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Chapter 1 Vocabulary Element P.2 - Substance that can't be broken down, or converted, to simpler subst. by ordinary chemical means.

(1)Atom P.2 - Smallest particle of element that retains properties of element. (2)Molecule P.2 - Particle composed of one/more atoms held together by chem. bonds; smallest particle of compound that displays all properties of that compound. Organism P.2 - individual living thing. Organic molecule P.2 - molecule that contains both carbon + hydrogen (3)Cell P.2 - Smallest unit of life; consists of outer membrane that encloses watery medium containing organic molecules, including genetic material composed of DNA. (4)Tissue P.2 - Group similar cells that perform specific function. (5)Organ P.2 - Structure composed of several tissue types that form functional unit(liver,kidney,skin). (6)Organ System P.2 - Two/more organs working together in execution of specific bodily function(digestive system). -7Multicellular Organism(Fungi,Plantae,Animalia) (8)Population P.2 - Members of one species inhabiting same area. (9)Species P.2 - Very similar, potentially interbreeding organisms. Basic unit taxonomic classification, consisting of population/group populations that evolves independently. (10)Community P.2 - Two/more populations diff. species living/interacting in the same area (11)Ecosystem P.2 - Community together with its nonliving surroundings. (12)Biosphere P.2 - Part of Earth inhabited by living organisms; includes both living/nonliving components. Natural Causality P.3 - Scientific principle that natural events occur as result of preceding natural causes. Scientific Method(SM) P.3 - Rigorous procedure for making observations of specific phenomena and searching for the order underlying those phenomena. Observation P.3 - In SM, recognition and statement about phenomenon, usually leading to formulation of question. Question P.4 - In SM, statement that identifies aspect of observation to be explained. Hypothesis P.4 - In SM, supposition based on observations that's offered as explanation and used as basis for further observations/experiments. Prediction P.4 - In SM, statement describing expected observation/expected outcome of experiment, assuming hypothesis is true. Experiments P.4 - In SM, use of carefully controlled observations/manipulations to test predictions generated by hypothesis. Conclusion P.4 - In SM, decision about validity of hypothesis, made on basis of experiment/observations. Variable P.4 - Factor in scientific experiment that's deliberately manipulated to test hypothesis. Controls P.4 - Portion of experiment which all possible variables held constant/not altered. Scientific Theory P.8 - General explanation of natural phenomena developed through extensive and reproducible observations; more general and reliable than hypothesis. Inductive Reasoning P.9 - Process of creating generalization based on many specific observations that support generalization, coupled with absence of observations that contradict it. Deductive Reasoning p.9 - Process of generating hypotheses about results of specific experiment or nature of specific observation. Evolution P.9 - Descent of modern organisms, with modification, from preexisting life-forms; Theory that all organisms related by common ancestry and have changed over time; Any change in genetic makeup(proportions of different genotypes) in a population from one generation to the next. Scientific Theory of Evolution P.9 - Theory that modern org. descended, w/mod, from preexisting lifeforms

Natural Selection P.9 - Unequal survival/reproduction of organisms w/different phenotypes, caused by environmental forces. Refers specifically to cases in which differing phenotypes are heritable(caused by genetic differences, resulting in better adapted phenotypes becoming more common in the population.