloryistoHim Whokillsourchildren,butweloveHimverymuch.Thenwhenheburiedhisson,he said:Indeed,wearethepeoplewhoaskAllahforwhatweloveinwhatweloveso Hegivesus.IfHeloveswhatwehateinwhatwelove,wearepleased.[2] HisPrestige: Sometimesthepersonhimselfcreatesprestigethroughhispride,andsometimes throughhisservantsfamily,tribe,soldiers,state,andthelike.Thiskindofprestige doesnotbelongtocertainpeople.Rather,itbelongstoeveryonewhogetsoneor moreoftheaffairs.So,wemaycallthiskindofprestigeartificial. Thepersonmayhaveprestigewithoutanny,servantssates,authority,pride,andso on.Thiskindofprestigeisnotcalledartificial.Rather,itistheprestigewhichAllah, theExalted,givestoanyone,ofhiscreatures.Thepersoncancreatethisprestige throughhumbleness,goodmanners,knowledge,andthelike.Whoeverwantsglory withoutatribeandprestigeWithoutauthority,thenshouldcomeoutofthe humiliationofthedisobedienceofAllahtothegloryofhisobedience.Whoeverfears Allah, 1alKafi,2/209/4. 2BihlralAnwar,47/18/8. (174) Allahmakeseverythingafraidofhim.AndwhoeverdoesnotfearAllah,Allahmakes himafraidofeverything.Indeed,wecancallthiskindofprestigegenuine. AlMansflrhadartificialprestige.Thoughhehadawidekingdom,andabigarmy,he Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

respectedJafarb.MohammedatSidiq,peacebeonhim,whenhelookedathim. AlMufaddalb.Amrsaid:AtMansflrtriedtokillAbflAbdAllah(atSa"diq),peacebe onhim,severaltimes.However,herespectedhimwhenhelookedathim.So,hedid notkillhim.[1] AllpeoplerespectedAbOAbdAllah(atSSdiq),peacebeonhim,whethertheywere friendsorenemies.Forexample,Hisha"mb.atHakam,whowasaJahamibeforehe becameanImami,saidtoatSdiq:SonofAllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimand hisfamily,Irespectyou,Iamshyofyou.Mytongueisnotabletoutterevenaword beforeyou.[2] ThoughatSdiq,peacebeonhim,hadsuchgreatprestige,hewasveryhumblein wordtohiscompanionandthosewhosatwithhim.Hesatwiththem,atewiththem, andtalkedwiththem. Hisworship: AlSSdiq,peacebeonhim,wasthebestofaltcreaturesduringhistimein worshipping,suchasfasting,prayers,hajj(pilgrimagetoMecca),andthelike. InTadhkiratatKhawas,atSibtb.alJawzysays:Thebiographerssay:AlSdiqwas busyworshipping.Hewasindifferenttoleadership.InMata"libatSafll,b.Talha says:AlSadiqhadmanysciences.Heworshipped(Allah)verymuch.Heread cvntinuospartsoftheKoran.Andhedividedhistimeaccordingtothereligious duties.InHutyatatAwlia,AbUNaTmsays:AlSa~diqdevotedallhistimeto worshippingandsubmissiontoAllah.Hepreferredisolationandhumblenessto leadershipandparties.Mlikb.Anassays:Jafarb.Mohammedhadthreequalities: hefasted,or.prayed,orrememberedAllah.Hewasamongthegreatestscholarsof creaturesandamongthegreatdevout.We.havementionedallthesequalitiesinthe topics:WhowasatSa"diq?andHisscientificLife. Hispavery: TherewerenoholybattlesduringthetimeofatSdiq,peacebeonhim,sothat peoplemayknowhispavery.However,thereweremanyattitudeswhichhave indicatedhisfirmpowers,suchasthestrongheartself 1BinShahrlshflb,4/238.

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2alManlqib,4/238. (175) possessionsandthelike.YouhavealreadyreadtheseattitudesinthetopicaHis AttitudeswithalMansflr. HisReligiousDevotion: AlSEdiqworeathick,short,woolencloakonhisbody,andworesilkgarmentonit. Andhesaid:WewearthecloakforAllah,andthesilk(garments)foryou.[1] AlSa"diqofferedmeattohisguest,whileheatevinegarandanimaloil.Thenhe said:ThisisourfoodandthefoodoftheProphets.[2] Oneday,SufyanatThawry[3]cametoatSidiq.He.sawhimwearingasilkcloak.So, Sufyancriticizedhimandsaid:Whyhaveyouwornthis(cloak),whileyouareamong thefamilyofProphethood?AtSa"diq,peacebeonhim,said:Youdonotknow. Insertyourhandintohere.Therewasagarmentofroughhair.ThenatSa"diqsaid: Thawry,showmewhatisunderyourcloak.Therewasashirtthinnerthanthecrust oftheegg.So,Sufya"nbecameshyofatSa"diq.ThenatSa"diqsaidtohim: Thawry,donotcometousmanytimessoasnottoharmusnordoweharmyou.[4] AlSadiqsaidthesewordsbeforealThawry,forthetatterdisagreedwiththeformer onhisbehavior,knowledge,andact.Inthemeantime,therulerpreventedatSdiq frommeetingpeopleandpreventcdthemfrommeetinghim.So,thepersonwould exposehimselfandatSa"diqtodangerwhenbewantedtomeethim,especiallyif thepersonwasofgreatimportanceamongpeople,suchasSufaanatThawry. ******** 1alSharanj,LawaqihalAnwar,1/28.MatilibalSaul. 2a1Kafi,6/328/4. 3HewasSufyanb.Saeedb.Masruq,alKufi.Hereportedtraditionsontheauthority ofalSadiq.HewasbornduringtheruleofAbdalMalik.HediedinBasrahinthe year,161(A.H.). 4LawlqihalAnwar.MatalibalSu'ul.HulyatalAwliya,3/193. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

HISMIRACULOUSACTS (176) Indeed,Allah,theExalted,hasorderedHiscreaturestoknowHimandtaworshipHim aftertheyhaveknownHim:AndIhavenotcreatedtheJinnandthemenexceptthat theyshouldserveMe.[1]HiscreaturesindicateHisexistence.Theprettycreation andtheuntied,.regulationindicateHi1Oneness.Hehascreatedaguidefromtheir ownselvestoshowthemthawaytoallthings.Thisguideisreason.However,reason byitselfisunabletoknowthemethodsoftheworshipofAllahnorthequalitiesofI hgobedience,forthisreasonAllahshouldteachHiscreatureshowtoworshipand obeyHim.AsAllahhasorderedHiscreaturestoworshipandtoHim,thenitis incumbentonHimtosendsomeonetothemtoguidetowhatHehaswantedandto makethemknowwhatHehasordered. ItisnotrightforreasontobelieveinthepersonwhoProphethoodwithoutaproofor amiracle.So,itwasincumbentonprophetstoproduceevidencefortheirmissions. Wedonotregardthepersonasasentprophetunlesshehasastrongproof. WhatistheMiracle? Thisquestionisworthyofcareandthinking.Thatisbecausethecorrectnessof Prophethooddependsonthecorrectnessoftheproof.Ithintthattheanswerofthis isveryeasy,fortherearemanyversesintbeGloriousKoranabouttheprophetsand themessengers.Forexample,themiraclesofMUs(Moses)werethewhitehandand therod,themiraclesofTsa"(Jesus)werehealingtheblindandtheleprous,andping thedeadtolife.AndthemiracleofMohammed,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily, wastheKoranitself.Whenyouconsiderthesemiraclescarefully,youwillknowthat thenormalpersonisunabletopingsomethinglikethemevenifhehaspowerand knowledge.Now,wemayask:Whohastheabilityandknowledgetomakethefire comfortandpeace?Whohastheabilityandknowledgetocutthebirdsintopieces, putthemonthemountains,andsummonthemtocomeasperfectbirdsbeforehim? Whohastheabilityandknowledgetomakehishandwhitewithoutevilwheneverhe wants?Whohastheabilityandknowledgetomakehisrodwalkandtoeatwhatthe magiciansdo?Whohastheabilityandknowledgetohealtheblindandtheleprous andtopingthedeadtolife?Whohastheabilityandknowledtodetermineoutofdust theformofabirdandtopeathintoitknowledgeandtocreateabookliketheKoran Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

inallitscharacteristics?Throughthesethings,youunderstandthedifference betweenmagicandthemiracle.Worthmentioning,themiraclehappensnot accordingtothenaturallaws;it 1alDhfiriylt,56. (177) shouldbesomethingpossibleinitself,fortheimpossiblethingsinthemselvesdonot occur,anditshouldbedonebytheuniquepersonswhosummonpeopletoworship Allah,theMostHigh,andwhoproduceevidenceforHisExistence.So,miracleisthe giftwhichAllahgrantstowhomeverhewillsofHisclosecreatures. Asformagic,itisanart.Whoeverlearnsitisabfrtodoit.Itismereimaginationand misguidance.Ithasneitherrealitynortruth. Thepersonmaysay:Sciencerefusesthemiraclewhichoccurscontrarytothenatural laws,foritsoccurrenceisnotaccordingtotheusualcauses.So,howdothings happenaccordingtounusualcauses?Thisquestionmaybeansweredasfollows: 1.ThereareclearversesintheKoranaboutthosemiracleswhichoccurrednot accordingtothenaturallaws,suchasthesafetyofIpahimfromthefire,thecoming ofthebirdstohimaftertheyhadbeenautintopieces,thewhitehandofMtisa" (Moses)andhisrodwhichbecameasnake.Isa(Jesus)healedthediseaseswhich doctorsareunabletocure,suchasblindnessandleprosy.Alsohepoughtlifetothe deadandcreatedthebirdwithAllahspermission.Thenscienceisworthlesswhenit opposestheclearversesoftheKoran.Rather,thisscienceisnotcorrectbecause therearemistakesinsomeofitspremises. 2.Asthesemiraclesarepossibleinthemselves,thenwhydowedenythemwhilewe areinneedofthem,andAllahspowerisinclusiveandithasneitherdefectnor feebleness,Indeed,Hehaspoweroverallthings? Yes,werefusethethingswhichareimpossibleintheselfandtheaccident.For example,AllahcreatesapartnerforHim,pingstogetherthetwooppositeor contradictorythings,andputsthiswideworldintothesmallegg.Thedefectisin thesethingsbecausetheyareimpossible,notinthepower.However,wedonot refusethatthestonesspeak,themoonpeaks,thetreeswalk,fortheyarepossiblein themselves. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

3.IfweregardthesemiraclesasimpossibleforAllah,theExalted,thenwhichthing confirmstheProphethoodoftheprophets?IfProphethoodispossiblewithouta miracle,theneveryoneacanclaimit.So,whatisthedifferencebetweenthetruthful prophetandthefalseone? Whenitissaidthatgenius,cleverness,eloquence,knowledge,honesty,and truthfuliassareenoughtoconfirmthoseweclaimProphethood,wesaythatmost peopledonotattachimportancetothesequalities.Rather,theyarenotabletoknow thepersonwhohassuchqualities.So,itisnecessaryfortheprophettopingthe materialthingwhichpeoplecannotpingtouproottheirquestionsandtobeasaplain prooftoconvincetheknowledgeableandtheignorant. 4.Whydoesthesciencerefusethethingswhichoccurnotaccordingtothenatural laws?IsitnottheCreatoroftheusuallawsandtheCreatoroftheunusuallawsone? AndHeWhoisabletocreatethethingsthrough (178) theirusualcausesisabletocreatethemthroughthecauseswhichareabovethelevel ofourabilityandknowledge. Theseproofsandmiraclesarealsonecessarytothetrusteesofauthority(awsiya")of theprophetstofulfillthepurposeforwhichtheprophetssummonedpeople.Allah senttheprophetstomakepeopleknowHimazadthentoserveHim.Alsothe trusteesofauthoritywerenominatedtofulfillthesametask.Therefore,theImam shouldpingthemiracletoprovehiaImamate. AsAllah,theExalted,nominatedalSdiq,peacebeonhim,tocarrythelawwhich theProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,pouthenitwasincumbentonAllah togranthimthemiraclewhennecessaryHegrantedittotheProphet.Thisisthe viewpointoftheconcerningtheImamateofalSa"diq.AsfortheSunniviewpoint concerninghim,theythinkthathebelongstothepurefamilyofprophet.andthathe hasalloutstandingmerits.Wehavementionedviewpointsonhiminthetopic:Who wasalSdiq? TheauthorofthebookMad?natalMajizhasmentionedoverhundredmiraculous andlaudableactsonalSdiq.Wewillmentionofhismiraclesfromthevaluable booksonwhichthetwopartiesSunnisandtheSh?a)haveagreed.Theyareas Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

follows: HisAcceptedSupplications: InhisbookIsfalRAghibin,alSabba~nsays:Hissupplicationsaccepted.Whenal SdiqaskedAllahforsomething,itwouldbebetahishandsbeforehehadfinished hissupplication.InhisbookLawqihalAnwr,alShaarnysays:WhenalSdiq, peacebeonhim,wasinneedofathing,hesaid:Lord,Iaminneedofsoandso. Thethingwaspiatbesidehimbeforehehadfinishedhissupplication. ManyauthorshavementionthatalMansiirsentforalSdiqseveraltimes.However, alSdiqinvokedAllahagainsthim.So,alMansflrchangedhismindandstoodupto receivehim.[1] OnedayalHakamb.alAbba"ssaid: WehangedZaydonthetrunkofthedatepalm WehavenotseenaMahdihangedonthetrunk YouhavecomparedAlitoUthmanoutoffoolishness UthmanwaspurerandbetterthanAli. WhenalSadiqheardthesewords,heinvokedAllahagainstalHakamandsaid: Allah,orderoneofyourdogs(oneoftheanimalswhichyou 1BinShahrflshb,alManlqib,4/231.SeealsoalShiblanji,NOralAbsflr.alSibt, TadhkiratalK.hawls.BinTalhaalSIfii,MatllibalSaDi.BinalSabbagha!Mlliki,al FusOIalMuhimaBinHajar,alSawaiqalMuhriqa.ShaykhSuIaymln,Yanapal Mawada. (179) havecreated)toeathim.BanflUrnayya(theOmayyads)sentalHakamtoKufa.Oii hiswaytoKufa,alionatehim.[1] Dliwfldb.AllalAbbffsiwasthegovernorofalMansllroverKufa.Heantforal Maalla"b.Khaiils,alSAdiqsservant,andkilledhim.AlsohedideviltotheImam.Al Sa"diqbecameangry.So,heinvokedAllahagainsthim.Peopleheardhimsaying: Thishour!Thishour!Beforehehadfinishedhissupplication,peopleheardanoutcry inDwfldshouse.Thentheysaid:AlHakamdiedsuddenly![2] Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Oneday,awomancametoalSlidiqandsaid:MayIbeyourransommyfatherand motherandthemembersofmyhousesupportyou.AlSa"diqsaid:Youaretruthful. Whatdoyouwant?Thewomansaid:MayIbeyourransom,sonofAllahsApostle (mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily),Ihaveleprosyinmyupperarm.InvokeAllahto healme.AlSfidiq,peacebeonhim,said:Allah,Youhealtheblindandtheleprous andpinglifetothedecayedbones.Forgiveherandhealhertoseetheeffectofthe acceptanceofmysupplication.Thewomansaid:ByAllah,IstoodupandIhad nothingofleprosy.[3] Hammdb.isa[4]askedalSdiqtoimploreAllahtogivehimwhathelpshimto performthehajjmanytimesandtogivehimgood,productivelands,agoodhouse,a wifefromthegoodfamilies,andobedientchildren.Hewantedtoperformthehajjfor fiftytimes.AlSa"diqimplQredAllahtofulfillHammdsneeds.So,Allahgavehimall hisneeds.Hammfldperformedthehajjforfiftytimes.Thenhewantedtoperformthe hailforfiftyonetimes.WhenhearrivedatalJihfavalley,thefloodtookhimaway. Thenhisservantspoughthimoutofthewater.Hewasdead. HisPredictionontheEvents: AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,predictedmanyevents.Theyoccurredashepredicted afteratime.Forexample,hepredictedtheendoftheauthorityoftheAbbasjds:AbO MuslimalKhurasSnicametoalSidiqandtiredtoConvincehimtotakethereinsof power.Hetoldhimthattherewereinanypeoplereadytosupporthim.AlSa"diq, peacebeonhim,saidtohim:Whatyouaretalkingaboutshallnotbeours.The childrenofalAbbasshallplaywithauthority.So,AbflMuslimwenttoAbdAllahb. alHasanandaskedhimtotakethereinsofauthority.AbdAllahgatheredthe membersofhisfandtookcareofthematter.HesummonedAbOAbdAllah(al Sa"diq),peacebeonhim,toaskhisadvice.So,alSftdiqcameandsatbetweenal SaffahandalMansflr.Whentheyaskedtheadviceof 1SeeNOralAbs&,alSawaiq,alFusnl,andalManlqib:4/234. 2lbidalManlqib:4/230. 3a1Thsi,alAmlhi,Majlisno.14. 4allahani,alBasr,.HewasamongthereliablecompanioanofalSldiqanda!Kazitn, peacebeonthem. (180) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

alSa"diq.hepattedalSaffahsshoulderandsaid:No,byAllah,thisshallbethefirst totakethereinsofauthority.Then,hepattedalMansIIrsshoulderandsaid:The childre?aofthisshallplaywithauthority.Then,hestoodupandlefttheir meeting.[1] OnedayAbdAllahb.alHasansummonedalSftdiqtonominatehissonMohammed totheCaliphate.AlSa"diqsaidtoAbdAllah:ByAllah,thismatter(thecaliphate)is notforyounorforyourchildren.Thecaliphateisforthis(i.e.alSaffah),thenforthis (i.e.alMansllr),andthenforhischildren.WhenalSa"diqwentout,AbflJafar(al Mansflr)followedhimandsaidtohim:AbUAbdAllah,doyouknowwhatyouhave said?AlSa~diq,peacebeonhim,said:Yes,byAllah,Iknowit(thecaliphate)andit shalloccur.[2] AlsoalSadiqpredictedthekillingofMohammedandIpa"him,thetwosonsofal Hasan,onmanyocasions.Oneday,hesaid:Jvlarwnshallbetheendofthe Omayyads,andMohammedshallbekilled.[3] HisPsychologicalAnalyses: Whentheselfofthebelieverisfreefromvices,itbecomesliketheclearmirrorthat reflectseverythingbeforeit.Forthisreason,AllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimand hisfamily,said:Bewareoftheinsightofthebeliever,forheseesthroughAllahs Light.Thisistheinsightofthebeliever,justimaginehowmuchmoreistheinsightof theImamofthefaithful! AlKhidr(Elija),peacebeonhim,madeaholeintheboat,slewtheboy,andputthat wallintoarightstate.Hehaddoneallthesethingsaccordingtotheknowledgewhich Allah,theAllknowing,hadgiventohim. So,alSa"diq,peacebeonhim,toldpeopleaboutthethingssoundedintheirmind. Amrb.YazidcametoalSdiq.AlSa"diqwasill,soheturnedthefacetothewall. Amrsaidtohimself:IdonotknowwhatwillhappentohimwhenIaskhimabout theImamafterhim.WhileAmrwasaskinghimselfsuchquestions,alSa"diqturned thefacetowardhimandsaid:Myconditionisnotasyouthink.Myalnesshasno poageroverme.[4] AlHasanb.MUsalHannt,[5]JamTlb.Darraj,[6]andAidhalAhmasi[7]cameto alSa"diq.Aidhsaidtohimself:IwanttoaskalSa"diqaqjyestion.Whenthey greetedalSdiqandsatdown,alSdiqturnedtoAidandseaid:aWhoeverfulfills Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

whatAllahhasimposedonhim,Allahwillnotaskhimmorethanthat.So,Aidmade agesturetohiscompanionsandtheystoodup.Whentheyallwentout,they(his 1A1Masudi,alWasiya,141. 2BiharatAnwar,47/131. 3atMasudi,alWasiya. 4BasairatDarajOt,5/259. 5amongatSldiqsreliablecompanions. 6amongatS0diqsreliablecompanions. 7amongatSadiqsreIiablecompanions. (181) companions)askedhim:Whatwasyourneed?Aidsaid:Itwaswhatyouhave heard.IhaveIi?abilitytoriseatnighttopray,soIwasafraidthatAllahwouldpunish me.[1] Jafarb.Ha"rfinalZayyatandAbUAbdAllah(alSa"diq),peacebeonhim,were performingtheprocessionroundtheKaaba.AlZayyStlookedatalSa"diqandsaidto himself:IsthistheproofofAllah?IsthisthepersonthroughhimAllahacceptthe needs?WhilealZayyatwasaskinghimselfsuchquestions,alSa"diqcamefrom behindhim,pattedhisshoulder,andsaid:Asinglemortalfromamongus!Shallwe followhim?Mostsurelwecasebeinsureerroranddistress.[2]Then,alSdiqleft him.[3] TherewereagroupofpeopleinthepresenceofalSa"diq,peacebeonhim,Khlidb. NajlhalJawz[4]cametoalSdiq,satbeaside,andsaidtohimself:Woeuntoyou! Howheedlessyouare!Withwhomareyoutalking?WiththeLordoftheworlds?So, alSfldiqsaidtohim:Khalid,Woeuntoyou!ByAllah,Iamacreatedservant.Ihave Lord.IserveHim.IfIdonotserveHim,Hewilltorturemewiththefire.ThenKhlid said:No,byAllah,Ineversayanythingconcerningyouexceptthatwhichyousay concerningyourself.[5] ******** 1alMan0qib,3/226. 2a1Qainar,24. 3BisajralDaraja"t,5/65.Bih5ratAnWOr,47/70/25. 4Afterthisreproach,hisbeliefbecamegood.Hewasregardedasoneofthe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

c5ompanionsofalKHzim,peacebeonhim. 5BasairatDarajfit,5/261. HISCHOSENWORDS (182) Indeed,nooneisabletoencompassthewordsofAbflAbdAllah,andthepagesare notabletocontainthem.Howmanytheiroriginsare!Howabundanttheirpanches are!Anyhow,here,wewanttomentiononlyfourchapters.Theyare:theorations, thesermons,thecommandments,andthewisesayings.Surely,inthemarethehopes ofthepioneer,thequenchingofthethirsty,andthelifeofthesoul.Ididmybestto collectandchoosethemfromthebestbooksandchosenvolumes. 1HISORATIONS NoonehasreportedthatAbUAbdAllahwentuponthepulpitsforguidance.Inthe meantimehisconditionsdidnotsuitehimtoaddressthemasses.Still,tothebestof myabilityinresearching,Ihavefoundtwoorationsoneislong;theotherisshort. Thefirstorationisoftwoparts:(thefirstpart)isabouttheoutstandingmeritsofthe Prophet.Thispartishisfollowingwords[1]:So,theirgreatsinsandtheiruglyactsdid notpreventourLord(forHisclemency,Histolerance,andHismercy)fromchoosing forthemthemostlovableoneofHisprophetsandthemosthonorableoneofthem, MohammedbinAbdAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.Inthemostexalted placeofglorywashisbirth.Inthetreeofnobilitywashisorigin.Notmingledwashis ancestry.Notmixedwashislineage.Notunknownwiththepeopleofknowledgewas hisquality.Theprophetspoughtgladtidings(topeople)abouthimintheir deacription.Thewisemenconsideredhimcarefullywiththeirqualification.Hewas unapproachableeducatedonepeerlessHashimy,andmatchlessAbtahy.Histraitwas modestyandhisnaturewasliberality.Hewasnaturallydisposedfortheburdensof theProphethoodanditsgoodmanners,havingtheinborncharacteristicsofthe missionanditsdreamstillthecausesofthepowersofAllahledhimtotheirtimesand thedestinyputintoeffectwiththepermissionofAllahtotheirendsthroughhim,the inevitabledestinyofAllahledtotheirpurposes.Everynationpoughtgoodnews Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

abouthimto(thenation)afterit.Andeveryfatherpushedhimtofatherfromone BACKtoBACK.Andmarriagedidnotimpurehimathisbirth.FromAdamtohisfather AbdAllah,hewasinthebestgroup,thenoblesttribe,strongestfamily,thesafest pregnancygentlest1Itisnotrightthatthesewordsarethebeginningoftheoration. So,theremustbeotherbeginning.IhavestudiedthechaptersofatKill.However,in them,Ihavenotfoundanyadditiontowhatwehavementionedabove. (183) lap.Allahchosehim,waspleasedwithhim,andselectedhim.Hegavehimkeysof knowledge,wisdomtheirfountains.Hesenthimasmercyforpeopleandasspringfor thecountry.AllahsentdowntheBooktohim.Init(thebook)thereareeloquence andexplanation.(Itis)ArabicKoranwithoutcrookednessthattheymayguard (againstevil).He(Allah)alreadyexplainedittomen,detaileditsmethodwith knowledge,explainedthereligion,ordained(religious)duties,limitedandexplained punishmentsforpeople,disclosedanddeclaredmattersforhiscreationInthem(the matters),thereisadirectiontosalvationandmarksSummon(men)toguidance.So, AllahsApostlepropagatedwhathewassenttodo,declaredwhathewasorderedto, andfulfilledtheburdensofprophethood.HewaspatientforhisLord,wagedholywar inHisway,loyaltohisnation,summonedthemtoSalvation,urgedthem(toread)the Koran,showedthemthewayofguidancewithmethodsandreasons,(which)he foundedtheirfoundationforpeople,andwayswhichheprovedforthemthatthey willnotgoastrayafterhim,andhewascompassionateandmercifultothem.[1] (thesecondpart):ItisaboutthequalitiesoftheImams,peacebeonthem.Al Kulayni,mayhisgravebefragrant,hasmentionedthispartinhisbookalKfi, Chapter:theImamandHisQualities.AlsoalMasfldi,Alib.alHusayn,[2]has mentioneditinhisbookalWasiya,p.139,whosaid:WhentileOrderofAllah,the GreatandAlmighty,cometohim(i.e.alSadiq,peacebeonhim.),hegatheredthe ShYaandaddressedthem.So,hepraisedAllahandlaudedHim.Thenhe(alMasdi) hasmentionedthepartwhichwewillmention.Thereisasmalldifferencebetween thereportofalKulayniandthatofalMasudi.Wewillmentionthepartaccordingto thereportofalKulaynibecauseithasadditions. He(alSdiq),peacebeonhim,said:Indeed,Allah,theExalted,unveiledHisreligion throughtheImamsofguidanceofthefamilyofourProphet,hasmadeclearthrough themthedirectionofHispath.Hehasopened.theintermostpartofthespringsofHis knowledgethroughthem.So,whoeveramongthecommunityofMohammed,may Allahblesshimandhisfamily,knowstheobligatoryrightsofhisImamfindsthetaste Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

ofthesweetnessofhisbeliefaiidknowsthevirtueofacceptanceofhisIslam,for Allah,theExalted,hasappointedtheImamasasignforHiscreationandhasmade himasevidenceforthepeopleofhistimeandhisworld. 1AlKafiChapterontheBirthoftheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily. 2AbualHasanalHadhali.Hehadvaluablebooks.Themostfamousoneofthemis MurfljalDhahab.HisdoctrinewasImami.Thetwoparties(ShIaandSunnadepend onhinaHistorianshavenotmentionedtheyearofhisdeathexactly.Itwassaidthat heremainedalivetilltheyear345(A.H.). (184) Allah,theExalted,crownedhimwithsolemnity,coveredhimwiththeLightofHis might.Hemadearopetostretchuptoheaven,whoseprovisionsarenotcutofffrom him.NothingcanbeobtainedfromwhatiswithAllahbutthroughhim,notdoesAllah accepttheactsofmenunlesstheyknowhim[1],forhe(theImam)knowswhat reacheshimoftheambiguitiesofdarkness,theobscuritiesofthepathsandthe complicationsofdisturbances.AllahtheExalted,wentonchoosingthemforHis creationfromthesonsofalHusayn,peacebeonhim,anIrnamfromtheprogenyof theImam.Hechoseandselectedthemforthat.HeapprovedthemforHiscreation andispleasedwiththem.WheneveranImamofthempassedaway,Heappointedan ImamfromhisprogenyforHiscreation.(TheImam)isaclearsign,pilliantguide, custodianleaderandknowledgeableproof. TheywereImamsfromAllah,whoguidetothetruthandbyit(thetruth)Allahacts withjustice.(Theywere)theProofsofAllah,Hispropagandists,andHisguardians overHiscreation.PeoplefoHowtheirguidance.The,countryislitupbytheirlight. Theunripeproductgrowsbytheirblessing.Allahhasmadethemlifeformen,lamps fordarkness,keysforspeech,andsupportersforIslam.Theunshakabledecreesof Allahputintoeffectforthem.So,theImamwaschosenandapproved.Hewasan electedguide,1andpromisingresponsible.Thereby,Allahchosenhim.Hecreated himunderHisProtection.Hewasintheworldofscatteringwhenhescatteredhim. Hewasinthecreationwhenhecreatedhim.Beforethecreatingofcreatures,hewas asoulontherightsideofHisThrone.Hewasgiftedwitawisdomintheworldofthe unseenwithhim.AllahchosehimwithHisknowledge,selectedhimforhispurity.He (theImarn)wastherestofAdam,peacebeonhim,thechoiceoftheprogenyof Noah,thechosen(one)ofthefamilyofApaham,thebest(one)ofthefamilyof Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Mohammed,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.He(theImam)wasstillunderthe protectionofAllah.He(Allah)protectedhimandguardedhim.Thesnaresofthe Satanandhissoldiersweredrivenawayfromhim.Thecomingoftheevilofthe utterlydarknight,andthemagicoftheevildoerwerepushedBACKfromhim.The committingoftheevilwasavertedfromhim.He(theImam)wasfreefromdefects, preservedfromindecencies,knownforclemencyandpietyduringhisyouth, attributedtochastityandknowledgeandfavorduringhisend.Theauthority(the Imamate)ofhisfatherwasentrustedtohim.He(theImam)keptsilentduringthe lifetimeofhisfather,thenwhentheextentofhisfatherslifecametoanend,the1 AstheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,said:"Whoeverdiesanddoesnot knowtheImamofhistimediesthedeathofignorant."Namely,heisnotMuslimand doesnotdoanythingisIslam. (185) decreeofAllahconcerninghim(hisfather)wasfulfilledbyHisWill;theWillofAllah cametohimbyHisLove,andtheextentofhisfatherslifereacheditsend,thenhe passedaway,andtheCommandofAllahreachedhimafterhim(hisfather),andHe (Allah)entrustedHisreligiontohim,andappointedhimtheProofoverHiscreatures andHiscustodianoverHisinhabitedlandsandconfirmedhimwithHisSpritandgave himHisknoWledge,andmadehimtoknowHisdecisivespeech,andcommittedHis Secrettohim,andappointedhimtoHisgreataffairs,andmadehimknowthe excellenceoftheexpressionofHisknowledge,andestablishedhimasasignforHis creatures,andappointedhimastheProofoverthepeopleofhistime,theLightfor thepeopleofHisreligion,andthecustodianoverHiscreatures.Allahapprovedhim asanImamforthem,committedHissecretstohim,madehimthesafeguardforHis knowledge,confinedHisWisdomtohim,madehimaguardianforHisreligion, appointedhimtoHisgreataffairs,andpoughttolifethroughhimthetracksofHis way,Hisordinances,andHisrestrictions.Whentheignorantandthedisputers(in mattersofreligion),hesetupinjusticethepilliantlightandthebeneficialhealing throughthecleartruthandalucidexplanationofeverythingwhichrequireditbythe troddenpathalongwithhistruthfulgrandfathers,peacebeonhim,passed.So,there isnooneignorestherightofthisknowledgeable(man)exceptanevildoer,noone denieshimbutastray(ones),andnooneturnsawayfromhimexcepttheinsolent (ones)towardsAllah,theExalted. I(theauthor)say:Youmayregardthesequalitiesasgreatpracticallyforman.Where ishewhohasthesetraits?However,whenyouknowthattheImamatemeansthe caliphateaftertheProphet,andhiscaliphshouldcarryouthisdutiestoguidehis Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

nationandreformpeopleingeneral,youwillknowthatthesequalitiesarenecessary forhim,andthatitisnecessaryforthenationtohavesuchapersonwhohasthese qualities[1]. ThesecondOration: InhisbookalManqib(1/183184),binShahrshflbsaid:WhenHishmb.alWalTd enteredMedina,ban(thesons)ofalAbbscametohimandlodgedacomplaint againstalSa"diq,peacebeonhim.(Theyclaimed)thathehadtakentheestatesof MhiralKhishyandgiventhemnothing.So,AbAbdAllah(alSdiq),peacebeon him,madeaspeech.Someofwhathesaidisasfollows: WhenAllahappointedHisApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,our grandfatherAbflTlibsupportedhimandwasreadytosacrificehimselfforhim, (while)yourgrandfatheralAbba"sandAbfiLahabaCcusedhim(theProphet)oflying andincitedtheSatans(followers)ofUnbelief.Yourgrandfatherexposedhimto calamitiesandledthetribes1WehaveproventheImamateintheprefaceofthis book.AlsoWehavefullymentionedthequalitiesoftheImaminourbookalShiaWa alImama. (186) againsthimat(theBattleof)Badr.He(AbULahab)wasinthevanguard(ofthe battle),theownerofitshorsesanditsmen.Hewasthefeeder(ofthetribes)then. Andhedeclaredwaronhim.Thenhe(alSadiq)said: Yourgrandfatherwasourfreedcaptive.HebecameMuslimreluctantlywithour swords.HenevermigratedforAllahandHisApostle.So,Allahpokeoff hisguardianshipwithusthroughHisWords:And(asfor)thosewhobelievedanddid notmigrate,notyoursistheirguardianship.[1]Hewasourpatron.(However),he passedaway.Hisheritageisourglory,forhewasourpatron,andforwearethe grandsonsoftheApostleofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,andour grandmotherFatimaobtainedhisheritage. I(theauthor)say:Indeed,alSdiqwasabovetheclaimsofban(thesons)ofal Abbsconcerningtheestates.However,Ithinkthathewantedtotellpeopleabout theunknownconditionofalAbbs,forhisgrandsonswouldbetheirrules. Historiansmayderivemanyadvantagesfromthesewordsthoughtheyareshort.Ido Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

notthinkthathistorianshavementionedthoseattitudesofalAbba~s. Ihavesaidbefore:IsparednoefforttofindtheorationsofalSdiq,butIhavefound onlythesetwoones.Besides,hisorationsmayberegardasthreewhenweaddto themhisattitudeagainstShaybab.Affal,thegovernor,ofMedinaduringtheruling ofaIMansr.Wehavementionedit(theoration)in:HisAttitudesagainstalMansflr andHisGovernors. ******** 1alAnam,72. HYPOCRISY Hypocrisymeansseekingapositionintheheartsofpeoplethroughperforminggood deedsoractsindicatingthemsuchasclothes,appearance,movements,andrests. Hypocrisyisamongthecardinalsins.TheVersesandthetraditionshavedispraisedit. Concerningitmanytraditionshavebeenmentionedonthe 1alKafi,2,319/15. 2Ibid,2/319/15. 3Ibid,2/320/17. (198) authorityofalSfldiq,peacebeonhim.Thesetraditionshavedispraisedhypocrisy anditsowner. alSdiq,peacebeonhim,said:Everyhypocrisyispolytheism,whoeverperforms gooddeeds(toplease)peopletakeshisrewardfrompeople,andwhoeverperforms gooddeeds(toplease)Allah(takes)hisrewardfromAllah.[1] AlsohementionedthefollowingWordsofAllah,theExalted,:Thereforewhoever hopestomeethisLord,heshoulddogooddeeds,andnotjoinanyoneintheservice

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ofhisLord.[2]So,thepersonwhojoinssomeoneintheserviceofhisLordishewho performsgooddeedstomakepeoplepraisehimortohearofhim,inotherwordsto pleasepeoplenottopleaseAllah.ThenalSadiq,peacebeonhimsaid:Anyservant whoperformsgooddeedssecretly,thedayswillneverpassunlessAllahshowshim good.Anyservantwhoperformsevildeedssecretly,thedayswillneverpassunless Allahshowshimevil.[3] AlsoalSdiqsaid:Whydoestheoneofyoushowgood(deeds)andconcealevil (deeds)?WhydoeshenotcomeBACKtohimselftoknow(itis)notrighttodothat? AndAllah,theGreatandAlmightysays:Nay!manisevidenceagainsthimself.[4]If theinnerselfisright,opennessisstrong.[5] I(theauthor)say:Howvaluablethesewordsare!Thatisbecausethehypocrite comesBACKtohimselfandknowsthatwhatheshowsisagainstwhatheconceals. Thenthataffectshisdeedswhetherheknowsordoesnotknow.Whenhecomes BACKtohimselfhefeelsthisweaknessanddeception.Withoutdoubt,weakness affectshisdeeds,So,hetremblesoutofweakness. Asforhimwhosehiddenandopendeedsarebothrightisstronginhisdeeds,forhe issureofhimselfandfeelsitsstrength.Tofeelstrengthcontrolsmanswordsand deeds. AlsoalSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:WhoeverperformsafewdeedstopleaseAllah, Allahwillshowhimmorethanwhatheperforms.Andwhoeverperformsmanydeeds topleasepeoplethroughrenderingtirednessofhisbodyandsleeplessnessofhis night,Allahrefuseshisdeedsanddegradesthemintheeyeofhimwhohearshim. AlsoalSdiqsaid:WhydoesmanperformdeedscontrarytowhatAllahknows? AllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamilysaid:Whoeverperformsadeed secretly,Allahwiltrewardhimaccordingtoitif 1alKafi,2/293/3. 2alKafi,110. 3alKafi,2/295/12. 4alQiya"ma,14. 5alKafi,2/295/11. (199) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

itisgood,Allahwillrewardhimgood;ifitisevilAllahwillrewardhimevil. AndalSdiq,peacebeonhim,said:Becarefulofhypocrisy,forhewhoperforms deedstopleaseotherthanAllah,Allahmakeshimgethisrewardfromhimtowhom heperformsthedeeds.[1] I(theauthor)say:TheseareextractsofalSadiq,peacebeonhimonhypocrisy.With themhedenotestheunsucintentionofthehypocritesandthedisappointmentof thosewhoperformdeedstopleasemen.Accordingly,thedayswillexposetheir offenses.Besides,theirdeedsdonotgrow,nordotheygettheirrewardsfromthose towhomtheyperformdeeds. Injustice: Allwisemenhaveagreedontheideathatinjusticeisugly.Forthisreason,Allahhas dispraisedpolytheismbecauseitisinjustice.Hesaid:Mostsurelypolytheismisa grievousinjustice.[2]Besidestherearemanyversesandtraditionswhichdispraise injusticeandregarditasprohibitedact. However,injusticerangingbetweenmuchnessandlittleness,betweenstrengthand weaknessastheversesindicatethat.Forthisreason,alSdiq,peacebeonhimsaid: Thereisinjusticestrongerthaninjustice,forwhichitsownerfindsnohelperbut Allah.[3] I(theauthor)say:Thatisbecausetheweakpersonisunabletotakehisright,so Allah,theExalted,ishissupporterandtheTakerofhisright.Inthisconnection,there isatraditionreportedontheauthorityofZaynatabidTn,whosaid:Becarefulnotto doinjusticetohimwhofindsnohelperagainstyouexceptAllah.[4] Donotthinkthattheunjustpersonisonlythedoerofinjustice,butheisamongthree personsasAbflAbdAllah,peacebeonhimsaid:Thedoerofinjustice,theonewho helpshimwith(injustice),andtheonewhoispleasedwithinjusticeareallthree partners.[5] Rather,alSftdiq,peacebeonhim,addedanotherpersontothethreepersons.He said:Whoeverexcusesanunjustpersonforhisinjustice,Allahempowersaperson overhimtodoinjusticetohim,ifheasksAllah,Allahdoesnotanswerhimanddoes notrewardhimbecauseofhisinjustice. 1alKafi,2/293/1. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

