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VIETSOVPETRO JOINT VENTURE

General Engineering Specification


General Instrument Design

Document No. Rev.:

IN-ES-001 0

VIETSOVPETRO JOINT VENTURE GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION GENERAL INSTRUMENT DESIGN

CONTENTS
APPENDIX LIST................................................................................................................................III 1. INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 General ...............................................................................................................................1 Definition of Terms..............................................................................................................1 Order of Precedence ..........................................................................................................2 Abbreviations ......................................................................................................................2

2. REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................3 2.1 2.2 VSP Specifications..............................................................................................................3 CODES and STANDARDS.................................................................................................3

3. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.......................................................................................................8 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 Units of Measurement.........................................................................................................8 Equipment Use in Hazardous Areas...................................................................................8 Protection............................................................................................................................9 Transmitters ........................................................................................................................9 Connections ........................................................................................................................9 Tagging Systems ..............................................................................................................10 Data Sheets ......................................................................................................................11 Data Plates/Nameplates/Labelling....................................................................................11 Material Requirements......................................................................................................11 Electrical and Instrument Air Supplies .........................................................................13 Instrument Signal Conventions ....................................................................................14 Vessels .........................................................................................................................14 Access and Maintenance .............................................................................................15

4. FIELD INSTRUMENTATION DESIGN INSTALLATION AND SELECTION REQUIREMENTS 16 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Pressure and Differential Pressure Instruments...............................................................16 Temperature Instruments .................................................................................................18 Level Instruments..............................................................................................................21 Flow Instruments...............................................................................................................23 Control Valves...................................................................................................................30

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4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14

Regulators.........................................................................................................................38 Actuated Isolation Valves .................................................................................................38 Relief Valves .....................................................................................................................40 Solenoid Valves ................................................................................................................42 Micro-Switches .............................................................................................................43 Analysers......................................................................................................................43 Measurement/Monitors.................................................................................................44 Pig Detector..................................................................................................................45 Fusible Plugs Requirements ........................................................................................45

5. INSTRUMENT CABLES AND ANCILLARIES ............................................................................46 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Instrument Cables.............................................................................................................46 Cable Numbering ..............................................................................................................46 Instrument Cable Glands ..................................................................................................47 Cable/Trays/Ladders ........................................................................................................47 Earthing System (Grounding) ...........................................................................................47 Cable Transits...................................................................................................................47 Junction Boxes..................................................................................................................48

Appendix List
APPENDIX A INSTRUMENT TAGGING SYSTEM APPENDIX B FIRE AND GAS TAGGING SYSTEM APPENDIX C TABLE OF CONTROL VALVES CHARACTERISTICS

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1. 1.1

INTRODUCTION General

This Specification defines the minimum requirements for the General Design and Engineering of Instrumentation for the development of offshore gas, condensate and oil production facilities in the Vietnam sea. The Contractor shall ensure that all equipment and services supplied meet the requirements of this specification, and the codes, standards and specifications nominated herein, whether the equipment or services are supplied by the Contractor directly or by a Vendor or sub contractor. This specification shall not be interpreted as eliminating consideration of the manufacturers standard shop practices which may receive approval if found to be equivalent, or superior, to the following specified requirements. This Specification is to be used in conjunction with the individual data sheets and/or drawings as referenced in the relevant project documents. All deviations from this Specification or the documents referred to herein shall be stated in writing. In the absence of such a statement, it will be assumed that the requirements of the specification are followed without exception. Any deficiencies in this respect that are identified during or subsequent to fabrication shall be rectified at the Vendors cost.

1.2

Definition of Terms

The following terms as used in this specification assume the meanings given below: Company Contractor Vietsovpetro Joint Venture (VSP). The company or consortium which is awarded any or all of the engineering, procurement, construction for the RC3RC1 project. The party which places the order or signs the contract. This may be The Company or The Contractor at all times or The Company followed by The Contractor if the purchase order is novated. The Company on which the purchase order or contract for supply of the goods or services is placed The order issued by the Purchaser consisting of the Purchase Order including Terms and Conditions and attachments thereto including but not limited to Data Sheets and Drawings, Specifications including referenced documentation therein, and all other documents and attachments

Purchaser

Vendor

Purchase Order

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1.3

Order of Precedence

The following order of priority shall apply to the various documents, codes and standards called up with the Enquiry or Purchase Order: Enquiry/Purchase Order Data Sheets and Drawings This Specification Other Project Specifications International Codes and Standards Other Related Documents

1.4
CPP ESD F&G HMI IFC LCD LED PCS P&ID PLC PSD UCP

Abbreviations
Central Process Platform Emergency Shutdown System Fire and Gas System Human Machine Interface Issued For Construction Liquid Crystal Diode Light Emitting Diode Process Control System Piping and Instrument Diagrams Programmable Logic Controller Process Shutdown Unit Control Panel

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2.

