You are on page 1of 18



Regional Proce or!RP" & E#$en ion Mo%&le!EM"

'( Na)e $*o le+el o, AXE An - APT & APZ. .( De,ine AP/ An - Control part of AXE 0( De,ine APT An - Switching part or telephony part. 1( De,ine $r&c$&re o, Co))an% Co%e o, AXE An - XXYYZ XX-Function group YY-Functional di i!ion within a group Z-Ta!" Type 2( De,ine Win,iol An - #t i! a co$$unication progra$ de!igned for in!tallation% te!ting and $aintenance of cu!to$er e&change. 2( De,ine RP An - 'P! (elong to the 'PS)'egional proce!!or !u(!y!te$!* .They are lin"! (etween the CP)central proce!!or* & APT de ice! )E+*. 3( W4a$ %oe RP con i $ o, 5 An - a*'P,-'egional proce!!or handler in CP! (* 'P-)'egional proce!!or (u!* c* .ariou! 'egional Proce!!or! 6( De,ine ,&nc$ion o, RPH An - a* To offer an interface to the 'P -u!e!. (* Te$porarily !tore the infor$ation to and fro$ the CP and load the traffic on the 'P (u!e!. 7( De,ine RPB An - #t i! a (u! connecting the CP with the 'P!. '8( De,ine $9:e o, RPB An - a* 'P- /P )Parallel* (* 'P--S )Serial* ''( De,ine EM An - An E+ i! the !$alle!t control unit in the !y!te$. #t con!i!t! of a well defined nu$(er of APT de ice!.

'.( De,ine EMB !EM ;& " An - E+! are connected to 'P! through E+-. '0( W4o con$rol 4ar%*are o, EM5 An - 'P '1( Ho* $4e ca:aci$9 o, RP i e#:re e%5 An - Capacity of 'P i! e&pre!!ed in ter$! of nu$(er of E+!. 0ne 'P control! e en nu$(er of E+! and other 'P control! odd nu$(er of E+!. '2( De,ine $9:e o, CP< An - #n nor$al operation% CP-A i! e&ecuti e & CP-- i! the !tand(y wor"ing )S-10*. '=( Co))an% ,or %e,ining RP An - a* 2efining of an 'P EX'P#3'P4567% 'PT4565% TYPE4'P8S5A9 'PT-Twin 'P (* -loc"ing of 'P -:'P#3 'P4 9 c* 2e(loc"ing of 'P -:'PE3 'P4 6;<&6;=&6<7&6<5&6<8&6<;9 d*Software unit loaded into the 'P EX'>#3'P4=5% S>#24?@777ACXC 58< 88 '6C75?9 EX'>#3 'P4 % S>BA+E4 % S>#24 C C 9 S>BA+E-Software unit na$e S>#2- .er!ion of !oftware '3( >&ll na)e o, ?DM An - Deneric 2e ice +agaEine '6( C4ec@ %a$a o, RP An - EX'PP3'P4all9 EX'>P3'P4all9 '7( Co))an% ,or re)o+e RP :air< An - EX'PE .8( Co))an% $o %e,ine EM An 3a*EXE+#3'P4 % 'PT4 % E+4 % EF+4 9 EF+-EGuip$ent type and identity of the de ice! in the E+ EXE+#3EF+4ET-:5-7&&-H5%'P4@7% 'PT4@5% E+46% S>#24?5ACAA 57; 58I=AET-:5 '5A7I?9 (* 2e(loc"ing of E+ ) E+ i! put into !er ice* -:E+E3'P4II% 'PT4I@% E+479 .'( Co))an% $o ;loc@ EM An --:E+#

'( De,ine %i,,eren$ $9:e o, Ro&$e An - a* E&ternal route---'oute! to other e&change! (* #nternal route---'oute! to code !ender and announce$ent $achine! c* Software route!---'oute! to !u(!cri(er !er ice! or route! for regi!ter indi idual!