2alKafi,2/331/4. 3alKafi,2/331/4. 4alKafi,2/331/5. 5Ibid,2/333/16. (200) Asinjusticeisveryugly,thepersonwhodoesnotintendtodoitisrewardedasal Sdiq,peacebeonhim,said:Whoeverentersuponmorninganddoesnotintendto doinjusticetoanyone,Allahforgiveshimallhissinsonthatdayunlesshesheds bloodortakestheprohibitedmoneyoftheorphan. TwomenpoughtadisputebeforealSdiq,peacebeonhim.Hedidnotheartheir wordsentirely,buthesaid:Indeed,whoeverissuccessfulthroughinjusticedoesnot getanygood.Indeed,thevictimofinjusticetakes(ashare)ofthedebtoftheunjust personmorethanthe(sharewhich)unjustpersontakesofthemoneyofthevictimof injustice.Thenhe,peacebeonhim,said:Whoeverdoestheeviltopeopleshould notrefusetheevilwhentheyaredonetohim,forthesonofAdamreapswhathe sows.Thereby,noonereapsthesweetfromthebitternorthebitterfromthesweet. So,thetwomenhadmadepeacebeforetheywentaway I(theauthor)say:Whataneloquentsermon!Andwhatatruthfulexample!However, theselfisnaturallydisposedfordoingtheevilandshowingenmity.So,theselfis blindofgooddeeds.Forexample,howdoesthepersonreapthesweetfromthe bitterandthegoodfromtheevil,whilehehimselfisnotreadytoforgivethosewho mistreathimanddoinjusticetohim? ZyydalQandi[1]cametoalSdiq,peacebeonhim.alSdiqsaidtohim:Zyyd, haveyoubecomeagovernorforthose?Zyya~danswered:Yes,sonoftheApostle ofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.Ihavemanhood,butIhavenomoney. So,Ihelpmypotherwith(themoneyIget)fromtheruler.alSdiqsaid:Zyyd,if yourselfsummonsyoutotreatpeopleunjustly,thenrememberthatAllah,theGreat andAlmighty,isabletopunishyou.[2] I(theauthor)say:Therulerisliabletodoinjustice.HoweverAllah,theExalted,isable topunishhimandtakevengeanceonhim.So,therulershouldtakethisfactinto considerationtorefrainfrominjustice. AsAllah,theGlorified,regardsinjusticeasagreatcrime,heanswersthedesireofthe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

victimofinjusticeasAbAbdAllahsaid:Bewareof1IbinMarwanalQandial Anbari.HeremainedalivetillthedaysofalRids,peacebeonhim.Hewasthe representativeofalKflzim,peacebeonhim.WhenalKazimwasimprisoned,many propertieswerewithZyyld.alRidaaskedhimtorepaythoseproperties,buthe claimedthattheywereendowmentsbecausehewishedforthem.However,Zyya"d wasamongthosewhoreportedthetextualnominationofalRida.Alsohewasa reliablenarrator. 2ShaykhalTtisi,alMajalis,Majlisno.11. (201) injustice,forthedu(supplication)ofthewrongedpersonascendstothesky.[1] I(theauthor)say:ThatthedufiascendstotheskymeansthatAllahwillsurelyaccept it. TheBeliever: Whenthepersonbelievesinacertainthought,heshouldletthethoughtdominate him.Inthemeantimeheshouldbeloyaltohisthoughtandisreadytodieforit.That isbecausewhenthethoughtisfirmlyestablishedintheselfofman,itbecomes inseparablepartofhisentity,inotherwordsitbecomeshimself.So,ifitispossible forthepersontogetridofhimselfandtobedisloyalforit,thenitispossibleforhim togetridofhisthoughtandtobedisloyalforit. SO,thereligiousthoughtisstrongerthananyotherthought,forifthepersonbelieves thatAllahisPowerfulandJust,thenhewilldisdainallappetitesofthelifeinthis worldandadoptthefollowingmoraltraits. Whenyouknowthatsuchapersonhasnotadoptedthesemoralqualities,thenknow thatheisnotatruebelieverorhisbeliefisweakbecausethethoughtis.notfirmly establishedinhimself. Concerningthequalitiesofthebeliever,AbflAbdAllah,peacebeonhim,said:The believershouldhaveeightqualities:(heshouldbe)solemnduringmisfortunes, patientduringthetribulation,gratefulduringthewelfare,satisfiedwithwhatAllah hasgivenhim.(Heshould)notdoinjusticetotheenemies,nordoeshewrongfriends. Hisbody,becauseofhim,istired,andpeople,becauseofhim,arepleased. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Thenhesaid:Verily,knowledgeisthefriendofthebeliever,clemencyishisminister, patienceistheEmirofhissoldiers,fellowshipishispother,andkindnessishis father.[2] I(theauthor)say:Mostpeoplethinkthattheyhavevirtuoustraitsbecausetheylove themselvesandaresatisfiedwiththem,sotheyareblindtotheirdefects. Infactsuchaqualityisthefirstofthevices.Rather,itisthebeginningofeveryvice. However,ifthepersonconsiderscarefullytheabovementionedwordsofalSSdiq, peacebeonhim,aboutthebeliever,thenhehabituateshimselftothemandknows thereasonwhyAllah,theExalted,said:Andmostmenwillnotbelievethoughyou desireiteagerly.[3] 1alKafi,2/509/4. 2alKafi,2/230/2. 3Yusuf,103. (202) AlsoalSdiq,peacebeonhim,said:Thebelieverhasstrengthinreligion, determinationalongwithleniency,faithwithconviction,eagernessin(seeking) knowledge,activitywithguidance,obediencewithrighteousness,knowledgewith clemency,courtesywithfellowship,generositywithrightness,moderationinriches, gracefulnessinstarvation,forgivenesswithability,obedienceofAllahinhisorder, givinguptheappetite,pietyinthedesire,eagernessin(waging)Jihad,worshipin devotion,enduranceinhardship.Heisdignifiedduringcalamities,patientin distresses,andthankfulduringease.HedoesnotBACKbite(people),nordoeshe becomeproud,andnordoesheabandonhisbloodrelations.Heisnotfeeble,noris herude,norisherough.Hissightdoesnotprecedeshim,nordoeshisabdomen exposehim,andnordoeshisprivatepartovercomeshim.Hedoesnotenviespeople, nortaunts(people),noristaunted,andnordoeshesteal.Hesupportsthevictimof injustice,hasmercyonthepoor.Hisownselfisindistressbecauseofhim,while peopleareineasefromhim.Hedoesnotwishforthegloryofthisworld,andnor doeshebecomeimpatientbecauseofitshumiliation.Forpeoplethereispurpose (which)makeshimbusy.Nodefectisseeninhisjudgmentnorweaknessisinhisidea, andnorlossisinhisreligion.Heguideshimwhoseekshisadvice,himwhohelpshim, andabstainsfromindecencyandignorance.[1] Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

I(theauthor)say:alSadiq,peacebeonhim,saidthesewordsconcerningtheImams of(a/ilalBcryt),forthereisnopersonhasobtainedsucharankofperfectionasthe Koransays:Andmostmenwillnotbelievethoughyoudesireiteagerly.[2] Alsohe,peacebeonhim,said:Thebelieverisnotbelievingtillheisperfectinmind. Andheisnotperfectinmindtillhehastentraits.Goodaloneisexpectedfromhim, evilfromhimisnottobefeared.Heregardsmuchgoodofhisownselfaslittle, regardslittlegoodofothersasmuch,regardsmuchevilofhisownselfasmuch, regardsmuchevilofothersaslittle.Hedoesnotbecomefedupwithneeds (requested)fromhimandisnottiredofseekingknowledgeallhislifetime. Humblenessismoredesirablewithhimthanglory,andpovertyismoredesirablewith himthanriches.Littlefoodisenoughforhim.Andwhenhemeetssomeonehesays: heisbetterandmoredevoutthanme.[3] 1alKafi,2/231/4. 2Yusuf,103. 3ShaykhTflsi,alMaja"lis,Majlisno.5. (203) HisSermonsonVariousMatters: Amonghiseloquentimpressivesermonsarethefollowing.alSa"diq,peacebeon him,saidthemwhenamanaskedhimtoteachhimasermon:IfAllahhas guaranteedlivelihood,thenwhydoyouworry?Iflivelihoodisdetermined,thenwhy areyoueagerforit?IftherewardisfromAllah,thenwhydoslacken?Ifthe recompenseisfromAllah,thenwhydoyoutrytobemiserly?Ifthefireisthe (decreed)punishmentbyAllah,thenwhydoyoudisobeyHim?Ifdeathistrue,then whydorejoice?IfstandingbeforeAllahistrue,thenwhydoyoucheat(people)?If Satanisanenemy,thenwhyareheedless?IfwalkingontheSirt[1]istrue,thenwhy doyouinclinetovanity?IfeverythingispredestinedbyAllah,thenwhydoyoufeel sadness.Andifthelifeinthisworldismortal,thenwhydoyouhaveconfidencein it?[2] I(theauthor)say:TheImamcondemnedthepersonwhohastheseunlovabletraits suchasworry,eagerness,collecting(money),sluggishness,andthelike,whilehe knowsthatAllahhasguaranteedlivelihoodanditispredestined,thereckoningis true,andsoon. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

However,thoughpeopleknowthattheseareunlovabletraits,theyhaveadopted thembecausetheylovethemselves.Inthemeantime,theappetiteshavecontrolled theirminds. Amonghiswonderfulsermonsis:Postponingrepentanceisselfconceit,lengthening procrastinationisperplexity,offeringanexcuseforAllahisruin,persistingonthesin issafetyfromAllahsplan.ButnonefeelssafeofAllahsplanexceptthepeoplewho shallperish.[3] AlsoalSadiqsaid:Youare(living)withtakensoulsandincounteddays,death comessuddenly,whoeversowsgoodreapshappiness,whoeversowsevilreaps regret,theslowoneofyoudoesnotprecedehisluck,theeageronedoesnotobtain (anything)exceptthatwhichhasbeenpredestinedforhim.Whomeverisgivengood, Allahhasaivenittohim.Whomeverissavedfromevil,Allahhassavedhimfromit.[4] Alsohe,peacebeonhim,said:WhoeverfearsAllah,Allahsaveshim(from adversities)WhoeverthanksHim,Heincreaseshim.AndwhoevergrantsIJimaloan, Hewillrewardhim.[5] AlsohesaidtoAbiiBasTr:Donotyoufeelsadness?Donotyouworry?Donotyou feelpain?He(AbtiBasTr)said:Yes.alSadiq,peacebeon 1AkindofpidgewhichoniytherighteouscancrossontheroadtoParadise. 2alSaduq,alTawtd.alKhism:2/61. 3alMuffd,alIrsh5d. 4Ibid,284. 5alMuffd,alIrshad. (204) him,said:Ifyoufeelallthesethings,thenrememberdeath,yourlonelinessinyour grave,therunningofyoureyesonyourcheeks,thecuttingofthemembersofyour body,theeatingoftheantsfromyourflesh,yourwearingout,andyourdeparture fromthisworld.Allthesethingssfmllurgeyoutoactandpreventyoufromcleaving tothelifeinthisworld.[1] I(theauthor)say:Ifmanadoptstheseideastohimself,hewillabstainfrom committingmajorsinsandhabituatehimselftoobedience.Ofcourse,thepersonwho thinksofthishorribleconditioninhisgravewillperformgooddeedsandgiveup cardinalsins. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Alsohe,peacebeonhim,said:None,eveniftheconditionshelphim,isabletoget goodlivingbutthroughthemisfortune.Andwhoeverwaitsforthepostponed investigation(tocarryout)theurgentchance,thedayswilldeprivehimofhischance, fordeprivationisthestateofdays,andpassingisthestateoftime.[2] I(theauthor)say:Theseareeloquent,wisewordswhichindicatetherealfactsofthis universe.Asforthefirstpartofthem,weallknowthatwegetgoodlivingthrough hardshipsevenifwehaveagreatpowerormuchmoney.Thatisbecausemanis unabletosatisfyallhisappetitesevenifthelifeinthisworldissuitableforhim.Also considercarefully:Paradiseissurroundedbyadversities. Asforthesecondpartofthem,namelythechanceitdoesnotmeetmanbutthrough thegatheringofthousandsofcauseswhichareoutofhiswill.Ifthechancecomes, whileheawaitsforstudyingit,itwillescapehim,forhehasnotusedthelastcause whichishisdecisivewill.Morelikely,thegatheringofthecausesinthesystemofthe universewillnotservehimagainbecauseitisnotunderhiswill.Forthisreason,the gatheringofthecausesiscalledchance.Accordingly,thedecisive,wisepersonmust seizetheopportunitywhenitcomes. AlsoalSdiq,peacebeonhim,said:Indeed,thehypocriteisdispleasedwithwha'l thebelieverishappy.Thehappy(person)takesalessonfromtheseriaonofreligious devotionevenifthesermonisofferedtootherthanhim.[3] 1ShaykhTusi,alMajalis,Majlisno.55. 2TuhafalUqul,281. 3RoudatalKafi. HISCOMMANDMENTS (205) Thesocialimportanceofthepersonisembodiedthroughthegoodhedoesfor society.Alsohispersonalimportanceisembodiedthroughhisgooddeeds.Ifal Sdiq,peacebeonhim,hadnothingbutthosewordswhichwehavementioned,then Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

theywillbeenoughevidenceforhisDivine,scientificimportanceandhisconcernto reformthenation.Youhavereadsomeofhissermons.Here,wewillmentionsome ofhiscommandmentsforyoutoreadthemandtofindtheeffortsofthegodlyrulers andguidesofthenations,who(godlyrulers)guidedthem(nations)togoodacts, summonedthemkindlytotheirmissions,andtaughtthemsincerely. HisCommandmenttoHisSonalKftzim: SomeofalSdiqShVa(followers)cametohimwhilehewasgivingcommandments tohissonMtis.Someofthemare: Myson,acceptmycommandmentsandmemorizemywords,forifyoumemorize them,youwillleadahappy(life)anddieapraised(death).Myson,indeed,whoever iscontentbecomesrich,whoeverlooksatwhatinthehandofotherthanhimdies poor,whoeverisdispleasedwithwhatAllahhaspredestinedforhimaccusesAllahin HisDecree,whoeverregardshisownslipassmallregardstheslipofothersasbig.My son,whoeveruncoverstheveilofothers,hisdefectisuncovered,whoeverdrawsthe swordofdisobediencekilledwithit,whoeverdigsawellforhispotherfallsintoit, whoevermakesfriendswiththefoolishisdegraded,whoevermakesfriendswiththe knowledgeableisrespected,andwhoeverenterstheevilplacesisaccused.Myson, saythetruthforyouoragainstyou,bewareoftheslander,foritplantstheenmityin theheartsofmen.Myson,whenyouseekgenerosity,seekitfromitsplaces(i.e.the noblemen),forgenerosityhasplaces,theplaceshaveorigins,theoriginshave panches,thepancheshavefruit,nofruitissoughtbutwithapanche,andnofirm originbutinagoodplace.Myson,whenvisit,visitthegood,butdonotvisitthe wicked,fortheyarelikethesolidrockwhosewaterdoesnotgushout,thetree whoseleavesdonotgetgreen,andthelandwhoseplantsdonotappear.[1] I(theauthor)say:SomeofthesewordshavebeenmentionedinNahjalBalgha.No wonder,forthey(theImams)tookknowledgefromeachother.Perha,alSdiq, peacebeonhim,hasmentionedthesewordsasquotations. 1alShiblanji,NDralAbsr,163.AbDNa"Tm,HulyatalAwliya,3/135. (206) HisCommandmentstoHisCompanions: AftertheBasmala[1]:Thenafterthis,askAllahyourLordforhealth,cleaveto Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

meekness,solemnity,andcalmness.Cleavetomodestyandrefrainfromwhatthe righteoushadrefrainedbeforeyou.FearAllah,andpreventyourtongue(fromsaying anything)butfromthegood.Becarefulnottosharpenyourtongueswithfalse witness,falseaccusation,iniquity,andaggression.Becauseifyoupreventyour tonguesfrom(saying)whatAllahhates,thiswillbebetterforyouwithyourLordthan thatforwhichyousharpenyourtongues.Becausesharpeningthetongue(toutter) whatAllahabhorsandwhatHeprevents(you)fromcausesdisobedienceforthe servantwithAllah,andhatredfromHim.So,Allahwillpingonhimdeafness, dumbness,andblindnessontheDayofJudgment.so,youbecomeasAllahhassaid: deaf,dumb(and)blind,sotheydonotunderstand.Namely,theywillnotutter,nor willtheybeallowedtoapologize.Keepsilent(fromeverything)exceptthatwhich AllahavailsyouwithinyourNEXTlifeandrewardyoufor.ImploreAllahverymuch, forAllahlikesHisbelievingservantstoImploreHim,andHehaspromisedHis believingservantstoaccept(theirsupplication),andAllahwillturntheduofthe believersintoactstoincrease(theirrank)inParadise.So,rememberAllahasfaras possibleateveryhourofthehoursofdayandnight,forAllahhasordered(you)to rememberHimverymuch,andAllahremembershimwhoremembersHimofthe believers.KnowthatanyoneofthebelievingservantsremembersAllah,Allah remembershimwithgood.So,doyourbesttoobeyAllah.Thatisbecausenothingof goodisobtainedfromAllahbutthroughobeyingHimandrefrainingfromwhatHe hasprohibitedintheKoran,whethertheyareopenorsecret.HesaidinHisBookand HisWordsaretrue:Andabandonopenandsecretsin.2AndknowthatAllahhas prohibitedwhatHehasorderedyoutorefrainfrom.Donotfollowyourdesiresand yourideassothatyougoastray,forthemostastrayoneofpeopleingoingwithAllah ishewhofollowshisdesireandhisideawithoutguidancefromAllah.Dogoodto yourselvesasfaraspossible,forifyoudogood,youwilldogoodforyourownsouls, andifyoudoevil,itshallbeforthem.knowthatAllahdoesnotmakeaservantofHis servantssafetillhe(theservant)ispleasedwithwhatAllahhasdonetohim. Attendconstantlytoprayersandtothemiddleprayerandstanduptrulyobedientto Allah,asAllah,inHisBook,hadorderedthebelieverbeforeyou. Bewareofmightandglory,forgloryistheattributeofAllah,theGreatandAlmighty. So,whoeversharesAllahHisattribute,AllahpeakshimandhumiliateshimontheDay ofjudgment.Becarefulnottowrongeach 1Bismifflhurrahmanurrhim=IntheNameofAllah,MostGracious,MostMerciful. 2alAna"m,121. (207) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

other,forit(wrong)isnotamongthetraitsoftherighteous,andforwhoeverwrongs the(others),Allahmakeshiswrongagainsthim,thehelpofAllahwillbetohimwhois wronged,whomeverAllahhelpsisvictoriousandgetsvictoryfromAllah.Becareful nottoenvyeachother,forthesourceofunbeliefwasenvy.Becarefulnottohelp eachotheragainsttheoppressedMuslim,soheinvokesAllahagainstyouandhis invocationisacceptedagainstyou.Thatisbecauseourfather(i.e.grandfather)the ProphetofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,said:Indeed,thesupplicationof theoppressedMuslimisaccepted.So,youshouldhelpeachother,forourfatherthe ProphetofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,said:Indeed,tohelptheMuslim isbetterandgreaterthantofastandtoremaininthescaredMosque. KnowthatIslam(means)submission,andsubmission(means)Islam.So,whoever submitsto(Allah)becomesMuslim;whoeverdoesnotsubmitto(Allah)isnot Muslim.Andwhoeverwantstodogoodtohimself,thenheshouldobeyAllah. Indeed,whoeverobeysAllahdoesgoodtohimself.BecarefulnottodisobeyAllah, forwhoeverdisobeysAllahdoeseviltohimself.Accordingly,thereisagreat differencebetweengoodandevilthegoodpeoplewillobtainParadisefromtheir Lord;thewickedwillobtainfirefromtheirLord.Therefore,obeyAllahandavoid disobeyingHim. I(theauthor)say:Thesecommandmentsarelong.So,wehavementionedsomeof them.IthasbeenmentionedinthebookRoudatalKfibyalKulayni,mayhisgrave befragrant.Aboutthesecommandments,alKulaynisaid:AlSdiq,peacebeon him,sentthemtohiscompanionsandorderedthemtostudythesecommandments andtoputthemintopractice.So,theyputthemintheirhouses.Whentheperformed theirprayers,theylookedatthem.aa Yeswemuststudythesecommandmentsandputthemintopracticebecausethey haveallgoodmanners. HisCommandmentstoAbdAllahBinJundub: AbdAllahb.JundubalBajalialKuffwastheCompanionofalSdiq,alKzim,.and alRid,peacebeonthem.HewastheagentofalKazimandalRid.Hewasa worshipper,andhisrankwasveryimportantfortheImams.InhisbookalRijl,al KashyhasmentionedthatAbdAllahb.JundubsaidtoAbUalHasan,peacebeon him:Areyousatisfiedwithme?AbOalHasananswered:ByAllah,yes.Allahand HisApostlearesatisfiedwithyou,too. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AlSdiqgavehimcommandmentswhichhavevaluablesermons.Wehave mentionedsomeofthem.He,peacebeonhim,said:BinJundub,hewhodependson hisdeedperishes,andhewhocommitssinsisnotsavedwithAllahsmercy.Bin Jundubsaid:Then,whoissaved?AlSa"diq (208) said:Thosewhoarebetweenfearandhope.Itisasifthattheirheartswereinthe clawsofthebirdbecauseoftheireagernessfortherewardandfearofchastisement. BinJundub,WhoeverispleasedwiththatAllahwillmarryhimtoyoungladieshaving eyeswithamarkedcontrastbetweenwhiteandblack,andcrownhimwiththelight, thenmustdelighthisbelievingpother. BinJundub,theSatanhassnareswithwhichhecatch(people).So,bewareofhis snaresandnets.He(BinJundub)said:SonoftheProphetofAllah,mayAllahbless himandhisfamily,whatarehissnaresandnets?He(alSadiq)said:Asforhis snares,he(theSatan)prevent(you)fromtreatingthepotherskindly,andasforhis nets,he(ordersyou)tosleepduringthetimeoftheprayerswhichAllahhasimposed (onyou).Indeed,tomovethefeettovisitthepothersandtotreatthemkindlyisthe bestwaytoworshipAllah.Woeuntothosewhoareheedlessfromtheprayers,who sleepduringthetimeoftheprayers,whomockatAllahandHisversesintheKoran, Surelytheyshallhavenoportioninthehereafter,andAllahwillnotspeaktothem, norwillhelookatthemontheDayofResurrectionnorwillHepurifythem,andthey shallhaveapainfulchastisement. BinJundub,whoeverrunstofulfilltheneedofhispotherislikehimwhoruns betweenSafaandMarwa,andwhoeverfulfillshisneedislikehimwhosacrificehis bloodinthewayofAllahonthedayofthe(Battle)ofBadrandUhud,andAllahdid notpunishanynationbutwhenitdisdainedtherightsoftheirpoorpothers. BinJundub,ifyouwishliketoneighbortheGreat(Allah)inHisHouseanddwell Paradisenearhim,thenregardthelifeinthisworldaslow,rememberdeath frequently,donotsaveup(money)fortomorrow,andknowthatwhatyouhave advancedisforyou,andwhatyouhavedelayedisagainstyou. BinJundub,whoeverdepriveshimselfofhisearn,indeed,collectstootherthanhim, whoeverobeyshiswhim,surely,obeyshisenemy,andwhoeverfearsAllah,Allah Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

guaranteeswhathasmadehimworriedinhereandthehereafterandkeepsforhim whathasdisappearedfromhim.Feebleishewhodoesnotpreparepatiencefor everytribulation,gratefulnessforeveryblessing,andeaseforeveryhardship. Habituateyourtoeverymisfortuneinchild,moneyandprogeny.Indeed,He(Allah) takesHisloanandtakesHisgifttotrywiththemyourpatienceandyourgratefulness. HopeAllahthehopewhichdoesnotleadtodisobedienceandfearHimthefearwhich doesnotdashyourhopeofhismercy.Donotbedeceivedbyhewordsofthe ignorantnorwiththeirpraise,foryouwillbeproud,haughty,andconceitedwithyour deeds.Indeed,thebestactsareworshipandhumbleness.Donotloseyourproperty, whichyouwillleaveafteryourdeath,toreformthepropertyofothers,Besatisfied withwhatAllahhas (209) predestinedforyou.Donotlookbutatwhatyouhave.Donotwishforwhatyou cannotobtain,forwhoevergetssatisfiedgetsfull,andwhoeverisdissatisfiedisnot full.Takeyourportionfromyourlifeinthehereafter.Donotbeungratefulduring riches,norbeimpatientduringpoverty.Donotberudethatpeoplehateyour nearness.Donotbefeeblelesthewhoknowsyoushoulddisdainyou.Donotdispute withthosewhoaresuperiortoyou.Donotscornthosewhoareinferiortoyou.Do notdisputewiththepeopleofauthority.Do.notobeythefoolish.Thinkofevery matterbeforeyoustarttoknowitsbeginninganditsend.Regardyourselfasan enemytomakeitgood.Ifyoudoapersonafavor,donotspoilitwithmuch reminding.Rather,doabetteronethanit,forthatmakesyourmannergoodand achievesyourrewardinthehereafter.Andcleavetosilencetoberegardedasmeek whetheryourareignorantorknowledgeable.Indeed,silenceisgoodwiththe knowledgeableandasacoverforyouwiththeignorant. AlSa~diq,peacebeonhim,quotedheresomecommandmentsofIsa(Jesus),peace beonhim,tohiscompanions:Andbewareoflooking,foritplantanappetiteinthe heart.Itisanenoughtrailforitsowner.Blessedishewhoputshissightinhisheart anddoesnotputhissightinhiseye.Donotconsiderthedefectsofpeopleas masters,andconsidertheirdefectsasservants.Indeed,peopleareinflectedand healthy.So,havemercyontheinflectedandthankAllahforhealth. Thenhe,peacebeonhim,said:BinJundub,visithimwhoabandonsyou,givehim whodeprivesyou(ofyourright),treatkindlyhimwhomistreatsyou,greethimwho abusesyou,dojusticetohimwhoquarrelswithyou,andforgivehimwhowrongsyou asyouwanthimtoforgiveyou.So,takealessonfromAllahsforgivenessforyou.Do Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

younotseethatHissunshinesoverthechasteandtheunchasteandHisraincomes downtotherighteousandthesinners. BinJundub,Islamisnaked,soitsclotheismodesty,itsembellishmentissolemnity, itsmanhoodisthegooddeed,anditspillarispiety.Everythinghasafoundation;the foundationofIslamisourlove,we,the(ahlalBayt).[1] HisCommandmentstoAbdAllahalNajshiintheSameLetter: AbdAllahb.SulaymanalNawfalisaid:IwassittingwithJafarb.Mohammedal Sdiq.Suddenly,theservantofAbdAllahalNaja"shicametoalSdiq.Hegreeted himandhandedhimaletter.AlSdiqopenedtheletterandreadit.Theletterread asfollows: 1Biha"ralAnwar,78/279/1. (210) IntheNameofAllah,MostGracious,MostMerciful,mayAllahprolongthelifeofmy master,andmayHemakemeransomforhim.IhavebeeninflectedbytheStateofal Ahwa"z.Iwantmymastertolimitapunishmentformeortogivemeanexampleto useitasaproofforwhatmakesmenearertoAllah,theGreatandAlmighty,andto HisApostle.Iwanthimtosumup,inhisletter:Whatdoeshethinkformetoputinto effect?Inwhatdoeshespendit?AndinwhatshallIspendit?WhereshouldIputmy Zakat(alms)?InwhatshallIspendit?WithwhomshallIassociate?Withwhomshall1 behappy?WhomshallIentrust,believein,resorttoconcerningmysecrets?Indeed, youaretheProofofAllahforhiscreationandHistrusteeofauthorityinHiscountry (i.e.theearth),mayAllahbestowHisblessinguponyou. AbdAllahb.Sulaymnsaid:AbuiAbdAllah(alSa~diq),peacebeonhim,answered him.: IntheNameofAllah,MostGracious,MostMerciful,mayAllahcomplimentyouwith Hisgooddeed,bekindtoyouwithHisfavor,andguardyouwithHiscare.Indeed,He istheSupporterofthat.Nowthen,yourmessengercametomewithyourletter.I havereaditandunderstoodwhatyouhavementionedandaskedabout.Youhave claimedthatyouhavebeeninflectedbytheStateofalAhwa"z.So,thathas delightedmeandgrievedme.Asformydelightatyourruling,Ihavesaid:MayAllah helpandstrengthenwithyouagrieved(person)fromthesupportersoftheFamily. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Andasformygrief,Iamafraidthatyoumightmistreatasupportofus,soyouwill notobtainthemercyoftheHolyBeing(Allah). Iamgoingtosummarizetoyouallwhatyouhaveaskedabout.Ifyouputtheminto effectanddonotexceedthem,Ihopeyoushallbesaved,Allahwilling.Myfathertold meontheauthorityofhisgrandfathersontheauthorityofAub.AbTalib,peacebe onthem,ontheauthorityoftheProphetofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily, whosaid:Whomeverhisbelievingpotheraskstheadviceofhimbutdoesnotshow himsincereadvice,Allahdepriveshimofhisintellect.KnowthatIamgoingtoadvise you.Ifyouputmyadviceintoeffect,youwillgetridofwhatyouareafraidof.Know thatyouareabletoaccomplishyourrescueandyoursalvationwhenyourefrainfrom sheddingbloodandharmingthesupportersofAllah,throughtreatingsubjectskindly, withpatienceandgoodfriendship,withleniencywithoutweaknessandstrength withoutviolence.Complyingwiththemoodsofyourcompanionandhismessengers whocometoyou,andtreatyoursubjectsaccordingtojusticeandlnqulty,Allah willing. Bewareofslanderers,donotletanyonecleavetoyou,donotletAllahseeyou accepting(theirwords)absolutely,whileyoudonotdojusticetopeople.So,Allahwill beangrywithyouanddisgraceyou.Asforhimwhomyourelyon,satisfiedwith,and entrustwithtocarryoutyouraffairs (211) shouldbeexperienced,clearsightedtrustee,Heshouldagreewithyouonyour religion,knowyoursubjects,andtrythetwoparties.So,ifyoufindsuchaperson, thendependonhim. Becarefulnottogiveevenadirhamortakeoffagarmentinthemannerthat displeasesAllahtoapoet,acomedian,andajoker,inthisconditionyoushouldgive thesame(sumofmany)toPleaseAllah. Yourprizes,bonuses,androbesofhonorshouldbegiventoleaders,messengers, grandsons,postmen,thepolice,andthecollectorsofChomps(fifth).Asforthe moneywhichyouwanttospendinthefieldsofrighteousness,success,generosity, alms,hajj,drinkingwater,thegarmentyouuseduring/prayers,andthegiftwhich youofferforAllah,theGreatandAlmightyandforhisApostle,myAllahblesshimand hisfamily,shouldbefromyourmostlawfulearn. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AbdAllah,sparenoefforttoavoidhoardingupgoldandsilversoasnottobeamong thoseaboutwhomAllah,theGreatandAlmighty,says:And(asfor)thosewhohoard upgoldandsilveranddonotspenditinAllahsway. Donotregardaslittlethoseremnantsoffood.Spendthemtofulltheempty abdomenstoclamtheangerofAllah,theBlessedandExalted.KnowthatIhaveheard myfatherreportingatraditionontheauthorityofhisgrandfathers,ontheauthority ofAlib.AbiTalib,ontheauthorityoftheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily, whosaid:Whoeverspendshisnightfull,whilehisneighborishungryhasnot believedinAllahandtheNEXTDay(thehereafter).So,wesaid,AllahsApostle,we havebeenruined!Hesaid:YoucanputouttheangeroftheLordwiththeremnants ofyourdates,yourliving,andyourwornoutpiecesofcloth. AmiralMuminin(ImamAli)wentoutofthisworldwhilehehadnoresponsibility foranyonetillhemetAllahpraisedunblamednordispraised.ThentheImamsafter himfollowedhisexampleasyouhaveknown.They(theImams)didnotstain themselvewithanythingoftheworldlycalamities,mayAllahblessthemallandmake theirabodesgood. Ihavesentyouthenobledeedsofthisworldandthefutureone.Ifyouputmyadvice intoeffect,IhopethatAllah,theGreatandAlmighty,willforgiveyouallyoursins withHispower,eveniftheyareasheavyasthemountainsorasthewavesofthe seas. AbdAllah,becarefulnottoscareabeliever,formyfatherMohammedtoldmeonthe authorityofhisfather,ontheauthorityofhisgrandfatherAub.AbTlib,peacebe onhim,whosaid:Whoeverlooksatabelievertoscarehim,Allahwillscarehimon thatdaywhentherewillbenoprotectionbutHisprotectionandgatherhisflesh,his body,andallhismemberintheshapeofthesmallantstillHe(Allah)pingshimtohis ruin. (212) Myfathertoldmeontheauthorityofhisgrandfathers,ontheauthorit)ofAli,onthe authorityoftheProphet,myAllahblesshimandhisfamily,whosaid:Whoeverhelps agrievedbeliever,Allahwillhelphimonthatdaywhentherewillbenoprotection butHisprotection,makehimsafeontheDayoftheGreatScare,andmakehimsafe fromtheevilconsequence.Whoeverfulfillsaneedforhisbelievingpother,Allah fulfillsmanyneedsforhim,amongthemisParadise.Whoeverclotheshisbelieving Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

pother(tocover)hisnakedness,AllahwillclothehunfromthesacramentofParadise andfromitspocadeanditssilk.Andhewillgoonenjoininghimselfwiththepleasure ofAllahaslongasthereisapieceofthreadontheclothedperson.Whoeverfeedshis pother,AllahwillfeedhimfromthegoodprovisionsofParadise.Whoeverwatershis pother,Allahwillwaterhimfromthesealednectar.Whoeverserveshispother,Allah willmaketheImmortalboystoservehim,anddwellshimwithHispurefriends. Whoevercarrieshisbelievingpotherfromthesaddleofhis(animal),Allahwillcarry himonashecameloftheshecamelsofParadiseandviehiminglorywiththeclose angelsontheDayofjudgment.Whoevermarrieshisbelievingpothertoawoman whomhedependson,whohelpshim,andwithwhomheispleased,Allahwillmarry himtooneofthepure,beautifulgirls(inParadise),andentertainshimwiththe truthfulonesofhisfamilyandhispothers.Alsohe(Allah)willentertainhii1awith them.Whoeverhelpshisbelievingpotheragainstanoppressiveruler,Allahwillhelp himpasstheroad(onthedaywhen)thelegsshake(withfear).Andwhoevervisitshis believingpotherinhishousenotforaneed,Allahwillregardhimasoneofthe Visitorsof(HisScaredHouse),anditwillbeamustonAllahtohonorHisvisitors. AbdAllah,myfathertoldmeontheauthorityofhisgrandfathersontheauthorityof Aub.AbTlib,peacebeonhim,ontheauthorityoftheProphetofAllah,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily,thathe,oneday,saidtohiscompanions:Men,whoever curses(people)withhistongueanddoesnotbelieve(inAllah)inhisheartisnota believer.Donotlookforthedefectsofthebelievers,forwhoeverlooksforthe defectsofabeliever,AllahwilllookforhisdefectsontheDayofjudginentandexpose himinhishouse. MyfathertoldmeontheauthorityofAu,peacebeonhim,whosaid:Allahhad takenapromisefromthebelieverthatpeopledonotbelievehiswords,nordoeshe takerevengeonhisenemy,ncrdoeshequenchhisangerbutthroughexposing himselftoscandal,foreverybelieveriscontrolled,thatisforashortpurposeandlong rest. Allahhadtakenapromisefromthebeliever(toconformto)things.Thesimplestone ofthemis(that)abelieverlikehim(who)believesinhisthoughtmakeshimtired, envieshim,andtheSatantemptshim(thesecondbeliever)andhelpshim.Theruler followshisacts(theactsofthefirst (213) believer)andhismistakes.He(theruler)disbelievesinwhathe(thefirstbeliever) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

believes.He(theruler)thinksthatsheddinghisbloodisamustandviolatinghis sacrednessasbooty,thenisthelifeofthebeliever(important)afterthesethings? AbdAllah,myfathertoldmeontheauthorityofhisgrandfathers,ontheauthorityof Allb.AbuTlib,peacebeonhim,ontheauthorityoftheProphet,mayAllahbless himandhisfamily,thathesaid:Gapiel,peacebeonhim,camedownandsaid: Mohammed,AllahhassentHisregardstoyouandsaid:Ihavederivedanamefrom MyNamesforthebeliever.Ihavecalledhimbeliever.ThebelieverisfromMeandI amfromthebeliever.Whoeverdisdainsabeliever,surely,wageswaragainstme. AbdAllah,myfathertoldmeontheauthorityofhisgrandfathers,peacebeonthem, ontheauthorityofAu,peacebeonhim,ontheauthorityoftheProphet,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily,who,oneday,said:Au,donotdebatewithamantillyou knowhisinnerself.Ifhisinnerselfisgood,Allah,theGreatandAlmighty,doesnot forsakeHissupporter.Andifhisinnerselfisevil,hiscounterpartisenoughforhim. Youarenotable(toconvincehim)evenifyoudoyourbesttodo(deeds)morethan hedoes,nottodisobeyAllah,theGreatandAlmighty. AbdAllah,myfathertoldmeontheauthorityofhisgrandfathersontheauthorityof Ali,peacebeonhim,ontheauthorityoftheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhis family,whosaid:Theminimum(degree)ofunbeliefisthatthepersonhearsaword fromhispother,tomemorizeitagainsthimsoastoexposehimwithit.Suchaperson shallhavenoPortion(inthehereafter). AbdAllah,myfathertoldmeontheauthorityofhisfathersontheauthorityofAu, peacebeonhim,whosaid:Whoeversaysaboutthebelieverwhathiseyesdonot seeandhisearsdonotheartodisgracehimandtodestroyhismanhoodisamong thoseabouthimAllah,theGreatandAlmighty,says:Surely(asfor)thosewholove thatscandalshouldcirculaterespectingthosewhobelieve,theyshallhaveagrievous chastisement. AbdAllah,myfathertoldontheauthorityofhisgrandfathersontheauthorityofAll, peacebeonhim,whosaid:Whoeverreportsastoryabouthisbelievingpotherto demolishhismanhoodandtodefamehim,Allahwilldegradehimwithhissintillhe pingsanexcuseforwhathehassaidandwillneverpingtheexcuse.Whoeverdelights hisbelievingpother,delights(ahlalBayt),peacebeonthem.Whoeverdelights(alt? a?Bayt),delightsAllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.Andwhoever delightsAllahsApostledelightsAllah.So,itisamustonHimtomakehimenter Paradise Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