REFERENCES

The design and engineering shall be in accordance with all applicable sections of the latest editions of the following Codes and Standards (and their current amendment).

2.1

VSP Specifications

G-ES-002 G-ES-004 G-ES-005 G-ES-011

Painting and Protective Coating General Requirements for Vendor Documentation Preparation for Shipment Environmental Design Conditions In The Vietnam sea

IN-ES-003 IN-ES-008 IN-PH-002 EL-ES-001 EL-ES-011 EL-ES-012 PI-ES-001 PI-ES-002 PI-ES-003

Instrument Installation, and Testing Control Panels, Cabinets and Racks for Offshore Platforms Instrument Earthing Philosophy Electrical Design Specification Electrical and Instrument Cable Specification Electrical Installation, Testing and Commissioning Specification Piping Design and Materials Specification Piping Classes, Materials and Valves Piping Fabrication, Installation & Testing Specification

SF-ES-001

Fire And Safety Philosophy

2.2

CODES and STANDARDS

The following standards as a minimum shall apply to the extent referenced in the Specification:

2.2.1 American Petroleum Institute (API)


RP 14C Recommended Practice for Analysis, Design, Installation and Testing of Basic Surface Safety Systems on Offshore Production Platforms Manual on Installation Of Refinery, Instruments And Control Systems.

RP 550

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RP 520

Sizing, Selection & Installation Of Pressure Relieving Devices In Refineries Parts 1 & 2. Guide For Pressure Relieving and Depressuring Systems Flanged Steel Safety Relief Valves Seat Tightness of Pressure Relief Valves Measurement of Petroleum Hydrocarbons By Positive Displacement Meters. Combustible Gas Detector Systems. Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Tank Calibration Tank Gauging Meter Proving Systems Metering Metering Assemblies Temperature Determination Sampling Density Determination Physical Properties Data Calculation of Petroleum Quantities Natural Gas Fluids Measurement Concentric, Square - Edged Orifice Meters General Equations and Uncertainty Guidelines Compressibility Factor of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases Measurement of Petroleum By Weight Marine Measurement Flow Measurement Using Electronic Metering Systems Section 1 Electronic Flow Measurement Measurement Control Charts and Statistical Methods For Petroleum Metering System

RP 521 RP 526 RP 527 RP 1101 RP 2031 RP 2530 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 14 Section 3 Part 1 Chapter 14.2

Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 21

RP 2534

2.2.2 American National Standard Institute Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


B16.34 Steel Valves, Flanged And Butt Welding Ends

(ANSI)/American

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B46.1 B16.5 B31.3 B31.4 B31.8 MFC 2M MFC 3M MFC 5M

Surface Texture Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Steel Nickel Alloy and Other Special Alloy Process Piping Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems Measurement Uncertainty for Fluid Flow in Closed Conduits. Differential Producers Used for The Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes. Measurement of Liquid Flow in Closed Conduits Using Transit Time Ultrasonic Flowmeters. Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes Using Vortex Flowmeters. Measurement of Fluid Flow by Means of Coriolis Mass Flowmeters Measurement of Fluid Flow Using Small Bore Orifice Meters. Standard Method for Establishing Installation Effects on Flowmeters. Measurement of Fluid Flow in Closed Conduits by Means of Electromagnetic Flowmeters. Measurement of Fluid flow in Closed Conduits Using Multipoint Averaging Pitot Primary Meters. Measurement Uncertainty. Pipe Threads Thermowells Restriction Orifices

MFC 6M MFC 11M MFC 14M MFFCC SC15 MFC 16M

MFC SC17

PTC 19.1 ASME B1.20.1 ASME PTC.19.3

ASME 82-WA/PVP-8

2.2.3 American Gas Association (AGA)


AGA 3 & 8 included in API Manual of petroleum measurement standards above.