.( Co))an% $o %e,ine ro&$e %a$a in e#c4ange An - EX'0#3'4 % dety4 % FBC4 % S#4 % SP4 9 2ety)de ice type*-Type of de ice! u!ed in the (loc" 'oute na$e !hould (e of = letter FBC)Function code* /#ndicate function of the 'oute)Traffic direction of 'oute* 0( Co))an% *4en )ore ro&$e %a$a i $o ;e a igne% $o $4e ro&$e An - EX'-C 1( Para)e$er o, EXRBC An - a*'5-'egi!ter !ignaling route (*'D-'oute group c*'0-0rigin for route analy!i! d* P'#-Priority e*+-- +odification of - nu$(er )to add or delete digit! fro$ - nu$(er* f* TT'ABS-Tran!$i!!ion characteri!tic!)for connection of <8 "(p! digital* 2( Co))an% ,or %e;loc@ing o, Ro&$e An - -:0'E3 '4 9 =( Co))an% ,or ;loc@ing o, Ro&$e An --:0'#3'4 9 3( W4a$ i $4e $e: ;e,ore ;loc@ing an9 ro&$e 5 An - -y (loc"ing all de ice! in the route 6( Co))an% ;loc@ing %e+ice An - -:02#32E.4 9 7( Co))an% ,oe %e;loc@ing %e+ice An - -:02E3 2E.4 9 '8( Co))an% $o c4ec@ ;loc@ ro&$e An - -:0'P9 ''( Co))an% & e% $o a%% %e+ice in ro&$e An -EX2'#3 '4 % 2E.4 9 '.(S$e: ,or connec$ing %e+ice in ro&$e An - a* EX2'#3 '4 % 2E.4 9 (* 2e ice! ta"en into !er ice EX2A#3 2E.4 9 c*2e(loc"ing of de ice! -:02E3 2E.4 9 '0(Co))an% $o c4ec@ %e+ice connec$e% $o ro&$e An -EX2EP3 2E.4 9 '1(Co))an% $o :rin$ RP & EM $o i%en$i,9 %e+ice in ro&$e An -EX2'P32E.4 9 '2(Co))an% ,or $a$e ro&$e &r+e9 :rin$ or $a$e o, $4e %e+ice in a ro&$e An -ST'SP3'4 9 B2.JTotal nu$(er of de ice! in the route B0CCJBu$(er of (u!y de ice! B#2:JBu$(er of idle de ice! B-:0JBu$(er of (loc"ed de ice! '=(Co))an% ,or ;loc@ing &:er+i ion in Ro&$e

An -a*-:>'C3'4 %:.-457&67&H7%AC:4 9 :.-J:i$it alue for (loc"ing .#ndicate! the $a&i$u$ nu$(er of -loc"ed de ice! in the route. AC:JAlar$ Cla!! A5-#f nu$(er of (loc"ed de ice! e&ceed H7 A6-#f nu$(er of (loc"ed de ice! (etween 67 & H7 AH-#f nu$(er of (loc"ed de ice! (etween 57 & 67 (*2i!connect (loc"ing !uper i!ion -:>'E3'4 9 c*'econnect the (loc"ing !uper i!ion -:>'#3'4 9 d*To chec" !uper i!ion data -:>'P3'4 9 '3(Co))an% ,or %i $&r;ance &:er+i ion o, %e+ice An -a*2>#AC3'4 %A2:4 %AC:4 9 A2:JAllowed di!tur(ance le el)in percent* (*Print out of loaded data 2>#SP3'4all9 '6(Co))an% ,or %i $&r;ance &:er+i ion o, ro&$e An -a*2>2AC3'4 % A2:4 % AC:4 9 (*Print out of loaded data 2>2AP3'4all9 '7(Co))an% ,or eiA&re B&ali$9 &:er+i ion o, %e+ice An -a*To !uper i!e the ratio of Bu$(er of !eiEure! --------------------------Bu$(er of nor$al call! +ini$u$ duration of nor$al call4<7!ec SEFAC3CT#+E4 9 CT#+EJBor$al con er!ion ti$e in !ec (*SEFAC3'4 % AC:4 %F>0S4H7% F>0-4<79 F>0JFuotient -J-loc"ed c*Print out of !pecified data SEFAP3'4all9 .8(Co))an% ,or gro&: ,or eiA&re B&ali$9 &:er+i ion An - a*SEFD#3'4 9 (*SEFDP3all9 c*SEFDC3'4 9 .'(Co))an% ,or eiA&re &:er+i ion o, $r&n@ An -a*SETAC3P:4 %AC:4 9 P:JPeriod length in nu$(er of day! (*SETAP9 ..(W4en eiA&re i regi $ere% 5 An 3when - an!wer i! recei ed.