ThenIadviseyoutofearAllahandtoholdfasttoHisreligion,forWhoeverholdsfast tothereligionofAllahisguidedtothestraightPath(ofIslam).So,fearAllahanddo notpreferanyonetoHispleasureandwill. (214) ThatisbecauseitisthecommandmentofAllah,theGreatandAlmighty,toHis creation.He(Allah)doesnotacceptanythingfromthemexceptitnordoesHeregard anythingasgreatbutit.Knowthatthecreatureshavenotbeenauthorizedtodo anythinggreaterthantofearAllah.Alsoitisourcommandment,we,(ahlalBaiyt).If youareabletorefrainfromdoingthedeedsaboutwhichyouwillbeasked tomorrow,thendo. AbdAllahb.Sulaymansaid:WhenalNaja"shyreceivedtheletterofalSdiq,peace beonhim,helookedatitandsaid:ByAllahwithwhomthereisnogoodbutHim,my master(alSadiq)istruthful.Whoeverputsintoeffectwhathasbeenwritteninthis letterissaved.So,AbdAllahwentonactingaccordingtothisletterthroughouthis lifetime.[1] SomeofIllsCommandmentstoHisShia ZaydalShahhiflsaid:AbflAbdAllahsaidtome:Sendmygreetingstothoseofyou whoobeymeandactaccordingtomywords.IadviseyoutofearAllah,theGreatand Almighty,tocleavetopietyinyourreligion,tomakeeveryeffortforAllah,tobe truthfulinyourtalks,togivethetrusts,toperformlongadoration,andtotreatyour neighborskindly,forMohammed,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,cametoput thesemannersintoeffect. Givethetrusttohwhoentrustsyouwiththemwhetherheisrighteousor mischievous,forAllahsApostleordered(theMuslims)topaythepieceofthreadand theneedle,keepcloserelationswithtribes,attendtheirescortingoftheirdeceased, visittheirillones,givethemtheirrights,forifthepersonofyoubecomespiousinhis religion,istruthfulinhistalks,givesthetrust,andhismannersaregood,(people)will say:ThisistheeducationofJafar.Thispleasesme.Otherwise,(people)willsay:This istheeducationofJafar.Inthiscase,thetribulationandthedisgraceareattributed Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

tome.ByAllah,myfathertoldmethatafollowerofAll,peacebeonhim,wasina certaintribe.There,hewasthebestone:Hegavetliatrust,andgavetherights.He wasthemosttruthfuloneintalks.So,hewastheshelteroftheirwillsandtrusts.The tribeaskedabouthimandsaid:Whoislikehim?Heisthemosthonestofusingiving thetrust.Andthemosttruthfulofusintalking.[2] HisCommandmentstoMuminalTlq: [3]AlSa"diq,peacebeonhimsaid:BinalNumfin,bewareofdoubt,foritfoilsyour act.Bewareoftheargument,forithumiliatesyou.AndBeware 1BiharalAnwar,73/271/112. 2alKafi,2/636/5. 3SeeHisFamousNarrators. (215) ofmanyquarrels,fortheytakeyouawayfromAllah.Thosewhowerebeforeyou learnedsilence,whileyoulearnthespeech.Whenanyoneofthemwantedto worship,helearnedsilencetenyearsbeforethat.Ifhehadlearnedit,hewouldhave worshipped;otherwisehesaid:IamnotworthyofwhatIamseeking.Indeed,saved ishewhoprolongssilencetorefrainfromobscenityandenduresharminthestateof falsehood.Itistheywhowerethehighborn,thehonest,thetruefollowers,andthe believing.ByAllah,ifsomeoneofyouoffersgoldasmuchastheearth,andthen enviesabeliever,thatgoldwillbeofthatwithwhichhewillbeburntinthefire. BinalNumn,whensomeoneisaskedaboutknowledgeandsays:Idonotknow. Indeed,hesharesknowledgeequallywith(theknowledgeable).Thebelieverenvies duringhissitting,butwhenhestandsup,envydisappearsfromhim. BinalNumn,ifyouwanttheloveofyourpothertobepureforyou,thendonot jokewithhim,donotarguewithhim,donotvieinglorywithhim,anddonotquarrel withhim.Donottellyourfriendaboutyoursecretexceptthatwhichdoesnotharm youwhentheenemyknowsit,forthefriendmightbeanenemysomeday. BinalNumn,eloquenceisnotthesharpton1guenormuchtalk.Rather,itisgiving themeaningorproducingevidence.[1] HisCommandmentstollamrinBinAyun:[2] Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AlSa~diq,peacebeonhim,said:Hamra~n,lookatthosewhoareinferiortoyou;do notlookatthosewhoaresuperiortoyouinability,forthatmakesyousatisfiedwith whathasbeenpredestinedforyou,anditismoreappropriateforyoutogetan addition(inyourreward)fromyourLord.Knowthatafewconstantactswith convictionarebetterwithAllahthanmanyactswithoutconviction.Knowthatthereis nopietymoreusefulthanrefrainingfromharmingthebelieversandtheirBACKbiting, norislivingmorecomfortablethangoodmanners,norispropertymoreusefulthan satisfactionwiththeafewprofitable(things),norisignorancemoreharmfulthan vanity.[3] HisCommandmentstoalMufaddalBinAmr:[4] IadviseyouandmyownselftofearAllahandtoobeyHim,forfromfearingAllah resultobedience,piety,humblenessforAllah,tranquillity,diligence,puttingHis ordersintoeffect,faithfulnesstoHisApostle, 1BiharalAnwar,78/292. 2SeeHisFamousNarrators. 3RoudatalKill,8/204/238. 4SeeHisFamousNarrators. (216) hasteningtowardHispleasure,andrefrainingfromwhatHehasprohibited.Indeed, whoeverfearsAllahsaveshimselffromthefirewiththepermissionofAllahand obtainsallgoodinhereandthehereafter.Andwhoeverorders(people)tofearAllah succeedsinthesermon.MayAllahmakeusfromthosewhofearHimwithHis permission.[1] HisCommandmentstoJamilBinDarraj:[2] AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,saidtoJamilb.Darrj:Thegoodonesofyouarethe generousandthebadonesofyouarethemiserly.Amongthegooddeedsaretotreat thepotherskindlyandtofulfilltheirneeds,forthese(acts)forcetheSatan(toturn awayfromyou)andsaveyoufromthefiresandmakeyouenterParadise.JamTl,tell yourhonorablecompanionsaboutthistradition.He(Jamil)said:I(i.e.Jamil)saidto him:MayIbeyourransom,whoaremyhonorablecompanions?He,peacebeon him,said:Thosewhotreatthepotherswithkindnessduringpovertyandriches. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

He(alSadiq)said:Jamil,this(act)iseasyforthedoerofthefavor.Allah,theGreat andAlmighty,haspraisedthedoerofthelittle(favor).He(Allah)said:Andprefer (others)tothemselvesthoughpovertymayafflictthem,andwhoeverispreserved fromtheniggardlinessofhissoul,theseitisthatarethesuccessfulones.[3] HisCommandmentstoalMaaIlBinKhanis: WhenalMaallb,KhanTswantedtotravel,alSdiq,peacebeonhim,saidto him:Maall,bepowerfulwithAllah.He(alMaall)said:WithWhat,sonofthe ApostleofAllah(myAllahblesshimandhisfamily)?He,peacebeonhim,said:Fear Allah,theExalted.Hemakeseverythingafraidofyou.Maall,showlovetoyour pothersthroughgivingthemgifts,forAllah,theExalted,hasmadethegiftloveand preventionhatred.ByAllah,ifyouaskmefor(something)andIgiveyouitismore desirablewithmethanthatyoudonotaskmefor(athing)andIdonotgiveyo.u,so youhateme.WhateverAllah,theGreatandAlmighty,hasgivenyouthroughmy hands,stillthelaudableoneisAllah,theExalted.However,donotforgettothankfor whatAllahhasgivenyouthroughmyhands.[4] 1BasiiralDarajat,1,526. 2SeeHisFamousNarrators. 3a1Sidflq,alKhisaI.alHashr,9. 4ShaykhalTtisi,alMajilis,Majlisno.,11. (217) HisCommandmentstQSufyanalThawri:[1] Syfyansaid:ImettheTruthfulone,theSonoftheTruthfulone,Jafarb. Mohammed,peacebeonthem.1(i.e.Sufyan)said:SonoftheApostleofAllah,advise me.Hesaidtome:Sufyan,theliarhasnomanhood;thetired(person)hasnopother, theenviou(Person)hasnorest,andtheillnatured(person)hasnorightness. I(sufyan)sai&SonoftheApostleofAllahAllahblesshimandhisfamily,addmore. Hesaidtome:EntrustAllahtobeabeliever.BesatisfiedwithwhatAllahhasallotted toYoutoberich.TreatyourneighborwithkindnesstobeMuslim.Donotmake friendswiththesinnersoasnottoteachyoufromhissin.Concerningyouraffairsask theadviceofthosewhofearAllah. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

I(sufya"n)said:SonoftheApostleofAllah,addmore.Hesaidtome:Sufya"n, whoeverwantsglorywithoutatribe,richesWithoutmoney,anddignitywithout authority,thenshouldmovefromthehumiliationofthedisobedienceofAllahtothe strengthofHisobedience,[2] He(i.e.Su1ayan)saidoncetoalSa"diq:Idonotgotillyoutellme(somepiecesof advice).He(alSadiq)saidtohim:Iwilltellyou,fortalkingwithyouisgood. Sufya"n,IfAllahbestowsacertainblessinguponyou,andifyouwantthisblessingto last,thenpraiseandlaud(Allah)foritverymuch,forAllah,theGreatandAlmighty, hassaidinHisBook:Ifyouaregrateful,Iwouldcertainlygivetoyoumore.[3]Andif youfeelthatyoursustenanceisslow,thenaskAllahsforgivenag5formuch,forAllah, theGreatandAlmighty,hassaidinHisBook:AskforgivenessofyourLord,surelyHeis themostForgiving.Hewillsenddownuponyouthecloud,pouringdownabundance ofrain.AndhelpYouwithwealthandsons,andmakeforyougardens,andmakefor yourivers.[4] Sufya"n,whentherulerorotherscauseaCertainmattertosaddenyou,say:Thereis neithermightnorpowerbutwithAllah,foritisthekeyofeaseandtreasureofthe treasuresofParadise,So,Sufynsaid:Whatexcellentthreetheseare![5] HisCommandmentstoInwinal:[6] 1SeeHisFamousNarrators. 2BiMralAnwfir:6,192/78. 3lpflhini,7. 4Nuh,10. 5AbuNaim,HulyatalAu1iya,3,193. 6Hehasnobiographyinthebooksofourbiographers. (218) InwnalBasridisagreedwithM&likb.Anasonhisideas.So,hewantedtolearn fromalSdiq,peacebeonhim.WhenhecametoalSadiq,alSadiqsaidtohim:Iam awantedman.However,IhavepartsoftfreHolyKoranateveryhourduringnight andday.So,donotbusymefromtheseparts.He(Inwn)said:Ibecamesad,soI enteredtheMosqueoftheProphetofAllah,peacebeonhim,andgreetedhim. ThenIsaidtworukatsandsaid:Allah!Allah!IaskYoutoMakeJafarsknowledgeto followYourstraightpath.Whenmypatiencewasover,andmyheartbecame narrow,IwenttoJafar.WhenIreachedhishouse,Iknockedonthedoor.Aservant Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

cameout.Theservantsaid:Whatisyourneed?I(Inwn)said:peacebeonthe Sharif.Theservantsaid:Heisperforminghisprayers.So,Isatatthedoor. Immediately,theservantcameoutandsaid:ComeinwiththeblessingofAllah.I caineinandgreetedhim(alSadiq).Hegreetedrueandsaid:Sitdown,mayAllah forgiveyou(yoursins).So,1satdown.Hebowedhisheadforalongtime.Thenhe raisedhisheadandsaid:Whatisyourkunya?AbQAbdAllah,Isaid:MayAllahfix yourkunyaandgrantyousuccess.Whatisyourquestion?Isaidtomyself:This duaisverymuchforme.Thenheraisedhisheadandsaid:Whatisyour question?Isaid:IaskedAllahtoinclineyourhearttomeandgivemesomeofyour knowledge.IhopethatAllahhasacceptedmysupplication.He(alSdiq)said:Abii AbdAllah,knowledgeisnotobtainedthroughlearning.Rather,Itislightfallsintothe heartofthepersonwhomAllah,theBlessedandExalted,Wantstoguide.Ifyouwant knowledge,thenaskthetruthofworshipinyourself,seekknowledgethroughusing it,andaskAllahtomakeyouunderstandit.Isaid:Sharif1Hesaid:Donotsay sharif,sayAbUAbdAllah.Isaid:Whatisthetruthofworship?Hesaid:three things:theservantshouldnotregardhimselfaskinginwhatAllahhasauthorized him,fortheservantshavenoauthority.TheythinkthatwealthbelongtoAllah.They useitinthefieldswhereHehasorderedthemto.So,theservanthasnorightinthis wealth.AllhehasisthatheshouldcarryoutwhatAllahhasorderedhimandto refrainfromwhatHehasprohibited.So,whentheservantthinksthathehasnoright inwhatAllahhasauthorizedhim,spendinginthefieldswhereAllahhasorderedhim tospendiseasyforhim.Whentheservantauthorizeshismastertomanagehim,the misfortunesofthisworldareeasyforhim.Whentheservantbusieshimselfwith whatAllahhasorderedhimtodo,whilehavenoleisuretimetoarguewithpeopleor viewiththeminglory.WhenAllahhonorstheservantwiththesethreethings,lifein thisworld,Iblis(theSatan),andthecreationarealleasyforhim.Besides,hedoesnot requestthelifeinthisworldtoincrease(hismoney)orviewith(people)inglorynor doesherequestwhatpeoplehaveforpowerandthehighpositionandnordoeshe makehisdaysgoinvain.So,thisisthefirstdegreeofreligiousdevotion.Allah,the (219) BlessedandExalted,said:(Asfor)thatfutureabode,Weassignitothosewhohave nodesiretoexaltthemselvesintheearthnortomakemischiefandthegoodendis forthosewhoguard(againstevil).[1] I(Inwfin)said:AbaAbdAllah,adviseme.Hesaid:Iwilladviseyou(todo)nine things,fortheyaretothosewhowanttofollowtheStraightpathofAlla.IaskAllahto grantyousuccesstoputthemintoeffect.Threeoftheminthespiritualexercise; Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

threeoftheminclemency,andthreeoftheminknowledge.Memorizethemandbe carefulnotneglectthem.Inwlinsaid:So,Imademyheartempty.He(alS&iiq) said:Asforthoseconcerningthespiritualexercise,becarefulnottoeatwhatyoudo notfeelappetitefor,becauseitpingsaboutfoolishnessandstupidity.Donoteat exceptwhenyouarehungry.Whenyoueat,eatlawful(food),say:Bismillahr rahmanirrahim,andcalltomindthefollowingtraditionoftheProphet,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily:Thepersondoesnotfullacontainermoreevilthanhis stomach.However,ifitisnecessary,(followtheseportions):thirdforfood,thirdfor water,andthirdforpeathing.[2] Asforthoseconcerningclemency,whoeversaystoyou:Ifyousayonetime,Ihave heardtentimes.Saytohim:Ifyousaytentimes,youhaveheardnone.Whoever abusesyou,saytohim:ifyouaretruthfulinwhatyousay,thenaskAllahtoforgive me.Andifyoutellliesinwhatyousay,thenIaskAllahtoforgiveyou.Whoever threatensyouwithobscenelanguage,givehimapieceofadviceandtakecareofhim. Andasforthoseconcerningknowledge,asktheknowledgeableaboutwhatyoudo notknow.Becarefulnottoaskthemtoconfuseortrythem.Becarefulnottodo anythingaccordingtoyouropinion.Actaccordingtoprecautioninallwhatyou cannotfindawaytoit.Escapefromgivingareligiousopinion,anddonotmakeyour neckasapidgeforpeople.Now,AbUAbdAllah,leaveme,forIhavegivenyoupieces ofadvice.DonotspoilmyrecitingtothepartsoftheKoran,forIamstickingtothem, andpeacebeonthosewhofollowguidance.2 SomeofHisvaluableCommandments: Hisvaluablepiecesofadviceandcommandmentsaremany.Hefollowedevery methodtoadvise(people)tofollowguidance.Hesometimesurgesustocleaveto religiousdevotion,piety,diligence,longadoration,andbow(ruku).Hesays:Be propagandiststoyourselveswithoutyourtongues,begracefulanddonotbe disgraceful.[3] 1alQasas,83. 2BiharalAnwar,1/224/17. 3alKafi. (220) Hesometimesurgesustosticktogratefulness,supplication,andrelianceonAllah.He says:Whomeverisgiventhree(things)isnotpreventedfromthree(things) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

whomeverisgivensupplicationisgiventheanswer,whomeverisgivengratefulnessis giventheaddition,andwhomeverisgivenreliance(onAllah)isgiventheadequacy. Thenhesaid:HaveyourecitedthebookofAllah,theGreatandAlmighty:And whoevertrustsinAllah,Heissufficientforhim.[1]IfyouaregratefulIwould certainlygivetoyoumore.[2]CalluponMe,Iwillansweryou.[3] Hesometimesguidesustodespairfromallpeople.Hesays:Ifsomeoneofyouwants toaskAllahtogivehimeverything,thenheshoulddespairfromallpeople,heshould havenohopewithanyonebutwithAllah.WhenAllah,theGreatandAlmighty, knowsthatfromhisheart,Hegiveshimallhisdesires.[4] Hesometimesencouragesustohavenoblemannersandvirtuousqualities.So,he describeshumblenessforusandlimitsitspositions.Hesays:Itisanactof humblenesstobesatisfiedwithsittingattheendofthesitting,togreethimwhom youmeet,toleavetheargumentevenifyouareright,anddonotlovetobelauded forreligiousdevotion.[5] AlSadiqmentionedmanyqualitiestoraisethepersontoahighsocialposition.He saidtohiscompanions:Hearmywords.Theyarebetterthanthedarkblackhorses: oneofyoushouldnotspeakaboutthatwhichdoesnotconcernhim,heshouldleave manywordsaboutthatwhichconcernshimtofindasubjecttothem.Perhaps,one mayspeakaboutaninconvenientsubject,sohewrongshimselfwithhiswords.One ofyoushouldnotarguewiththeclementpersonnorwiththefoolishone,for whoeverargueswiththeclementperson,he(theclementperson)willdrivehim away.Andwhoeverargueswiththefoolishone,he(thefoolishone)willruinhim. Whenyourpotherisaway,rememberhimwithbestwordswithwhich.youwant peopletorememberyouwhenyouareaway.Anddothedeedofhimwhoknows thathewillberewardedwithkindness.[6] Hedescribedgoodmaimersforustomakeustoconformtothem.Hesaid:Indeed, AllahissatisfiedwithIslamasreligionforyou,thenmakeyourrelationwithitgood throughgenerosityandgoodmanners. Headvisedhiscompanionstoadoptthefollowing:Visiteachother,foryourvisit enlivensyourheartsandremindsyouofourtraditions.Ourtraditionsmakeyoufeel compassionforeachother.Ifyouputtheminto 1alTalaq,30. 2Ipahim,7. 3alMumin,60. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

4alKafi. 5alKafi. 6ShaykhalThsi,alMajfflis,Majlisno.2. (221) effect,youwillbeguidedandsaved.Ifyouneglectthem,youwillgoastrayand(face) ruin.So,followthemandIguaranteeyoursalvation.[1] SocialRelations: Withoutdoubt,manimitatesbynaturehisfriendsandrelatives.So,heisgoodwhen theyaregoodandisbadwhentheyarebad.Forthisreason,ourImamwarned peopleagainstbadsocialrelations:Becarefulnottoassociatewiththekingsand thosewhoclingstothelifeinthisworld,forthatcorruptsyourreligionandcauses hypocrisytoyou.Thisisabadillnesswhichhasnocure,andpingsaboutahardheart anddeprivesyouofdevoutness.Cleavetoordinarypeoplewhomatchyou,foryou findgoodmannerwiththem.Becarefulnottowishforthatwhichisinthehandsof thechildrenofthisworld.Becausewhoeverwishesforthat,hisgriefbecomeslong, doesnotquenchhisanger,andregardsAllahsblessingwithhimaslittle.So,his gratefulnessislittle.Lookatthosewhoareinferiortoyou,soyouaregratefultoAllah forhisboons,worthyofHisextra(boons),andhappyatHisliberality.[2] HasteningtowardGoodThings: Itisnotrighttolosethegooddeed,foritisanopportunity.Perhaps,losingthegood deedpingsaboutregret.Allaffairsoflifeareopportunitieswhichwearenotableto repeat.However,AbUAbdAllah,peacebeonhim,urgesustoseizesuchsuitable opportunities.Hesaid:ifyouintendtodoagooddeed,thendonotputitoff. Indeed,Allah,theGreatandAlmighty,mayknowthattheservanthassome obedience.So,He(Allah)says:BymyGreatnessandMight,Iwillnevertortureyou afterit.[3]Therearemanysimilartraditionsinthisregard. AlsoalSadiq,peacebeonhim,warnsusagainstevildeeds.Hesaid:Andifyou intendtodoanevildeed,thendonotdoit.Indeed,Allah,theGreatandAlmighty, mayknowthattheservanthassomedisobedience.So,He(Allah2says:ByMy GreatnessandMight,Iwillneverforgiveyouafterit.AlSadiqgavemanysimilar commentsinthisregard. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

ToBeContinue Supplement StudyingReligiousJurisprudence: StudyingReligiousjurisprudenceisthewaytoworshipAllah,theExalted.Muslimscan preservetheIslamicLawwithit.Rather,theMuslimReligiondependsontheMuslim juristswhoknowitsruleanddefendit.FromherealSadiq,peacebeonhimsaid manytraditionsonreligious 1alKafi. 2ZaydalNarsi,alKitab. 3WasaiIalShi,1,18. (222) jurisprudencewehavementionedsomeofthembefore.Herewewilladdother traditions.He,peacebeonhim,said:Whoeverworships(Allah)without understanding(thereligion)islikehimwhowalksafterthemirageinadesertthe speedofhiswalkingincreaseshimnothingbutdistance.Alsohesaid:Whoeverpof ourcompanionsdoesnotstudyreligiousjurisprudence,thendoesnotdoanygood deed.Alsohesaid:Peoplearenotabletoacttilltheyaskandunderstand(the religion).[1]He,peacebeonhim,said:IfAllahwantsaservanttodogoodmakes himunderstandthereligion.Alsohesaid:Allperfectionisinunderstandingthe religion,patienceduringthemisfortune,andappreciatingtheliving.[2] Asreligiousj\urisprudenceplaysanimportantroleintheMuslimreligion,he,peace beonhim,said:Thedeathofthereligiousjuristismoredesirablewith(theSatan) thanthedeathofanyotherbeliever.Alsohesaid:Whenthebelievingjuristdieshe makesinIslamagapwhichncthingfills.[3] GratefulnessofBoons: AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,advised(Muslims)topreserveboonstomakethemlast.In Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

thisconnectionhesaid:Preserveconstantboons.Becarefulnottoletthemmoveto otherthanyou.Indeed,whentheymovefromoneperson(toanother),theyrarely comeBACKtohim. AmiralMuminTnsaid:Whenthethingturnsaway,itrarelycomesBACK.[4] He(alSdiq)taughtthem(Muslims)howtopreserveboons.HesaidtoSadrral Sayrafy:Whenthepersonhasmanyproperties,theproofofAllahagainsthimis great.So,ifyouareabletochangeit(Allahsproof),thendoHe(Sdfr)said:Sonof ApostleofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,withwhat?He,peacebeonhim, said:Withfulfillingtheneedsofyourpothersfromyourproperties.Thenhesaid: Receiveboons,SdTr,inagoodmanner.ThankHimWhobestowsuponyou.Bestow uponhimwhothanksyou.Indeed,ifyoubehaveinsuchamanner.Thentheaddition fromAllahandtheadvicefromyourpothersareamust.Thenherecitedthese WordsofAllah,theExalted:Ifyouaregrateful,Iwouldcertainlygiveyoumore.[5] Amongthemethodsofgratefulnessisthattheservantshouldshowtheboonsof Allah,theGlorified.Forthisreason,AbUAbidAllah(alS&liq),peacebeonhim, guidesustothislaudabletrait.Hesaid:Surely,Allah 1BiharalAnwir:1/221/61. 2a1Kafi. 3BiharalAnwar:1/220/56. 4ShaykhTusi,alMpjalis,Majlisno.9. 5Ibid,Majlisno.11.Ipahim,7. (223) lovesbeautyandembellishment,andhatesmiseryandshowingmisery.Indeed,when Allahbestowsaboonuponaperson,Helovestoseeitseffectonhim.Itwassaid: How?He,peacebeonhim,said:He(theperson)shouldcleanhisclothes,perfume himself,sweepstheyards(ofhishouse),andplastershishouse. ThesearesomeimportantmethodstoshowgratefulnessforAllahsboons.They explainedthisverseAndasforthefavorofyourLord,doannounce(it). GoodFriendship: Goodfriendshipisnotthematterwhichcomestoyouautomatically.Rather,itcomes Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

throughhabituatingtheselfandcontrollingitspleasures.Thatisbecausegood friendshipsometimesforcesyoutosacrificeyourdesiresandappetitesforyourfriend andtopreferhimtoyourself.Forthisreason,AbtiAbdAllah,peacebeonhim,said: Adjustyourselftogoodfriendshiptohimwhomyoumakefriendswith. Astherearemanymethodstomakegoodfriendship,andasthepersondoesnot knowwhichoneisthebest,alSdiq,peacebeonhim,teachesushowtomakegood friendshipwithourfriends.Hesaid:Makeyourmannersgood,preventyourtongue (fromsayingobscenewords),suppressyouranger,decreaseyournonsense,plant yourforgiveness,andbegenerous.[1] Moreover,hewantsustomakegoodfriendshipaspermanentsloganwithour friends.Hesaid:Shia(followers)ofthefamilyofMohammed,whoeverdoesnot controlhimselfduringhisangeranddoesnottreathisfriendkindlyisnotoneof us.[2]Therearemanytraditionslikethis. Whenwemakefriendswithsomeoneandwhenwepartfromhimforacertaintime, alSdiq,peacebeonhim,makesitincumbentonustolookforhimtoknowhis conditions.So,hesaidtoalMufaddalb.AmrwhenhecameBACKfromhistravel: Whoaccompaniedyou?Amanofmypothers,saidalMufaddalWhathashe done,askedalSadiq.IhavenotknownhisplacesinceIarrived,saidalMufaddal. Doyounotknowthatwhoeveraccompaniesabelieverforfortysteps,Allahwillask himaboutthebelieverontheDayofJudgment.[3] FriendshipduringTravel: Travelhasspecialmannerswhicharedifferentfromthoseonesduringthenormal life.Fromthefirstlook,youmayknowitisanpactof 1alWasil,8/42/2. 2Ibid,402/3. 3Ibid,8/403/8. (224) generosity,thenobleself,andmanhoodtospendmuchmoneyonthefoodinthe mannerthatsurpassesyourfriends.However,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,prevented (Muslimsfromdoingthat)duringtravel,forsuchkindofspendingcoststhefrienda lotwhenhewantstovieinspendingwithhisotherfriendsoritmayhumiliatehim Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

whenhepreventshimselffromdoingthat.Itisnotanactofpolitenessorgood friendshiptocostyourfriendorhumiliatehim.Forthisreason,alSadiq,peacebeon him,saidtoShahbb.AbdRaba[1]:Shahab,donotdothat,foriftheyspendand youspend(morethanthem),thenyouwrongthemorhUmiliatethemwhenthey preventfrom(spending).So,accompanyyourmatches,accompanyyourmatches. TheImamsaidthesewordswhenShahbsaidtohim:Youhaveknownmycondition, myopenhand,andmygenerositytowardmypothers.Iaccompanythepersonof themtocovertheroadtoMeccaandIbecomegeneroustowardhim.[2] I(theauthor)say:Thepersonhumiliatesotherswhenhespendsonthem.Inthe meantime,othershumiliatehimwhentheyspendonhim.So,theImamprevented (Muslims)fromadoptingbothcases.HesaidtoAbBasir:Idonotwant(theperson) tohumiliatehimself,soheshouldaccompanythosewhomatchhim. TheImamsaidthesewordswhenAbBasTraskedaboutthepersonwho accompaniestherich,whileheisinferiortothem(inspending).So,thementakeout theexpense,whileheisnotabletotakeoutwhattheydo. WhenHishamb.alHakamaskedtheImamaboutsomecases,theImamanswered: Accompanythosewhoarelikeyou.[3] Accordingly,theImamregardthecompanionshipofthematchasaruleforboth causes,testthepersonshouldhumiliatehimselforhumiliatetheothers.Thisis amonghisgreatwisdomswhichheadoptedtomakepeoplefollowgoodmanners. GoodNeighborhood: Itisanactofthepolitenessofthepersonandofhissuperiorintellectistoadoptgood neighborhood.Besides,itisavirtuousactwhichthewisesummonpeopletoputit intoeffect.TheArabsviedwitheachotherfortreatingtheirneighborkindly.Also theydidtheirbesttodefendtheneighbor.WhenIslamcameitadoptedthisnoble trait,increasedtherespectforit,andurgedtheMuslimstoclingtoit.TheProphet, mayAllahbless 1alKafi.HewasamongthecompanionsofalS&liq,peacebeonhim,Hewasamong thereliablenarrators.Thereliablenarratorsreportedtraditionsonhisauthority. 2WasailalShia,8/302/1.

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3Ibid,8/303/5. (225) himandhisfamily,gavefrequentcommandmentsconcerningit.Forthisreason, AmTralMuminln(ImamAu),peacebeonhim,said:AllahsApostle,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily,wentonadvisingus(totreat)theneighbor(kindly).So,we thoughtthathewouldbequeathhim. ThegrandsonsoftheProphetfollowedthesamemannerinregardwiththeneighbor. Forexample,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:CleavetoAllahfearingness....good manners,andgoodneighborhood.[1] AlSadiqrepeatedthesecommandmentsmanytimes.So,heblamedthosewho neglectedthem.Inthisconnection,he,peacebeonhim,said:Dothepersonofyou notfeelshamethathisneighborknowshisright,whilehedoesnotknowhis neighborsright? Moreover,alSdiqexcludedthosewhodonottreattheirneighborskindly.He, peacebeonhim,said:Whoeverdoesnottreathisneighborkindlyisnotoneof us.[2] AcceptingAdvice: Peopleknowthatthepersonhassuperiorintellectwhenhelistenstoadviceand conformstothewordsoftheadviser,fortheignorantpersonstickstofanaticismthat hedoesnotlistentotheadviser.Besides,hethinksthattheadvisermaydisclosehis defects.However,heforgetsthatdisclosing,hisdefectsurgeshimtoreformthem. Forthisreason,alSdiq,peacebeonhim,said:Themostdesirableoneofmy pothersformeishewhogiftsmemydefects.[3]Hesaidthesewordstoteachus,for heisfarabovedefects. I(theauthor)say:Ofcourse,suchapersonisthemostdesirableonebecausehe wantstosavehimselffromthevicesandadornitwiththevirtue.Asthisqualityis goo,alSdiq,peacebeonhim,regardeddisclosingthedefectsasagi .Thiswashis maximumaimtoencouragethepothers(i.e.friends)toadoptthisqualitytodisclose thedefectsofeachothertoreformthem. AlSadiqmadeitnecessaryforthebelievertoacceptadvice.He,peacebeonhim, Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

said:Thebelieverisinneedofthreetraits:successgrantedbyAllah,theGreatand Almighty,apreacherfromhisownself,andacceptingadvice.[4] Consultation: 1WasailalShia,11/156/8. 2Ibid,8/399/4. 3Ibid,8/489/5. 4Ibid,8/413/3. (226) Whoeveraskstheadviceofthewiseknowsthewaysoftheentriesandoftheoutlets anddiscoversthewaysofsuccess.So,hesaveshimselffromdangers.AbtiAbdAllah (alSadiq),peacebeonhim,discoveredthisfactforus1vhenhesaid:Theperson whoaskstheadvice(ofothers)doesnatperish.[1]Alsoheguidedustothe consultantwhenwefaceaccidentalvaguethings.Hesaid:Whenthepersonofyou faces(athing)whichhehasnoabilitytosolve,Waydoeshenotasktheadviceofthe wisemanwithhasreligionandpiety?[2] AlSadiqincreasedtheconditionsofconsultationandoftheconsultantwhenhe, peacebeonhim,said:Consultationdoesnottakeplaceexceptwithinits(limits.So, theadviceseekershouldknowitwithinitslimitaotherwiseitharmshimmorethan itavailshim.Firstly,theconsultantshouldbewise.Secondly,heshouldbefreeand religious.Thirdly,heshouldbeaclosefriend,lastly,youshouldtellhimaboutyour secrettbahisknowledgeofitisasyourknowledgeofyourself.ThenhekeepsyoIar secret.Indeed,ifhe(theconsultant)iswise,youmakeuseofhisadvice.Ifheisfree andreligious,hedoeshisbesttoadviseyou.Ifheisaclosefriend,hekeepsyour secretwhenyoutellhimaboutit.Andifyoutellhim.aboutyoursecretthathis knowledgeofitisasyourknowledgeofit,then.consultationisperfect.[3] AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,warned(Muslims)againstdisobeyingtheconsultantwhen heisfullyqualified.Hesaid:Ofmen,asktheadviceafthewise,pious(one),forhe doesnotorder(you)but(todo)good.Becarefulnottodisobey(him),foraisobeying thewise,pious(one)corrupbareligionandthelifeinthisworld.[4] Alsohemadeitincumbentontheconsultanttogivehisadviceataawarnedhim againsttheendwhenherefusestogivehisadvice.He,pabeonhim,said:Whoever askstheadviceofhispother,buthepother)doesnotgivehimpureadvice,Allah,the Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Greatandshalldeprivehimofhisopinion.[5] MakingManypothers: Indeed,thepersonbecomesmanywithhispother(friend),forhe(6friend)helpshim duringmisfortunesandpoverty,entertainshimduringlonelinessandestrangement, advisehimduringperplexity,guideshimduringtheerror,remembershimwhenheis away,andsoon.Forthareason,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,ordered(Muslias)to makeuapothers.He,peacebeonhim,said:Makemanyfriendsinthisworld,iiithey avail(you)inhereandthehereafter.Inthisworld,theyfulfill(your) 1Ibid,8/424/4. 2Ibid,8/426/7. 3Ibid,8/426/8. 4Ibid,8/426/8. 5Ibid,8/427/2. (227) needs.Inthehereafter,thepaopleofthefirewillsay:SowehavenojntcrCeSSOTS, noratruefriend.[1] WhenalSidiq,peacebeonhim,saidthatthefriendwouldavailhisfriendinthe hereafter,hemeantthatthereligiouswiseonewhoguideshisfriendtogoodthrough advisinghim,sohewillsavehimfromtheruininthehereafter. Orhemaymakeuseofhissupplicationforhislifeinthehereafter,asatSadiqsaidin othertradition:Makemanypothers,foreverybelieverhasanaccepted supplication. Orbecausehemaymakeuseofhisintercessioninthehereafter,asa1Sadiq,peace beonhimsaid:Makemanypothers,foreverybelieverhasintercession.Alsohe, peacebeonhim,saidaMakefriendswiththebelievers,fortheyhaveintercession withAllah.[2] Besides,thebelievingfriendisworthacollectionofallthesequalitiesinhereandthe hereafter. Forgivingpothers: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Notallpeopleareinfallible.Mostpeoplemakemistakes.So,itisimpossibleforyouto findthefriendfreefromdefects.Accordingly,whoeverwantstomakemanyfriends shouldforgivethemtheirmistakes.Fromhere,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,said: Wheredoyoufindaprefectpother?Whichoneofmenisperfect?[3] Alsohesaid:Whoeverdoesnotmakefriendsbutwithhimwhohasnodefect,his friendsareveryfew.[4] Whenthepersonwantsfriendshiptolastheshouldnotlookforthedefectsofhis friena,asalSdiq,peacebeonhim,said:Lookingfor(defects)isparting.[5]Alsohe saidDonotlookfor(thedefects)ofpeoplelestyoushouldbewithoutfriend.[6] Theexperiencedpersonsshouldbesatisfiedwiththelittleactofhispotherto continuehisfriendshipwithhim,asalSdiq,peacebeonhim,said:Itisnotanact ofequitytodemandthepotherstodoequity,andwhoeverISdissatisfiedwithhis patherunlesshispotherprefershimtohimselfhisdissatisfactionwilllast.[7] Yes,admonitiondoesnotspoilthecontinuationoffriendship.Rather,itmayremove thehatredandhiddenspitesofthehearts.However,admonitionshouldnotbevery muchbecauseitpingsaboutnegativeresults.Forthisreason,alS&iiq,peacebeon him,said:Hewhose 1Ibid,81407/5. 2Ibid,8/408/7. 3Ibid,8/458/1. 4BiharalAnwar,78/278. 5Ibid,78/253/109. 6Wasailalshia,8/458/2. 7Ibid,8/458/3. (228) admonitionismuch,hisfriendsareveryfew.Alsohesaid:Whoeveradmonisheshis potherforeverymistake,hisadmonitionwilllast.[1] TheRightsofpothers: pothershavemanyrights.Itisdifficultforustocountthem,andwedonotwantto Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

searchwhathasbeenmentionedontheminthisconnectionHowever,wewill mentiononlyonetradition.Thetraditionisenoughforthepothertotreathispother kindlywhenheputsitintoeffect.AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,saidtoalMuallab. KhanTsthatthepotherhassevenrights.Theyare:Thefirstright:Youshouldloveto himwhatyoulovetoyourselfandhatetohimwhatyouhatetoyourself.Thesecond right:Youshouldavoidmakinghimangry,followhispleasure,andobeyhisorders. Thethirdright:Youshouldhelphimwithyourself,yourmoney,yourtongue,.your hand,andyourleg.Thefourthright:Youshouldbehiseye,hisguide,andhismirror. Thefifthright:Youshouldnotbefull,whileheishungry.Youshouldnotquenchyour thirst,whileheisthirsty.Youshouldnotclotheyourself,whileheisnaked.Thesixth right:Whenyouhaveaservant,andyourpotherhasnoservant,soyoushouldsent himyourservanttowashhisclothes,tofixhisfood,andtopreparehisbed.The seventhright:Youcarryouthisoath,accepthisinvitation,visithisillones,participate inhisfuneralprocession.Whenyouknowthathehasaneed,youshouldhastento fulfillit.Youshouldnotforcehimtorequestit(theneed)fromyou,butyoushould hastento(fulfillit)ofyourownaccord.Whenyoudothat,yourelaaeyourfriendship tohisfriendship,andhisfriendshiptoyoafriendship[2] Helpingthepothers: IntheprevioustopictheRightsofpothers,wehavementionedsomethingabout helpingthepothers.However,ithasbeenmentionedseparatelyinthetraditionsof alSadiq,peacebeonhim.He,pe1icebeonhim,said:Helpyourpotherswithwhat youhaveearned.[3]Alsohe,peacebeonhim,said:ComenearertoAllahthrough helpingyourpothers.[4] Ashelpingthepothersisverydifficult,AbAbdAllah(alSadiq),peacebeonhim, said:AmongthestrongestthingswhichAllahhasImposedonhiscreaturesarethree: (Thebelievershould)treathisbelievingpotherwith(nametyaheshouldlovetohim whathelovestohimselfhelpingthebelievingpotherwithmoney,callingtomind AllahsnameduringeveryattitudeitisnottosaySubhanaAllahwaaa1hamdulillah ratherduring(doing)whatAllahhasprohibitedhimfrom.[5] 1BiharalAnwar:78/278. 2WasailalShia,8154417. 3Ibid8/415/4. 4alSudiq,alKhisal. 5WasailalShi,a,5/41515. (229) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