2.2.4 International Standard Organisation (ISO)


2714 Liquid Hydrocarbons-Volumetric Measurement by Displacement Meter Systems Other Than Dispensary Pumps. Petroleum Products Liquid Hydrocarbons. Manual Sampling. Process Measurements Control Functions Instrumentation Representations. Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products Laboratory Determination of Density or Relative Density - Hydrometer method. Measurement of Fluid Flow By Means of Orifice Plates Nozzles And Venturi Tubes.

3170 3511 3675

5167

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6979 10418

Natural Gas - Calculation of Calorific Value, Density and Relative Density. Recommended Practice For Analysis, Design, Installation and Testing of Basic Surface Safety Systems on Offshore Production Platforms.

2.2.5 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)


60331 60332 60529 60534 60584 60605 60654 60751 60801 Fire Resistant Cabling and Wiring Flame Retardant Cabling and Wiring Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures Control Valves Thermocouples Equipment Reliability Testing Operating Conditions for Industrial Process Measurement and Control Equipment Industrial Platinum Resistance Thermometer Sensors Electromagnetic Compatibility for Industrial-Process Measurement and Control Equipment Software Safety ( WG9 ) & Functional Safety-Generic Aspects (WG 10) Functional Safety of Safety-Related Systems Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres Electrical Relays,

TC 65 61508 60079 600255

2.2.6 Scientific Apparatus Makers Association (SAMA)


PMC33.1C Radio Frequencies Sensitivity Test

2.2.7 Electronic Industries Association (EIA)


RS 232 & RS 485 Serial Interface Standard

2.2.8 Instrument Society of America (ISA)


ISA S5.1 ISA S5.2 ISA S5.3 Instrumentation Symbols and Identification Binary logic Diagrams for Process Operations Symbols for Distributed Control/Shared Display Instrumentation, Logic and Computer Symbols Instrument Loop Diagrams Process Instrumentation Terminology Environmental Conditions

ISA S5.4 ISA S51.1 ISA S71.04

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ISA S75.01 ISA S75.02 ISA S75.03 ISA S75.04

Control Valve Sizing Equations Control Valve Procedure Capacity Test Uniform Face to Face Dimensions for Flanged Globe Style Control Valve Bodies Face to Face Dimensions of Flangless Control Valves

2.2.9 Gas Publication Association (GPA)


GPA - 2261- 89 Publication for Analysis for Natural Gas and Similar Gaseous Mixtures by Gas Chromatography. Publication For Calculation Of Gross Heating Value, Relative Density and Compressibility Factor for Natural Gas Mixtures from Compositional Analysis.

GPA - 2172 - 86

2.2.10

Military Standard (MIL-STD)


Wire Wrap Connections. Thermipoint Wiring

MIL-STD-1130

MIL-STD-1664(EC)

2.2.11
PCCPR001 PCIPR000 PCIDP000

Process Industry Practices


Pressure Management Criteria Pressure Installation Details Differential Pressure Installation Details

2.2.12

National Association of Corrosion Engineers


Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic in Oil Field Equipment

NACE MR0175

2.2.13

Det Norske Veritas ( DNV)


Submarine Piping Systems

OS F101.2000

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3. 3.1

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Units of Measurement

The units of measurement used in the design shall be as follows: Physical Measurements of length, height etc. Electrical Instrument Calculations Instrument Displays MSC reports: Metric SI Units Metric Metric Metric

All measuring and indicating instruments shall cover the full operating range unless approved otherwise by the Company. Units to be used are detailed in G-ES-004 General Requirements for Vendor Documentation.

3.2

Equipment Use in Hazardous Areas

Electrical Certification of all equipment and components shall in all cases match the Hazardous Area Classification requirements of the platform. In general all outdoor equipment and components shall as a minimum be classified suitable for Zone 2, Gas Group IIA, T3 Temperature Class. In pressurised buildings on any gas production or processing platform where there is a confirmed high level of gas, the minimum classification shall be Zone 1, Gas Group IIA, T3 temperature class. For gas turbine or similar acoustic enclosures the area inside the enclosure shall be classified as Zone 1, Gas Group IIA, T3 temperature class when the ventilation is not fully operational. When the ventilation is fully operational then the area shall be classified as Zone 2 Gas Group IIA T3 Temperature Class. The enclosure ventilation system within the enclosure or associated ductwork shall be rated and suitable for Zone 1, Gas Group 11A, T3 temperature. For hazardous areas intrinsically safe Ex (i)a equipment shall be specified when no practical or alternative exists. All hazardous area equipment shall be indexed against area classification, certification, and required maintenance to maintain certification validity. Copies of all hazardous area certificates or certificates of conformity shall be provided for all electrical/electronic hazardous area equipment, in the English language.