SNT!S*i$c4ing ne$*or@ $er)inal" & DIP!Digi$al :a$4"

'(W4ere SNT :re en$ 5 An - #n group !witch)DS*.,ardware unit! are connected to DS . .(Co))an% ,or connec$ion o, SNT in ?S< An 3BTC0#3SBT4 %SBTP4 %SBT.4 9 SBTP)SBT point*---,ardware po!ition of the connection SBT.)SBT ariant*Jindicate! the $agaEine type u!ed BTC0#3SBT4AS2SH-7%SBT.4HH788%SBTP4+>XH-7-89 0(Co))an% $o $e $ SNT An - BTTE#3SBT4CC2SBT-7 9 nttei3!nt4ECP;-6; 9 1(Co))an% $o %e;loc@ SNT An - BT-:E3SBT4ECP;-79 2(Co))an% $o connec$ %e+ice $o $4e SNT An!3EX2>#32E. 9 EX2>#32E.4>P25-=<I&&-=@@%SBT4ET5;;5-7% SBT#B:4689 =(Co))an% $o c4ec@ SNT $a$e An - BTSTP3SBT4all9 3(Co))an% ,or connec$ion o, DIP An -a*2T2##32#P4 % SBT4 9 2T2##32#P4567>P25% SBT4ET5;;5-5% 2#PP4;=9 (*#nitial data !e tting of 2#P 2T#2C3 c*2#P fault !uper i!ion 2TFSC 6(Co))an% $o c4ec@ B&ali$9 &:er+i ion o, DIP An -2TFSP32#P4 9 7(Co))an% $o c4ec@ ,a&l$ &:er+ion o, DIP An 32TFSP32#P4 9 '8(W4a$ are $4e %i,,eren$ B&ali$9 &:er+ion :ara)e$er o, DIP 5 An -Slip freGuency 2i!tur(ance freGuency Errored !econd Se erely Errored !econd ''(W4a$ i o:era$ing :ee% o, ET'22!STMC'" An -5;;+(p! '.(W4ic4 in$er,ace i & e% ,or connec$ion o, ET'22 *i$4 ?S 5 An - 2:-H '0(Na)e $9:e :ro%&c$ o, AXE An - -Y- ;75 '1( MSP!M&l$i:le#er ec$ion :rinci:le " 'D' :rinci:le An 3


.C8 +S-5

+S-7 & +S-5 are two layer! of any ET5;; +SJ+ultiple&er !ection '2(W4a$ i 9nc4roniAa$ion o&rce ,or $4e cloc@ 9 $e) in ?S 5 An -#nternal I K,Z !ynchroniEation !ignal i! u!ed '=(W4a$ i +er ion o, ?S cloc@ 5 An - DSI@7 '3(Ho* o,$*are i $r&c$&re% in SNT 5 An -The !oftware i! !tructured with functional (loc"!. '6(Di,,eren$ $9:e o, ,&nc$ional ;loc@ in AXE An - Co$$and (loc" Application (loc" ,ardware owning (loc" #nterface (loc"