I(theauthor)say:Indeedtheseareamongthedifficultthingsforthepersontodo,for theyOpposehisstrongestpleasuresuchasselflove,moneylove,pride,andsoon. TreatingthepothersKindly: Treatingthepotherskindlyisapanchofrenderinghelptothem.AlSdiq.peacebeon him,urgedMuslimsverymuchtotreateachotherkindly.Inhiscommandmentsto JamTlb.Darrj,hesaid:Itisanactofpurebeliefistotreatthepotherskindlyandto satisfytheirneeds.TheMerciful(Allah)loveshimwhotreatshispotherskindly.... Jamil,tellyourhonorablecompanionsaboutthistradition.He(Jamil)said:MayIbe ransomforyou,whoaremyhonorablecompanions?Hesaid:Thosewhotreattheir potherskindlyduringpovertyandriches.[1] InhisforegoingcommandmentstoAbidAllahb.Jundub,alSadiqsaid:Indeed,to movethefeettovisitthepothersandtotreatthemkindlyisthebestwaytoworship Allah. AstreatingthepotherskindlyisgreatwithAllah,theExalted,theSatandoeshisbest topreventmanfromdoingthat,Inthesecommandmentshesaid:BinJundub,the Satanhassnarestocatch(people)so,bewareofhissnares.He(BinJundub)said: SonoftheProphetofAllah,whatarehissnares?He(theProphet)said:Asforhis snares,he(theSatan)preventyoufromtreatingyourpotherskindly. TruthfulTalkandGivingtheTrust: AbuAbdAllah(alSadiq),peacebeonhim,advisedhiscompanionstobetruthfulin theirtalksandtogivetruststotheirowners.Inthisconnection,wehavementioned someinformationbefore. Thoughthesetwotraitsarethebestofalltraitsinthemselves,theyhavecleareffects onthereligion.Forexample,theypingaboutloveandconfidenceamongpeople,so richeshappens.Inthisregard,wewillmentionthefollowingtradition. Alsadiq,peacebeonhim,saidtoAbdalRa1unanb.Sayyaba:Doyounotwantme togiveyouacommandment?AbdalRahmansaid:Yes,mayIberansomforyou. AlSadiqsaid:Cleavetothetruthfultalkandgivingthetrust.So,youWillshare peopletheirproperties."AbdalRahmansaid:Ihawillsharepeopletheir properties.Abdalhundredthousanddirhamsathetradition,soIhaveearnedthree Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

hundredthousanddirhams."[2] 1WasailalShia. 2BiharalAnwar:47/384/107. HISSAYINGS (230) AlS&liq,peacebeonhim,hasoriginalsayingsandrarewords.Theyraisethegood soulstotheclassesofangelsandleadpeopletothevirtueandhappinesswhenthey useandconsiderthemcarefully.Ihavecollectedandselectedagroupofthemin earnest.He,peacebeonhim,said: 1.IntellectisthatwithwhichpeopleworshiptheMostGracious(Allah)andwith whichtheyobtaingardens. 2.Verily,therewardisequaltointellect. 3.Themostperfectofmeninintellectisthebestoftheminethics. 4.Intellectisthepillarofman. 5.Intellectistheguideofthebeliever.[1] 6.Theperfectionofintellectisinthree(things):humblenessforAllah,goodcertainty, andsilenceexceptforgood. 7.Ignoranceisinthree(things):Haughtiness,theintenseofdispute,andthe ignoranceinAllah. 8.Thebestnatureofintellectisworship,thestrongestspeechforitisknowledge,and itsmostabundantluckismaxim.[2] 9.Toconsiderknowledgeverymuchopensintellect.[3] 10.Knowledgeisashield,truthfulnessismight,ignoranceisabasement, understandingisglory,generosityissuccess,goodbehaviorcausesfriendship,hewho hasknowledgeabouthistime,ambiguousthingsdonotattackhim,and determinationismistrust. 11.Ifyouwantthatyouarehonored,thenbesoft.Andifyouwantthatyouare abused,thenberough. 12.Hewhoseoriginisnoble,hisheartissoft,andhewhoseraceisrough,hisliveris thick. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

13.Whoeverisextremegetsinvolved,andwhoeverisafraidoftheconsequence refrainsfromenteringwhathedoesnotknow. 14.Whoeverattacksamatterwithoutknowledgecutsoffhisownnose.[4] 15.Scholarsaretrustees,theAllahfearingarestrongholds,andguardiansare masters.[5] 16.Verily,knowledgeisalockanditskeyisthequestion.[6] 17.Whoeveractswithoutprescienceislikethewalkerwithoutway,thespeedof walkingdoesnotincreasehimbutfarness. 1AlKafi:ChapteronReason. 2BiharalAnwar:1/131/24. 3Ibid:1/159/32. 4A1Kafi,ChapteronReason. 5Ibid,ChapterontheQualityandmeritofknowledgeandtheoutstandingmeritsof scholars. 6Ibid,Chapteronthequestionanditsdiscussion (231) 18.Allahdoesnotacceptanyactwithoutknowledge,thereisnoknowledgewithout act,sowhoeverknows,knowledgaleadshimtoact,andwhoeverdoesnotactgets noknowledge,butbeliefisalittleofalittle. 19.Thefavorisnotperfectedbutwiththree(things): bydoingitquickly,debasingit,andhidingit. 20.Noteveryonewhoseesathingisabletodoit,noteveryonewhoisabletodoa thingissuccessfulindoingit,andnoteveryonewhoissuccessfulinit.when intention,ability,success,andrighteousnesscometogether,happinessoccurs. 21.Fourthingsofwhichlittleismuch:Fire,enmity,poverty,andillness. 22.Twentydayfriendshipisarelationship. 23.Whoeverdoesnotfeelshameduringabsenceanddoesnotrepentduringoldage anddoesnotfearAllahduringloneliness,thenhehasnogood. 24.Whoeverhonorsyou,thenhonorhim.Andwhoeverscornsyou,thenhonor yourselffromhim. 25.ToforbidgenerosityismistrustinAllah. 26.Verily,thefamilyofapersonarehisprisoners,sowhomeverisbestowedupon him,thenheshouldbegeneroustowardthem,andifhedoesnot(dothat),thatfavor isabouttodisappearfromhim. 27.Three(things)withwhichAllahdoesnotincreasetheMuslimpersonbutglory:To forgivehimwhowrongshim;togivehimwhodepriveshim,tovisithimwho Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

abandonshim. 28.Whenthebelieverbecomesangry,hisangershouldnottakehimoutofthetruth; andwhenhebecomessatisfied,hissatisfactionshouldnotpinghiminfalsehood. 29.Friendshiphasfiveconditions.Whoeverhasthem,thenattributehimtoit. Whoeverhasnotthem,thendonotattributehimtoanyofit.Theyare:thegoodof hisfriendshouldbehisgood,hisinwardthoughtsforhimshouldbelikehisopenness, nomoneyshouldchangehimagainsthim,heshouldholdtheviewthatheisworthy ofallhisfriendship,andshouldnotabandonhimduringmisfortunes.[1] 30.Thenoblemanshouldnotturnuphisnoseatfour(things):hisstandingfromhis sittingforhisfather,hisserviceforhisguest,takingcareofhisridinganimalevenifhe hasahundredslaves,andhisserviceforhisteacher. 31.(Religious)scholarsarethetrusteesofprophetsunlesstheycometothedoorsof supremerulers.[2] 32.AmanfromthepeopleofIraq(ahlalSawd)wenttohim(alSdiq)frequently, thenhepokeawayfromhim,Sohe(theImam)askedsomepeopleabouthim.To detractfromhim,oneofthemsaid:Heis 1NooralAwarbyalShiblanjr:141. 2LawlqihalAnwarbyaIShia:1/28. (232) Nabati.So,he(theImam),peacebeonhim,said:Theoriginofthemanishis intellect,hisancestryishisreligion,hisgenerosityishispiety,andmenareequalin Adam(Adam).[1] 33.Nobledeedsareten,ifyouwantthemtobewithyou,thenletthembe,theyare withthemanandarenotwithhischildren;theyarewiththechildandarenotwith hisfather;theyarewiththeslaveandarenotwiththemaster:Whatarethey?He, peacebeonhim,said:thetruthfulnessofmen,thetruthfulnessofthetongue,paying thetrust,linkingtherelativesonthematernalside,entertainingtheguest,giving foodtothebeggar,rewardingthefavors,toavoidblamingtheneighbor,toavoid censuringthefriend,andtheirheadismodesty.[2] 34.SomeofthecorrectnessofthebeliefoftheMuslimpersonisthatheshouldnot pleasementhroughangeringAllah,anddonotblamethemforwhatAllahhasnot givenhim,becausethemiserlinessofthemiserlydoesnotdrivelivelihood,andthe hatredofthehaterdoesnotliveitaway,andifoneofyouescapedfromhislivelihood asheescapesfromdeat,hislivelihoodwouldreachhimasdeathreacheshim. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

35.Verily,withhisjustice,Allahhasputcomfortandeaseincertaintyand satisfaction,andputworryandsorrowindoubtandanger.[3] 36.TheheadoftheobedienceofAllahispatienceandpleasureforwhatAllahlikes anddislikesfortheservant,andiftheservantissatisfiedwithwhatAllahlikesand dislikesforhim,itwillbegoodforhiminwhatHelikesanddislikes. 37.Indeed,themostknowledgeofallmeninAllahisthemostsatisfiedofthemwith death.[4] 38.DonotBACKbite,soyouareBACKbited,anddonotdigajudgeyouwouldbe judgedby. 39.Bewareofjokingbecauseitlosesfaceandthedignityofmen. 40.Donotdispute,soyourglorygoes,anddonotjoke,soyouaredared(somen daretosayrudethingsaboutyou).[5] 41.Bewareofthedisputebecauseitpingsaboutthehatefuluglythingandshows thedefect.[6] 42.Whoeverisnotshyofseekinglegallivelihood,hisprovisionsislight,andhisfamily leadsalifeofeaseandcomfort.[7] 1TatbkiraalKhawasbySybtb.aI.Jawzr:343. 2AlKafi:ChapteronNobleQualities. 3AlKafi:ChapterontheMeritofCertainty. 4AlKafi:ChapteronSatisfactionwithdeath. 5Ibid,ChapteronJokingandJaughter. 6Ibid,ClapteronDisputeandEnmity. 7MajliuisalShaykhalTOsT,MajITs/42. (233) 43.1wonderathimwhoismiserlyforlifeinthisworldanditiscomingtowardshim orismiserlyinitanditisturningawayfromhim,soneitherspendingwithcoming harmshimnormiserlinesswithturningawayavailshim.[1] 44.TheprisonerishewhoselifeinthisworldimprisonshimfromhisNEXTlife.[2] 45.Donotmakeyourheartsbusythinkingaboutbyaone,soyoudivertyourminds fromgettingreadytowhathasnotcomeyet.[3] 46.Seeklivelihoodbygivingalms,guardyourwealthbyZakat,hewhoismoderate doesnotbecomedestitute,organizationishalflivelihood,lovingoneanotherishalf wisdom,smallfamilyisoneofthewaysof(securing)ease,whoeversaddenshis parentscertainlyisdisobedienttothem,favorisnotfavorbutwithhimwhohas ancestryandreligion,Allah,theExalted,sendsdownenduranceaccordingtothe afflictionandlivelihoodaccordingtotheprovisions,whoeverappreciateshis livelihood,Allah,theExalted,giveshim,andwhoeverwasteshislivelihood,Allah,the Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Exalted,depriveshim(ofthat).[4] I(theauthor)say:SomeoftheseclausesareattributedtotheCommanderofthe Faithful(AmiralMuminTn)inNahjalBa1agha,andalSdiq,peacebeonhim,may havementionedthemasqauotations. 47.Therichestrichesishewhoisnotcaptiveforgreed.[5] 48.Nothingisbetterthansilence,noenemyismoreharmfulthanignorance,andno illnessismoredangerousthantellinglies.[6] 49.Three(things)withwhichnothingisharmful: Theprayersduringdistress,askingAllahsforgivenessduringthesin,andthankfulness duringtheblessing.[7] 50.Thebelieverispopular,andthereisnogoodinhimwhoneitherassociatesnoris associated.[8] 51.Itwassaid(tohim):Whatisgoodbehavior? He,peacebeonhim,said:Makeyourselfgentle,makeyourwordsgood,andreceive yourpotherwithcheerfulness. 52.Hewhosetongueistruthfulhisactgrows,hewhoseintentionisgoodhis livelihoodisincreased,andhewhosecharityisgoodforthemembersofhishousehis ageisprolonged.[9] 53.Modestyis(apart)ofbelief. 1MajaisalSadflq,Majlis/32. 2IshadShayklial.Mufid. 3alKafi,ChapteronLoveofthisWorld. 4yatAlAwIiya:3/194. 5Al6aChapterontheloveoftheWorldandthegreedforit. 6HulyatalAwliyfl:3/169. 7Al.ChapteronThankfulness. 8Ibid,ChapteronGoodManners. 9Ibid,ChapteronTruthfulnessandPayingtheTrust. (234) 54.Hewhosefaceissofthisknowledgeissoft. 55.Hewhohasnomodestyhasnobelief.[1] 56.Three(things)areofthenobleactaofhereandhereafter:Forgivehimwhohas wrongedyou,visithimwhohasabandonedyou,andbepatientwhenyouaretreated withignorance.[2] 57.AnymembersofahousearegiventheirluckofgentlenessmostsurelyAllah Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

increasestheirlivelihood,gentlenessinappreciatinglivelihoodisbetterthanthe increaseofmoney,nothinglacksstrengthforgentleness,nothingstayswith wastefulness,Indeed,Allah,theGreatandAlmighty,isgentle.Helovesgentleness. 58.Whoeverisgentlein(obtaining)hismatterobtainswhathewantsfrommen.[3] 59.WhoeverissatisfiedwithwhatAllahhasgivenhimthenistherichestofmen. 60.Amancomplainedtohim(alSdiq)thathesought(hislivelihood)andearned buthewasnotsatisfied,andhissoulcontendedwithhimatpulling(toearn)more, andhesaid:Teachmeathingtoavailmyselfof,soAbuAbdAllah,peacebeonhim, said:Ifwhatsufficesyoumakesyourich,thenthesmallestthinginthisworldmakes yourich.Andifwhatsufficesyoudoesnotmakeyourich,thenallthingsinthisworld donotmakeyourich.[4] 61.Justiceissweeterthanthewaterthethirsty(person)have. 62.Howwidejusticeisevenifitisverylittle. 63.Whoevertreatsmenwithjusticeisacceptedasjudgeforothers.[5] 64.Thehonorofabelieveristoprayatnight,andhisdignityistobeinnoneedof men. 65.Torequestneedsfrommentakesdignityandremovesmodesty,andtodespairof whatisinthehandsofmenisgloryforthebelieverinhisreligion. 66.Tovisitbloodrelativesimprovesmanners,makestheselfgood,increases livelihood,anddelaysdeath.[6] 67.Itisenoughthatpatienceisasupporter. 68.Ifyouarenotpatient,thenpretendtobepatient. 69.Whoeverprevents7hishandfrommenpreventsonlyonehandandtheyprevent manyhands. 1Ibid,ChapteronModesty. 2Ibid,ChapteronForgiveness. 3Ibid,ChapteronGentleness. 4Ibid,ChapteronContentment. 5AlKafi,Chapteronnoneedofpeople. 6Ibid,ChapteronVisitingBloodRelatives. 7Kafi,Chapteronfavoring. (235) 70.Itisenoughthatthepersondependsonhispotherwhenherequestshisneed fromhim.[1] 71.AlmsAllahloves:Toreconcilemenaftertheyhavequarreledandpingthemcloser togetheraftertheyhavelefteachother.[2] 72.Whoevertreatspeopleanddoesnotwrongthem,speakstothemanddoesnot Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

tellthemlies,andpromisesthemanddoesnotpeakhispromise,hisBACKbitingis forbidden,hismanhoodisperfect,hisjusticeappears,hispotherhoodisamust.[3] 73.Whoeverrequestsleadershipperishes.[4] 74.Whoeversowsenmityreapswhathehassown.[5] 75.Angeristhekeyofeveryevil. 76.Angeristhedestructionofthewiseman. 77.Whoeverdoesnotcontrolhisangerdoesnotcontrolhisintellect.[6] 78.Verily,envyeatsbeliefasfireeatswood. 79.Thecatastropheofreligionisenvy,selfadmiration,andboasting.[7] 80.Noonebecomeshaughtybutbecauseofabasementfindsinhimself.[8] 81.Whatabadbelieverishewhohasadesire(that)abaseshim.[9] 82.Foolishnessisameannature,hasthecheektothosewhoarebelowhim,and yieldstothosewhoaresuperiortohim.[10] 83.Verily(thethings)ofwhichAllahhelpsagainsttheliarsisforgetfulness.[11] 84.Bewareoftheslipofelaborationbecauseitisnotforgiven. 85.Thebestofmenisheinwhomfivetraitshavecometogether:Ifhedoeswell,he ischeerful;ifhedoesbadly,beasksforgiveness;ifheisafflicted,heispatient,andif heiswronged,heforgives. 86.AbuHanlfasaidtohim(alSdiq):AbuAbdAllah,howpatientyouareduringthe prayers!He,peacebeonhim,said:Woeuntoyou!Numin,donotyouknowthatthe prayeristhesacrificeoftheGodfearing,thehajj(pilgrim)isthejihadoftheweak, everythinghasZakatandtheZakatofthebodyisfasting,thebestactistowaitthe easefromAllah,the 1Ibid,ChapteronfulfillingtheBelieversNeed. 2Ibid,ChapteronReconciliationamongmen. 3Ibid,ChapterontheBelieversandhisTraits. 4AlKafi,ChapteronRequestingLeadership. 5Ibid,ChapteronDisputeandEnmity. 6Ibid,ChapteronAnger. 7Ibid,ChapteronEnvy. 8Ibid,ChapteronHaughtiness.Howgreatthiswordis!Init,thereisprobingintothe depthofselv.Whoeverfeelsabasementanddefectinsidehimselfcoversthisdefect Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

withhaughtiness,contrarytothepersonwhofeelstheperfectionanddignityof himself,certainlyisinnoneedofhaughtiness.. 9Ibid,ChapteronGreed. 10Ibid,ChapteronFoolishness. 11Ibid,ChapteronTellingLies. (236) propagandistwithoutactislikethearcherwithoutstring?So,memorizethesewords, Numan. 87.IswearbyAllah,three(things)aremostsurelytrue:Nopropertydecreases becauseofalmsorZal(at,notanyoneiswrongedandisabletorepaybutcontrolsit surelyAllahrecompensehimgloryinstead,noranyslaveopensthedoorofbegging forhimselfsurelyAllahopensadoorofpovertyforhim. 88.Themanhoodofapersoninhimselfisarelationshiptohischildrenandhis tribe.[1] 89.Seven(persons)corrupttheirownacts:Themeekmanwithalotofknowledge (who)isnotknownwiththatnorismentionedwith;thewisemanwhosepropertyis managedbyaliar(who)isungratefulforwhatisgiventohim;themanwhoissafe fromthepossessorofcunningandtreason;therudemasterwhohasnomercy,the motherwhodoesnotkeepthesecretofthechildandspreadsit;thepersonwho blameshispothersquickly,andhewhoargueswithhispotherstoquarrelwith them.[2] 90.Neitherthepossessorofhaughtinessaimstogoodpraise,nordoesthedeceiver tomuchtruthfulness,nordoestheImpolite(person)tohonor,nordoesthemiserto linkingbloodrelatives,nordoeshewhoscornmentosincereaffection,nordoeshe whohaslittleknowledgeatjurisprudencetojudgment,nordoestheBACKbitefto safety,nordoestheenviertotheeaseoftheheart,nordoeshewhopunishes (people)forthesmallmistaketocorrectnessnordoeshewhohaslittleexperience andisselfconceitedtoleadership.[3] 91.HewhoseguardisdetertfliflatiOn,whosefriendistruthfulness,hissplendoris great,andhismanhoodisperfect. 92.Agenerousignorant(person)isbetterthanamiserlyhermit. 93.Whoeverrequestsmorethanhisrightisworthyofdeprivation. 94.Theworthiestofmenjflforgivenessistheablestoftheminpunishment,andthe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

mostdefectiveofmeninintellectishewhowrongsthosewhoareinferiortohimand doesnotforgivehimwhoapologizestohim. 95.Donotbethefirstconsultant,andbewareoftheunripeidea.[4] 96.Investigationisdiscord. 97.Criticismisenmity. 98.Thepaucityofpatienceisascandal. 100.Generosityiscleverness. 101.Meannessisheedlessness. 102.Whoeverneglectsthree(things)isdeprived: 1KafialGhumma 2alSaduq,alKhisal,chapterontheeeven(thingsorpersons). 3AlKhisal,ChapterontheTen. 4BiharalAnw&:78/228/105. (237) Torequestthefavorofthegenerousperson,tomakefriendswiththescholarandto attracttheruler. 103.Three(things)causeaffection:Religion,modesty,andgenerosity 104.Whoevergetsridofevilgetsglory;whoevergetsridofhaughtinessgetsdignity, andwhoevergetsridofmiserlinessgetshonor. 105.Three(things)causehatred:hypocrisy,selfadmiration,andoppressiOn. 106.Whoeverhasnotatraitofthree(traits)isnotregardedasnoble:Whoeverhas nointellecttomakehimgood,orrichestohelphim,oratribetosupporthim. 107.Three(things)abasetheperson:envy,slander,andrecklessness. 108.Three(things)arenotknownbutduringthreesituations:Themeek(person)is notknownbutduringanger,noristhepave(person)knownbutduringwar,noristhe potherknownbutduringneed. 109.Whoeverhasthree(traits)isahypocriteevenifhepraysorfasts:whenhe speaks,hetellslies,whenhepromises,hepeaks(hispromise),andwhenheis trusted,hebetrays. 110.Bewareofthree(persons)ofmen:Thetraitor,theoppressor,andtheslanderer, becausehewhobetrays(hisfriend)foryouwillbetrayyou,whoeveroppresses(his friend)foryouwilloppressyou,andwhoeverslandersforyouwillslanderagainst you. 111.Thetrusty(person)isnottrustybutwhenheistrustedwiththree(things)and repaysthem:Properties,women,andchildren.Ifhekeepstwo(ofthem)andloses one,thenheisnottrusty. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

112.Donotasktheadviceofthefoolish(person);donotseekthehelpoftheliar,and donottrusttheaffectionofthebored(person),becausetheliarapproachesthefar (things)foryouanddistancestheclose(things)foryou;thefoolish(person)doeshis bestbutdoesnotreachwhathewantsandwhateveryouhaveconfidenceinthe bored(persOfl)ahebetraysyouandwhateveryousendhimgifts,heabandonsyou. 113.Four(things)arenotfulloffour(things): alandofrain;aneyeoflooking;afemaleofmale,andascholarofknowledge. 114.Four(things)make(theperson)growoldbeforethetimeofoldage:Eating curedmeat;sittingonmoistness,goingupwithstairs,andhavingsexualintercourse withtheoldwomen. 115.Womenarethree(Kinds):Oneisforyou;oneisforyouandagainstyou,andone isagainstyounotforyou:AsforthewomanwhoisforyouistheVirginwoman,asfor shewhoisforyouandagainstyouisthedeflowered(woman),andasforshewhois againstyouisalMutbiwhohasachildfromotherthanyou. 116.Whoeverhasthree(traits)isamaster:Suppressinganger;forgivingtheperson whomisbehaves,andlinkingwiththeselfandproperty. ToBeContinue

Supplement (238) 117.Eloquenceisinthree(things):Toapproachthemeaningofthepurpose,toavoid wordiness,andtoprovethemany(things)withthefew(things). 118.Toilisinthree(things):Inchangingthepothers;turningaway(fromeachother), andspyingaboutwhatdoesnotmean(you). 119.Three(things)prevent(theperson)fromgettinghighpositions:Theshortnessof determination;Shamelessness,andtheweaknessoftheidea. 120.Determinationisinthree(things): Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Theexploitationofsultan,theobediencetothefather,andtheyieldingtothe master. 121.Amusementisinthree(things):Intheagreeablewife;theobedientchild,and thesincerefriend. 122.Whomeverisgiventhree(things)obtainsthegreatestriches:Thesatisfactionin whatheisgiven,thedespairofwhatisinthehandsofmen,andleavingcuriosity. 123.Thepersonisnotforgivenforthree(things): Theconsultationoftheadviser,willingnesstopleasetheenvier,andshowing affectiontomen. 124.Whoeverdoesnotwishforthree(things)isafflictedbythree(things):Whoever doesnotwishforsafetyisafflictedbyabandonment;whoeverdoesnotwishfor charityisafflictedbyregret,andwhoeverdoesnotwishformakingmanypothers (friends)isafflictedbyloss. 125.Manshouldavoidthree(things):Makingfriendswiththeevil;speakingto women,andsittingwiththepeopleofheresies. 126.Three(things)showthenobilityofaperson:Goodbehavior,suppressinganger, andlowering(ofones)glance. 127.Whoeverisconfidentinthree(things)isconceited:whoeverbelievesinthat whichdoesnotexist,dependsonhimwhodoesnottrusthim,andwishesforwhathe hasnot. 128.Whoeverusesthree(things)corruptshisreligionandhislifeinthisworld: Mistrust,relianceonhearing,andgivingleadershiptohiswife. 129.Thebestofkingsishewhohasthreetraits:mercy,generosity,andjustice. 130.Kingsshouldnotneglectthree(things):defendingborders;lookingfor complaints,andchoosingtherighteousfortheiracts. 131.Thewisemanshouldnotscornanyone,especiallythree(persons):thescholars, thesupremeruler,andthepothers(friends),becausewhoeverscornsthescholars Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

corruptshisreligion;whoeverscornsthesupremerulercorruptshislifeinthisworld, andwhoeverscornshispotherscorruptshismanhood. 132.Menneedthree(things)verymuch:security,justice,andrichness. 133.Three(things)troublelife:theoppressiveruler,thebadneighbor,andthe abusivewoman. (239) 134.Livingisnotgoodbutwiththree(things): freshair,plentifulwater,andthelevelland. 135.Whoeverhasthree(things)isperfect:intellect,handsomeness,andaIOqUence 136.Th(things)causedeprivation:theinsistenceontherequest,aackbitiflg,and mockery. 137.Whoeverasksthree(things)withoutrightsdeprivedofthree(things)without right:Whoeveraskslifeinthisworldwithoutrightwillbedeprivedoflifeinthe hereafterwithright;whoeverasksleadershipwithoutrightisdeprivedofobedience forhimwithright,andwhoeveraskspropertywithoutrightisdeprivedofitslasting forhimwithright. 138.Theprudentpersonshouldnotdothree(things): Drinkingpoisonforexperimentevenifheissavedfromit;spreadingthesecrettothe enviousrelativesevenifheissavedfromit,andtravelingbyseaevenifthereisriches init. 139.Thepeopleofeverycountryisinneedofthree(persons).Theyresorttothemin theaffairoftheirlifeinthisworldandinhereafter.Iftheylosethem,theyarerabble: AReligious,knowledgeablejurisprudent,goodobeyedEmir,aknowingtrustydoctor. 140.Ifmenaresafefromthree(things),safety.iscommon:abadtongue,abadhand, andabadact. 141.Iftheslavehasnotoneofthreetraits,thenhismasterhasnorest:religion Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

guideshim,goodmannersleadhim,orfearholdshimBACK. 142.Thepersonneedsthree(things)inhishouseforhisfamily:niceassociation, comfortwithestimation,andsenseofhonorwithchastity. 143.Whoeverisafflictedbyoneofthree(things)isweakminded:turningaway blessing,corruptwife,disasterofadearone. 144.paveryhasbeenmadeaccordingtothreenatures,eachoneofthemhavea virtueofwhichtheotherhasnot:generositywiththeself,lookingdownupon abasement,andrequestingreputation.Iftheycometogetherinthepave(person),he willbetheheroinwhosewaynoonestandsandmarkedbyboldnessinhistime,and iftheyaresuperiortoeachother,hispaverywillbeinthenaturethatissuperiorto theothers. 145.Thechildshouldfulfillthree(things)forhisparents:(Heshould)thankthemany how,obeytheminwhattheyorderhim(todo)andpreventhimfromdisobeying Allah,and(take)theiradvicesecretlyandopenly. 146.Andthefathershouldfulfillthree(things)forhischild:(Heshould)choosehis mother,givehimagoodname,andsparenoefforttoeducatehim. 147.Pleasureisinthree(things):infaithfulness,conformingtotherights,andrisingin misfortunes. 148.Three(things)showtherightidea:thegoodmeeting,goodlistening,andthe goodanswer. (240) 149.Menarethree(kinds):awise(man),afoolish(man),andalicentious(man)if thewise(man)isasked,heanswers.Ifhespeaks,hesaystherightthing.Andifhe hears,heunderstands.Ifthefoolish(man)speaks,he(speaks)inahurry.Ifheistold, hebecomesastonished.Andifheisordered(todo)thedisgraceful(things),hedoes (it).Ifyoutrustthelicentious(man),hebetraysyou.Andifyouspeaktohim(about something),hedisgracesyou. 150.Thereisnoestrangementwiththree(things): Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

goodbehavior,refrainingfromharm,andavoidingdoubt. 151.Daysarethree(kinds):soadayhaspassed;itcannotberepeated,adaywhen menareonit,sotheymustavailthemselvesofit,andtomorrowwhosehopeisin theirhandsonly. 152.Howeverhasnotthreetraits,hisbeliefdoesnotavailhim:patiencetorefutethe ignoranceoftheignorant(person),fearofGodtopreventhimfromseekingthe forbidden,andgoodethicstotreatmenkindly. 153.Thepothers(thefriends)arethree(kinds): (Thefirstkind)helpsyouwithhimself,(thesecondkindhelpsyou)withhismoney theyaretruthfulinpotherhood(friendship),and(thethirdkind)takesthepurpose fromyouandwantsyouforsomepleasure,thendonotregardhimas(one)ofthe peopleoftrust. 154.Theservantdoesnotcompletethetruthofbelieftillhehasthreequalities: understandinginreligion,goodestimationinliving,andpatienceformisfortunes.[1] 155.Thankhimwhobestowsuponyou,andbestowuponhimwhothanksyou, becausetheblessingsdonotendwhenyouthankandtheydonotstaywhenyouare ungrateful. 156.Itwassaidtohim(aISadiq):Whatismorality?Sohe,peacebeonhim,said:Itis thatAllahdoesnotseeyouwhereHehasforbiddenyouanddoesnotmissyouwhere LIehasorderedyou. 157.Missingtheneedisbetterthanrequestingitfromotherthanitspeople,and severerthanthedisasteristhebadconsequence(thatresults)fromit. 158.Surely,feebleishewhodoesnotpreparepatienceforeverydisaster, thankfulnessforeveryblessing,andeaseforeverydifficulty. 159.Thedesirablearenotincreasedbutwiththankfulnessandthehatefularenot decreasedbutwithpatience. 160.Themostusefulthingforapersonisthatheprecedesmenforhisowndefect, andthestrongestoftheminprovisionsistoconcealdestitution,theseverestthingin painsistogiveadvicetohimwhodoesnotacceptitandtoneighborthegreedy (person),andthemostcomfortablethingistodespairofmen Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

1TuhafalUqul:96154. (241) 161.Whoeverputshimselfintheplaceofaccusation,thendoesnotblamehimwho mistrustshim. 162.Whoeverconcealshissecret,goodisinhishand,andeveryspeechpassestwo (persons)isspreading. 163.Puttheinstructionofyourpotherinthebestmanner,anddonotmistrusta wordthatcomesoutofyourpotherwhileyoufindareasonforitinthegood. 164.Cleavetothepothersoftruthfulness,becausetheyarereadinessduringcomfort andprotectionduringthemisfortune. 165.Someofgoodfaithisknowledge,someofgoodknowledgeisclemency,someof goodclemencyisfellowship,someofgoodfellowshipisleniency,andsomeofgood leniencyiseasiness. 166.Beautifulforgivenessisthatyouhavenotadmonishedforthesin,andbeautiful patienceisthatwhichhasnocomplaint. 167.AlMufaddalb.Amraskedhim(alSdiq)aboutancestry,sohe,peacebeon him,said:theproperty. He(alMufaddal)said:sogenerosity,he,peacebeonhim,said:piety,hesaid: rightness,he,peacebeonhim,said:generosity,woeuntoyou!Didyounotknowthat howHtamalTibecamethemasterofhispeoplewhilehewasnotthebestof theminposition. 168.CharityistheZakat(alms)ofblessings,intercessionistheZakatofdignity, illnessesaretheZakatofbodies,forgivenessistheZakatofvictory,andthething whoseZakatispaidissafefromtaking(byAllah). 169.Somemaimersoftheignorant(person)are:theanswerbeforehehears,the oppositiOnbeforehe\inderstands,andthejudgmentwithwhathedoesnotknow. 170.Yoursecretis(some)ofyourblood,thendonotmakeitflowinotherthanyour Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

veins. 171.Your,chestiswiderforyoursecret. 172.Whoeverdoesnotmakefriendswithhimwhohasnodefecthisfriendsarevery few,whoeverisnotsatisfiedwithhisfriendbut(thathisfriend)prefershimto himselfhiswrathlasts,andwhoeveradmonishes(hisfriend)foreverysinhis admonishmentlasts. 173.Iftheillnatured(person)knowsthathetortureshimself,hewillbetolerantin hismanners. 174.Whenthepersonistonguetied,the,idearefrainsfromhim,andtheways puzzlehimsurelyfellowshipishiskey. 175.Three(groups)getnothingbutgood:Thosewhokeepsilent,thosewhogiveup evil,thosewhorememberAllah,theGreatandAlmighty,verymuch,andtheheadof determinationishumbleness. 176.Iryyourpotherduringablessinghappenstoyouoramisfortuneafflictyou. (242) 177.Hewhoseangerappearshisdeceptionappears,andhewhosedesirebecomes stronghisdeterminationbecomesweak. 178.Whoeverdoesnotadvancetheexaminationbeforetrust,andtrustbefore fellowship,hisfellowshipproducesregret. 179.Manslookisapartofhisinnerself. 180.Whoeverisopinionatedisliabletothedangersofslips.[1] 181.WhoeverdoesnotaskAllah(togivehim)ofhisfavorbecomespoor.[2] 182.Verily,supplicationismorepenetrativethanthespearhead.[3] 183.Somemenvisitedhim(alSfldiq),suddenlyonemanofthemmentionedaman, BACKbitedhim(theman)andofhim,soAbUAbdAllahsaidtohim:Howisallyour Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

potherforyou,whichofmeniswellped?[4] 184.Therelationamongpothersduringpresenceistovisiteachother,andduring travelistowritetoeachother.[5] 185.Theheartsaredisposedbynatureforlovinghimwhoavailsthemandhatinghim whoharmsthem.[6] 186.Thedebtisworryduringnightandabasementduringday. 187.Obeyyourparentsandyourchildrenobeyyou,andbechasteforthewomenof menandyourwomenarechaste. 188.Thepersonismanywithhispother,andthereisnogoodinthefriendshipofhim whodoesnotwishyouwhatyouwishforhim. 189.Twomendisputedathispresence,sohe,peacebeonhim,saidtothem:Truly, whoeverisvictoriouswithoppressiondoesnotgetgood,andwhoeverdoesevilfor people,thenmustnotdenyevilwhenitisdoneforhim. 190.Nolivingismorecomfortablethangoodbehavior,nopropertyismoreuseful thanthesatisfactionwiththesmallprofitable(thing),andnoignoranceismore harmfulthanvanity. 191.Shakehandswitheachotherbecauseitremovesthespite. 192.FearAllahsomefearevenitislittle,andleaveascreenbetweenyouandAllah evenifitisthin. 193.Muchthinkingaboutthewisesayingfertilizesintellect. 194.Hewasaskedaboutthequalityofjusticeoftheman,sohe,peaceonhim,said: Ifhepreventshiseyesfromtheforbidden,histonguefromsins,andhishandfrom thewrong. 1AlBihar,vol.17,from155180. 2A1Kafi,Chapteronvirtueofsupplicationandurgingforit. 3IIbid,Chapteronsupplicationistheweaponofabclicvcr. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