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3.3

Protection

All outdoor equipment and components protection shall comply with or IP56 as per IEC 60529. Instrumentation shall have RFI/EMI immunity and satisfy the requirements of IEC 60801. All instruments shall be fully rated to system design pressure and shall be suitable for use for the piping standard at pressures up to PSV settings plus accumulation for limited durations. Lens and windows on instrumentation shall be heavy duty, impact resistant, shatterproof and wherever possible UV immune. Only equipment with a proven track record of at least two years with relevant clients recommendations shall be used. No prototype equipment may be offered.

3.4

Transmitters

The use of transmitters shall be maximised as much as practical, both for process control and monitoring applications and shutdown service. Switch type instruments shall only be utilised on utility systems and non-safety critical or non safety related loops/circuits. All transmitters shall be smart electronic transmitters with 2-wire Hart protocol dual mode configuration with 4-20 mA outputs and digital signal. Transmitters shall have adjustable zero and span. For shutdown service transmitters, both high and low shutdown signals, where required, will generally be derived from single transmitter, unless the loop criticality rating requires different configurations. Where process control or monitoring transmitters are provided, and alarms are required, these alarms will generally be derived from the transmitter signal. All transmitters shall be certified for Zone 1,Gas group IIA, T3 temperature. The preferred method of coating for the electronics housing is double-dip epoxy coating suitable for marine offshore application. Housing material of 316 stainless is also acceptable. Under no circumstances shall polyurethane coating be specified.

3.5

Connections

Instrument tubing connections and thickness requirements shall be in accordance with Instrument Installation and Testing Specification Document No. IN-ES-003. For shutdown service separate instruments and connections shall be provided for process control/monitoring and shutdown. All process connections shall be flanged to ASME 16.5 standard and pneumatic connections for process shall be screwed metric and standardised throughout the plant. Seal welding of threaded process connections is not acceptable, The minimum electrical/instruments cable entry shall be M20 metric and shall be standardised as far as practical. All level instrument connections on hydrocarbon liquids services shall be roddable.

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3.6

Tagging Systems

3.6.1 Instrument Tagging System


The Instrument Tagging System structure (Appendix A) shall begin with a number prefix designating the platform or area followed by the instrument alphabetic designation as per ISA S5.1 standard, followed by a numerical code the same as the equipment number ( 4 digits) it is associated with. Typically equipment numbers increment in multiples of five or ten. Where this applies, like instruments will be sequential. For example a vessel number PPV-1010 on platform CPP: CPP-PT-1010 CPP-PI-1010 CPP-LT-1010 CPP-LT-1011 CPP-LG-1010 If the equipment numbering adopted is sequential an alphabetic suffix will distinguish same type of devices connected to the equipment. As an example the tag for two Pressure Transmitters connected to equipment MBF-5200 (where the next equipment number is MBF-5201) on Platform CPP would be: CPP-PT-5200 A CPP-PT-5200 B Equipment numbering shall be unique per common system and per train system. Train systems shall be allocated adjacent numbers. Parallel compressor trains shall also be allocated adjacent system numbers. For wellhead instruments on a given platform a common system number shall be used and a wellslot identifier suffix added to make numbers unique. No attempt shall be made to use actual well numbers, as these are unknown until wells are actually drilled. Mechanical equipment numbers shall be staggered in a manner, which permits the instrument tag numbers to follow the mechanical equipment numbers. For turbine driven machinery packages the Vendors tag numbering system with equipment prefixes to make numbers unique may be used within his package boundary subject to the Company approval.

3.6.2 Fire and Gas Tagging System


The Fire and Gas Tagging System structure shall begin with a number prefix designating the platform (Refer Appendix B) followed by the alphabetic designator identifying the field device functionality, followed by a numbered code giving the fire or gas zone number (2 digits) and a unique sequential number (2 digits).

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3.7

Data Sheets

All data sheets shall adhere to the ISA Form S-20.XX (metric) and its enhanced version and shall be standardised as far as practical.