SiAe Al$era$on
'(De,ine iAe al$era$ion An -SiEe alteration i! the na$e of the function u!ed to change the file !iEe! in the 2ata !tore of the CP .(?i+e o)e e#a):le o, c4ange $4a$ onl9 a,,ec$ o,$*are An -a*At the ti$e of traffic inten!ity)Erlang* i! increa!ing in the e&change (*#ncrea!ing !u(!cri(er !er ice! c*when increa!ing !iEe of analy!i! ta(le! 0(E#:lain %i,,eren$ $9:e o, iAe al$era$ion in AXE An 3a*Dlo(al !iEe alteration e ent The!e e ent! will affect file! in $ore than one (loc". E&3Bu$(er of route! in the e&change! (*:ocal !iEe alteration e ent The!e e ent! will affect one (loc" in the e&change. E&3Bu$(er of de ice! in!ide one (loc" Dlo(al E ent! :ocal e ent! APT3777-6@@ APT3;77-=@@ APZ3H77-8@@ APZ3I77-@@@ 1(Co))an% $o increa e $4e ,ile in a iAe An -SAA##3SAE4 %-:0CK4 % B#4 9 B#)Bu$(er of indi idual!*---total nu$(er of record! after change !aaii3!ae4;6@%(loc"4et(l5%ni469 2(Co))an% $o %ecrea e $4e ,ile iAe

An -SAA2# =(Co))an% $o :rin$ n&);er o, in%i+i%&al c&rren$l9 %e,ine% An -SAAEP !aaep3!ae4all%(loc"4et(l59 3(Co))an% & e% $o e$ ac$i+e or :a i+e $4e a&$o)a$ic iAe al$era$ion An -SA0CS 6(W4a$ i $4e na)e o, $a;le ,or 9 $e) %e,ine% 5 An -SAACT#0BS 7(W4a$ i & e o, $a;le SAACTIONS 5 An -#n alar$ing !ituation! a li!t of SAE appear! who!e !iEe need! to (e increa!ed. 2-TSP3TA-4SAACT#0BS9

Anal9 i
'(T9:e o, Anal9 i An -'oute Analy!i! Charging Analy!i! --Bu$(er Analy!i! .(E#:lain general :rinci:le o, $ra,,ic anal9 i An -

Analy!i! Ta(le 5 E&ternal data - nu$(er re!ult 'C

Analy!i! Ta(le 6

re!ult #nternal data Su(!cri(er Category internal data route data

#nput! to analy!i! ta(le are a*e&ternal dataJ!uch a! --nu$(er digit! or A-nu$(er digit! (*internal dataJ!u(!cri(er category c*re!ult! fro$ other analy!i! ta(le i.e.'C

Ro&$e Anal9 i
'(E#:lain in$er *or@ing ;e$*een $4e ,&nc$ional ;loc@ RE!;loc@ regi $er " an% RA!Ro&$e anal9 i "

An - nu$(er 5 fro$ other (loc" 8 6 6 6 6 H -loc" 'E 'egi!ter! -loc" 'A ; 'oute Analy!i! ta(le

- nu$(er analy!i! ta(le

-loc" 2A a*The (-nu$(er fro$ another (loc" i! !ent to regi!ter for !torage (*The digit! are !ent to (loc" digit analy!i! ta(le 2A % for analy!i! which contain! nu$(er analy!i! ta(le. c* The output of (loc" 2A i! 'C which i! !ent to (loc" 'E for !toring d*The 'C i! !ent to (loc" 'A . The route analy!i! ta(le in 'A decide! route e*The identify of route i! !ent to 'E 0(Para)e$er o, ro&$e anal9 i $a;le An - a*'C)'outing ca!e* (*-')(ranching* c*'outing progra$JP0545 d*SP)Sending progra$*-#t indicate! when an outgoing de ice i! to (e !eiEed. 1(E#:lain %igi$ in SP An - SP4;;H ;---After reception of ;th digit 0AD de ice in the indicated route i! !eiEed ;---After reception of ;th digit % !eiEure !ignal i! !ent

H---Fir!t digit i! to (e tran!$itted i! the Hrd 2(U e o, ,ollo*ing co))an% ANRSI E ANRSE E ANRPI E ANR/I E ANRAI E ANRAR An - AB'S#J!pecifie! new 'C in B0P area AB'SEJ2elete! 'C fro$ 0P area AB'P#J#nitiate! procedure AB'PEJEnd! on procedure AB'Z#JClear! B0P AB'A#JActi ate! 'C AB'A'J2eacti ate! 'C =(E#:lain OP $a;le An - Ta(le at which actual analy!i! i! done 3(E#:lain NOP $a;le An - Ta(le which perfor$ing change! 6(W4a$ are %i,,eren$ )e$4o% ,or call c4arge 5 An 3a*Pul!e +etering)P+*JPul!e generated will (e !tepped (*Toll tic"eting)TT*---Total !tart and end ti$e of call i! u!ed.