4Ibid,Chapteronforgiveness. 5Ibid,Chapteroncorrespondence. 6RaudtAlKafi. (243) 195.Whoeverdoesnotacknowledgesomeonesfavorthenheisselfconceited. 196.Twoqualitiesdonotcometogetherinahypocrite,agoodwayand understandinganorm. 197.Noone,eveniftheconditionshelphim,abstractsluxurylivingbutthrougha misfortune,andwhoeveranticipatestopostponethemisfortunethroughhastening towardsthechances,thedaysdepriveshimofhischance,1because.thestateofthe daysisdeprivationandthewayofdaysispaSsing.[1] 198.Howmanyadeceived(person)inwhatAllahhasbestoweduponhim,howmany atempted(person)inAllahsconcealmentforhim,andabowmanycharmed (person)bythepraiseofmenforhim.[2] 199.Goodhealthisahiddenblessing:ifitisfounditisforgotten,andifitismissedit isremembered. 200.Goodhealthisablessingforwhichthankfulnessisfeeble.[3] 201.Badnessisinthree(things):inthewoman,theridinganimal,andthehouse,as forthebadnessinthewomanisherhighdowryandherdisobedienceforher husband,asfortheridinganimalisitsbadbehaviorandpreventingitsBACK,andas forthehouseisnarrownessofitsyardandtheevilofitsneighborsandthelarge numberofitsdefects.[4] 202.Itwassaidtohim:Whichtraitsofthepersonarethebest?Sohe,peaceonhim, said:Solemnitywithoutawe,generositywithoutseekingareward,andbusynessin otherthanthebelongingsofthisworld. 203.Whoeverhasnofive(qualities)hasnotmanyenjoyable(things),Itwassaid(to Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

him):SonoftheProphetofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,whatarethey? Sohe,peacebeonhim,said:religion,intellect,modesty,goodbehavior,good manners.Andwhoeverhasnotfive(qualities)isnothappyatliving:goodhealth, security,riches,satisfaction,andanagreeablefriend.[5] 204.Howmuchpatienceofanhourcauseslonghappiness,andhowmuchpleasure causeslongsadness.[6] 205.Itisnot(anact)offairnesstoaskthepothers(tomake)fairness.[7] 206.Theangry(person)hasnoidea,thebored(person)hasnofriend,theenvierhas noriches,whoeverdoesnotthinkaboutconsequencesisnotdetermined,and thinkingboutconsequencesisthefertilizationofhearts. 207.Cleavetogenerosityandgoodbehavior,becausetheyadornthepersonasthe middlejeweladornsthenecklace. 1TuhafAlUqul,281. 2RaudatAlKafi. 3MajllisAlSadtlq,Mjlis/40. 4Ibid,Majlis/42. 5Ibid,Majlis/48. 6MajalisofShaykhalTusi,Majlis/6. 7Ibid,Majlis/10.AlWasuil,8/458/3. (244) 208.Three(things)areofhappiness:theagreeablewife,theobedientchild,and (when)thepersonisgivensustenanceforwhichhegoesearlyinthemorningand comesBACKtohisfamily.[1] 209.Sleepingisrestforthebody,speechisrestforthesoul,andsilenceisrestfor intellect.[2] 210.Donotcallthemanafriend;callhimacquaintancetillyoutryhimwiththree (things):makehimangry,thenwait(toknowwhether)hisangertakeshimoutofthe righttothefalsehood(ornot),duringtheDinrandtheDurham,andwhenyoutravel withhim.[3] Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

211.HowmanyablessingAllahbestowsuponHisservantwithouthisact,howmany ahoping(person)forahopeandthechoiceisinotherthanit,andhowmanya walkerforhisdeathandheisslowfromhisluck.[4] 212.(Itisanact)ofinjusticethattheridersaystothewalker:theroad. 213.Ifthemanloveshisreligion,hispotherslovehim. 214.Thehonorofabelieverishisprayersatnight,andhisdignityistorefrainfrom harmingpeople. 215.ApproachAllahthroughhelpingyourpothers. 216.Iensurehimwhoeconomizesthathewillnotbepoor. 217.Bepatientfortheenemiesofblessings,becauseyoudonotrewardhimwho disobeysAllahthroughyoubetterthanyouobeyAllahthroughhim. 218.Whoeverissatisfiedwithdeath,deathwillputanendtohimandthroughithe willberewarded,andwhoeverisdissatisfiedwithdeath,deathwillputanendtohim andAllahwillfrustratehisaction. 219.Givepresentstoeachother(to)loveeachother,becausethepresentremoves thespites.[5] 220.AllahisnotworshippedwithbetterthansilenceandgoingtoHisHouse. 221.Ipreventyoufrom(having)twoqualitiesthroughwhichthemengetruined:that youborrowaloanfromAllahwithfalsehoodandgivealegalopinionwithout knowledge. 222.(Some)oftherealityoffaithisthatyou(should)preferthetruthevenifitharms youtofalsehoodevenifitavailsyou,andyourwordsshouldnotexceedyouraction. 223.Thegreedy(person)isdeprivedoftwoqualitiesandtwoqualitiesarealways presentwithhim:Heisdeprivedofsatisfactionsohemisses6rest,andheisdeprived ofpleasuresohemissescertainty.[6] 1TheMajalisofSbaykhAlTusi,Majlis/l1. 2TheMajalisofalSadiq,Majlis/68. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

3ThcMajalisofShaykhTOaT,Majlis/32. 4BiharAlAnwar:78/191/4. 5AlSaduq,AlKhisfll,Chapterontheone. 6AlSaduq,AlKhism,Chapteronthetwo. (245) 224.Safetyiswithconviction,andregretiswithhastiness. 225.Whoeverbeginsanactionnotinitstimefulfillsitnotinitstime. 226.Menarethree(kinds):amaniswithhisproperty,amaniswithhishighrank, andamaniswithhistongueandisthebestofthethree(men). a227.Beggingisnotpermittedbutinthree(states):unpayablebloodmoneyora heavydebtoranextremeneed. 228.Indeed,theworthiestofmentowishmenrichesarethemisers,becauseifmen bcomerichtheywillrefrainfromtheirproperties,theworthiestofmentowishmen righteousnessarethepeopleofdefects,becauseifmenbecomerighteoustheywill refrainfromlookingfortheirdefects,andtheworthiestofmentowishmenclemency arethepeopleoffoolishness,whoneed(men)toforgivetheirfoolishness,sothe peopleofmiserlinesshavewishedmenpoverty,thepeopleofdefectshavewished mendefects,andthepeopleoffoolishnesshavewishedmenfoolishness,because poverty(makesman)inneedofthemiser,corruption(makesman)lookforthe peopleofdefected,andfoolishnessisarewardforsins. 229.Whoevershowsenmitytowardthree(persons)becomeshumble:theparents, thesupremeruler,andthecreditor.[1] 230.Thedemandsofmeninthisworldarefour(things):riches,gentleness,littleness ofconcern,andglory.Asforriches,itisfoundinsatisfaction.So,whoeverseeksitin themuchnessofpropertydoesnotfindit.Asforthelittlenessofconcern,itisfound inthelittleness(withthemuchnessofwork)doesnotfindit(concern).Andasfor glory,itisfoundintheserviceoftheCreator.So,whoeverseeksitintheserviceof thecreaturedoesnotfindit. 231.Ihavefoundtheknowledgeofallmeninfour(things):thefirstofthemisthat youshouldknowyourLord,thesecondisthatyoushouldknowwhatHehasmade Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

withyou,thethirdisthatyoushouldknowwhatHehaswantedfromyou,andthe fourthisthatyoushouldknowwhattakesyououtofyourreligion. 232.Iffour(things)spread,four(things)appear:Ifadulteryspreads,earthquakes appear.IfZakt(alms)isforbidden,cattleareperished.Ifthejudgeisunjustin judgment,raindoesnotcomedownfromthesky.AndifthenonMuslimsguard,the polytheistsovercometheMuslims. 233.Verily,patience,piety,clemency,andgoodbehaviorareamongthemannersof prophets. 234.Four(things)areinvain:eatingafterfullness,thelampinthemoon,theplantin thesaltyland,andthefavorfortheinappropriateperson. 235.Four(things)cometonothing:theaffectionyougrantforhimwhohasno faithfulness,favorforhimwhohasnogratefulness,knowledgefor 1AlSadiq,AlKhisal,ChapterontheThree. (246) himwhohasnolisteningforit,andasecretYOUentrusttohimwhohasnokeeping forit.[1] 236.Five(things)areimpossible(toresultfrom)five(things):advicefromtheenvier isimpossible,pityfromtheenemyisimpossible,scacrednessfromthesinneris impossible,loyaltyfromthewomanisimpossible,anddignityfrompovertyis impossible. 237.Five(things)areas1(theauthor)say:themiserhasnorest,theenvierhasno pleasure,thebored(person)hasnofaithfulness,theliarhasnomanhood,andthe foolish(person)doesnotbecomemaster. 238.Five(persons)donotsleep:hewhoplanstoshedblood,theownerofmany properties,hewhosaysfalsityandslanderagainstpeopletoobtainatransientthing oftheworld,hewhoisfascinatedbymanyproperties(while)hehasnoproperty,and hewholovesadear(person)andexpectshisparting.[2] 239.Whoeverhasnoadmonjsherfromhim,andadeterrentfropihisownself,andhe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

hasnoguidetofellowenableshisenemytohisneck.[3] 240.Nopersonperishesbecauseofconsultation.[4] 241.Makingacomplimenttopeopleisonethirdofintellect.[5] 242.(Itisanact)ofmodestytogreethimwhomyoumeet.[6] 243.Remindingsomeoneofafavordemolishesthefavor.[7] 244.Thefavoristhatwhichisbyonesowninitiative,asforwhatyougiveafter askingyoumatchitwithwhathegivesfaomhisface.[8] 245.Thebestalmsistocoolaverythirstyliver.[9] 246.Hewhosetwodaysareequalthenheisdeceived,andhewhosedayonwhich he,aivesisbetterthanhisyesterdaywhichdepartedfromhimthenheishappy.[10] 247.Thebelievercomplies(withsomeonesmoods)anddoesnotdispute. 248.Whoeverdoesnotlookforhisowndefecthisdefectlasts,andhewhosedefect laststhendeathisgoodforhim. 249.Wk?evercommitsasinwithoutintentionisworthyofforgiveness.[11] 250.Tofear(Allah)istheinheritanceofscienceandscienceistheraysofknowledge andheartoffaith,andwhoeverisdeprivedoffeardoesnot 1AlSadiq,AlKhisal,Chapteronthefour. Fromthe2Sayingno.230235. 2AlSadaq,AlKhisa1,ChapterontheFiveFrom236to238. 3WasailAlShia:8/425/1. 4Ibid:8/424/4. 5Ibid:8/434/1. 6Ibid:8/438/1. 7ManMYahdarahuAlFqih:2/41/33. 8BihaxAlAnwar:47/61/118. 9WasailAlShi,a,3/58. 10Ibid,WasaiIaISlia.

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11BiharAlAnwar:17/265/266. (247) becomeascientwhoistevenheSplitsperceptionintheambiguous(matters)of science.[1] 251.HeWhoanswersallthatheisasked,surelyismad.[2] 252.Whoeverabusesmen,hismanhoodisinvain.[3] 253.Donotlookfor(thedefectsof)mensoasnottobecomewithoutafriend. 254.Whoeverdoesnotaccept(anything)fromhisfriendbuttopreferhimtohimself, hiswrathlasts.[4] 255.EnoughforthefearofAllahisknowledgeandenoughforselfconceitis ignorance. ThisistheendofwhatisPossibleformetocollectandchooseofhismasterpieces andcomprehensiveWords.MayAllahgrantmesuccesstoinformthegentlereadera boutapricelesstreasureofwisesayings. 1Ibid:2/52/18. 2Ibid:2/117/15. 3lbjd:2/128/7. 4WasailAlShia:2/213. HISBIRTHANDHISDEATH (248) HisBirth: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

TraditionalistsandhistoriansknowthatalSdiq,peacebeonhim,wasbornonthe seventeentheofRabialAwalintheyear80(A.H.)orintheyear83(A.H.)Bothyears arefamousforthem. But,wehavealreadymentionedthatalSdiq,peacebeonhim,onetime,saidtoal Manstir:Now,Iamoverseventyyearsofage.Itwasreportedontheauthorityof Mohammedb.alRabT,thechamberlainofalMansflr,whenhepoughthimatnight toalMansrandhesaidabouthim:Hewasoverseventyyearsofage.AlMajlisy, mayhisgravebefragrant,reportedontheauthorityofMohammedb.Said,who said:He(alSdiq),peacebeonhim,diedattheageofseventyone.Thisreport,as yousee,doesnotsuitthesecondreport,northefirstone,becausetheyagreedthat hewasdiedintheyear148(A.H.). Sohisbirthwasthreeyearsormorebeforetheyear80(A.H.). Forthisreason,therearethreereportsabouthisdeath;themiddleofthemisthe reportof80yearsofage.Andmaybethisreportisthefirstofthem. HisDeath: Itwassaid:AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,diedonthetwentyfifthofShawal.Anditwas said:inthemiddleofRajab.Thefirstreportismorefamous.Thehistoriansofthetwo parties(SunnaandShVa)agreedthathediedintheyear148(A.H.)aswehave alreadysaid. AlsotheShTtewritersagreedthatalMansUrassassinatedhimwithpoison.Itwas saidthatthepoisonwasinthegrapes.AlsoalKafamymentionedthatinhisbookal Musbah. AlsosomeSunniwritershavementionedhisdeathwithpoisonintheirbookssuchas IsfulRaghibin,NuralAbsr,TadhkiratulKhawas,alSwiqulMuhriqa,andsoon. DuringDeath: WhenalSadiq,peacebeonhim,wasabouttodie,heorderedsomementopingall hisrelatives.Whentheycameandsataroundhim,heopened (249) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

hiseyesandsaid:Indeed,ourintercessionwillnotincludethosewhoscornthe prayers.[1] AndthisshowsusthatalSadiq,peacebeonhim,gavegreatimportancetoprayers. ThehoursofdeathdidnotbusyourImam,peacebeonhim,fromthisadvice.Thatis becausehewastheImamwhopaidagreatattentiontotheaffairsoftheMuslim communitytoguideittorighteousnesstillthelastpeathofhislife.Andtheprayers werethemostimportantthingforwhichhedrewtheattentionofMuslims. IthinkthatalSdiq,peacebeonhim,orderedhisrelativestogoonprayingbecause peoplewoulddependonthemingettingrighteousnessandguidance.So,hiswill wouldbestrongerontheirtonguesandbecausetheywerethefamilyoftheprophet, mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily.InotherWords,heorderedhisrelativestogoon prayingsoasnottodependontheintercessionoftheProphetbecauseoftheir nearnessfromhimeveniftheyneglectedsomerulesoftheIslamicLaw.So,alSadiq wantedtodrawtheirattentiontothepointthattheirnearnessfromtheProphetdid notavailthemunlesstheycarriedouttheobligationsofAllah. AlSdiqswife,UrnHarnida,[2]wasastonishedatthatconditionbecausedeathdid notmakehimforgetthisadvice.So,sheweptwhensherememberedhis condition.[3] Alsoduringdeath,alSdiq,peacebeonhimdividedhispropertyamonghisblood relatives.Moreover,hegavealHasanb.alAftasseventydinars.So,hiswoman slave,Salimasaidtohim:Whydoyougivethemanwhowantedtokiltyouwiththe sword?Hesaid:DoyouwantmenottobeamongthoseaboutwhomAllah,the GreatandAlmighty,said:AndthosewhojointhatwhichAllahhasbiddentobe joinedandhaveaweoftheirLordandfeartheevilreckonin.[4] Yes,Salima,AllahhascreatedParadiseandmadeitssmellgood,itssmellisfound fromthemarchoftwothousandyears,andthosewhodisobeytheirparentsand abandontheirbloodrelativesdonotfinditssmelt.[5] Alsothisguidesustotheimportanceofkeepingcloserelationswithourblood relativesaftertheprayers.AlSdiqexplainedthedangersoftheabandonmentofthe bloodrelatives. 1BiharalAnwar:47/2/5.MahasinalBarqy:1/80. 2ShewasthemotherofalK5zim,peacebeonhim. 3MahasinAlBarqy:1/80/6. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

4AlRad:21. 5AlManaqib:4/273.AlShaykhalTusy,AlGhayba,128. (250) AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,notonlyurgedMuslimstokeepcloserelationswiththeir bloodrelativesbutalsourgedthemtokeepsuchrelationswiththosewhowanttokill them.Thesearethehigh,Propheticethics. AfterDeath: AfteralSadiq,peacebeonhim,haddied,hissonalKazim,peacebeotthim, shroudedhimwithtwogarmentsfromShata,[1]whichheworewhenheperformed thehajj,withashirtofhis,withaturbanbelongedtoAlib.alHusayn(peacebeon him),andwithagarmentwhichheboughtforfortydinars.[2] alKazimorderedamantotightthehousewhereAbuAbdAllah,peacebeonhim, livedtillhewassenttoIraqasAbuAbdAllah,peacebeonhim,haddonebeforein thehousewherehisfatheralBqir,peacebeonhim,hived.[3] WhenalSadiq,peacebeonhim,wascarriedonhisbedandwastakenoutofhis housetobeburiedatalBaqT(graveyard),AbuHurayra[4]said:I(theauthor)say: AndtheyalreadybegantocarryhimontheupperpartoftheirBACKsandthe shouldersofhiscarriers.Doyouknowwhatareyoucarryingtotheground? ARockfeltofftheloftytopofahillrise. AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,wasburiedatalBaqi(graveyard).Hewasburiednearhis fatheralBaqirandhisgrandfathersalHasanandZaynatAbidin.Hewasthelast ImamtobeburiedatalBaqTbecausehisSonswereburiedinIraqexceptalRida, whowasburiedinKhorasn. HisKunyaandHisSurname: HisKunyawasAbuAbdAllah,AbuIsrnaTt,andAbuMflsa.ThefirstKunyawasthe mostfamousone.HewassurnamedalSdiq,alFdit,atQlm,alKfit,alMunjy, andthelike.Thefirstsurnamewasthemostfamousone. HisgrandfatherAllahsApostle,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,surnamedhimal Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Sadiq.Thereportaboutthissurnamehasbeenmentionedinmanybookssuchasal KharitWalJarih,alBihr,vol.11,KifayatutAtharbyAtib.Mohammedb.Atial Khazaz.Inthelastbook,theauthorhasmentionedatongtraditionconcerningthe surnameal 1AvillageinEgypt. 2AlKafi1/475/8. 3Ibid 4Apparently,HewasalAjaly.BinSharUshtlbregardedhimasoneofthecombatant poetsofaidalBayt. (251) SadiqontheauthorityofAbuHurayraontheauthorityofthecompanionsofthe Prophet,mayAllahbtesshimandhisfamily,whosaid:AndAltahwillpingoutthe wortdofthetruthandthetongueoftruthfulnessfromhisBACKbonenamelythe BACKboneofMohammedalBftqir.So,b.Masfldsaidtohim:AllahsProphet, whatishisname?He(theProphet)said:HewillbecattedJafar.Hewiltbetruthful inhiswordsandactions.Whoeverdefameshimislikehimwhodefamesme.And whoeverdisobeyshimisjustlikehimwhodisobeysme. He(alSadiq)wasveryfamousforthissurname.So,itbecamelikethenameforhim. Itwasenoughtomentionthissurnameinsteadofhisrealname.Peopleknewhim whenonecalledwiththissurname.Forthisreasonwehavemadethissurname(i.e. alSftdiq)thetitleofourbook. AlsohisKunyaAbuAbdAllahbecameasanameforhim.Itisenoughtomentionitin steadofhisrealnameandhissurname,especiallyinthetraditions. HisCharacteristics: InthebookalManaqib,aboutthecharacteristicsofalSadiq,binShahrfishUbsaid: He(alSadiq),peacebeonhim,wasofmediumheight,ofpightface,ofblackcurly hair,oftongnose,oflittlehairinbothsidesoftheforehead,andofsoftskin.There wasablackmoleonhischeek.Andtherewasrednessonhisbody. HisVisitation: ThereisagreatrewardforthepersonwhovisitsthebelieverinAllahwhetherthis Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

believerislivingordead,asmanytraditionsdenotethat.So,therewardforthe personwhovisitsAmiralMumininisgreater.Moreover,tovisitthegravesofthe prophetsandoftheirsuccessorsistocommemoratethem,topraisetheirfavor,to unitetheheartsforthem,andtourgepeopletofollowtheiracts.Thatiswhatallthe wiseofnationshailtocommemoratethelaudabledeedsofthegreatfiguresandto renewthememoryoftheirfavorsandtourgepeopletofollowtheirexample. Besides,tovisitthegravesoftheProphetandtheImamsistoembodytheLawsof Allah,theExalted,whichareofthepietyofthehearts. Therearetwokindsoftraditionabouttherewardwhichthepersongetswhenhe visitshisgrave:traditionsaboutthevisitationofthegravesoftheImamsingeneral andtraditionsaboutthevisitationofthegraveofalSadiqinparticular. Thefirstkindoftraditionsisverymany.Someofthemare: AlRidS,peacebeonhim,said:IndeedthereisapromiSebetweeneveryImamand hisfollowers.Tofulfillthispromiseistovisittheir (252) graves.So,whoevervisitstheirgraveswithgoodintention,theywillbehis intercessorsontheDayofResurrection.[1] ImamAli,peacebeonhim,said:Complete(yourhajj)withthevisitationof(the grave)oftheApostleofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,whenyougotothe ScaredHouse,fortoleaveitisestrangement.AndAllahhasorderedtodothat.And complete(yourhaaj)withthevisitationofthegraveswhichAllahhasorderedyouto visitandtoseeklivelihoodnearthem.[2] AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:WhoevervisitstheImamwhoseobedienceisa mustandgraysfourrukasnearhisgrave,AllahwiltwritehajjandUmraforhim.[3] Andtherearemanytraditionsofthiskind.Thewritersofthebooksofthevisitations havementionedmanyofthem. Alsothesecondkindoftraditionisverymany.Someofthemare: AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:Whoevervisitsme,Allahwiltforgivehimhissins andneverdiespoor.[4] Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AlAskary,peacebeonhim,said:WhoevervisitsJafarorhisfather,hiseyewill nevercomplain(ofanyillness),noillnesswillhithim,andwiltnotdieinflicted.[5] 1WasaiIAlShia:5/253/5. 2Ibid:5/255/10. 3Ibid:5/260/25. 4AlShaykhalMufid,aIMuqnia,73. 5WasailalShia:5/426. HISCHILDREN (253) Thehistoriansdisagreedonthenumberofhischildren.Buttheirfamousnumberis whatalShaykhalMufid,mayAllahresthiminpeace,hasmentionedinhisbookal Irshftd.Inthisconnectionhesaid:ThechildrenofAbuAbdAllah,peacebeonhim, wereten: Ismail,AbdAllah,UrnFarwa.TheirmotherwasFatimabint(thedaughterof)al Husaynb.alHasanb.Au,peacebeonThem.MbI(peacebeonhim),Mohammed, (hismotherwasUrnHanild),alAbbfis,Au,AsmA,Fatima.Theybelongedtovarious mothers. Ismai1: IsmailwastheeldestofthechildrenofaISdiq,peacebeonhim.AlSdiqlovedhim verymuch,andwasverykindtohim,andfeltpityforhim.[1] AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,saidtoalMufaddalb.Amr,oneofhisreliable companions,atthetimewhenAbualHasanMtlsa,peacebeonhim,wasstill young:Thischild,namely,MiisaalKazim,isthemostblessedoneforourfollowers. Thenhesaid:AnddonotforgetIsmil.[2] ThesewordsindicatethatalSdiq,peacebeonhim,transferredtheImamatefrom IsmiltoMiisa.ButwhenalSadiqfeltthathiswordswouldhurtIsmilsdignity,he Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

said:AnddonotforgetIsmail. AlsoalSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:Ismilwasliabletokillingtwice.So,Iasked Allah,theGlorifiedtoraiseit(death)fromhim(Ismail)andHe(Allah)raiseditfrom him.[3]Besides,alSadiqswordsandactionswhichindicatedhisloveforIsmailwas great.Forthisreason,agroupoftheShrathoughtthatIsmilwouldbetheImam afterhisfather.Thatisbecausehisfathertreatedhimkindlyandtookcareofhim, andbecauseIsmftflwastheeldestofhispothers.Andthepriorityinagewasamong themarksoftheImamateButthedeathofIsmailduringthedaysofhisfather removedtheideaoftheImamatefromtheheadsofthatgroupoftheShVa. AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,showedgreatsadnesswhenIsmi1died.Afterhehad diedandhisfacehadbeencovered,alSftdiqorderedthosemenwhowerenearhim touncoverthefaceofIsmilwhitehewaslayingBACK.ThenalSSdiqkissedhis forehead,hischin,andhisneck.Thenheorderedthementouncoverhisfaceandhe didashedidatthefirsttime. 1AlShaykhalMufid,aIrshad,284. 2AlKafi:1/309/8. 3ShaykhabuAli,AlRijal (254) WhenIsmaIlwaswashedandshrouded,alS&liqorderedthementouncoverhis faceandkissedinthoseplacesforthethirdtime.ThenatSftdiqrecitedsomeversesof theKoranandorderedthementocoverhisface. Inotherreport,alSSdiqorderedalMufaddalb.Amrtocollectagroupofhis companions.AlMufaddalcollectedthirtyofthem.AmongthepiwereAbuBasTr, Hamranb.Ayun,andDawtldalRaqy.AlSLliqsaidaDawfld:Dawd,considerhim (IsmIl)carefully,lookathim.Ishelivingordead?DawUdsaid:Heisdead.Then alSdiqasked1acompanionsthesamequestion.So,hesaid:Allah,bearwitness. T1aheorderedhiscompanionstowashandshroudIsmiil.ThenhesaidaMufaddal, uncoverhisface.alMufaddatdid.Thenhesaid:Ishelivingordead?Altofyou tookathim.Theysaid:Ourmasterabeadead.Hesaid:Haveyoubornewitness? Areyousureofthat?They.said:Yes.Theywereastonishedathiscontinuous question.Hesaid:Allah,bearwitnessonthem.ThenthecompanionscarriedIsmITl tohipgrave.Whentheyputhimintothegrave,alS&liqsaid:Mufadqauncoverhis face.AlMufaddatdid.Thenhesaidtohiscompanions:Lookathim,ishelivingor Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

dead?Theysaid:FriendofAllah,iaeapadead.Hesaid:Allah,bearwitness.After thecompanionshadbuaiqa3Ismil,alS&liqsaidtothem:Whoisthisdead (person)inthisgraveTheysaid:Ismil,yourson.Hesaid:Allah,bearwitness.[1] ThepersonmaybecomeastonishedattheinsistenceoftheIinnmgaskinghis companionsthesamequestionaboutthedeathofIsmaTl.thattomakepeopleknow thatIsmaTlhadrealtydied.Then,therewnosuspicionordoubtabouthisdeath.But, therewasnowonder!becausetheImamknewthattherewouldbeagroupofpeople whobelieveinhisLmamatebecausehewastheeldestofhispothersan4they claimed,thathewouldnotdie. Inotherwords,theImamaskedhiscompanionsthesamequestionthedeathof Ismiltomakethemsureofhisdeathsothattheywabletotellpeopleaboutthat.In themeantimetheImamhimself,pcacaonhim,disclosedthesecretafterIsmilhad beenburiedandmadecompanionsbearwitnessabouthisdeath.Inthisconnection, hesaid:apeopleoffalsehoodwilthavedoubt.Theywanttoputoutthe1Allah. ThenhemadeasigntoMUsA,peacebeonhim.Whewcompanionshadburied Ismil,alSadiqmadethembearwitnessabodeath.ThenhetookMflsbythehand andsaid:HeisthetruthtruthwiltbewithhimtillAllahinheritstheearthand whateveronit.[2] AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,wasfullofsadnesswhendeathoIsmail.Thus,heknelt withhisforeheadtouchingthegroundforalong 1BiharAlAnwar:47/254. 2Ibid:1/188. (255) time.ThenheraisedhisheadandlookedatIsmEi1forashorttimeandlookedathis face.Again,hekneltwithhisforeheadtouchingthegroundforalongertime.Thenhe stoodandcameintohishouseandstayedthereforanhour.Thenhecameoutofthe housewithotherclothes.Hissadnessdisappeared.AfterhehadwashedIsmaIt,he orderedoneofhiscompanionstopinghimtheshroudonwhosehemtheywrote: IsmilbearswitnessthatthereisnogodbutAllah.[1] Thecompanionswereastonishedtoseesadnessdisappearfromhisface.So,oneof themaskedhim:MayIbeyourransom,wethoughtthatwewouldnotavail ourselvesfromyouforeverwhenwesawthatsadnessonyourface.He(alSadiq), Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

peacebeonhim,said:We,themembersofthehouse,becomeworriede)ccept whenthemisfortunecomesdown.Ifitcomesdown,wearepatient. ThenalSfldiqofferedhiscompanionsgoodfoodandinvitedthemtoeatandurged themtohavefood.Hiscompanionsdidnotseeanymarkofsadnessonhisface.So, theyaskedhimaboutthat.Heanswered:Ofcourse,Ishouldbeasyouseeme,forI heardthetraditionofthemostTruthfulofthetruthful(i.e.theProphet),(whosaid):I wiltdiewithyou. ButwhenthecompanionscarriedtheliilerofIsmit,alSdiqwasinfrontofthem barefootedtoshowhisgreatsadness.Inthemeantimeheorderedthecompanions toputthetiileronthegroundanduncoverthefaceofIsmaTltomakepeoplesureof hisdeath.HedidthatseveraltimestillthecompanionsputIsmilintothegrave.[2] WhenthecompanionshadburiedIsmSil,alSadiqsatdownandhiscompanionssat aroundhim.Hebowedhishead,thenheraiseditandsaid:0men,indeed,thisworld isthehouseofparting,andthehouseofthechangenotthehouseofstability.Butthe partingofthefamiliar(person)hasburningwhichonecannotpushandpainwhich onecannotturnaway.However,peoplearegoodorbadaccordingtogoodpatience andthegoodidea.Whoeverdoesnotlosehispother,hispotherwiltlosehim.And whoeverdoesnotadvanceachild,hewillbeadvancedinsteadofthechild.Thenhe gavethefollowinglineofAbuKharashalHadbtyasanexample: AnddonotthinkthatIhaveforgoilenhispromise Butmypatience,Umaym,isgood.[3] WhenIsmUhaddied,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,summonedoneofhisfollowers andgavehimsomedirhamstoperformthehajjforhim(IsmT1)andsaidtohim(the follower):Surety,ifyouperformthehajforhim 1SomeMuslimshavewriilenthesewordsontheshroudsofthedeadsincethatday tofollowtheaoftheImamSomepeopleofalJamfldhavetoldthattheywriteonthe ahroudofthedead:IsmKylbearswitness 2A1Mufid,alIrshal,285. 3IkmalulDin:1/163.AlShakhalSaduq.alAmali,237. (256) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

(Ismil),youwilthaveninesharesoftherewardandIsmSilwillhaveone.[1] IsmildiedatalArrd.[2]ThecompanionsofalSfldiqcarriedhimontheirshoulders toMedina[3].Hisgraveisweltknownthere.IbmSUddemolishedhisgraveashe demolishedthegravesofhisgrandfathers.TheSdishavenotallowedanyoneto rebuildthegravesoftheImamssincethen. ThekindactsofalSdiq,peacebeonhim,towardhissonIsmSTlshowusthathe lovedhim,treatedhimkindly,andhadmercyonhim.Meanwhiletheyshowusthat IsmaTlhadpietyandanoutstandingmerit.Buttherearetraditionswhichdefamehis positionandhisholiness.However,Idonotthinkthatthesetraditionsareasequalas thosewhichpraisehim.Inadditiontothistherearetraditionswhichunveilthe defamingtraditionsanddenotethattheirownersissuedthemforunknownpurposes. AmongsuchtraditionsisthatwhichtheauthorofalKharaijwatiarihhas reportedontheauthorityofalWatldb.SbTh.[4]whosaid:Amancametomeand said:CometoshowyouthesonofyourLord.Iwentwithhim.Hepoughtmeto somepeoplewhoweredrinking(wine).AmongthemwasIsmaTlb.Jafar.Iwasfull ofsadness.So,Iwentoutandcametotheblackstone.Suddenly,IfoundIsmil leaningagainstthewallsoftheHouseandweeping.HeweiledthewallsoftheKaaba withhistears. IcameBACKquickly.IfoundIsmilsiilingwiththosepeople(whoweredrinking wine).IcameBACK(totheblackstone).Itwashimleaningagainstthewallsofthe Kaabaandweepingbiilertears.Hesaid:ItoldAbuAbdAllah,peacebeupon,about that.Hesaid:Indeed,mysonwasafflictedwithaSatanwhoappearsinhisshape. Ofcourse,thisisthebesttraditionabouttherighteousnessofIsmaTl.Therefore,itis beilerforustoputasidethetraditionsthatdefameIsmailorwemustexplainthat theyhavepurposesotherthantheapparentones.Moreover,ifIsmilhadbeenas thedefamingtraditionsdescribe,thenalSdiq,peacebeonhim,wouldhavenot accompaniedhimeverywhereandeverytimeandwouldhavedismissedhimashe dismissedhissonAbdAllah. AfterIsmIthaddied,peoplebelievedthathewasnottheImamafterhisfather.But somepeoplebelievedinhisImamateagain,afterthedeathofhisfather.Thosewho believedinhisImamatearecalledtheIsmititesaswehavealreadymentioned. 1BiharalAnwar:47/255. 2AplaceinMedina. 3AlShaykhalMufid,alIrshad,285. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

4AbualAbbasaIKafi.HewasareliablereporterofaISldiq.Hehadabook. AlHasanb.Mahbtlbreportedthebook. (257) InhisbookalIrshd,alShaykhalMuffd,mayAllahresthiminpeace,has mentionedthatthosewhobelievedinhislifewerenotamongthefollowersofhis fathernordidtheywereamonghisreliablereporters.AfterthedeathofalSadiq, peacebeonhim,someofthembelievedintheImamateofMusa,peacebeonhim. AndtherestbecametwopartiesonepartybelievedinthedeathofIsmiland believedintheImamateofhissonMohammed,fortheythoughtthattheImamate wasforhisfather,sothesonisworthieroftheImamatethanthepother.Theother partyhasinsistedonthelifeofIsmil.Todaytheyareveryfew.Thesetwopartiesare cailedtheIsmaTlites.Atthepresenttime,weknowonlythosewhoclaimthatthe ImamateafterIsmaTlisforhisgrandsonsforever. AbdAllahalAftah: AbdAllahalAftahwastheeldestsonofalSadiq,peacebeonhim,afterIsmail.For thisreasonagroupofpeoplebelievedinhisImamate,buttheyforgotthattheeldest sonshouldhavenodefect,whiteAbdAllahwaspoadlegged(aftahalrijlayn).So, peoplecalledhimalAftah(i.e.poadlegged)andthosewhobelievedinhisImamate werecalledtheAftahiya. Somepeopleaccusedhimofdisagreementwithhisfatheronsomebeliefs.Theysaid thatheassociatedtheHashawiyaandinclinedtothedoctrineoftheMurajea.So,his fatheralSadiqdidnottakecareofhimashedidwithhisothersons.[1] HisfatheralSadiqadmonishedhim,blamedhimandpreachedhim,but admonishment,hisblame,andhispreachmentwerealtinvain.Oneday,alSadiq saidtohim:Whathaspreventedyoufrombecominglikeyourpother.ByAllahIsee thelightonhisface.AbdAllahsaid:Why?Isnotmyfatherandhisfatherone?Is notmymotherandhismotherone?AlSadiq,peacebeohim,saidtohim:Heis ofmyselfandyouaremyson.[2] IthinkthatalSdiq,peacebeonhim,meantIsmailnotMflsa,forIsmilandAbd Allahbelongedtothesameparents.Forthisreason,AbdAllahansweredhim:Isnt myfatherandhisfatherone?Isntmymotherandhismotherone? Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

ThistraditionisenoughtoshowusthatIsmftIthadanoutstandingmeritandlofty positionwithAllahandhisfatherandthatAbdAllahhadignoranceandtowposition withAllahandhisfather. AbdAllahclaimedthathewastheImamafterhisfather,forhewastheoldestofhis pothers.alSadiqhadtoldhissonalKfizim,peacebeonhim,thatAbdAllahwould claimtheImamateafterhim.So,hehadordered 1AlShaykhalMufid,alIrshad,285. 2AlKafi:1/310/10. (258) himnottodisputewithAbdAllah.AllthesethingstookplaceasalSadiq predicted.[1] WhenAbdAllahclaimedtheImamate,agroupofthefollowersofaISadiq,peacebe onhim,followedhim.MostofthemrefusedhimandbelievedintheImainateof MOsaalKazim,peacebeonhim,whentheyknewthathehadaweakproofforhis ImamatewhiteAbualHasan,peacebeonhim,hadastrongproofforit.[2] Hushmb.SalimandMuminalTaqcametoAbdAllahtoaskhimabouttherateof Zakatwhilethereweresomepeoplegatheringaroundhim.Theyasked:Whatisthe rateofZakat?Heanswered:fivepertwohundred(Dirahms).Theyasked:What aboutonehundred(Dirahms)?heanswered:TwoandahalfDirahms.Theysaidto him:ByAllah,thisiswhattheMurjeasays.AbdAllahraisedhishandstowardsthe skyandsaid:No,byAllah,IdonotknowwhattheMurjeasays.So,theyknewthat hehadnoknowledgeofZakat.Theylefthimwhitetheywerebewildered.Theydid notknowweretogo.ThustheysatatalaneofMedina,wept,andsaid:Wedonot knowwheretogo.ShallwegototheMurjea,totheQadariya(theFatalists),tothe Zaydis,totheMutazytis,ortotheKharijites?Whiletheywereraisingsuch questions,Husmsawanoldmanwhomhedidnotknow.Theoldmanbeckoned Hushmtofollowhim.ButHushamwasafraidofhimbecausehethoughtthattheold manmightbeamongthespieswhomalMansflrspreadthroughoutMedinato discoverthefollowersofJafaraISadiq,peacebeonhim,tobeheadthem.So, HushamsaidtoMuminalTq:Goawayfromme,becauseIhavefearforyouand formyownself.He(theoldman)wantsme,hedoesnotwantyou.Goawayfromme soasnottohelpthemtokillyou.AbJafar(MuminalTq)wentnotfaraway. Hushamfollowedtheoldman.Hewasstillfollowinghim.TheoldmantedHushmto Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

thedoorofAbualHasan(lmamMflsa),peacebeonhim.Helefthimthereandwent away.Therewasaservantatthedoor.TheservantsaidtoHusham:Comein,may Allahhavemercyonyou.WhenHushamcamein,AbtlalHasan,peacebeonhim, saidtohim:Tome!Tome!Tome!NottotheMurjea,nottotheQadaria,nottothe Zaydis,nottotheMutazlis,andnottotheKharijites. HushamleftalKazim,peacebeonhim.HemetAbJafar(Muminailhq).Muminal TaqsaidtoHusham:Whatisbehindyou?Theguidance,saidHushm.Thenhe toldhimaboutthestory.ThenHushmmetalMufaddatandAbtlBasTr.Theyalt wenttoMtisa,greetedhim,heardhiswordsandbelievedinhisImamate.Then Hushmmetpeopleingroups.AllthesegroupsvisitedMUs,peacebeonhim, exceptonegroupsuchasAmmaralSabatyandhiscompanions.So,veryfewpeople 1BiharalAnwar:261/29.AlKashy:165. 2AlShaykhalMufid,alIrshad,285.AlKasby,alRijal,160. (259) visitedAbdAllah.WhenAbdAllahknewthatHushampreventedpeoplefromvisiting him,heorderedsomepeopletohithim(Husham)inMedina.[1] Nevertheless,AbdAllahclaimedthathewastheImamafterhisfathertilthedied.His daysafterhisfatherwereonlyseventy.Whenhehaddied,therestofhisfollowers believedintheImamateofAbUalHasan,peacebeonhim,exceptveryfewpersons ofthem.[2]ItistheywhowerecailedtheAftahiya.Theyaverecalledsobecausethey believedintheImamateofAbdAllahalAftah(i.e.poadleggedorpoadheaded).[3] Thissectfinishedafterthattimeinafewyears.Thelastofthemwerebanu(theSons) ofFudal. ToBeContinue SUPPLEMENT Ishaq: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Ishqwasgood,righteous,pious.Hewasaaurisprudent.Peoplereportedtraditions fromhim.Concerninghim,b.Ksib[4]said:Thereliable(person)alRadyIshq believedinthe.ImamateofhispotherMUsa,peacebeonhim.Hereportedthe textualnominationabouthispotherMflsa,peacebeonhim,fromhisfather.Alsohe reportedthisnominationfromhispotherAlib.Jafar,whowasvirtuousandpious.[5] IshaqwasamongthosewhoailendedthetextualnominationwhichalKazimpeacebe onhim,madeforhissonalRida,peacebeonhim,whichprovesthathewasvirtuous andpious.WhenalKazim,peacebeonhim,haddied,thesonsofalKazimpought theirpotheralRidabeforethejudge.alAbbasb.Mtisa,peacebeonhim,said:May Allahmakeyourighteousandenjoinuswithyou,indeed,belowthewilt,thereisa treasureandjewels,hewantstohidethemandtaketheminsteadofus,andour father,mayAllahhavemercyonhim,hasgivenhimeverythingandleftus dependent.WereitnotforthatIcontrolmyself,Iwouldtellyousomethingopenly. Ipahimb.Mohammed[6]saidtohim:Therefore,byAllah,youtellwhatwedonot acceptfromyouanddonotbelieveyouabout,thenyouareblamableanddefeated withus.Weknowthatyouwerealiarwhenyouwereachildandwhenyouarea grownup.Yourfatherknewyoumorethanyouknowyourselfifyouhavegood,even thoughyour 1AlKashy,alRijal,165. 2Ibid:165. 3AlMufid,alIrshad,286. 4Thebiographershavementionedveryliilleinformationabouthim.Thesewordsare ailributedtoSufyBnb.TyTna,nottohim. 5A1ShaykhalMufid,alIrsbld,289. 6Apparently,bewasthesonofIsmIflthesonofalSadiq,peacebeonhim. (260) fatherknewyououtsideandinside.Hewasnotreadytotrustyouevenifabouttwo dates.ThenhisuncleIshqb.Jafarsaidtohim:Surely,youareshameless,weak, andfoolish,Iaddthis(ailitude)towhatissuedfromyesterday(i.e.toyourpast ailitudes).Altpeople(there)helpedhim(againstAbdAllah).[1] Apartfromb.Ksibandb.Ayun,otherpeoplereportedfromIshq.Someofthem wereBarkb.Mohammeda1Azdy,Yaqflbb.Jafary,AbdAllahb.IpahimalJafary,al Washa,[2]andthelike. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Mohammed: Mohammedwasgenerousandpave.Hefastedonalternatedays.Hiswife,KhadTja bint(thedaughterof)AbdAllahb.alHasan.[3]said:Mohammedneverleftuson anydaywithacloakwithoutcomingBACKafterhavinaputit(onsomeoneelse). Everydayheslaughteredaramforhisguests.[4]Hewascalledaldibja(face/visage) becausehewashandsome.[5] MohammedadoptedtheideaofZaydis,whichurgepeopletorevoltagainstrulers withthesword.So,herevolteda6gainstalMamflninMecca,in199(A.H.)The JartidiZaydisfollowedhim.[6] WhenpeoplerecognizedMohammedascaliph,calledhimAmirulMuminln,and whenhesummonedthemtosupporthim,alRid,peacebeonhim,cametohimand said:Uncle,donotletpeopleaccuseyourfatherandyourpotheroflying,forthis mailer(thecaliphate)wiltnotlast.Soon,IsaalJalfldycameouttofightMohammed. MohammedmetaIJalUdy.ButalJalUdywasabletodefeathim.So,Mohammed askedhimforsafety.Thenheworeblackclothes,[7]wentupthepulpit,tenderedhis resignation, 1AlKafi:1/318. 2BakrwasamongthosewhoreportedfromalSadiq,aIKazim,andalRidE,peace beonthem,Hewasamongthereliablereporters.reportedfromthereliable reporters.YaqObreportedfromlshliq.AlKulaynyreportedfromhuninChapteron theBirthofAbalHasanalKEzim,peacebeonhim,andinChapteronLesbianismin ChapteronMarriage.Thisdenotesthathewasreliable.Butthebiographershasnot mentionedanindependentbiographyforhim.Andthosewhoneglectedhimwere many.Hewasb.(thesonof)Jafa.rb.Iphimb.Mohammedb.Alib.AbdAllahb. Jafarb.AbtlTalib.AbdAllahwastheuncleoftheforegoingYaqflb.HewasAba Mohammed,thereliable,thetruthful.ForalWashl,HewasalHasanb.Ali,b.ZyEd. HewasamongthecompanionsofalRidE,peacebeonhim,andofhisreliable reporters. 3BinAlib.alHusaynb.Alib.AbuTllib,peacebeonhim. 4AlMufid,aIlrshEd,286. 5BooksofBiographies. 6AlMufid,alhshfld,286. 7BlackclotheswerethesignoftheAbbflsidis.Hewantedtocopytheirsign.Green clotheswerethesignoftheAlawids.