3.8

Data Plates/Nameplates/Labelling

All instrumentation shall be fitted with a 316L stainless steel or equal data plate. For smart instruments the tag shall be attached with SS wire (not permanently attached) Engraved nameplates shall be required for the identification of each tagged instrument with the nameplate installed adjacent to the instrument giving the tag number and a brief description of service. Such nameplates shall be traffolyte except where permission is given by the Company for the use of an alternative eg, silk screen lettering, etc. Traffolyte nameplates shall normally be white/black/white but other colours e.g., grey/black/grey may be selected at the discretion of the Company. Manual shutdown/alarm switches shall have red/white/red traffolyte labels in both English and Vietnam Nameplates/labels shall be affixed by the use of black plastic pop rivets or self-tapping 316 stainless steel screws. Where such fastenings are impractical then adhesive fixing may be used subject to the Company approval. All display indications and operations shall be self-evident either inherently or by the fitment of labels to the satisfaction of the Company.

3.9

Material Requirements

3.9.1 Wetted Materials


All wetted part materials shall as a minimum be: 316L stainless steel with minimum of 2.5% molybdenum content on all process and utility services but limited to a maximum temperature of 60C (if externally exposed). Monel, shall also be utilised for seawater service. Hastelloy C or Inconel for all other services/applications. Materials for all wetted parts of in-line instruments shall be in accordance with the requirements of Piping Design and Materials Specification.

3.9.2 Stainless Steel Grades


The minimum grade of stainless steel shall be 316L. All stainless steel material shall be cleaned on completion of the work and sprayed with clear polyurethane lacquer protective coating.

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3.9.3 Material of External Moving Parts


All external moving parts shall be 316L stainless steel as a minimum unless approved by the Company All moving parts in hazardous areas shall not create sparks of sufficient energy to ignite a gas/condensate cloud.

3.9.4 Chloride Related Corrosion


Particular attention shall be paid to the salt content of the fluid streams, the atmospheric conditions and the related operating temperatures to assure that chloride stress cracking, crevice crack corrosion, pitting, and the like does not occur. Material shall meet the requirements of NACE MR0175 Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Material of Oil Field Equipment.

3.9.5 Galvanic Corrosion


Galvanic isolation shall be provided where dissimilar metals create galvanic corrosion.

3.9.6 Corrosion Resistant Material


All materials shall be externally corrosion resistant by choice of inherent materials or by the application of a coating system suitable for an offshore marine environment. The use of cast iron or galvanised materials shall require the Company approval. All aluminium used outside of the air-conditioned areas shall be virtually Copper free and shall be free of metals such as Magnesium, which may cause a spark.

3.9.7 Elastomers
Selection of suitable elastomers shall depend on process/service conditions, service application, chemical composition of fluid, etc. Materials shall be selected to minimise explosive de-compression occurring within seals, etc.

3.9.8 Nuts, Bolts, Washers and Screws


These shall be 316 stainless steel.

3.9.9 Painting
All carbon steel and alloy steel surfaces shall be painted in accordance with the Project Specification for Painting and Protective Coating document number G-ES-002. Manufacturers standard painting system for a tropical marine environment, which is compatible, and with equal quality is generally acceptable and shall be detailed with bid for approval. Where applicable the manufacturers supply shall include a paint repair kit.

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3.10 Electrical and Instrument Air Supplies


3.10.1 Electrical Supplies for Instrumentation

The power supply available from the main platform will be 230V AC 50-Hz UPS and non-UPS single phase (Earthed Neutral Point). Whilst the UPS supply has its Voltage and frequency output levels controlled, the system can revert back to the normal uncontrolled 230 Volts / 50 Hz frequency supply via the static switching facilities during periods of either electrical malfunction or up-set. In this case the voltage and frequency ripple variations for the normal non-UPS supply will be as follows: 230V AC UPS: 50 Hz Voltage variation +/- 7.5% Frequency variation +/- 5%

Control Voltage for all instrumentation shall be regulated 24 V DC obtained from Vendor supplied AC/DC rectifier units. The negative shall be grounded.