B N&);er anal9 i $a;le

8( Co))an% $o %e,ine B n&);er An; i- ;F08C8=31.E%F1C'E;n$F1ERCF183EccF8ELF''G!BSNL B4&;ane *ar Lan%line" An; i-;F08C871'38E%F1C8E;n$F1ErcF.EccF8ELF''G!BSNL Mo;ile $4ro&g4 LC' $a#" An; i-;F08C88'.1'E%F2C8E;n$F'ERCF.ECCF8ELF'.C.0G!ISD Co%e $4ro&g4 LC' Ta#"

'(W4a$ are recei+e% ,ro) BCn&);er anal9 i $a;le An - 'C )'outing ca!e * & CC)charging ca!e* .(W4a$ i BCn&);er 5 An - -40rigin----------------- nu$(er 0(W4a$ i >HN 5 An -FJFir!t)analy!i! i! !tarted fro$ the fir!t digit in the origin* BJBe&t)analy!i! i! !tarted fro$ the ne&t digit* 1(W4a$ i L 5 An - :4@-56 )default alue i! @-5;* : i! nu$(er length of - nu$(er @---$ini$u$ length after that channel will !ieEe 56J+a&i$u$ length after that channel will not !eiEe 2(W4a$ i BNT!B n&);er $9:e" 5 An - $ap the #S>P indicator)nature of addre!!* Application infor$ation /T0B -BT48)national !ignificant nu$(er* =(W4a$ i D!%e $ina$ion $9:e" An - 24d5-d6 3(W4a$ i > 5 An -Fir!t digit u!e !tated origin F40' Fir!t digit !trat analy!i! in original origin Thi! indicate! that pre-analy!i! $u!t (e done. 6(W4a$ i M 5

An -+odification infor$ation +4a-( a----Bu$(er of digit! to re$o e (---2igit! to add 7(W4a$ i NAPI 5 An - Bu$(ering plan indicator '8( W4aB$ i TRD 5 An - Traffic de!tination code ''(Acce ;arring %a$a An - AB2SP9 T2C:JTrun" di!cri$ination cla!! 2

MTP!Me age Tran ,er Par$"

'(Di,,eren$ ignaling 9 $e) An 3a*Channel a!!ociated !ignaling)CAS* (*Co$$on channel !ignaling)CCS* .( E#:lain CAS An Tran!it E&change

Su( A E&-A

SignallingLL Speech LL E&--

Su( -

Signaling and !peech alway! ta"e the !a$e way. E&3 '6+FC #n each PC+ 5<TS i! u!ed to pro ide !ignaling capacity. .(E#:lain CCS An -

Tran!it E&change


Su( A E&-A Speech LL E&--

Su( -

Signaling and !peech alway! do not ta"e the !a$e way. 0ne !ignaling lin" can con ey the !ignaling $e!!age for $any c"t!. So$e PC+ lin"! ha e a channel dedicated for !ignaling which !er e! traffic channel on $any PC+ lin"!. 1(E#:lain general $r&c$&re o, C3 ignaling 9 $e)< An - Two part! T>P)Telephone >!er part* a*>P)u!er part* #>P)#S2B u!er part* (*+TP)+e!!age Tran!fer part* 2(E#:lain ,&nc$ion o, UP An - a*>p! are re!pon!i(le for writing and interpreting $e!!age! (*At the !et up of 0AD call % traffic proce!!ing function will order a >P to write a $e!!age to the e&change recei ing call Su( A E& A E&