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(261) andsaid:Thismailer(i.e.thecaliphate)isforalMamtlnandIhavenorightin it.[1] WhenMohammedwantedtojointhearmyofalJatudy,alRidasummonedhis servantMusEfirandsaidtohim:Saytohim(Mohammed):Donotcomeout tomorrow.Ifyoucomeouttomorrow,youwillbedefeatedandyourcompanionswill bekill. Whenhesaystoyou:Fromwherehaveyouknownthat?Say:Ihaveseenitin sleeping.Whenhe(MusAfir)cameandpreventedhim(Mohammed)fromgoingout. Mohammedaskedhim:Fromwherehaveyouknownthat?Musafirsaid:Ihave seenitinsleeping.Mohammedsaid:Theslavesleptanddidnotwashhisanus).So, MohammedfacedwhatMusAfirtoldhimfromtheImam.[2] WhenMohammedtenderedhisresignation,alJaludysenthimtoatMmfln:When hecametohim,alMmUnhonoredhim,madefriendswithhim,bestowedupon him,andgavehimagoodreward.MohammedresidedwithalMmflninKhorasan. Heandagroupofthesonsofhisunclevisitedhim.AlMmnsufferedfromhim whatnorulerhadsufferedfromhissubjectsbefore. Oneday,alMmnwasastonishedtoseeMohammedandagroupoftheTalibiyln cametovisithimbecausesuchagrouprevoltedagainsthimintheyear200(A.H.). So,thedecreecametothemandsaid:DonotridewithMohammedb.Jafar.Ride withAbdAllahb.alHusayn.However,theyrefusedtorideandstayedintheirhouse. Forthisreasonthedecreecame:Ridewithwhomeveryoulike.So,whentheyrode toalMamUn,theyrodewithMohammedb.Jafarandthentheydepartedwhenhe did.[3] WhenMohammedrevoltedagainstalMmUn,alRid,peacebeonhimturnedaway fromhimandsaid:IhavedecidedthatheandIdonotsitundertheroofofahouse. Amrb.Zayd,whowasonavisittoAbtiatHasan(peacebeonhim),said:Isaidto myself:Thisis(i.e.alRid)orders(peopletoconformto)charityandrelation,andhe saidthese(words)tohisuncle.Helookedatmeandsaid:Thisisofcharityandof therelation.Whenhecomestome,peoplebelievehim.Ifhedoesnotcometome, andIdonotgotohim,peopledonotaccepthiswords.[4] AmongIJiemiraclesofAbflalHasan(i.e.alRida),peacebeanhim,concerning Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

MohammedwasthatMohammedbecameill.SomepeopletoldalRid,peacebeon himthatMohammedhadtiedhischin.So,alRidandagroupofhiscompanions wenttohim.Theysawhimtyinghischin. AlsotheysawIshaq,Mohammedspother,hissons,andagroupofthefamilyofAb Tlibweeping.AbUalllasansatbyhishead.Helookedat 1BiharAlAnwar:47/246/5. 2A1Mufid,alIrshEd,314. 3Ibid,286. 4BiharAlAnwar:47/246/4. (262) hisfaceandsmiled.So,thosewhoweresiilingbecamedispleasedwithAbalHasan. Someofthemsaid:He(AbtlalHasan)smiledtoexpresshisrejoiceatthe misfortuneofMohammed.WhenAbOalHasanwentouttoprayinmosque,his companionssaidtohim:Maywebeyourransom,whenyousmiled,weheardthose peoplesayingsomewordswhichwehatetohearaboutyou.AbualHasan,peace beonhim,said:IwasastonishedtoseeIshaqweeping.ByAllah,hewilldiebefore Mohammed.AndMohammedwillweepoverhim.ThenMohammedrecoveredand Ishaqdied.[1] AlthoughMohammedlivedinKhorasan,hedidnotsurrendertotheOwnerofthe Crown(i.e.alMmfln).Oneday,somepeoplecameandtoldhimthattheservantsof Dhutrisatayn[2](themanwithtwooffices)hithisservantstotaketheirwoodwhich theyhadbought.Mohammedwrappedhimselfintwocloaks.Thenhewentout carryingabatoninhishand.Hewassaying:Deathisbeilerforyouthanlivingin abasement.Agroupofpeoplefollowedhim.HehittheservantofDhulriasataynand tookthewoodawayfromthem.Some,peopletoldaIMmUnaboutthestory. AlMmflnsentforDhulrisataynandsaidtohim:GotoMohammedb.Jafar, apologizetohimforthat,andgivehimpowertodecidewhattodoagainstyour servants.DhulriAsataynwenttoMohammed.SomepeoplesaidtoMohammed: Dhulriasataynhascome.Hesaid:Heshallnotsitbutontheground.Mohammed hadamatandacushioninhishouse.Heputthematasideandleftthecushion. WhenDhulriasatayncameintoMohammedshouse,Mohammedaskedhimtositon thecushion,butherefusedtositonitandsatontheground.Thenheapologizedto Mohammedforthatandgavehimpowertodecidewhattodowithhisservant. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

MohammeddiedinKhorasan.So,alMmtinwenttheretotakepartinhisfuneral. Whenhearrivedathishouse,hesawsomepeoplecarryingtheliilerofMohammed. Hegotdownandwalkedtillheenteredbetweenthetwopolesoftheliiler.Hewas stiltwalkingbetweenthetwopolestilttheliilerofMohammedwasputonthe ground.Hewentforwardtosaytheprayeroverhim.Thenhehelpedpeoplecarrythe liilertilltheyreachedthegrave.Thenheenteredthegravetillpeoplebuiltit.Thenhe wentoutofthegraveandstoodtillthecompanionsburiedMohammed.So,Abd Allahb.alHusaynsaidtohim:Today,youhavebecometired,wouldntyou 1UyunAkbarAlRida:2/206/7. 2HisrealnamewasaiFadlb.Sahl.HewastheMinsterofalMmin.Hewascalled DhulriIsataynbecausebehadthepoweroftheswordandofthepen. (263) prefertoride(yourhorse).AlMmansaid:Indeed,thesearebondsofkinship whichwehavecutfortwohundredyears. Mohammedborrowedatotofmoneyfrompeople.So,Ismitb.Mohammedwanted toseizethisopportunitytoaskalMmUntopayMohammedsdebts.Whileal Mmfinwasstandingatthegrave,Ismitsaidtohispother,whowasstandingbeside him:Letsaskhim(atMmfln)aboutthedebtsofShaykh(Mohammed).Beforethey coulduileraword,alMmflnsaid:HowmuchdebtdidMOhammedleave?Ismil saidtohim:Twentyfivethousanddinars.AlMmflnsaidtoIsmfttl:MayAllah relievehisdebts,towhomdidhemakehiswill?.Ismilsaidtohim:Tohisson calledYahyainMedina.AlMmnsaid:HeisnotinMedina;heisinEgypt.[1] Weareawareofhimbeingthere.However,weareunwillingtolethimknowabout (ourknowledge)ofhisdeparturefromMedinasothatweshouldnotharmhimasa resultofhisknowledgeofourdislikeofhisdeparturefromthere. Ali: Allb.Jafarwasgreatandvirtuous.alSftdiqtrustedhimverymuch.Atireported manytraditionsfromhispotheralKazim.Concerninghim,inalirshad,Shaykhal Mufid,mayAllahresthissoulinpeace,said:AndAub.Jafarwasanimportant reporteroftraditions,correctinmethodwithintensepiety,andgreatoutstanding merit.HestayedclosetohispotherMtisa,peacebeonhim,andreportedmany traditionsonhisauthority.Hebelievedinhistextualnomination.Hecleavedtohim Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

strongly.Hedevotedhimselftohim.Anddedicatedhimselftohimtolearnthe religiousrulesfromhim.He(Ati)hasfamousmailers.Helearnedthemfromhim(his potherMsa).Hehassomeanswers(forsomequestions).Heheardthemfromhim. Becauseofhisintensepiety,AtirecognizedthoseImamswhocameafterhispother alKazimpeacebonhim.Inspiteofhisadvancedage,hisgreatpower,andhis famousoutstandingmerit,headmiiledthetruthandconformtoit. OnedayamanaskedAtiabouthispotheralKlizim.Alisaidtotheman:He(al Kazim)died:Themansaid:Howdidyouknowthat?Allanswered:Hisproperties havebeendivided.Hiswomenhavebeenmarried.Andhisdeputarhasreplaced him.Themanasked:Whowasthe 1AlShaykhalMufid,alIrshad,287. (264) deputyafterhim?Alianswered:Hisson.Themanasked:Whatdidhedo?Au answered:Hedied.Themanasked:Howdidyouknowthathedied?Ati answered:Hispropertieshavebeendivided.Hiswomanhavebeenmarried.Andhis deputyhasreplaced.Themanasked:Whoisthedeputyafterhim?Auanswered: HissonAbuJafar.Themansaidtohim:Youareanoldman,youhaveahighsocial rank,andyourfatherwasJafarb.Mohammed,peacebeonthem.Whyhaveyou believedinthisboy?Atisaidtohim:IdonotseeyoubutaSatan!ThenAutook hisbeardandraisedittowardstheskyandsaid:Ihavenopower,forAllahhas regardedhimasworthierofthispositionthanthiswhitehair.[1] ByAllah,thisisthepietyitself,thesubmissionoftheselftothetruth,andnon deceptionbytheaffairsoftheoutstandingmerit,advancedage,andgreatness,which maydeceivethesoulwhichincitesmantoevil. Ali'sbehaviorwithAbUJafarwasasthebehaviorofthepersonwhoknewthe positionoftheImam.ThatAuwastheuncleofthefatherofAbuJafardidnot preventhimfromadoptingthatbehaviorforhim.Moreover,hewasreadytosacrifice himselfforhim.OnedayAbflJafarwantedtohavehisveinopened.Thedoctor approachedhimtoopenthevein.So,Aub.Jafarstoodandsaid:Wouldthatthis pieceofironhadopenedmyveinbeforeyours!ThenwhenAbflJafar,peacebeon himwantedtogo,Alib.Jafarpreparedhisshoestoputthemon.[2] Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

OnedayAbJafar,peacebeonhim,enteredtheMosqueoftheProphet,mayAllah blesshimandhisfamily.WhenAub.Jafarsawhim,heranbarefootedtowards him.Thenhekissedhishand.So,AbflJafarsaidtohim:Uncle,sitdown,mayAllah havemercyuponyou!Atisaid:Mymaster,howcanIsitdownandyouare standing?WhenAbOJafarcameBACK,thecompanionsofAubeganblaminghim (Au)andsayingtohim:Youaretheuncleofhisfather,whiteyoureceivedhimin suchamanner!Ausaid:Keepsilent!Allah,theGreatandAlmighty,hasregarded himasworthierofthispositionthanthiswhitehair.Allahsavemefromwhatyouare saying.Iamhisservant.[3] Thisistheholysoulwhichknewthetruthandfollowedit.Thesoulwhichobeyedthe righteousrulesofAllah. Ali,mayAllahbepleasedwithhim,wascalledalArTdy,namelyhewasailributedto alArid,aplacenearMedina,whereAtilivedandwhereIsmildied.Auschildren werecalledalAndy,too. 1AlKashy,alRijW,429/803. 2Ibid804/804. 3AlKafi:1/322/12. (265) AlAbbas: InhisbookalIrshd,ShaykhalMufid,mayAllahhavemercyonhim,said:AlAbbas b.Jafar,mayAllahhavemercyonhim,wasvirtuousandnoble.[1]I(theauthor) said:IhavefoundnothingaboutalAbbsslifeexceptthisnotewriilenbyShaykhal Mufid,myAllahresthissoulinpeace. MsaalKizim,peacebeonhim: HewastheImamafterhisfatheralSadiq,peacebeonhim,accordingtotheideaof theImamis.MayAllahhelpustowritethebiographyofMflsaalKazim.Surely,Heis theGiverofhelpandsuccess. 1ShaykhalMufid,alIrshad,287. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

HISNARRATORS (266) ThenarratorsofAbflAbdAllah(alSldiq),peacebeonhim,wereoverfourthousand, aswehavealreadymentioned.InhisbookalIrshad,ShaykhalMuffd,mayAllahrest hissoulinpeace,hassaid:Thetraditionalistshavecollectedthenamesofhisreliable narrators.Theywerefourthousandmen.[1]BinSharash1lbhasmentionedthatb. Uqdahascollectedthenamesofthenarrators.Otherauthorshavementionedthat b.Uqdahasmentionareportforeveryoneofthem.AlTipisyhasmentionedtheir numberinhisbookAlimAlWara,andresearcheralHillyinhisbookAlMutabar. ShaykhalTUsy,mayhisgravebefragranthasmentionedtheirnamesinhisbookal Rijal. Thegreatnumberofthenarratorsdidnotincreasethegreatnessandimportanceof alSadiq.However,theirgreatnessandimportanceincreasedbecausetheyreported onhisauthority.Yes,thisindicatesthathehadaloftypositioninknowledge.Besides, theseekersofknowledgeandvirtuefromdifferentsectshaveagreedonhis outstandingmerit. TheSunniGreatFigures: ManySunnigreatfiguresandImamslearnedfromalSdiq,peacebeonhim.They didnotlearnfromhimasthepupillearnsfromtheteacher.Rather,theylearnedfrom himbecausetheyagreedonhisImamate,hisgreatnessandhissupremacyasShaykh SulaymanhassaidinhisbookalYanbiandalNawawyinhisbookTahdhibAl AsmaWalLughfit.Also,inhisbookmatalibAlSafll,aIShafiysays:Theyregarded theirlearningfromhimasalaudabledeedtohonorthemandasavirtuethey learned.ThefollowingaresomeofthoseSunnigreatfigures: AbuHanifa: AbuHanTfaalNumanb.Thabitb.Zouytwasamongthem.Hewasamaster.Hewas fromKabul.HewasborninKufa.Therehegrewupandstudied.Hehadatheological centerinKufa.ThenhemovedtoBaghdad.Therehediedintheyear150(A.H.).His graveiswellknowninBaghdad.HefoundedoneoftheSunnifourdoctrines,His doctrineisveryfamous. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Everyoneknowsthathe(AbnHanlfa)studiedunderalSftdiq,peacebeonhim.This hasbeenmentionedby:alShiblanjyinhisbookNflralAbsir,b.Hajarinhisbookal Sawiiq,ShaykhSulaymlninhisbookalYanftbT,b.alSabbaghinhisbookalFusOl, andthelike.Moreover,inhisbook,p.8,alALsysays:AndthisisAbfiHantfa,a Sunnifigure, 1AlMufid,alIrshad,271. (267) boastedandsaidwithaneloquenttongue:Wereitnotforthetwoyears,alNuman wouldperish.HemeantthetwoyearswhenhestudiedunderImamalSldiq,peace beonhim. MahikBinAnas: AmongthemwasMlhikb.AnasalMadany.HefoundedoneoftheSunnifour doctrines.InhisbookalFihrast,b.alNadimsays:Hewasb.(thesonof)AbUAmir. HewasfromHimyar.Heisregardedasoneofban(thesonsof)TamTmb.Murra fromQuraysh.Alsohesays:ItwassaidtoJafarb.SulaymanalAbbasy,the governorofMedina:He(MIlik)hasnobeliefinyourhomage.So,hesentforhim. Heunclothedhim,extendedhim,andwhippedhim.Hepokehisshoulder.Forthis reason,he(Mlik)diedintheyear179(A.H.),attheageof48.BinKhilikSnhas mentionedasimilarstory. ItisknownandfamousthatMahiklearnedfromAbtiAbdAllah(i.e.atSdiq),peace beonhim.ManyauthorshavementionedthathestudiedunderalSdiq.Someof themare:alNawawyinhisbookalTahdhib,alShiblanjyinNtirulAbsr,alSibtin TadhkiratalKhawas,alShfiyinMathibalSal,b.HajarinalSawiq,Shaykh SulaymaninalYanbi,AbUalNaTminalHulya,b.alSbaghinalFusfll,andthe like. SufyinalThawry: Sufyanb.Saidb.MasriiqalThawryalKflfiwasamongthem.HecametoBaghdad severaltimes.HereportedmanythingsontheauthorityofalSdiq,peacebeon him.AlSadiqentrustedmanyvaluablethingstoSufyanscare,aswehavealready mentionedinalSadiqsCommandments.SufyndebatedalSdiqaboutrenouncing Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

worldlypleasures,aswehavealreadymentioned.HemovedtoBasrahanddiedinit intheyear161(A.H.).Hewasborninninetyandsome(A.H.).Itwassaidthathetook partinthebattleofZayd,themartyr.HewasinthepoliceofHishamb.AbdalMalik. HislearningfromalSadiq,peacebeonhim,hasbeenmentionedintheforegoing references.AlsotheShTtebiographershavementionedhimwiththenarratorsofal Sdiq,peacebeonhim. SufyinBinUyayna: Sufyanb.Uyaynab.AbOUmranalKufialMakkywasoneofthem.Hewasbornin Kufaintheyear107(A.H.),anddiedinMeccaintheyear198(A.H.).HecametoKufk whenheaWasyoungduringthelifetimeofAbeHanTfa.HiaiearningfromalSadiq, peacebeonhim,hasbeen (268) mentionedinthepreviousreferences.TheShTtebiographershavealsomentioned that. YahyaBinSaidalAnsiry: AmongthemwasYahyab.SaTdb.QaysalAnsary.Hebelongedtoban(thesonsof) alNajjar.Hewasamongthesuccessors.HewasajudgeforalManstlrinMedina. Thenhebecamethesupremejudge.HereportedontheauthorityofalSdiq,peace beonhim.Seetheforegoingreferences,andthelike.TheShItebiographershave alsomentionedthat. IbnJarih: AmongthemwasAbdalMalikb.AbdalAzTzb.JarThalMakky.Heheardmany religiousscholars.HewasamongthescholarsofSunnis(alama),whobelieveinthe lawfulnessofthetemporarymarriage(almuta).Alsoothersofthembelieveinits lawfulness.InthebookofalSadtlq,chapteronthecaseswhichareacceptedwithout aproof,andinalKafi,chapterwhatAllahhaspermittedofthetemporarymarriage (almuta),ithasbeenmentionedthatoneofthemaskedalSadiq,peacebeonhim, aboutalmuta.AlSadiqsaid:MeetAbdalMalikb.JarThandaskhimaboutit,for hehasknowledgeofit.ThemancametoAbdalMatik,whotoldhimmuch informationaboutaImutaanditslawfulness. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

IbmKhalikansaid:AbdalMalikwasamongthefamousreligiousscholars.Hewas bornintheyear80(A.H.).HecametoBaghdadduringthelifetimeofAbuJafaral MansCr.Hediedintheyear149(A.H.)Itwassaid(thathedied)intheyear150or 151(A.H.). IthasbeenmentionedintheforegoingreferencesthatAbdalMatiklearnedfromal Sdiq,peacebeonhim.TheShTtebiographershavealsomentionedhislearning fromhim. AlQattin: AmongthemwasAbuSaTdYahyab.SaTdalQattanalBasri.Hewasamongthe Imamsoftraditions.Rather,hewasregardedasthetraditionalistsofhistime.The ownersofthesixcorrectbooks(alSihahalSitta),andothersadvancedhimasan argument.Ithasbeenreportedontheauthorityofb.Qutaybathatheregardedhim asaShitenarrator.However,theShPadonotregardhimasoneoftheirnarrators. AlTahdhlb,alYanlp,andotherSunnibookshavementionedthathewasamongthe reportersofalSadiq,peacebeonhim. AlShaykh,b.DEwd,alNajashy,andotherShTiteauthorshavementionedthat, too. (269) MohammedBinIshaq: AmongthemwasMohammedb.Ishaqb.Yasar.HewastheauthorofthebookAl MaghfizywalSiyar.HewasfromMedina,butlivedinMecca.BinKhilikanpraisedhim verymuch.TherewasanenmitybetweenhimandMalik.Theydefamedeachother. HecametoalHTraduringthelifetimeofalMansflr.Therehewrotehisbookal MaghazyforatMansCr. MohammedcametoBaghdadanddiedinitintheyear151(A.H.). HislearningfromalSadiqhasbeenmentionedintheforegoingreferences. ShubaBinalHajjaj: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AmongthemwasShubab.alHaj.jajalAzdy.HewasamongtheImamsoftheSunnis andtheirgreatfigures.HegaveareligiousopiniontofollowIphimb.AbdAllahb.al Hasan.Itwassaidthathehimselffollowedhim. AgroupoftheSunnisregardedhimasoneofthecompanionsofatSdiq,peacebe onhim.Seetheforegoingreferences. AyyubalSijstany: AmongthemwasAyytibb.AbeTamTmalSijstanyalBasry.Itwassaidthathewas surnamedalSakhtyany.HewastheservantofAmmarb.Yasir.Hewasregardedas oneofthegreatjurisprude.HediedofplagueinBasrah,attheageof65,intheyear 131(A.H.).HewasregardedasoneofthenarratorsofalSadiq,peacebeonhim.See theprecedingreferences. THESHIITEFAMOUSRELIABLENARRATORSOFALSADIQ (270) TheMuslimbiographershavementionedthatthenumberofthereliablenarratorsis fourthousandsorover.So,itisnotpossibleforustomentionthemallhere.Inthe meantimethebiographershavementionedthemostfamousonesofthem.Alsoitis notrighttoneglectthem,fortomentionthemfulfillsourpurpose.Forthisreasonwe havedecidedtomentionthemostfamousreliablenarratorstoshowasideofthelife ofalSdiq,peacebeonhim,andavoidboringwordiness.Theyareasfollow: AbanBinTaghlub: HisKunyawasAbuSad.HisrealnamewasAbanb.TaghlubatKabaryalJarlry.He reportedtraditionsontheauthorityofalSajjficl,atBqir,andalSdiq,peacebeon them.HediedduringthelifetimeofatSadiq,peacebeonhim,intheyear141orin theyear140(A.H.). WhenAbeAbdAllah(i.e.alSadiq),peacebeonhim,heardofhisdeath,hesaid:By Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Allah,thedeathofAbnhaspainedmyheart!ThesewordsshowyouthatAbnhad agreatpositionwithhim.Iwonder,whatwastheimportanceofthepersonwhose deathachedtheheartofalSdiq,peacebeonhim? Abanhadplentifulknowledgeandstrongevidence.ThefollowingwordsofalBaqir, peacebeonhim,affirmthat:SitdownintheMosqueofMedinaandgivepeople religiousopinions,forIlikepeopletoseepersonslikeyouamongmyShia (followers).AlsothefollowingwordsofatSdiq,peacebeonhim,stressthat: DebatewiththepeopleofMedina,forIlikemynarratorstobelikeyou. IfAbanhadnoplentifulknowledgeandnostrongevidence,they(theImams)would havenotsubjectedhimtothosedifficultiesanddangers,becausehisfailurewould havemeanttheirs. OnlyontheauthorityofalSdiq,Abanreportedthirtythousandtraditions.AlSadiq himselftold(people)aboutthatandorderedAbkb.Uthmantoreportthem(the traditions)fromhim. Abnwasaspecialistintraditionandtheology.Besideshewasversedinmanygreat sciencessuchasexegesis(oftheKoran),literature,grammar,andreading.Heheard (theliterarywords)oftheArabsandreportedthemontheirauthority.Heclassified theunusualwordsintheKoranandpoughtpoeticexamplesforthem. BecauseofAbansloftyposition,thetwoparties(i.e.SunnaandShia)haveagreedon hisreliability.TheSunnigreatfigureshadgreatconfidenceinhimthoughthey regardedhimasaShTte.SomeofthemwereAhmad, (271) AbuHatam,alNisay,b.Uday,b.Jlan,alHakim,alAqily,b.Sad,b.Hajar,b. Hayyin,b.Maymunu,andalDhahabyinhisbookMlzanatItidl.Alsotheyregarded himasoneofthesuccessors.Thisisenoughevidenceforhisirrefutablemerit. AbanBinUthman: HisrealnamewasAbanb.UthmanalAhmaralBajalyalKuff.Hesometimeslived inKufaandsometimesinBasrah.ThepeopleofBasrahlearnedfromhimsuchasAbu UbaydaMuammarb.alMuthanna,andAbeAbdAllahMohammedb.Salam.They toldmanythingsabouthiminthefieldsofpoetry,lineage,andthedays(i.e.the Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

battles). Abanb.UthmnreportedtraditionsontheauthorityofalSadiqandatKzim,peace beonthem.Hehadagoodbigbook. AbanwasamongthesixcompanionsofAbeAbdAllah(alSadiq),peacebeonhim. TheywereJamTlb.Darraj,AbdAllahb.Maskan,AbdAllahb.Bukayr,Hammadb.Isa, Hammadb.Uthman,andAb&ib.Uthman. IshiqalSayrafy: HisrealnamewasIshaqb.Ammarb.HayyanalSayrafyalKufi.Hewasamongthe reliablenarratorswhoreportedtraditionsontheauthorityofalSadiqhissonal Kfizim,peacebeonthem,hispothersYflnus,Yousif,andIsmil,andhisnephewsAti andBashTr(thetwosonsofIsmaTl),whowereamongthegreatfigureswho reportedtraditions.WhenalSadiqsawhimandhispotherIsmSIl,hesaid:He (Allah)maygatherthemforpeoples.HemeaiitthisworldandtheNEXTone.Thatis becausetheywererichenoughtohelptheircompanions. AlSikflny: HisrealnamewasIsmTtb.AbuZyyadalSikiiny.alSikiinywasapartoftheArabs oftheYemen.ItwassaidthathewasajudgeinMousil.Hewasareliablereporter. Ourcompanions(i.e.theShTtejurisprudents)haveagreedtoactonhisreport.Some biographershavementionedthathewasSunni,butthisisnotestablished.He reportedmanytraditionsinthefieldofIslamicjurisprudence.Altthesetraditionsare inforcewhentheyarereportedonhisauthorityinacorrectmethod. (272) IsmailalSayrafy: HisrealnamewasIsmilb.Ammarb.HayynalSayrafyalKufiHewasthepother ofIshqalSayrafy.WehavementionedthatwhenalSadiq,peacebeonhim,saw them,hesaid:He(Allah)maygatherthemtopeoples.InalKafithereisan authentictradition.Thistradition,whichwasreportedontheauthorityAmmrb. Hayyn(thefatherofIsmi1atSayrafy),increasestheimportanceofIsmIt.He i,aboutthekind (Ainmar)said:IhavetoldAbuAbdAllah(alSadiq),peacebeonhi treatmentofmysonIsmaTl.So,he,peacebeonhim,said:Ilovedhimandmylove Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

forhimincreased. BandalAjaly: HisnamewasBandb.MuawiyaalAjaly.Hewasamongthosewhoreported traditionsontheauthorityofalBaqirandalSadiq,peacebeonthem.Hewasof greatimportancewiththemembersoftheHouse(ahlciiBayt).Concerninghimal Sdiq,peacebeonhim,said:Thepegsoftheearthandgreatfiguresofthereligion arefour(persons):Mohammedb.Muslim,Bandb.Muawiya,Laythb.alBakhtanyal Murady,andZarlrsb.Ayun.Inothertraditionhesaid:Indeed,thecompanionsof myfatherweregoodwhethertheyarelivingordead.ImeanZararab.Ayun, Mohammedb.Muslim,laythalMurdy,andBandalAjaty.Theyarethe maintainersofjustice;theyarethemaintainersoftruthfulness,andtheyarethe foremostwhoaredrawnhigh(toAllah). Inothertraditionhesaid:Fournoble(persons)arethetrusteesofAllahoverHis Lawfulandunlawful.Inothertraditionhesaid:Theseare(i.e.theforegoing persons)arethemaintainersofthereligionandtrusteesofmyfatheroverthelawful andunlawfulofAllah,theyaretheforemostforusinthiswordandtheforemostfor usinthehereafter.HewasamongthecompanionsofalBaqir,peacebeonhim. BakirBinAyun: HisnamewasBakirb.AyunalShaybany,thepotherofZarara.Hereported traditionsontheauthorityofalBaqirandalSadiq,peacebeonhim.Hediedduring thelifetimeofalSadiq.WhenalSadiqheardofhisdeath,hesaid:Indeed,byAllah, AllahsenthimdownbetweentheProphetofAllahandAmIrulMominln(i.e.Imam Au),theblessingsofAltahbeonthemandtheirpureFamily.Oneday,alSdiq, peacebeonhim,mentionedBakTrandsaid:MayAllahhavemercyuponBaklr.... Ubaydullahb.Zararasaid:Ilookedathim(alSfidiq),whileIwasyoungthen.He(al Sftdiq),peacebeonhimsaid:I(theauthor)sayInshffallh (273) (i.e.Allahwilling).Thesewordsareenoughevidenceforhishighrankandposition. HewasamongtherighteousreliablesonsofAyun.Manyreliablefiguresreported traditionsonhisauthority. AbuHamzaalThumaly: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