3.10.2

Instrument Air Supplies

For skids, the Vendor shall provide an instrument air header for supplies to individual users will be provided. The package Vendor shall supply a bulkhead connection in accordance with Table 1 for his supply distribution. This supply distribution should preferably be in the form of a multiple valved manifold. If a multiple valve manifold is not used a sub header shall be used via stainless steel tube and compression fittings, terminating at ball valve for every consumer. Supplies to individual consumers shall be via stainless steel tube. Each instrument requiring an air supply shall be provided with an individual air filter regulator. The location and elevation of the air supply connection point is to be dimensioned from an easily recognisable datum on the package. Instrument Air headers shall not be less than the following sizes. Table 1 No. of Users Up to Five (5) Users Up to Twenty (20) Users Header Diameter inch Nominal Size 1 inch Nominal size

All headers shall be fitted with a valve at low drain points. The compression air supply available shall be in accordance with the Utilities Data Sheet. The standard Instrument air supply shall be 8 Barg. Instrument Gas, if available, can also be used subject to Company approval. Selection of components shall be suitable for this service, for example stainless steel pneumatic bellows not brass.

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3.11 Instrument Signal Conventions


The following conventions shall be used for instrumentation signals: Analogue Hart protocol dual mode configuration 4-20mA and digital signal operating at 24 VDC nominal and two wire filed circuit Fire and gas detectors 0-20mA at nominal 24 VDC, two wire circuit for fire & 4-20mA, three wire circuit for gas detectors (preferred) Solenoid valves 24 VDC Alarm signals Software alarms derived from analogue signal or SPDT volt free (dry) contacts rated at 28 VDC, 2A inductive minimum The following conventions shall be used for operational modes: Trip initiation Software derived trip point from analogue signal. When switch is initiating, device contacts shall be designed fail-safe. The trip point shall reside in the PLC coding and not in the PCS or HMI code. Alarm initiation Software derived trip point from analogue signal. When switch is initiating, device contacts shall be designed fail-safe. Fire and gas system solenoid valves Extinguishant release: normally de-energised, energised to operate. Other services: normally energised, de-energised to operate (fail-safe) ESD and instrument systems solenoid valves Normally energised, de-energise to trip (fail-safe) Status indication Closes to indicate running, open to indicate stop. Contacts open to indicate local, close to indicate remote. Contacts open to indicate tripped. Motor controls Contacts open for shutdown. Contacts normally open, closed for nominally 2.5 seconds for start and return open. Contacts normally close, open for nominally 2.5 seconds for stop and return close.

3.12 Vessels
Pressure or temperature instrument connections shall typically be via a vessel nozzle. For pressure instruments, Piping will provide an isolation valve. Flanged thermowells will be provided for the temperature instruments. Direct mounting on vessels when required, shall be agreed with the Company. To reduce stagnant process fluids (especially in varying SG services) level instruments including level gauges shall generally be direct mounted via adequate process isolations. Shutdown service level transmitters shall be mounted directly on vessel without use of standpipes. For shutdown service level transmitters both high and low shutdown signals, where required, will be derived from single transmitter. Process control and monitoring transmitter range and level gauge length shall always exceed the shutdown levels so operator can monitor the vessel levels.

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3.13 Access and Maintenance


All instruments shall be installed such that sufficient access for monitoring and maintenance is available. Refer Instrument Installation and Testing Specification IN-ES-003.

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4.

FIELD INSTRUMENTATION DESIGN AND SELECTION REQUIREMENTS

INSTALLATION

4.1

Pressure and Differential Pressure Instruments

All instruments and accessories shall meet the relevant requirements of the environment. Locally nominated instruments and accessories shall meet the relevant electrical area classification requirements. All pressure instrument installations shall be provided with vent/drain valves. Pressure instruments shall have direct-reading SI unit, indicating scales. Ranges for pressure indicating or recording and locally mounted gauges, shall be approximately double the expected operating range of the service in which the instrument is installed. Over-range protection shall be provided for all instruments and shall be at least 1.3 times the upper limit of the specified range. Instruments in a vacuum service shall have an under-range protection for full vacuum. Pressure element shall meet the material requirements of the process medium. The process connection for all pressure instruments shall be -inch NPT Male. The process connection for pressure gauges only shall be -inch NPT Male. Receiver gauge connections shall be inch NPT Male. Pulsating service installations shall be provided with pulsation dampeners/snubbers. Snubber design allows for easy disassembly to facilitate cleaning. Snubbers shall not be based on switches in critical (eg ESD) services. Pulsating dampeners using a restriction orifice or moving position is acceptable. The capillary tube type snubbers are not acceptable. Instruments measuring absolute pressure shall be compensated for barometric pressure changes. On hazardous or toxic services, where all drains and vents are routed to a closed system, provision shall be made to allow for the insitu calibration of all instruments installed. Pressure and Differential Pressure Level Instrumentation hook-up shall be as detailed on the P&ID legend sheets.