E& EX Trafic Procee!ing

Su( -

Traffic proce!!ing




=(E#:lain ,&nc$ion o, MTP An -+TP! are u!ed to !end $e!!age! through the !ignaling networ" 3(E#:lain la9ere% $r&c$&re o, C3 ignaling 9 $e)< An :ayer 8---T>P & #>P )!oftware* :ayer H--- Signaling nAw function and !ignaling $e!!age handling)!oftware* :ayer 6--- Signaling lin" function )hardware & !oftware*

:ayer 5---Signaling data lin" i.e. S2: )hardware* +TP---layer 5% 6 % H 6(E#:lain la9er ' o, C3 ignaling 9 $e)< An 3#t i! a tran!$i!!ion eGuip$ent of <8"(p! channel. ,ardware u!edJETC % PC2)Pul!e code de ice digital* %Se$iper$anent connection through DS 7(E#:lain La9er . o, C3 ignaling 9 $e)< An -#t en!ure! that the !ignaling $e!!age! are deli ered o er !ignaling data lin". ,ardware u!ed---Signaling ter$inal)ST* fro$ 'PDH card '8(E#:lain La9er 0 o, C3 ignaling 9 $e)< An -a*#t i! u!ed to $a"e !ure that the $e!!age i! deli ered to the current >P (*,andle pro(le$! in !ignaling networ" E&3:in" failure & conge!tion ''(De,ine SP! ignaling :oin$" An 3Signaling lin"! ):S* of !ignaling nAw are called SP. SP! are !ource! and !in"! of !ignaling traffic. The!e are nAw node!. SP! are identified (y code!. '.(>&nc$ion o, ignaling lin@!SL" An -S: i! u!ed for connecting e&change!. S: con!i!t! of S2: and it! tran!fer control function. 'outing of S: (etween two SP! can differ '0(E#:lain SLC!Signaling lin@ co%e" An - All the S:! (etween two SP! are co$(ined in a S:C. '1(De,ine Signaling Tran ,er :oin$!STP"< An -C= $e!!age! Mu!t pa!!e! through STP.#t !witche! !ignaling $e!!age! fro$ one Bode to other. '2(De,ine OPC!Origina$ing :oin$ co%e" An -The !ignaling point where the $e!!age i! co$po!ed '=(De,ine DPC!%e $ina$ion :oin$ co%e" An -The !ignaling point where the $e!!age i! analy!ed. '3(Ho* $4e e#c4ange in $4e ignaling nH* i %e,ine% 5 An X------------Y X-BA1 indicator 7-#nternational !ignaling nAw 6 or H /national !ignaling nAw Y-SPC)!ignaling point code* '6(E#:lain C3 )e age $r&c$&re An - #n C= !ignaling !y!te$ % the !ignaling infor$ation i! !ent a! data pac"et!. The!e pac"et! are called S>)!ignaling unit*.+TP tran!port! $e!!age in S> The $o!t !ignaling unit i! called +S>)+e!!age !ignal unit* +S>3--+TP tran!fer! u!er $e!!age!
F CK SIF SIO LI Error correction F


User info



F-Flag)Signal unit! !eparate fro$ one another (y !tart & end flag* CK-Chec" !u$)u!ed for chec"ing correct tran!ferring of !ignal unit without error* . S#0)!er ice infor$ation octet*3-contain! !er ice indicator & nAw indicator. S#F-Signaling infor$ation field)contain! actual u!er $e!!age! & addre!!* :#-:ength indicator C#C-Circuit identification code '7(E#:lain 4ar%*are o, C3 ignaling in AXE An 3ST)Signaling ter$inal * in 'PDH card .8(Co))an% $o %e,ine o*n SP An - C=0P#301BSP4 9 C=PBC301BSP4 % SP#24 9 .'(Co))an% $o %e,ine SP o, o$4er e#c4ange An -C=SP#3SP4 9 C=PBC3 SP4 % SP#24 9 ..( De,ine LS!lin@ e$" An - #t i! a !ignaling path (etween two e&change!% containing one or $ore Signaling lin"!. .0(Co))an% ,or %e,ining lin@ e$ An -C=:2#3:S46-I55;9 .1(Ho* $o %e,ine &:er+i ion %a$a o, lin@ e$5 An - C=S>C3:S4 % :.A46% AC:4A59 :.A-+ini$u$ nu$(er of a aila(le !ignaling lin"! in the :S .2(Ho* $o %e,ine %e $ina$ion in $4e ignaling nH* 5 An - C='S#32EST46-I55;%:S46-I55;% P'#0459 Super i!ion of de!tinationJ C='>C32EST46-I55;%AC:4A59 .=(Ho* $o $ie ignaling lin@ $o %e,ine% LS 5 An - C=S:# .3(De,ine ignaling ro&$e An - The route defined for the !ignaling (etween an originating point & a de!tination point i! called !ignaling route. The !ignaling traffic (etween two SP! can (e di!tri(uted o er !e eral !ignaling route!.