HisnamewasThbitb.Dinar.HisKunyawasAbflHamza.Hereportedtraditionson theauthorityofalSajjad,alBqir,andalSdiq,peacebeonthem.Hestayedalive tillthetimeofalKazim,peacebeonhim.Itwassaidthathediedintheyear150 (A.H.).So,hisdeathwastwoyearsaftertheImamateofalKzim.Itwassaidthathe waslivingwhenalManstirdiedintheyear158(A.H.). AbuHamzahadahighposition.So,alRid,peacebeonhim,said:AbuHalnzainhis timewaslikeLuqmaninhistime,forheservedfour(persons)ofus:Atib.alHusayn, Mohammedb.Ati,Jafab.Mohammed,andaperiodofthelifetimeofMflsab.Jafar, peacebeonthem.InothertraditionalRidasaid:LikeSalmanalFarsyinhistime. AlSdiq,peacebeonhim,sentforAbuHamzaandsaidtohim:aIbecomehappy whenIseeyou.ConcerninghimAbualHasan(MOsa),peacebeonhim,said:Such is(thebehavior)ofthebelieverwhenAllahenlightenshisheart. AbuHamzareportedthetongimportantdua(supplication)ontheauthorityofZayn alAbidin,peacebeonhim.Thisdua,knownastheduofAbuHamza,isread duringtheearlymorning,inthemonthofRamadan.AlsothepeopleofSunna regardedhimasareliablenarrator.So,theyreportedtraditionsonhisauthority. JabiralJufy: Jabirb.YazidalJufyalKufireportedtraditionsontheauthorityofatBqirandal Sadiq,peacebeonthem.HediedduringthelifetimeofAbuAbdAllah(alSadiq), peacebeonhim,intheyear128(A.H.).Itwassaidthathediedintheyear132.Only ontheauthorityofalBaqir,hereportedseventythousandtraditions:Whoever considercarefullyhistraditionsunderstandsthatJbirknewtheirsecretsand wonders. alBaqir,peacebeonhim,orderedJbirtoaffectmadness.Hedidthat.Hewent aroundtheyardoftheMosqueofKufa.Theboyswentaroundhim.Hesaid:Ihave foundMansflrb.JumhUrEmirwithoutemirate.Dayspassed.Hishamb.Abdal MatiksentalettertohisgovernoroverKufa.Theletterread:Lookforamancalled Jbirb.ZaydalJufy.Beheadhim,andsendmehishead.Thegovernorturnedto thosewhoweresittingwithhimandaskedthemaboutJbir.Theysaid:Hewasa man (274) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

withvirtue,knowledge,tradition,andargument.However,hehasgotcrazy.Heis nowintheyardoftheMosqueplayingwiththeboysonthereeds.Thegovernor cameandlookedathim.Hesawhimplayingwiththeboysonthereeds.So,hesaid: ThankAllah,whohassavedmefromkillinghim.Thenthesecretoftheorderofal BSqir,peacebeonhim,forJbirtoaffectmadnessbecamedisclosed.Thenwhen Jbirbecamesafe,hecameBACKtohisfirststate.Veryfewdayspassed.Thenwhat JabirhadsaidaboutMansflrb.JumhCrtookplace. InhisbookalTarItch(vol.3,p.Sl)alYaqCbyhasmentionedatraditiononthe authorityofJabir.AlsohehasmentionedJbirspredictionsabouttheAbbasid dynasty. JamilBinDarrftj: Jamilb.Darrfijb.AbdAllahalNakhayreportedtraditionsontheauthorityofal SadiqandalKazim,peacebeonthem.Hebecameblindattheendofhislifetimeof alRida,peacebeonhim.HewasamongthesixreliablecompanionsofalSadiq, peacebeonhim.WehavementionedhimwhenwetalkedaboutAbanb.UthmSn.It issaidthathewasthemostknowledgeableone.Thathewaspraisedonvarious occasionsindicatedhishighrank.Forexample,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,readthe followingverseconcerninghim:ThesearetheytowhomWegavetheBookandthe wisdomandtheprophecy;thereforeifthesedisbelieveinitWehavealready entrustedwithitapeoplewhoarenotdisbelieversinit.[1]ThenatSadiqstretched outhishandtoagroupofpeoplesittingwithhim.AmongthemwasJamTtb.Darrj. So,theysaid:Yes,mayAllahmakeusransomforyou,wewillnotdisbelieveit. PeopleknewthatJamilworshippedAllahverymuchandkneltwithhisforehead touchingthegroundforalongtime. AlHirithBinalMaghYraalNasry: AlHfirithb.alMaghlraalNasryreportedtraditionsontheauthorityofalBiqir,al Sadiq,andalKazim.Hewasamongthosewithhighranks.Manytraditions underlinedhisloftyrank.Forexample,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,saidtoagroupof hiscompanions(Younisb.Yaqtlbwasoneofthem):Haveyounotanauthorityto referto?WhathaspreventedyoufromreferringtoalHarithb.alMaghTraal Nasry? ThoughYounisb.Yaqtlbwasamongthoseofhighranks,alSRdiq,peacebeonhim, orderedhimtorefertoalHlirith.Therearemanytraditionsabouthisgreatnessand Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

hishighposition. 1AlAn'am,90. (275) Hariz: HisrealnamewasHartzb.AbdAllahalAzdyalKuff,alSijstany.Hewasattributed toSijstinbecausehetravetedtoitfortrademanytimes.Hewasanarratorand jurisprudent.Hehasmanybooksonjurisprudence.Hereportedmanytraditions orallyorthroughthereportersontheauthorityofalSadiq,peacebeonhim.Itwas saidthathedidnotreportanytraditionorallyontheauthorityofalSadiq,peacebe onhim,buttwoones.However,thisclaimopposesthetraditionswhichhavebeen reportedonhisauthoritywithoutanymeans.Whoeverconsiderscarefullythebooks oftraditions,knowsthatHartzreportedmanytraditionsorallyontheauthorityofal Sadiq.HisbooksareregardedamongthefundamentalsofIslamicjurisprudence.He andagroupoftheShVawerekilledinSajstan.ThatwasbecauseHarizhad companionswhobelievedinhisopinion.However,theKharijiteswerethemajorityin Sajstan.ThecompanionsofHarTzheardthemabusingAmirutMuminln(i.e.Imam Au),peacebeonhim.TheytoldHarizaboutthatandaskedhimtopermitthemto kiltthosewhoabusedAmTrutMuminln.So,hepennittedthem.So,theybeganto killthosewhoabusedAmlrutMuminlnonebyone.TheKharijitesdidnotthinkthat theShYawereabletocommitsuchassassinationsbecausetheywerefewin number.ForthisreasontheKharijitesaccusedtheMurjeaofcommittingsuch assassinations.Accordingly,theybeganlookingfortheMurjeatokillthem.Theywent onlookingfortheMurjeatilttheyknewthatitwastheShiawhocommittedsuch assassinations,nottheMurjea.Oneday,Hartzandhiscompanionsmetinthe Mosque.TheKharijitescameanddemolishedthewattsoftheMosqueonthem,May Allahhavemercyonthem. HafsBinSilim: HisrealnamewasHafsb.SfttimalJufyalKufi.HisKunyawasAbfiWatladal Hannat.HewasamongthosewhoreportedtraditionsontheauthorityofalSadiq, peacebeonhim.Hehadasource.Manyreliablenarratorsreportedthesourceonhis authority.They(SunnaandShIa)agreedthathewasareliablenarrator. ItwassaidthatHalstookpartintheuprisingofZayd.AlSidiq,peacebeonhim, Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

regardedhistakingpartasright.ItwasnowonderthatalSIdiqapprovedhistaking partintheuprisingofZayd,becausehesummonedpeopletotakepartinthat uprising.InthemeantimehedidnotpermitpeopletoattributethatupriSingtohim becausehewouldbeliabletotheharmoftheOmayyads. (276) HafsBinGhayyathalQidy: HisnamewasHafsb.GhayyathalQady.Har(inalRashldappointedhimasjudgein theEasternBaghdad.ThenheappointedhiminKufa.AlNajashyhasmentionedthat Hafsdiedintheyear194(A.H.).AlsohehasmentionedthatHafsreportedahundred andseventytraditionsontheauthorityofJafarb.Mohammed,peacebeonthem. Accordingtothemostfamousidea,hewasSunniinthedoctrine,andreliableinthe report.Thesect(i.e.theSbta)hasagreedtoactaccordingtothereportofthenon ShTtegroup.Hafswasamongthem.Toacceptthereport,thenarratorshouldbe reliableregardlessofhisdoctrine. SomepeoplemayconcludefromhisreportsthathewasanImamiShTte.However, themostfamousideawasthathewasSunni.WhenHafsreportedatraditionsonthe authorityofalSadiq,peacebeonhim,hesaid:ThebestoftheJafaris,Jafarb. Mohammed,hastoldme....ItisclearthatthesewordsshowusthatHafswasnota ShTteunlesshewantedtohidehisShiaism. HammadBinUthman: Hammdb.Uthmnb.ZyyadalRawasy,alKufi(whowascalledatNab)reported traditionsontheauthorityofalSadiq,alKazim,andatRida,peacebeonthem.He diedinKufa,intheyear190(A.H.).Manyreliablenarratorshavereportedhisbook. HewasamongthecompanionsofalSadiq,peacebeonhim.Thesect(i.e.theShia) hasagreedonthecorrectnessofthetraditionswhichhavebeenreportedontheir, andacknowledgetheirabilityinjurisprudence.Wehavealreadymentionedtheir numberwhenwetalkedaboutAbanb.Uthman.Hammdhadtwopothers.There nameswerealHusaynandJafar,theywerethetwosonsofUthmn.Alsotheywere amongthevirtuous,good,reliablenarrators. HammadBinIsa: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AbuMohammedHammadb.tsralJahnyalBasry.reportedtraditionsonthe authorityofalSftdiqandalKAzim,peacebeonhim.Heremainedalivetillthetime ofalJawad,peacebeonhim.ThereisnotraditionwhichdenotesthatHammd reportedtraditionsontheauthorityofalRidSandalJawad,peacebeonthem.He wasamongthesixreliablecompanionsofalSSdiq,peacebeonhim.Seethe previousnarratorandAbSnb.Uthman.Hewasverycarefulandtruthfulofhis tradition.Ithas (277) beenreportedonhisauthoritythatbesaid:Ihaveheardseventytraditionsfrom AbUAbdAllah(alSSdiq),peacebeonhim.HoweverIentertaineddoubtsabout themtillIlimitedthemtotwentytraditions.InthebookIstijbtalDua(vol. l,p.2$1),ithasbeenmentioned:HammadaskedatSadiqtopraytoAllahtohelphim toperformthehajjmanytimesandgranthimgoodproductivelands,agoodhouse,a wifefromthepeopleofthegoodfamilies,andobedientchildren.So,alSadiqprayed toAllahwithwhathe(hammd)hadasked.Helimitedthehajjtofiftytimes.Allah acceptedtheprayofalSSdiq,peacebeonhim,forHammSd.So,hiscondition becamegoodashehadasked.WhenhewenttoMeccatoperformthehajjforthe fiftyonetimes,hedrownedanddiedintheyear209. Itwassaid:ItwasImamalKa.zimwhoprayedtoAllahtograntHammadhis demands. HamranBinAyun: Hamranb.AyunalShaybany(thefreedstaveofahlatBayt,Zararaspother) reportedtraditionsontheauthorityofalBkirandalSSdiq,peacebeonthem.He hadapeerlessposition.So,concerninghim,atBqir,peacebeonhimsaid:Youare amongourfollowers(Shia)inhereandhereafter.Hamranisamongthetrue believers.Heneverapostatizes.Alsoconcerninghim,alSadiq,peacebeonhim, said:ByAllah,hediedasabeliever.Hainrnisabeliever.Heisamongthepeople ofParadise.Heneverentertainsdoubts(abouthisthought),no,byAllah!No,by Allah!IhavefoundnoonetohearmywordsandobeymyorderandImitatethe companionsofmygrandfathersexcepttwomen,mayAllahhavemercyonthem. TheywereAbdAllahb.AbflYafilrandHamrnb.Ayun.Indeedtheyweretwoloyal believersofourfollowers(Shia)MygrandfathersandIarethebestintercessorfor Hamrftnb.AyunontheDayofJudgment.Wewilltakehimbythehandandwillnot parthimtiltwealtenterParadise.HamrSnisabeliever.Heneverapostatizes. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Hamrannotonlywasajuristbutalsowasatheologian,knowertheKoranbyhea4, linguist4andgrammarian. HamazBinalTayylr: Hamazb.alTayyirwasareliablenarrator.Hewasamongthejuristsandtheologians. HediedduringthelifetimeofalSftdiq,peacebeonhim.Traditionshavebeen mentionedconcerninghim.ThetraditionsindicatehissteadbeliefinahlatBayt,his unshakableloyalty,hisstrongdefense,and (278) hisdecisiveproofforthem.Forexample,inhisbook,p.223,ontheauthorityof Hishfinib.alHakam,alKashyhasreported:He(Hisham)said:AbiiAbdAllah(al S&liq),peacebeonhim,saidtome:Whathasb.alTayyardone?He(Hisham)said:I said:Hedied.AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:MayAllahhavemercyonhimand causehimtomeetwitheaseandhappiness.Hewasofintenseargumentforoursake, wethealitatBayt. AlsoalKashyhasmentionedasimilartraditionontheauthorityofMuminalTaq. AlsohehasmentionedatrdditionontheauthorityofAbanalAhmaronthe authorityofalTayyar,whosaid:IsaidtoAbaAbdAllah:Ihaveheardthatyouhate todebatewithpeople.andyouhatethequarrel.aHesaid:Asforthewordsofthose whoarelikeyouarenothated.... AlTayyarwasasurnameforhimandforhisfatherMohammedb.AbdAllah(the freedslaveofFazara.HewasamongthecompanionsofatBaqir,peacebeonhim.al Baqirboastedpeopleofhim.Inhisbook,p.22,reportedthefollowingtraditiononthe authorityofhissonHamza:He(Hamza)said:AbflAbdAllahaskedmeaboutthe recitationoftheKoran.Isaid:Imnotworthyofit.Hesaid:However,yourfatheris (worthyofit).He(Hamza)said:Andhe(alSadiq)askedmeaboutthereligious duties.Isaid:Iamnotworthyofthem.Hesaid:However,yourfatherwas(worthy ofthem).Thenhe(alSadiq)said:IhadafriendfromQuraysh.Thefriendwas knowledgeableandareciter(oftheKoran).Thefriendmetyourfatherinthehouse ofAbflJafar,peacebeonhim.He(AbJafar)said:Sitwitheachotherandaskeach other.Theydidthat.TheQurayshimansaidtoAbJafar,peacebeonhim:Ihave knownwhatyouwantedYouwantedtoteachmethattherearepersonsamongyour companionslikethis.He(AbJafar)said:ThatiswhatIwanted,thenwhatisyour Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

viewpoint? Accordingly,whatdoyouthinkofthepersonwhomalBaqir,peacebeonhim,asked todebatewithothers?AndwhomalSadiq,peacebeonhim,askedtoarguewith others?Surely,theywereamongthosewhohadplainproofsandstrongarguments. DawudBinFarqad: Dawudb.FarqadalAsadyalKufireportedtraditionsontheauthorityofalSadiq andalK[zim,peacebeonthem.Hehadabook(i.e.agroupoftraditions).Many reliablenarratorshavereportedthebook.Alsohehaddebateswithsomeofthe Zaydis.ThedebatesdenotedhisShiismandhisquick,goodanswers.Suchanswers madeAbtlAbdAllahlaugh.ThisiswhatalKashyhasmentionedinhisbookalRijal, p.221,ontheauthorityofDIwIId,whosaid:IsaidtoAbUAbdAllah,peacebeon him: (279) TherewasamanbehindmewhenIperformedtheevenin&prayerintheMosqueof theApostleofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhi8family.Themansaid:Whatisthe matterwithyou,then,thatyouhavebecometwopartiesaboutthehypocrites,while Allahhasmadethemreturn(tounbelief)forwhattheyhaveearned?Doyouwishto guidehimwhomAllahhascausedtoerr?[1]Iknewthathemeantme.So,Iturnedto himandsaid:TheShaitanssuggesttotheirfriendsthattheyshouldcontendwith you.[2]Suddenly,themanwasHartinb.SaTd.He(Dawtid)said:So,AbflAbdAllah smiled.Thenhesaid:YousaidtherightanswerbeforetheWordswiththe permissionofAllah.Dawtldsaid:Imayberansomforyou,withoutdoubt,byAllah, hedidnotsayanyword.So,AbAbdAllah,peacebeonhim,said:Nooneismore ignorantthantheyare.Indeed,therearemuftis(knowledgeablepeople)amongthe MurjeaandtherearemuftEsandknowledgeablepeopleamongtheKharijites. Howeverthereisnoignorantthantheyare. DawudalRaqqy: Dawudb.KuthayralRaqqyalKufialAsady(thefreedServantofahlatBayt) reportedtraditionsontheauthorityofalSadiqa,ajalKlizim,peacebeonthem.He remainedalivetillthedaysofalRide,peacebeonhim.Hehadmanytraditions, especiallyaboutmiraculoa5actsandoutstandingmerits.Hehadasource(i.e.anote bookfortraditions).Agroupofthereliablenarratorshasreportedthesource.Ashe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

reportedmanytraditionsaboutthemiraculousactsofalitatBayt,theyattributed himtoexaggeration,whilethisattributionisanerror. ManytraditionshavebeenmentionedaboutDawtidshighposition.Forexample,in hisbookalRijal,p.254,alKashyhasmentionedthefollowingontheauthorityofAbii AbdAllah,peacebeonhim,whosaid:MakethepositionofD5wiidalRaqqywith measthePositionofatMuqqdadwiththeProphetofAllah,mayAllahblesshimand hisfamily.AbiiAbdAllahlookedatDwfldalRaqqywhenthelatterh&jgoneaway andsaid:IflookingatthemanofthecompanionsoftheoneWhowilrise(qaim), peacebeonhim,pleasessomeone,thenlethimlookatthis(i.e.Dawtid).Inother traditionhesaid:MakehispositionamongyouasthepositionofalMuqdad.These traditionsandthelikeshowusthehighpositionofDflwGdinthereligioninaddition tohisunshakablebeliefandhisreliablereports. 1AlNisa,88. 2AlAn'am,121. (280) Zrarara: Zrararab.AyunalShaybny(thefreedservantofalitatBayt)reportedtraditionson theauthorityofalBqirandalSadiq,peacebeonthem.Hediedintheyear150 (A.H.).So,helivedfortwoyearsduringthedaysofatKazim,peacebeonhim.What canthesayersayonZarara?Cantheskillfulwriterpingawordtoincludethe outstandingmeritofZarara?WhattheImamsofguidancementionedabouthimis enoughevidenceforhishighposition.WhathasbeenmentionedonBarTdalAjalyis enoughtounderlinethehighpositionofZarara.Still,wewillmentionheresome traditionswhichhasnotbeenmentionedthere.Forexample,oneday,atSadiqsaid tohim:Zarara,yournameisamongthenamesofthepeopleofParadisewithout alif.Hesaid:Yes,mayIbeyourransom,mynameisAbidRabba.However,theycall meZarara.He(alSadiq)said:WereitnotforZarra,Iwouldhavethoughtthatthe traditionsofmyfatherwouldgoinvein.HesaidtoalFayyadb.Mukhatar[1]:If youwantourtradition,thencleavetothissittingoneandhemadeasignwithhis handstowardZarara. Inothertradition,he(alSadiq)said:MayAllahhavemercyonZrarra,[2]wereit notforZararaandhismatches,thetraditionsofmyfatherwouldhavebecome obliterated.alRida,peacebeonhim,said:Doyouthinkthatthereissomeonewho Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

declaredthetruthpubliclymorethanZarara? Zrararawasnotonlyajuristbutalsohadmanyoutstandingmerits.So,inhisbookal Fihrast,b.alNadTnsaid:ZararawasthegreatestmanoftheShiainjurisprudence, tradition,theology,andShiism. AlNajshysaid:He(Zarara)wastheShaykhofourcompanionsandwasthebest oneoftham.Hewasareciter(oftheKoran),jurist,theologian,poet,andwriter. Indeed,thequalitiesofvirtueandofthereligionhadcometogetherinhim.Abfl GhalibalZararysaid:IthasbeenreportedthatZarrawashandsome,fat,and white.HewentouttoperformtheFridayprayer.Heworeablackburnoose.And therewasarodinhishand.So,peoplestoodupintwoqueuestolookathimbecause ofhisgoodappearance.Hehadastrongabilitytoproduceevidenceforhisbeliefs. However,worshippreventedhimfromtheology.TheShItetheologianswerehis students. So,Zrararahadgatheredaltoutstandingmerits.Buthisreputationinjurisprudence predominatedalthisotherqualities.Whoeverstudies 1alJafyalKufi.HereportedtraditionsontheauthorityofalSldiqandalKfzim, peacebeonthem.Hewasamongthereliablenarrators. 2ThesurfacemeaningofthistraditionisthatZarlradiedthedaysofalSadiq,peace beonhim;otherwisealSldiqaskedAllahtohavemercyuponZarlrawhilebewas alive. (281) carefullyjurisprudencewillknowthetraditionsreportedbythisman.Hewillfindthat thismanreportedatraditionoragroupoftraditionsineverypartoftheparts ofjurisprudence.HewasamongthefirstsixcompanionsofAbflJafar,peacebeon him.Thesect(i.e.theShia)hasagreedonthecorrectnessofthetraditionswhich havebeenreportedontheirauthority,andacknowledgedtheirabilityin jurisprudence.AndthereisnowonderthatZararawasthemostknowledgeableof theminjurisprudence. PeopleknewthatZarrawasknowledgeable,virtuous,andprothememberofthe House(ahlalBayt).Suchqualitieswerethegreatestcrimewiththeenemiesofahlat Bayt.Zararaledadangerouslifebecauseoftheseoutstandingmerits.Forthisreason, Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

theman(i.e.alSadiq)sometimesdispraisedZarratodriveawaythedangersfrom him.Besides,ithasbeenmentionedthathehasbeendispraisedinsometraditions. alSadiqhimdisclosedthereasonwhyZarrawasdispraised.Inthisconnection,in hisbookalRijl,p.91,alKashyhasmentionedalongtraditionontheauthorityof alSadiq.Thefollowingisapartofit:I(i.e.alSadiq)dispraiseyoutoprotectyou frompeopleandenemiesbecausetheyhastentohurtthepersonwhomweloveand makeneartous.SoIwouldtodispraiseyousothattheywouldpraiseyouinthe religiondutothisdispraise.FromhereweknowtheimportantpositionofZarara withahlatBayt,peacebeonthem.Meanwhileweknowthemeaningofthe traditionswhichdefameZarra. ZaydalShahhim: AbuUsamaZaydalShahhamalAzdyalKufireportedtraditionsontheauthorityof alBaqirandalSadiq,peacebeonthem.Itwassaidthathereportedtraditionson theauthorityofalKazim,too.Hewasareliablenarratorandhadahighsocialrank.It hasbeenmentionedontheauthorityofShaykhalMufid,mayhisgravebefragrant, thathesaid:He(i.e.Zayd)wasamongthecompanionsofalSadiq,peacebeonhim, whohadknowledgeofjurisprudence,fromwhompeoplelearnedthelawful,the unlawful,religiousopinions,andtherulesofthereligion. Traditionshavebeenmentionedonhimtoshowhishighrank.Forexample,alKashy hasreportedatraditioninhisbookalRijl,p.216,ontheauthorityofZaydhimself: He(Zayd)said:IsaidtoAbflAMAllah:Ismynameamongthosenames(hemeant thenamesofthepeopleoftherighthand.)Hesaid:Yes.alKashyhasreported othertraditiononhisauthority,too:He(Zayd)said:IcametoAbflAMAllah,peace beonhim,andhesaidtome:Zayd,renewrepentanceandworship.He(Zayd)said:I haveannouncedmydeath.He(Zayd)said:He(alSidiq)said:Zayd,wehavenogood foryouandyouareofourShla(followers)....Zayd,itisasifthatIhadlookedatyou inyourpositioninParadise,and (282) yourfriend,alHarithb.alMaghTraalNasryisthere.[1]Andthereareother traditionsthatleadustohishighpositionandrank. ZaydalShahid: Zaydb.Atib.alHusaynb.Aub.AbtiTtib,peacebeonthemreportedtraditionson Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

theauthorityofhisfather.alSajjad,peacebeonhim.Forexample,ontheauthority ofhisfather,hereportedalSahTfaatSajjadiya,whichcontainsvariouskindsof knowledge,literature,andeloquence,whichteachesyouhowtoaskAllahhumblyto fulfillyourdesires,andwhichisclearevidencefortheImamateofahlatBaytbecause itsstyledenotesthatitsauthorisnotlikethenormalhumanbeing. AlsoZaydreportedtraditionsontheauthorityofhispotheralBiqirandhis.nephew alSadiq,peacebeonthem.HebelievedinthelmamateofalSadiqandsummoned peoplesecretlytobelieveinhisImamate.HeneverclaimedtheImamateforhimself duringhislifetime.However,agroupofpeopleclaimedafterhisdeaththathewasan Imam.HewaskilledinKufaintheyear121(A.H.).AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,wept overhimandaskedAllahtohavemercyuponhim.ThenalSadiqspentmoneyonthe familiesofthosewhowerekilledwith.Zaydhadoutstandingmeritsofwhichnoone hadexcepttheinfallibleImams.Suchoutstandingmeritswerejurisprudence,piety, generosity,pavery,asceticism,worship,andthelike.Wehavealreadymentionedhim inthisbook. SadiralSayrafy: Sadirb.HakTmb.SuhaybalSayrafyalKufy(afreedservant)reportedtraditionson theauthorityofthreeImams.TheywerealSajjad,alBaqir,andalSadiq,peacebe onthem.Alsohereportedtraditionsontheauthorityofmanynarrators.Someof thembelievedinconsensus.TheImamspraisedhimbecauseofhisgreatrank.For instance,alSadiq,peaCebeonhim,saidtoZaydalShahham:Shahh8m,Iaskedmy LordtoreleaseSadlrandAbdalSat8mb.AbdalRahmanwhentheywereinprison. So,Allahgrantedthemtomeandreleasedthem.AlsoalSadiqsaidtoSadir: Indeed,whenAllahlovesaservant,Hetrieshim(theservant)verymuch.SadTr,you andwe(face)thetrialinthemorningandintheevening. 1ThistraditiondenotesthathediedduringthedaysofalStdiq,peacebeonhim. ThenhewasnotamongthosewhoreportedfromalKazim,peacebeonhim. (283) AlAmash: HisnameandsurnamewereSulaymflnb.MahranalAmashalAsadyalKufi.His KunyawasAblYMohammed.TheShia(khasa)andnonShia(amma)agreedthathe wasreliable,meritorious,andgreat.ThenonShiapraisedhimverymuchand Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

acknowledgedhisgoodqualitiesandhisShiism.Forexample,inhisbookMizanal Itida,alDhahabysays:AbuMohammedwasamongthereliableImams.Hewas amongthefollowers.Alsohesays:AlAmashwasjust,truthful,andfirm,he followedtheSunnaandtheKoran. AlAmashreportedtheoutstandingmeritsoftheCommanderoftheFaithful(i.e. ImamAli)peacebeonhim.TheShiaandnonShVahavereportedthatalMansflr askedhim:Howmanytraditionshaveyoumemorizedontheoutstandingmeritsof Ati,peacebeonhim?Tenthousandtraditions,heanswered. ItwassaidthatalAmashdiedintheyearwhenalHusayn,peacebeonhim,was killed,namelyintheyear61(A.H.).AndhediedonRabTAwal25th,intheyear148 (A.H.),namelytheyearwhenalSdiq,peacebeonhim,died. Samia: Samaab.MahranalHadramialKflfireportedtraditionsontheauthorityofAblY AbdAllahandmanytraditionsonIslamicjurisprudence.Alsohereportedmany visitationsoftheImamsandmanyduas(supplications)ofalSadiq,peacebeonhim. Hehadabook(i.e.agroupoftraditions).Thereliablenarratorsreportedthebook fromhim.TheyattributedhimtotheWaqifttes(aMusilmsect),butthishasnotbeen proved.Anyhow,hewas,withoutdoubt,areliablenarrator. SafwanalJammil: alJammatalAsadialKlYhili,alCUfireportedtraditionsonthe Safwanb.Mahrfl authorityofalSadiqandalKazim,peacebeonthem.Hewasacameleer(Jammal), sothissurnameaccompaniedhim.HecleavedtoahtatBayt,peacebeonthem.He conformedtotheirorders.Andhewentonservingthem.Wehavealreadymentioned thatinthetopicalSadiqinIraq.Besides,hesoldhiscamelswhenalKflzim,peace beonhim,orderedhimto.So,alRashTdblamedhimforthatactandsaid:Surely,I know(theperson)whoorderedyoutodothat(i.e.tosellyourcamels).MUSab. Jafarorderedyou.ByAllah,wereitnotforyourgoodfriendship,Iwouldkillyou. (284) ThisactisenoughtoshowthatSafw8nwasreadytosubjecthimselftodestructionfor hisImamsorders.Hewasamongthegreatreliablenarratorsandfigures.He reportedmanytraditions.Thereliablefiguresreportedthetraditionsonhisauthority. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Hehadabook(i.e.agroupoftraditions).Themenoftrustandconsensushave reportedthebook. ToBeContinue SUPPLEMENT AbidalRahmanBinalHajjaj: AbidalRahmanb.alHajjajalBajatialCtlfireportedtraditionsontheauthorityof alSadiqandalKazim,peacebeonthem.HeremainedalivetillhemetalRida, peacebeonhim.Hediedduringhisdays.Hewasamongthegreat,reliable companionsofAblYAbdAllah,peacebeonhim.Thelmamspraisedhimverymuch andgavehimgladnewsthathewoulddieinMedinaandwouldgetagood consequence.Hehadbooks(groupsoftraditions).Thereliablenarratorreportedthe booksfromhim.Someofthemwereamongtheprominenttheologianswho prodncedstrongevidencefortheirbeliefs.Forthisreason,AblYAbdAllahsaidto him:AbdatRahman,debatewiththepeopleofMedinabecauseIlikethemtosee likeyouamongthemenoftheShIa. AbidalSalamBinShim: AbidalSallYmb.SalimalBajatialCullreportedtraditionsontheauthorityofAblY AbdAllah,peacebeonhim.Hehadabook(agroupoftraditions).Thereliable narratorsreportedthebook.HewasamongthecompanionsofalSdiq,peacebeon him.Hewasamongthegreatfiguresfromwhompeoplelearnedthelawful,unlawful, religiousopinionsandrules.Noonedarestodefameordispraisesuchfigures,as ShaykhatMufid,mayhisgravebefragrant,mentioned. AbidalSaIimBinAbidalRahmin: HisnameandsurnamewereAbidalSalamb.AbidalRahmflnb.NaTmalAzdy.In hisbookalManlYq,b.Sharashflbregardedhimasoneofthereliablecompanionsof alSadiq,peacebeonhim.Whilehewasweepingbittertears,alSadiq,peacebeon him,saidtoZaydalShahhim,IaskedmyLordtoreleaseSadlrandAbdalSalemb. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

whentheywereinprison.So,Allahgrantedthemtomeand AbidalRahmfl releasedthem.ThistraditionindicatesthatalSadiq,peacebeonhim,lovedhim, respectedhim,andhadmercyonhim.Moreover,thistraditiondenoteshis importanceandhishighposition. (285) AbidAllahBinAbuYafur: AbidAllahb.AblYYaftlralAbdialCflfiwasamongthecompanionsofalS&Iiq, peacebeonhim.Whenhehaddied,alSadiq,peacebeonhimwrotethefollowing wordstoalMufaddalb.AmralJufitoshowhisexcellentqualities:Mufaddat,I haveentrustedyoutomycovenant,whichwasforAbidAllahb.Yafilr.Anyhow,he passedawayfulfillingthecovenantbetweenhimandAllah,theGreatandAlmighty andhisProphetandhisImam.He,theblessingsofAllahbeonhissoul,passedaway whilehisactislaudable,hiseffortisworthyofthanks,hissinisforgiven.Mercyison himbecauseAllah,hisProphet,andhisImamarepleasedwithhim.Iswearbymy birthfromtheApostleofAllah,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,therewasnoone inourtimemoreobedientthanhimforAllah,hisProphet,andhisImam.Hewenton obeyingtillAllahmadehimdiewithHisMercyanddomiciledhiminHisParadise. AllahhasdomiciledhimbetweenthetwoabodestheAbodeofMohammed,May Allahblesshimandhisfamily,andtheAbodeoftheCommanderoftheFaithful. Thoughtheabodesarethesameandtheranksarethesame,Allahhasincreasedhis pleasurebecause1ampleasedwithhim. ToshowhisabsolutetrustinhisImamalSadiq,AbidAllahsaidtohim:Ifyousplita pomegranateintotwopartsandyousaythatthis(part)islawfulandthis(part)is unlawful,Iwillbearwitnessthat(thepart)whichyouhavesaidlawfulislawful,and (thepart)whichyouhavesaidunlawfulisunlawful.So,alSlYdiqsaid:MayAllah havemercyuponyou!MayAllahhavemercyuponyou! AbidAllahBinBaktr: AbidAllahb.BakTrb.AyunalShaybny(theirfreedservant)reportedtraditionson theauthorityofalBqirandalSadiq,peacebeonthem.Hewasamongthesix companionsofalSadiqaswehavealreadymentionedwhenwetalkedaboutAbnb. UthmSn.Hewasregardedasoneofthegreatjurisprudentsandscholars,andasone oftheownersofthewrittensourcesand.thefamouscompilations.Hewasattributed totheFatahiya.Ifthisattributionisright,thenhiscorruptthoughtdoesnotharmhis Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

reliablereporters.Anyhow,hewasareliablenarratorwithoutdoubt.Wehave alreadymentionedthehighpositionofhisfatherBakTr. AbidAllahBinSanin: AbidAllahb.Sanan,thechiefofQurayshorBantlH8shim,reportedtraditionsonthe authorityofalSadiq,peacebeonhim.Itwassaidthathereportedtraditionsothe authorityofalKilzim,too.Thatispossible (286) becausehewasacontemporaryofalKfizim,peacebeonhim.Hewasthetreasurer ofalManstlr,alMahdy,alHfldy,andalRashrd.Nevertheless,hewasamongthe followers(theShIa)ofalitatBayt,therighteousjurisprudents,andthegreatreliable figureswhomnoonedaredtodefame.Concerninghim,alSadiq,peacebeonhim, said:He(AbidAllah)addsgoodtotheage.alS5diq,peacebeonhim,treatedhim kindly.ThismeansthatAbidAllahhadagreatpositionwithhimandthathewasthe secretaryofalSSdiq.Hehadbooks(groupsoftraditions).Thegreatreliablenarrators reportedthebooks. AbidAllahBinShank: AblualMuhajjalAbAllahb.ShankalAmirywasthecompanionofalBaqirandal Sadiq,peacebeonthem.Hewasaprominentpersonwiththem.Hewasregardedas oneoftheirdisciples.ItwasreportedontheauthorityofalSSdiq,peacebeonhim, thathewouldgoouttosupporttheguidedonewhowillrise(alQm,alMahdy), mayAllahspeeduphisappearance.Thisisthevirtue,success,dignity,andgreatness. WeaskAllah,theAlmighty,tomakeusamongthoseoverwhoseheadsthevictorious bannerofalMahdywillwave. AbidAllahBinMaskan: AbidAllahb.MaskanalCufi(afreedservant)reportedtraditionsontheauthorityof alSSdiqandalKazim,peacebeonthem.Hewasamongthesixcompanionsofal Sadiq,peacebeonhim,aswehavealreadystatedinAbanb,Uthman.Hewasamong thegreatjurisprudentsfromwhompeoplelearnedthelawful,unlawful,thereligious verdictsandrules,andwhomnoonedaredtodefame.Hehadmanybooks(groupsof traditions).Thegreatreliablenarratorsreportedthebooksonhisauthority. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AbidAllahalNajashy: AbuBuhayrAbidAllahalNajSshyalAsadywasaZaydi,thenhebelievedinthe ImamateofalSadiq,peacebeonhim,whentiesawhimdoingamiraculousact.Al MansflrappointedhimasagovernoroveratAhwaz.HewrotealettertoalSadiq, peacebeonhim,toaskhimaboutthemethodofactandotheraffairsconcerninghis state.So,alSdiqwrotehimatongletterknownastheLetterofAbidAllahal Najashy. WehavementionedvaluableparagraphsofthisletterwithintheCommandmentsof alSUdiqinthisbook.Hisbehaviorwaslaudable.TheImamwaspleasedwithhim. Thegreatfigureshadgreatconfidenceinhim.So,inhisbookalTahdhib,chapteron alMakEsib,theShakhofthesect (287) (i.e.alTUsy)mayhisgravebefragrant,regardedhimamongthedevouteesthough hewasthegovernorofalMansUroveralAhwaz. AbidAllahalKahili: AbidAllahb.YahyfialKlYhitireportedtraditionsontheauthorityofatSdiqandal Kjzim,peacebeonthem.AbealHasantookcareofhimandlovedhim.So,hesaidto Atib.Yaqttn:GuaranteealKlYhiliformeandIwiltguaranteeParadiseforyou.So, AllguaranteedwhattheImamwanted.AlisfavorincludedalKlYhitiandhis relatives.Hespentmoneyonthem.Forthisreasonthey(therelativesofalKhili) wereinnoneedofhimafterhisdeath. AbualHasan,peacebeonhim,gavehimgladnewsabouthisgoodconsequence. Oneday,AbualHasansaidtohim:DogoodthroughyourLawbecauseyourdeath hasapproached.So,alKhiliwept.AblYatHasansaidtohim:Whathasmadeyou weep?AlKhitisaidtohim:MayIbeyourransom,Iweptovermyself!Abeal Hasansaidtohim:Beglad,foryouareamongourfollowers(Shia)andyour consequencewiltbegood.ItdidnottakelongbeforealKlYhilidied.Fromthis traditionandthelikeyouknowthehighpositionofalKhiliwiththeImams.Hehad abook(agroupoftradition).Thereliablenarratorsandsomepeopleofthe consensusreportedthebookfromhim. AbidalMalikBinAyun: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AbuDarrTsAbidalMatikb.AyunaShayblYni(theirfreedservant),thepotherof ZararaandHamran,reportedtraditionsontheauthorityofatBqirandalSadiq, peacebeonthem.HediedduringthedaysofatSadiq.AlSadiqwasinMecca.When heheardofthedeathofAbidatMalik,heraisedhishandstowardstheskyandasked Allahtohavemercyuponhim.WhenalSadiqcametoMedina,hevisitedthegrave ofAbidatMatik.Zararasaid:AfterthedeathofAbidalMatik,AblYAbidAllah, peacebeonhimsaid:Allah,AbealDirrTsregardedusasthebestofYourcreation, thenaddhimtotheFamilyofMohammed,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily,tiltthe DayofJudgment.ThistraditionandthelikeshowusthehighpositionofAbidal Matik.AlsotheyshowusthatheknewhisImams. HissonDirrTswasamongthereliablenarratorsofalSidiq.Thereliablenarrators reportedtraditionsonhisauthority.HemarriedthedaughterofhisuncleHamrln. (288) UbaydBinZarira: Ubaydb.Zararab.AyunalShaybanywasthefreedservantofalitalBayt.Hewas amongthosewholearnedfromAbeJafarandAbeAbidAllah,peacebeonthem.He hadabook(agroupoftraditions).Thegreatnarratorsandsomepeopleofthe Consensusreportedthebookfromhim.Hewasamongthereliablenarrators,among theprominentjurisprudents,amongthegreatfiguresfromwhompeoplelearnedthe lawfulandtheunlawful,andamongthemastersofthewrittensources(notebooks oftraditions)andthefamouscompilations. UbaydAllahalHalabi: UbaydAllahb.Aub.AbeShubaalCullalHalabiwasthefirstcompanionofthe companionsofAbuAbidAllah,peacebeonhim,towritebooks.Whenhewrotehis knownbookonjurisprudence,heshowedittoAbeAbidAllah,peacebeonhim.Abe AbidAllahapprovedthebookandcorrectedit.Whenhereadthebook,hesaid:Do youthinkthatthey(thecompanions)willlikethis(book)?Thegreatreliable narratorsreportedthebook.MayAllahrewardthemthebestreward. ThefamilyofAbeShubawerefamousShTtesinKufa.Theytradedingoodsfrom AteppoacityinLebanon.So,theywereattributedtoit.TheirgrandfatherAbu ShubareportedtraditionsontheauthorityofalHasanandalHusayn,peacebeon Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

them.Theywereallreliablenarrators.UbaydAllahwastheeldestandthemost prominent,itsometimesmeansUbaydAllahandsometimesmeanshispother Mohammed. AlAlaBinRaz?n: AlAlab.Ra.zln,thechiefofThaqif,reportedtraditionsontheauthorityofalSCdiq, peacebeonhim.Hewasagreatprominentfigure.Noonedaredtodefamehim.The ShiaandnonShiahaveagreedonhisgreatnessandreliance.Hemadefriendswith Mohammedb.Muslimandlearnedjurisprudencefromhim.Hehadbooks(groupsof traditions).Thereliablenarratorsandsomepeopleoftheconsensusreportedthe booksfromhim. AliBinYaqttn: Alib.Yaqtrnb.MCsaalCtifialBaghdlidireportedtraditionsontheauthorityofal SadiqandalKlizim,peacebeonthem.Peopleknewthathewasareliable, prominent,greatfigure. (289) TheyknewhispositionwithalRashid.Andhisactionswithhimarewritten.The trnamspraisedhimandgavegladnewsabouthisgoodConsequenceandhisreturnto thePleasureofAllahandHisgardens.Forexample,AbualHasan,peacebeonhim, said:IhaveguaranteedthegardenforAlib.Yaqtinandthatthefirewillnottouch him.AlsohesaidwhenAhb.Yaqtrncametowardshim:Whoeverispleasedwith lookingatamanofthecompanionsoftheApostleofAllah,mayAllahblesshimand hisfamily,mustlookatthiscorner.Oneofthepeoplesaidtohim:Therefore,heis amongthepeopleofParadise.AbealHasansaid:Asforme,Ibearwitnessthathe willbeamongthepeopleofParadise.Alsohesaid:ForthehappinessofAlib. YaqtinthatImentionedhimintheattitude.Alsohesaid:IaskedmyLord,theGreat andAlmightytograntmeAub.Yaqtln.So,Hegrantedhimtome.Indeed,Atib. Yaqtinspenthismoneyandhislove,soheisworthyofthat.Andthereareother traditionsofthesamemeaning.Wecannotcounthisgoodactions,hisservesforahl atBayt,andtheneedshefulfilledfortheirfollowers.Everyyear,heauthorizeda persontoperformthehajjinbehalfofhim.Someyears,somepeoplecountedthe numberofthosewhowerereadytoperformthehajjinbehalfofhim.Theirnumber wasthreehundredpeople.Hegavesomeofthemtwentythousanddirharnsand someofthemtenthousanddirhamstoperformthehajj.Someofthosepersonswere Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