SCCP!Signaling connec$ion con$rol :ar$"

'(W4a$ are %i,,eren$ ,&nc$ional ele)en$ o, co))on c4annel ignaling 9 $e) 5 An -a*+TP T>P (*>P #S>P

c*SCCP .(W4a$ are ,&nc$ion o, SCCP er+ice 5 An -Co$$unication with following a*data(a!e (*,:' c*.:' d*:ocation updating 0(De,ine NSP!nH* er+ice :ar$" An -Co$(ination of +TP & SCCP i! called BSP. 1(W4a$ are %i,,eren$ er+ice &::or$e% ;9 SCCP 5 An - a*connection oriented)C0* (*Connection le!!)C:* 2(E#:lain CO An - a*Tran!fer! $any or long !ignaling $e!!age! (etween two node! (*e!ta(li!h a logical connection =(E#:lain CL An 3a*tran!fer! !hort $e!!age! (*routing infor$ation 3(De,ine BSSAP!Ba e $a$ion 9 $e) a::lica$ion :ar$" An - Protocol (etween +SCA.:' and -SC 6(De,ine MAP!Mo;ile a::lica$ion :ar$" An 3Co$$unication (etween +SCA.:' % ,:' & D+SC 7(Diagra) o, SCCP An -SSAP #BAP 'ABAP +A P TCA P #S>P



+TP '8(E#:lain SCCP a%%re ing ,or SCCP ro&$ing An SCCP Calling addre!! DT)glo(al title* called addre!! SSB)SCCP !u(!y!te$

Bu$(er* A# )addre!! infor$ation* BA )nature of addre!!* HJnational 8Jinternational

BP )nu$(ering plan* 5-#S2BAtelephony nu$(ering plan E&3+S#S2B % DT addre!! =-#S2B A$o(ile nu$(ering plan E&3#+S# % +DT):ocation updating*

TT )Tran!lation type*

TT3#t direct! the $e!!age to the appropriate DT tran!lation. 7-#T>-T !ignaling @-ABS# !ignaling ''(De,ine SSN An 3The ter$inating node! e&a$ine! the SSB to identify the concerned o er)node* ,:'----------< .:'----------= +SC----------I E#'-----------@ A>C---------57 SC------------56 -SC----------6;8 #S>P-----------H 56NE&plain analogy (etween call! & C= $e!!age!)+TP % SCCP* An!3 a*call A Bo 'C 'oute 2e ice! ETC - Bo (*C= $e!!age! Ter$inating

5.+TP3 0wn SP SP







Calling add




To +TP

Called add Ter$inating '.(Co))an% ,or SCCP calling a%%$re An -C=BP#3SP46-@II79 C=BS#3SP46-@II7%SSB4<&=&I9 '0(Co))an% ,or calling a%%re o, MSCHILR An -+DCAC3#BT4 % BAT4 9 '1(co))an% ,or calling a%%re o, HLR An -,DCAC3#BT4 %BAT4 9 '2(W4en SSN i e$ $o ;e allo*e% 5 An -1hen !ignaling traffic i! per$itted in a !u(!y!te$ ia SCCP. '3(E#:lain e#a):le o, ?T $ran la$ion An A A -SC ,:'




+SC - <55H DT'C46

-SC SSB46;8


-SC -

,:' -

a. D+SC recei e! call for ,:' (. D+SC reGue!t! routing infor$ation fro$ ,:' -% !ending an +AP $e!!age! ia SCCP & +TP nAw c.The fir!t digit of +S#S2B)Bp45%BA48* are u!ed a! called addre!!. d.D+SC $u!t tran!fer the $e!!age 'e!ult of tran!lation i! DT'C. '6(Co))an% ,or ?T ro&$ing An C=DC#3DT'C45%PSP46-<55H%PTE'+%SSP46-<7;7%S#BTE'9 C=DC#3DT'C46%PSP46-<7;7%PTE'+%SSP46-<55H%S#BTE'9 '7(De,ine ?TRC An -The DT routing ca!e i! a routing !pecification u!ed to route SCCP +e!!age!

PSP---Pri$ary SP SSP---Secondary SP .8(T9:e o, ignal &ni$ An - H type! +S> :SS>)lin" !tatu! !ignal unit!*-infor$ation for operating of S: F#S>)Fill in !ignal unit!*-$aintain ac"nowledge$ent cycle

OTHER JUESTION '(De,ine ASR5 An -ASR i an *er $o eiA&re ra$io< ASRFN&);er o, B N&);er an *ere%HTo$al no< o, call a$$e):$< .(W4a$ ac$ion $o ;e $a@en *4en ASR i lo* in a :ar$ic&lar ro&$e5 An -W4en )a#i)&) n&);er o, call are ,aile% a,$er eiAing c4annel $4en ASR i lo*< >or o&$going ASR a,$er )ini)&) %igi$ i en$ $o o$4er o:era$or c4annel generall9 eiAe%<So i$ i reB&ire% $o ,i# leng$4 o, %igi$ $o ;e ''<Beca& e a,$er &; cri;er %ialing '' %igi$ c4annel 4o&l% eiAe<Al o ,or :re:ai% &; cri;er o, calle% :ar$9 ASR i lo*<Al o i, *e 4a+e %e,ine% *rong co%e ,or %e $ina$ion ASR al o lo*<I$ can ;e $race% in ISUP $race< >or inco)ing ASR *e can $al@ $o o$4er o:era$or< 0(*4a$ i erlang<
Ans: An Erlang is a unit of traffic measurement. In practice, it is used to represent one hour of traffic, although strictly speaking, Erlangs are dimensionless 4>Define Busy Hour Traffic B.H.T.! Ans"Busy Hour Traffic in Erlangs! is the num#er of hours of call traffic there are during the #usiest hour of operation of a telephone system. This figure represents the $uantity of traffic e%pressed in a unit called Erlangs. &or the purposes of these calculations, ' Erlang can #e considered e$ui(alent to ' hour of calls.

2(*4a$ i ' Erlang5 An -I, one CKT i ;& 9 ,or one 4o&r<
)>Erlang calculation &or e%ample, if you kno* from your call logger that +,- calls are made on a trunk group, and the a(erage call duration is '.- seconds, then the #usy hour traffic *ill #e" BHT / A(erage call duration s! 0 1alls per hour 2 +)-BHT / '.- 0 +,- 2 +)-BHT / '3., Erlangs

6> Blocking Blocking is the failure of calls due to an insufficient num#er of lines #eing a(aila#le. E.g. -.-4 mean 4 calls #locked per '-- calls attempted.

The #locking figure descri#es the calls *hich cannot #e completed #ecause insufficient lines ha(e #een pro(ided. A figure of -.-' means that '5 of calls *ould #e #locked6 this is a normal figure to use in traffic engineering. &or some applications, -.-+ +5! #locking is used.

?enerall9 *e are & ing ?OS!gra%e o, er+ice " a .K<I$ i ;loc@ing +al&e< 3<%e,ine line
Lines is the num#er of lines in a trunk group ..7hat *ill do if utili8ation in a route is high9 Ans" 7e ha(e to increase E's :.*hat *ill do if congestion occur in a route9 Ans"Increase E's.