alKahiti,AbidalRahmanb.alHajjaj,andthelike.Alsohegaveonethousand dirhamstothosewhowerelowerthantheyinrank.Everyyear,hesentasumof moneybetweenahundredthousanddirhamsandthreethousanddirhamstoAbual Hasan,peacebeonhim.AbealHasanjoinedthreeorfoofhissonsinmarriage. AmongthemwasAblYalHasanalRidS,peacebeonhim.So,Aub.YaqtTnwroteto him:Ihavesentyoutheirdowers.Headdedtothemthreethousanddinarsforthe banquet.Thetotalnumberwasthirteenthousanddinarsatonetime.[1]Itwas enoughforAtitofulfilltheneedsofthefollowersoftheImamswasthathespenta totofmoneytomaintainthefamilyofalKahi1iandhisrelatives. AnditwasenoughforhisgreatimportanceandhishighpositionthatAbualHasan, peacebeonhim,saidtohimaAti,Allah,theExalted,hasfollowersamongthe followersoftheoppressivetodefendHisfriendswiththem.Andyou,Ati,isamong them.HesaidthesewordstohimwhenAbuIpahimMflslcametoIraq.AndAlib. Yaqtrnsaidtohim:DonotyouseemyconditionandwhatIamin?[2] 1AlKashy,alRijal,433/819. 2Ibid,433/817. (290) Generallyspeaking,Alib.YaqtlnwasaneyeforAllahandashelterforHisfriends amongHisenemies.Heachievedtheirrightsanddrovetheevilenmityawayfrom them.Besideshewasrighteousinhisotheracts.Andhereportedthereligiousrules. Indeed,thepenisunabletowritealthisoutstandingmerits. AliwasborninKufaintheyear128(A.H.).HisfatherYaqffiiwasamongthe prominentpropagandistsfortheHashimidState.So,MarwanatHimarsentforhim. However,he,hiswife,andhistwosonsAtiandUbaydescapedfromKufatoMedina. TheystayedtheretilttheAbbasidStateappeared.So,heappearedandbeganserving alSafThhandatMansUrthoughheandhissonswereShPtesandbelievedinthe Imamate.YaqtinsentmoneytoalSdiq,peacebeonhim.Somepeopletoldat MansCrandalMahdyaboutthat.However,Allahsavedhimfromtheirevilplan. Alib.YaqtTndiedinBaghdadintheyear182(A.H.).ThecrownprinceMohammedal AmTnb.alRashldprayedoverhim.HisfatherYaqtindiedafterhimintheyear185 (A.H.),themercyofAltabbeonthem. AmmaralDihny: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AbMuwiyaAmmrb.KhabbalBajtyalDihnyalKufi,DilmisapartfromBajila, wasareliablecompanionofalSadiq,peacebeonhim.Hisfamilywasamongthe famousShPtefamiliesinKufathen.ItwassaidthathisfatherwascalledMuwiya, too. ItwassaidtoalSCdiq,peacebeonhim:Today,AmmaralDihnywitnessedbefore b.AbuLayta1,[1]thejudgeofKufa.Thejudgesaidtohim:Ammr,standup.We knowyou.Wedonotacceptyourwitnessbecauseyouareapostate(rfidl).Ammar stoodupwhitehewasshakingalloverandweeping.So,b.AbuLaytasaidtohim: Youareaman,youareamongthepeopleofknowledgeandtradition.Iftheword apostate,(rafidl)hurtsyou,thendisownyourselfofapostasy(rafd).Thenyouwiltbe oneofourpothers.Ammarsaidtohim:ByAllah,Iamnotweepingoverwhatyou aresaying.However,Iamweepingoveryouandovermyself.Iamweepingover myselfbecauseyouhaveattributedmetoanoblerankofwhichIamnotworthy.You haveclaimedthatIamanapostate(rafidi). 1HisnamewasMohammedb.AbidalRahmlnb.AbuLaylaalAnsarialKufl. MohammedwasajudgeinKufaforthirtythreeyears.Firsthebecameajudgefor theOmayyads,thenhebaecameajudgefortheAbbasids.hewasbornintheyear74 (A.H.).HediedinKufaintheyear148whilehewasstillajudge.TheShayk,mayAllah havemercyuponhim,regardedhimasoneofthecompantonsofalSldiq,peacebe onhim.Anyhow,apparently,bewgedwaragainstalSadiqwithhisacts. (291) Woeuponyou!AlSSdiq,peacebeonhimtoldmethatpharaohwasthefirsttouse thewordrafida(apostates)forthosemagicianswhoapostatizedthereligionof pharaohandobeyedMosesorders.Thentherafidr(apostate)ishewhorenounces whatAllahhatesanddoeswhatAllahorders.Istheresuchapersoninourpresent time?IamweepingovermyselfbecauseIamafraidthatAllahmaysetasealuponmy heartwhiteIhadacceptthisnoblename(i.e.rafidi)before.So,myLordwilt admonishmeandsay:AmmaryoureOnouncedthefalseanddidtheobligationsas Hesaidtoyou.ThenthatwilldecreasesmydegreewhenHeforgivesmeandcauses aseverepunishmentbecausehediscussedwithme,exceptwhentheImamsguard (me)againstthatwiththeirintercession.Andasformyweepingoveryouwas becauseyoutoldagreatliewhenyoucattedmewithanameotherthanmyname andbecauseIfeltcompassionforyoubecauseofthepunishmentofAllah,the Exalted,whenIrenouncetheholynamesandfollowthelowones.Thenhowwillyou Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

bepatienttowardsthetortureofyourworld?So,alSadiq,peacebeonhim,said:If Ammrhadsinsgreaterthantheskiesandtheearth,Allahwouldforgivehimhissins forthesewords,andHewouldincreasehisrewardsforthem. Thesewords,asyousee,indicatehisfirmbeliefs.Alsotheyshowthatemotionsdid notturnhimawayfromhisthought.Hehadabook(agroupoftraditions).Agroupof thereliablenarratorsreportedthebook.AlsoagroupoftheSunnigreatfigures reportedtraditionsonhisauthority.InatFihrast,b.alNadimhasmentionedhimand regardedhimamongtheShTtejurists. AmmaralSibity: AbualYaqdSnAnimarb.MUsalSbaty,aKufidwelledinMadainreported traditionsontheauthorityofAbuAbdAllahandAbualHasan.Hewasattributedto theFatahiya.Ifthisattributionisright,itdoesnotaffecthisreliablereport,especially alKfizim,peacebeonhimsaidconcerninghim:IaskedmyLordtograntmeAmmar, andHegrantedhimtome.alKashyhasmentionedthistraditioninthreepages: 164,256,and313.Thejurisprudentsregardedhimasoneofthegreatfiguresfrom whompeoplelearnedthelawfulandunlawful.Thecompanionsactedaccordingto thetraditionshereported.Hereportedmanytraditions.Whoeverreadscarefullythe booksoftraditionknowsthathereportedmanytraditions.InalFihrist,theShaykh said:Hehasagood,reliablebook(i.e.agroupoftraditions). (292) Ammarhadtwopothers.TheirnameswereQaysandSabSh.Theyreportedtraditions ontheauthorityofalSadiqandalKzim,peacebeonthem.Alsotheywereamong thereliablenarratorsoftheImams. AmruBinAbualMuqdLn: 'Amrub.AbualMuqdamThbitb.HurmuzalAjatialKufireportedtraditionson theauthorityofalSa.jjad,alBqir.andalSadiq,peacebeonthem.Heisregarded amongthefollowingcompanions.Hesaid:WhenIcametoAbuAbidAllahforthe firsttime,hesaidtome:Learntruthfulnessbeforethetradition.Alsohesaid: WhenIlookedatJafarb.Mohammed,peacebeonthem,Iknewthathewasamong thedescendantsoftheprophets.Thetwoparties(theShVaandtheSunna)knowhis greatrank.Oneday,alSadiqwassittingattheyardoftheKaaba.Somepeoplesaid tohim:Howagreatdealthepilgrimsare!He,peacebeonhim,said:Howafew Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

thepilgrimsare!ThenAmrflb.AbualMuqdampassedbyhim.Hesaid:Thisis amongthepilgrims.SeeatKasby,p.248.Hehadabook(a.groupoftraditions),the reliablenarratorsreportedthebook.AlNajashysaid:Hehadagoodbook.Thenhe mentionedthebookonhisauthority. IbinAbuNasralSukuni: Amrub.AbuNasralAnmCtialSukCnialSharabiwasareliablenarrator.Hehad books(groupsoftraditions).Agroupofthereliablenarratorsandsomepeopleofthe consensusreportedthebooks.HeisregardedasoneofthecompanionsofalSadiq, peacebeonhim. AmrBinUdayna: Amrb.UdaynareportedwrittentraditionsontheauthorityofalSadiq,peacebeon him,andoraltraditionsontheauthorityofalKa.zim,peacebeonhim.Hewasthe ShaykhofourBasricompanionsandtheirprominentfigureasalNajashysaid.He escapedfromalMahdy.HediedintheYemen.So,hedidnotreportmanytraditions ontheauthorityofalKfizim,peacebeonhim. InhisbookalRijal,p.215,alKashysaid:ItissaidthathisnamewasMohammedb. Udayna.Thenameofhisfatherprevailedhim.hementionedthathewasfromKufa. ThisopposeswhatalNajfishyhasmentionedexceptthathewasfromKufaandlived inBasrah.Hehadthebookofobligations.Agroupofthereliablereportedthebook(a groupoftraditions)fromhim. (293) AmrBinHanzalah: AbuSakhrAmrb.HanzalahalAjalialBakrialKuftreportedtraditionsonthe authorityofalBflqirandalSadiq,peacebeonthem.Hehadahighpositionwithalit atBayt.Thispositiondenoteshisfirmbeliefandreliance.InalKafi,ChapteronTime ofprayer:Yaztdb.Khalyfa[1]saidtoalSadiq,peacebeonhim,Amrb.Hanzatah toldussomethingaboutyouatatime.alSadiqsaid:Therefore,this(Amr)doesnot telltiesaboutus.AlSdiqsaidtoAmr:AbuSakhr,byAllah,youfollowmyreligion andthereligionofmygrandfathers.ByAllah,wewiltintercedefor(aou)whenour enemysays:So,wehavenointercessorsnoratruefriend.[2] Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

ThistraditionindicatesthatAmrhadahighpositionwithalBaqirandalSadiq, peacebeonthem.HereportedmanytraditionsontheauthorityofalSadiq.The greatreliablenarratorsandsomepeopleoftheconsensusreportedthetraditions fromhim. Amrb.Alib.alHusayn: Amrb.Alib.alHusaynb.Alib.AbuTtib,peacebeonthem,diedintheyear65 (A.H.).Anditwassaidthathediedintheyear70(A.H.).InalIrshad,ShaykhalMufid says:Hewasgreat,virtuousfigure.TheProphet,mayAllahblesshimandhisfamily, appointedhimtomaintainthealms.AlsotheCommanderoftheFaithful,peacebeon him,appointedhimtodothat.Hewaspiousandgenerous.ConcerninghimalBaqir, peacebeonhim,said:AmrismysightwithwhichIsee.Hewasthematernal grandfatherofthetwoSharifs,namelyalMurtad5andalRady.InSharhalMasait alNasiriya,concerninghismaternalgrandfathers,AlamatHudasays:Andasfor Amrb.Atib.alHusayn,peacebeonthem,(whosesurnamewasalAshraf)was withgrandprimacywithanimportantpositionduringtheOmayyadandtheAbbasid Dynasties,andwithknowledge.Thereliablenarratorsreportedtraditionsonhis authority. AlFadTlBinYasir: AlFadltb.YasaralHindy,anArabfromBasrah,reportedtraditionsontheauthority ofalBaqirandalSffdiq,peacebeonthem.HediedduringthedaysofalSUdiq, peacebeonhim.HewasamongthesixcompanionsofAbuJafar,peacebeonhim. Thesect(theShia)hasagreedonthe 1alHarithi.HeisregardedasoneofthecompanionsofalSadiqandalKazim, peacebeonthem.HewasattributedtotheWaqjfa.Ithasbeenreportedthatal Sldiq,1,caccbeonhim,praisedhim. 2Koran,26,100. (294) correctnessofthereportsthenarratorsmentiononhisauthority.andacknowledged thathewasajurisprudent.WhenAbuAbdAllahlookedathim,hesaid:Andgive goodnewstothehumble.[1]Alsohesaid:FadTIwasamongthecompanionsofmy father;Ilovethemanwholovesthecompanionsofmyfather.Therearemany Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

traditionsabouthisoutstandingmeritandrighteousness.Forexample,alS&iiq, peacebeonhim,said:MayAllahhavemercyuponalFaditb.Yasar,hewasamong us,wethemembersoftheHouse(ahlalBayt). AbuBasir: Laythb.alBakhtaryAbuBasTralMuradialKufiwasareliablecompanionofal Sadiq,peacebeonhim.Concerninghim,hesaid:Thepegsoftheearthandthegreat figuresofthereligionarefour....Thecompanionsofmyfatherweregoodwhether theyarealiveordead....SeeBarTdalAjali.Alsohesaidconcerninghim:Andgive goodnewstothehumble.AbuBasrrsawmiraculousactsfromalSadiq,peacebeon him.Forexample,alSadiqrubbedhishandontheeyeofAbuBasTrandmadehim see. Generallyspeaking,AbuBaskwasamongthegreattraditionalistsandjurisprudents. HewasamongthesixcompanionsofalBqir,peacebeonhim.Thesect(theShia) hasagreedonthecorrectnessofthetraditionswhichhavebeenreportedonhis authority,andacknowledgedhisabilityinjurisprudence. MuminalTaq: HisnamewasMohammedb.Alib.alNumanAbuJafaralAhwal.TheShia(Khsa) surnamehimMuminalTAq.NonShia(amma)surnamehimShaitanalTq. WhoeverstudieshisdebateswiththegreatfiguresofthenonShiaaboutthe ImamateknowswhytheysurnameShaitanalTqandhatehim.Thatisbecauseitis difficultforthehumansoultosurrendertothetruth. HereportedtraditionsontheauthorityofthetruthfulImams.alSdiq,peacebeon7 him,laudedhim,:Zararab.Ayun,Mohammedb.Muslim,Barldb.Muawiyaal Ajati,analAhwalarethedearestonesforme,whethertheyarealiveordead. Histraditionsarefamousinthebooksoftraditions.Whoeverstudieshisdebates knowsthathehadstrongevidence,intenseopposition,aquickanswer,akeenidea, andacleverheart.HewasamongthegreatImmitheologians.Besideshewasvery famousinjurisprudence. 1Koran,22,34. (295) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

MohammedBinMuslim: Mohammedb.MuslimalThaqafialKuffreportedtraditionsontheauthorityofthe truthfulImams,peacebeonthem.HelivedduringthetimeofalKzim,peacebeon him.Hewasamongthematchlessfiguresofwhomthetimedoesnotpingbutby chance.Hewasaprototypeinrighteousness.HeobeyedtheordersofhisImamsand followedtheirbehavior.Hewastrustworthy.Eventhosewhodisagreewithhisbeliefs knowhisoutstandingmeritsandrighteous.Theydefamedhimbecauseheadopted alRafd(refusal)whichheandthepeopleofhismethodregardedasagoodquality andalaudableact.Theymayrefertohimwhentheyfacedifficultiesintheirbeliefs. Hewasregardedasthejuristofhistimewhenthereweremanyjuristandalotof jurisprudence.So,AbdalRamanb.alHajjajandMohammedb.Uthmansaid:No oneoftheShiawasmoreknowledgeablethanMohammedb.Muslim.Hegotsucha degreeinjurisprudencebecauseheheardthirtythousandtraditionsfromAbuJafar, peacebeonhim,andsixteenthousandtraditionsfromAbuAbdAllah,peacebeon him.Whoeverstudiesthebooksoftraditionsknowsthathereportedmany traditions. HisImamslaudedhimverymuch.SeeBandalAjali.Hewasamongthesixreliable companionsofAbuJafar,peacebeonhim. Hediedattheageof70,intheyear150(A.H.).So,helivedfortwoyearsduringthe timeofAbualHasan,peacebeonhim.WeaskAllahtobepleasedwithhim. Murazim: Murazimb.HakTmalAzdialMadainireportedtraditionsontheauthorityofal SCdiqandalKzim,peacebeonthem.HewaskilledduringthedaysofalRida, peacebeonhim. MurazimandMusadif,alSdiqsservant,wentwithalSadiqtobecauseHTraal Mansflrsummonedhimtogothere.WhenalMansilrpermittedalSadiqtocome BACKtoMedina,heleftHiraintheevening.OnhiswaytoMedina,amancatted Ashirstoppedhimandpreventedhimfromgoing.So,Mur&zimandMusfldifasked theImamtoallowthemtokillAshir,buttheImamrefusedthat.TheImamdidhis besttoconvinceAshirtoallowthemtogotoMedina.Anyhow,Ashirletthemgo whitemostofthenightpassed.ThisshowsusthatMurazimwasaclosecompanionof

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theImazn.HelovedtheImamverymuch,followedhim,andcarriedouthisorders. (296) AlNajashyandthelikesaid:AlRashTdsentforMurazimandhispothertfrequently. Oneday,hesentforMunazim,hispother[1]andAbdatHamTdb.Ghauwfis.Hekilled AbdalHamTd,whileMurazimandhispotherweresafe. MasmaKardin: MasmaKardinwasarealArab.HebelongedtoBakrb.Wil.HisnamewasMasma. AndhissurnamewasKardin.Inhisbook,p.298,atNajashysaid:HewastheShaykh andprominentfigureof(thetribe)ofBakrb.WitinBasrah.AndhewastheChiefof theMasmais.HereportedfewtraditionsontheauthorityofAbuIafar,peacebeon him.AndhereportedmanytraditionsontheauthorityofAbuAbdAllah.[2] AbuAbdAllahsaidtohim:AbtiSayyar,amgoingtoprepareforyouagreat objective.AlsohereportedontheauthorityofAbualHasan(MCsa),peacebeon him.Hehadmanyrarethings. TherearemanytraditionswhichdenotethathestronglycleavedtoahlatBayt, obeyedhisImam,gaveKhums(fifth)andZakat(alms)fromhispropertiesthoughthey weremany.Moreover,hewantedtocollectallhispropertiestosendthemtothe Imam.However,theImanirefusedthat.Inthemeantimehepermittedhimtotake advantageofhisshare. MuawiyaBinAmmfr: HisnamewasMuawiyab.Ammarb.KhababalBajalialDibniatKufi.Wehave alreadymentionedhisfatherAmmar.Muawiyawasprominentfigure.InalWasail, alSadiq,peacebeonhim,saidtohim:MysonThisindicatesthatalS&iiqhad mercyuponhim,lovedhim,andtookcareofhim. MarufBinKharbtidh: Mantifb.KharbtldhalMekkireportedtraditionsontheauthorityofatSajjfld,al Baqir,andalSadiq,peacebeonthem.HewasamongthesixcompanionsofAbu Jafar.Thesect(i.e.theShia)hasagreedonthecorrectnessonthetraditionswhich arereportedontheirauthorityandacknowledgedtheirjuristicability.Many Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

traditionshavebeenmentionedconcerninghim.Theydenotehishighposition.Also theydenotethathe 1Murazimhadtwopothers.TheirnameswereMohammedandJarrrr.Bothwere reliablenarrators.AlKlzim,peacebeonhim,orderedMohammedtodebate. 2HewasamongthecompanionsofalKffzim,peacebeonhim.Hewasareliable narrator. (297) wasamongthosewhohadthesecretsofahlalBayt.Moreover,hewasamongthe worshipperswhoseadorationwaslong. AlMuallaBinKhanTs: AlMuallab.KhanrswasafreedservantofAbuAbdAllah,peacebeonhim. Whoeverstudieshistraditionsknowsthathewasamongthepeopleofjurisprudence andknowledpe,inthepositionoftheImani,andamongtheprominentcompanions. ThethingthatdenoteshishighpositionwiththeImamwasthattheImambecame sadwhenhewaskilled,wentoutofhishouseangrilypullihiscloak,hissonlsmaTl wasfollowinghim,andsaying:Indeed,thepersoncanendurelosingachildbut cannotendurewar.Thenhecametohiskilter,Dawfldb.AtialAbbsi(the governorofalManstir)andsaidtohim:Dawtid,youhavekilledmyservantand havetakenmymoney.TheImamdidnotbecomecalmtillhepunishedtheperson whokilledhisservant.ThatpersonwasalSirfy,thechiefofthepoliceofDawCd. Whentheywantedtokillhim,hebeganshouting:Theyordermetokiltmenfor themthentheyaregoingtokiltme! WhenalMualtawaskilled,alSSdiq,peacebeonhimsaid:ByAllah,surehehas enteredParadise!Alsohesaid:Feeonthisworld!AllahempoweredHisenemyon Hisfriendinit!Besides,thereareothertraditionswiththesamemeaningdenote thehighpositionofalMaaltah.DawtidkilledalMaatlahbecausehewasamong thefollowersofAbAbdAllah.DawiidsentforalMuallatoshowhimtheplacesof thefollowersandcompanionsofalSadiq.alMualtarefusedthat.So,DawUd threatenedhimwithkillingifherefusedtohowhimtheplacesofthefollowersand companionsofalSadiq.However,heinsistedonkeepingtheirplacesasecret.Thisis strongevidenceforhispietyinthereligionandhisreadinesstodieforthosechosen men.WeaskAllahtobepleasedwithhimandwiththem. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AlMufaddalBinAmr: AbuAMAllahalMufaddatb.AmralIufyalKuffreportedtraditionsonthe authorityofalS&liqandalKazim.Hehadoutstandingmeritsofwhichnooneofthe reliablenarratorsandjuristshad.Hegatheredabundantknowledge,manyvirtues, righteousness,andpiety.Moreover,thetwoImamsappointedhimastheirdeputyto collectthemoneyofKhllmsandZakatforthem,toreestablishnormalrelations amongpeopleandtotakecareoftheweak,andsoon.Itwasenoughforhishonesty andknowledgethatthetwoImamsdependedonhimincarryingoutsuchagreattask whichwasinneedoflargeheartedness,determination,hard (298) worktofulfilltheneedsofpeople,andperfectbelief.Andhisactsbearwitnessthat hewasmeritoriousforthetwoImamstodependonhim.AtS&iiqappointedhimas hisrepresentativeafterAMAllahb.Yafilrhadpassedawayaswehavementionedin AMAllah.Thenwhatisyouropinionaboutthequalificationofthesuccessorwho replacedthatpredecessor?Hewentoncarryingoutthatrepresentation,though thereweremanyablementocarryitout,tillhedidwhitehehadlaudablebehavior andwassimplehearted. ItwasenoughforalMufaddatshighpositionthatAbuAMAllah,peacebeonhim, saidconcerninghim:ByAllahwithWhomthereisnogod,whatanexcellentservant alMufaddatb.AmralJufiwas!AbuAbdAllahsaidthesewordsconcerningal Mufaddatforthirtyandsometimes.AfterthedeathofalMufaddat,AbualHasan, peacebeonhim,saidconcerninghim:Indeed,alMufaddatwassociabilityandrest forme!Alsohesaid:MayAllahhavemercyuponalMufaddal,hehaverested! Hehadbooks(groupsoftraditions).Agroupofthereliablenarratorsreportedthe booksfromhim.ItisattributedtohimthathereportedatTawhTdandalIhlijiyaon theauthorityofalSdiq,peacebeonhim,aswehavestatedintheprevious chaptersofthisbook. MaysarBinAbdalAziz: Maysarb.AMalAzizalNakhaialKufialMadaini,reportedtraditionsonthe authorityofthetwotruthfulImams.Manyreliablenarratorsreportedthesetraditions onhisauthority.Manyofthemwereamongthepeopleofconsensus.InalManaqib, Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

b.ShahrshUbhasregardedhimasoneofthereliablecompanionsofalSadiq,peace beonhim.ItwassaidthathediedinthedaysofalSdiq,intheyear136(A.H.).He hasbeenpraisedinmanytraditions.Forexample,AbuJafar,peacebeonhim,said concerninghim:Maysar,indeed,yourdeathcamemorethantimes.However,Allah haspostponeditbecauseyouobservedandstrengthenedthetiesofkinship.This traditionwiththesamemeaninghasbeenmentionedmanytimes.Alsohesaidto him:Verily,Iloveyourperfumeandyoursouls;youhaveadoptedthereligionof AllahandthereligionofHisangels.Andtherearesimilartraditionswhichshowhis dignityandgreatness. (299) HishmBinalHakam:[1] AbuMohammedHishamb.alHakamwastheChiefofKunda.Alsohewassurnamed AbualHakam.HereportedtraditionsontheauthorityofAbuAMAllahandAbual Hasan,peacebeonthem.Hehadbooks(groupoftraditions).Thebiographistshave mentionedthebooksinhisbiography.Hewasexcellentintheologyandfaraway frommistakesinit.Hisdebatesinthetechniquesoftheologyguideyoutohis,strong evidenceandhisanswersfortheproofsofhisdebaters.AlSadiq,peacebeonhim, preventedhiscompanionsfromthedebateandthedisputeexceptveryfewofthem. HishmwasinthevanguardofthosecompanionswhomalSadk1permittedto debate.alSadiq,peacebeonhim,respectedhim.ThoughHishmwasyoung,al Sdiqpreferredhimtohisoldcompanionswithhighsocialranks.Concerninghim,al Sadiqsaid:This(Hisham)supportsuswithhishand,histongue,andhishand.Also hesaid:Hishamb.atHakamistheguideofourright,thenarratorofourwords,the supporterofourtruthfulness,therefuterofthefalseofourenemies.Whoever followshimandhistraditionfollowsus;whoeveropposeshimanddisbelievesinhim showsenmitytowardusanddisbelievesinus. NotonlyalSadiq,peacebeonhim,praisedHishambutalsopraisedotherImamsof alitatBathim.Forexample,alRida,peacebeonhimsaid:He(Hishm)wasa righteousservant.alJawd,peacebeonhim,said:MayAllahhavemercyupon him,whatanexcellentdefenderhewasforthisstandpoint! ThesewordsoftheImamsofahlatBaytwithregardtoHishniservetheclever, carefulpersoninsteadofbombasticpraiseandwovenland.Alsthesemanywords showyouthatHishamadoptedanattitudetodefendtherightandtowagwaragainst thefalseandthathesaidintensewords,whichweresharperthanathousandswords Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

asalRashidsaid,todefendtheImamate.Moreover,hewasthematchlessmanwho producedstrongevidencefortheImamateandcorrectedthedoctrineswithhis debates.DeathcamequicklytohimduetothosedebatesintheImamate.Thatwas whenalRashidknewhisplace.He(Hisham)wasafraidofhim.So,heescapedtoKufa terrified.Thenhediedofthatterror.Itwassaidthathediedintheyear179(A.H.). Someslandershavebeenmentionedabouthim.Ofcoursehisenemiesandhis envierstriedtodefamehimandtodestroyhisbeliefsbecausehedefendedahlat Baytinthemannerwhoseresultsarestillaliveinthepresenttime.However,the Imamhimselfsometimesdefamedhimtodriveevilawayfromhim. 1IsucceededwiththepraiseofAllah,theExalted,towritcanindependootbookon him. (300) HishimBinSalim: Hishmb.SalimalJawfllTqialAllfreportedtraditionsontheauthorityofAbuAbd AllahandAbualHasan,peacebeonthem.Hewasamongthosewhosedebateswere clear,whoforcedtheirenemiestosurrenderwiththeproof,andwhoshowedmen theway.AndhewasamongthosewhomtheImamspermittedtodebate.Ifthe Imamsthoughtthathewouldmakemistakes,theywouldnotallowhimtodebateat thattimewhenknowledgereachedthemaximumdegree,theauthorityshowed enmitytowardahlatBayt,andhiscounterpartopposedhimintheImamate,ratherin everyartandknowledge. Hishamwasnotonlyspecialistintheology,butalsowasamongthegreatjurists.The Lmamspraisedhiminmanytraditions.Thesetraditionsshowushisgreatposition andimportance. HewasdispraisedasthegreatsupportersofahlalBaytandtheirreliablecompanions weredispraised.Alsotheyshowedadefectforadefect.Whywerethosegreatfigures dispraised.Donottheirenemiesknowthatthetruereligionwasestablishedandthe beliefsofahlaIBaytappearedwiththeirintenseargumentsandtheirdecisiveproofs? So,they(thereliablecompanions)wereamongthemujahidininthewayofAllah, whosekeentonguesandproofswereabletofacethearmies,therulersandtheir terrorism. YunusBinYaqub: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Yunusb.YaqubalBajatialDihnialKufireportedtraditionsontheauthorityofal SdiqandalKazim,peacebeonthem.HediedinMedinaduringthelifetimeofal Rid,peacebeonhim.So,alRidssentcamphor(hunut),shroud,andallnecessary things.Heorderedhisfollower,hisfathersfollowers,andhisgrandfathersfollowers toattendhisfuneralThenwhichgreatnessisbetterthanthis? Yunuswasamongtheprominentjuristsandtheirmastersfromwhompeoplelearned thelawfulandtheunlawful.HewastherepresentativeofAbualHasan(Musa), peacebeonhim.HewasofgreatimportancewiththeImams,peacebeonthem. Theysaidmanytraditionsonhimtoshowhisgreatpositionwiththemandtheirgreat custodyofhim.Forexample,4alKazim,peacebeonhim,said:Weareprotectors foryou.AlSadiqoralKazim,peacebeonthem,said:Indeed,youare(one)ofus, wethemembersoftheHouse(ahlaIBayt),so,mayAllahaddyoutotheProphetof Allahandhisfamily,andsurelyAllahwilldothat,Allahwilling.Thesetraditionsand thelikedenotethathehadahighpositionandwasareliablenarrator. (301) Withthisgreatfigure,wehaveendedourspeechaboutthefamous,reliablenarrators ofAbuAbdAllah,peacebeonhim,fromwhomthaylearnedgoodmanners,therules ofthereligion,andvarioussciences.Fromhere,youknowtheimportanceofthe narratorandofthereportontheauthorityofalSdiq,peacebeonhim,thenumber ofthesciencesandoftheartsreportedonhisauthorityandtakenfromhim. HISRELEASEDSERVANTS (302) AbuAbdAllah,peacebeonhim,hadmanyreleasedservants.However,inthe biographyofthefollowingMutib,theyweretenservants.He(AbaAMAllah)said: Thereisatraitoramongthem.So,bewareofhim.Andheissaghir.Wedonotknow theexactspellingofthewordSaghir,namelyifwespeltitinfa(Safir)orinthe neglectedayn(SaTr),thenitisaname,orinthePersiangliayn,itisanadjective. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Anyhow,theirnumberIhavefoundisoverten.Maybetheirnumberwasten sometime.Wewillmentionthenamesofthosewehavefound: 1.AlMuallaBinKhanis: AlMuallab.KhaniswasamongthereleasedservantsonwhomAbuAbdAllah,peace beonhim,dependedtomanagehisaffairs,amongthereliablefigurestowhomhe disclosedhissecrets,andamonghisfamous,reliablenarratorsaswehavealready mentioned. 2.Muattib: Muattibwasamongthem.Thebiographersregardedhimasoneofthecompanions ofalSadiqandalKazim,peacebeonthem.Itwasreportedontheauthorityofal Sadiqthathisreleasedservantswereten,andthatthebestofthemwasMuattib.He (alSdiq)said:Andthereisatraitoramongthem.So,bewareofhim.Andheis Saghir.Inothertradition,he,peacebeonhim,said:Myreleasedservantsareten. ThebestofthemisMuattib.AndMuattibdoesnotthinkexceptthatIamthe worthiest(oftheImainate)ofallpeople.Thefamous,reliablenarratorssuchas YUnusb.YaqCb,alMuallab.KhanTs,Ishaqb.Ammflr,andthelikereported traditionsontheauthorityofMuattib.Fromthisandthelike,youknowthathewas amongthevirtuous,knowledgeable,andreliablepeople.InatKhulsa,alAllama certifiedhimwithoutdoubtorhesitation. 3.Muslim: AmongthemwasMuslim.ItwasreportedontheauthorityofAbualHasan,peacebe onhim,thatMuslimwasfromSind.JafaralSadiq,peacebeonhim,saidtoMuslim: Ihopethatyouhavebeengrantedsuccesstothisname.Alsohe,peacebeonhim, said:MuslimwastaughttheKoraninsleeping.Whenhegotup,heknewit.A traditionwiththesamemeaningwasreportedontheauthorityofalRida,peacebe onhim.Some (303) traditionsindicatethatheservdtheImamandwasamongthepeopleofhissecrets. 4.Mnsadif: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

AmongthemwasMusidif.Thebiographersregardedhimasoneofthecompanionsof alSidiqandalKIzim,peacebeonthem.Someprominent,reliablenarratorssuchas alHasanb.MahbGb,Alib.Riab,andthelikereportedtraditionsontheauthorityof Musdif.Thisisevidenceforhishonestyandhisknowledgeoftraditionsandthe Imamate. AlSadiq,peacebeonhim,sentMus&liftoEgypttosellgoodsestimatedata thousanddinars.WhenhecameBACK,hestatedthattheinterestofthegoodswasa thousanddinars. AlSadiqregardedtheinterestastoomany.So,Musadiftoldhimthattherewas nothingofthegoodstheysenttoEgypt.Accordinglytheysworetosellthegoodsata dinarforadinar.AlSAdiq,peacebeonhim,disownedthatoathandthatinterest, andregardedthemasIslamicallyprohibited.ThenalSdiqtooktheoriginalsumof moneyandlefttheinterest.AndhesaidtoMusdif:Musdif,aduelofswordsis easierthanseekingthelawful.WehavementionthistraditioninHiskindness. HeandMurazimaccompaniedalSadiq,peacebeonhim,whenalMansflr summonedhimtocometoHTra.WhenalMansUrallowedhimtoreturntoMedina, hewentoutatnight.WhilehewascoveringtheroadtoMedina,amancalledAshir hinderedhiswayandpreventedhimfromgoingthere.MusadifandMurazimtriedto killAshir.However,theImampreventedthemfromdoingthat.TheImamdidhis besttoconvinceAshirtoletthemgo.AtthatAshirbecamesatisfiedwiththeImams wordsandpermittedhimtogowhilemostnightpassed.Forthisreason,alSadiq said:Murazim,isthisbetterorwhatyousaid?Wehavementionedthistraditionin HisclemencyandinMurzim. 5.SaidalRumi: AmongthemwasSaTdalRCmi.TheShakh(i.e.alTtisi),mayhisgravebefragrant, regardedhimasoneofthecompanionsofaS&iiq,peacebeonhim.IbnMuskan, Aban,andHammadreportedtraditionsontheauthorityofSaTdalRumi.They,as wehavementionedintheirbiographies,wereamongthosereliablenarrators.The Sect(i.e.theShra)hasagreedonthecorrectnessofthetraditionsreportedontheir authoritiesandacknowledgedtheirabilityinjurisprudence.Thisisclearevidencefor hishonestyinthereport,therelianceofthesegreatfiguresonhim,hisknowledgeof thetraditiontherule,andhislearningfromtheImam. (304) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

6.Sabah: AmongthemwasSabh.HewasregardedasoneofthecompanionsofalSadiq, peacebeonhim.Thisindicatesthathereportedtraditionsontheauthorityofthe Imam,thathehadachancetolearnfromhim,andthatheknewhim.Thesethings wereenoughtoachievehissuccessandhappiness.Apartfromthis,heservedthe lmamandfulfilledhisneeds. 7.Tihar: AmongthemwasTahir.Inhisbiography,theonlythingshasbeenmentionedisthat hewasamongthecompanionsthatlearnedfromhismasteralSadiqandthathe reportedtraditionsonhisauthority.Thiswassuccessandhappinessforhimand evidenceforhisknowledge. Apparently,itwasThir,theservantofalSadiq,whoreportedthattheImamblamed hissonAbdAllahalAftahwhenhebehavedinthemannerwhichdispleasedhim. 8.AbbasBinZayd: Abbasb.Zaydwasamongthem.HewasfromMedina.Hewasregardedasoneofthe companionsofalSdiq,peacebeonhim.Hereportedtraditionontheauthorityof theImam.Morethanthishasnotbeenmentionedonhim. ServingtheImamwasagreatfavor,lookingathisholyfaceeverytimewasagood luck,learningfromhimwasamongthebestacts.Ifthepersondidallthesethings throughawareness,knowledge,purpose,andwill,hewouldachieveagreatposition andwouldthankAllahforthisabundantblessing. 9.AlFudayl: AlFuday1wasamongthem.Alsoheisconsideredamongthecompanionsofal Sadiq,peacebeonhim.AlSadflqhasmentionedhiminchapter:Rare Commandments.Nothingmorethanthishasbeenmentionedonhim. 10.AlMaghira: AlMaghirawasamongthem.Thebiographersregardedhimamongthecompanions ofalSdiq,peacebeonhim.Alsohereportedtraditionsonhisauthority.Thisisall Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

whathasbeenmentionedonhim. (305) 11.Musa: Musawasamongthem.HewasregardedasoneofthecompanionsofalSadiq,peace beonhim.Thisisallwhathasbeenmentionedonhim.Andthisis,asyouknow,good luck,andgreatsuccessAllah,theGreatandAlmighty,grantstowhoeverHewill. 12.NasrBinSaid: Nasrb.Saidwasamongthem.Thebiographershavementionedthathereported traditionsontheauthorityofAbuAbdAllah,peacebeonhim,hewas,likeMflsa, amongthosewhofounddignityandsuccess. 13.Salima: Salimawasamongthem.TheShaykh(i.e.alTflsi)regardedherasamongthe companionsofalSadiq,peacebeonhim.Itwasshewhoreportedthatshewasnear AbuAbdAllah,peacebeonhim,whendeathcametohim,andhefainted.Whenhe recoveredhesaid:GivealHasanalAftasseventydinar....Shesaid:Doyouwant togivethemanwhoattackedyouwiththeswordandwantedtokillyou?Hesaid: DoyouwantthatIwillnotbeamongthoseconcerningwhomAllah,theGreatand Almightysaid:AndthosewhojointhatwhichAllahhasbiddentobejoinedandhave aweoftheirLordandfeartheevilreckoning.[1]Wehavementionedthistradition inHisSecretGiftsandinHisConditionduringDeath. ThistraditionindicatesthatSalimawasaclosecompaniontotheImam,peacebeon him.Helistenedtoherwordsandansweredherkindly. ThisisthelastthingtowhichAllahgrantedmesuccesstowriteonthecharacterof AbeAbdAllah,peacebeonhim.IaskAllah,theGreatandAlmighty,toacceptitall forHisHolyFace,forgivemetheslipsofmypen,andforgivemewhathasmixedwith mypurposeinit. AlsoIaskmymasterAbuAbdAllah,peacebeonhim,tooverflowmewithhisfavors whenheacceptthislittlegiftwhichIoffertohisholycharacter,forgiftsare accordingtotheirgivers. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

PraisebetoAllah.BlessingandpeacebeuponthebestOneofHiscreation, MohammedtheChosen,anduponhisgood,gloriousfamily. 1Koran.13,21. TOTHEGENTLEREADER (306) Youmayfind,asIhavefound,thatthesepagesarenotenoughtoencompassthis unique,noblecharacter.Nowonder!Theascentisnoteasy.So,myexcuseisthe inabilitythatIhaverecordedagainstmyself.HoweverIcannotdriveawaythe inability.Please,afteryouhavereadthesepages,bestowyournoticesuponmeto avoidthatinanotheredition.Indeed,thedearestoneofmypothersishewhogives memydefectsasapresent. MohammedalHusaynalMuzaffar

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