4.1.1 Pressure and Differential Pressure Transmitters


Smart electronic transmitters shall use current technology measurement of proven design. Force balance and motion balance types are not acceptable. Transmitter process pressure connections shall be 12mm metric (Female). All wetted parts shall be 316 stainless steel minimum unless process fluid or operating conditions dictate other materials. Refer to Section 3.9, Material Requirements. Overall accuracy for transmitters in general shall be within 0.5 percent of calibrated span. Transmitters for precise measurement, such as the gas pressure for an accounting flow meter shall be accurate within 0.20 percent of calibrated span.

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Span adjustment shall have at least a 4 to 1 range on pneumatic and 10 to 1 on electronic. Over-range protection shall be at least 1.5 times the upper limit of the specified pressure range. All transmitters shall include integral indicator in engineering units (LCD type). Where used, sealed capillary-type instruments shall utilise 316SS armoured capillary. Minimum capillary length shall meet vendor installation requirements.

4.1.2 Pressure and Differential Pressure Gauges


Pressure gauges shall have safety glass. Plastic lenses (acrylic or polycarbon) can only be used if they are standard window material for gauges supplied as part of a package unit. Lenses, when used are to be compatible with the surrounding process and ambient environment. Gauges shall be 100mm minimum case size for all measurement readings. Gauges being used on filter regulators and where they are part of a pneumatic devices such as current to pneumatic converters, piston actuators, valve positioners shall be Vendors supply. Gauges within the range of 0.7 bar to 2.5 bar shall be silicone filled. When the span exceeds 2.4 bar the gauge shall be filled with glycerine. Filling shall be full face with no liquid level line. Ranges below 0.7 bar do not require filling. Indicating process pressure gauges shall be rated Grade 2A in accordance with ANSI B40.1, Gauges Pressure Indicating Dial Type - Elastic Element. The maximum temperature limit for liquid filled gauges is 66C. Pressure gauges shall not have suppressed ranges. Standard ranges shall be selected such that the normal operating pressure falls between 30% and 70% of the scale range. Gauges shall be provided with wrench flats, a blowout disc and safety -enhanced glass. Field Pressure gauges cases shall be stainless steel 316 or phenol. Panel pressure gauge cases shall be 316SS Bourdon tubes and sockets shall be 316 stainless steel minimum for all services except water and instrument air. Refer material selection.

Bronze tube and sockets may be provided for instrument air. Monel tube and sockets shall be provided for non-deaerated saltwater services

4.1.3 Pressure and Differential Pressure Switches


Pressure and differential pressure switches shall only be utilised on less critical utility services and its application is subject to Company approval. Pressure switches shall have an internally adjustable setpoint or a differential gap with a reference or calibrated scale. Pressure-switch measuring elements may be bellows or diaphragm type. Electric switch contacts shall be snap acting, single pole, double throw (SPDT) as a minimum. The contact rating shall be sufficient to operate solenoids, relays or other devices as specified in

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the data sheet without the need for additional or interposing relays. Hermetically sealed contacts are preferable. Terminal block or terminal strips shall be provided. Dead front or shrouded terminal; blocks are acceptable. The dead band shall be significantly less than the difference in pressure between the normal operating pressure and the setpoint. The setpoints shall be specified for either rising or falling pressure. The setpoints shall be within the middle 80 percent of the adjustable range. Accuracy shall be at least 0.5 percent of full scale.

4.2

Temperature Instruments

Temperature elements other than gauges and filled systems shall be spring loaded with a barrel union where possible. On rotating machinery bearings all temperature elements shall be duplex with both sensors pre-wired to junction box. Design shall provide adequate protection from element failure such as open circuit for RTDs or upscale burnout for thermocouples. A high casing temperature trip in addition to a minimum flow trip shall be provided on all centrifugals hydrocarbon pumps if specified in the project proposal. Shutdown temperature transmitters shall be independent of other services. Skin type transmitters and gauges shall be utilised on flowlines as shown on the P&IDs.

4.2.1 Thermocouples
Thermocouple construction, properties colour coding, limits of error and the use of extension wires shall conform to ANSI-MC96.1, Temperature Measurement Thermocouples. Thermocouples for general service shall be a minimum 6mm outside diameter (OD), 304 stainless steel sheathed, and mineral insulated. Thermocouples mounted on or in machinery bearings, casings and lube and seal oil piping shall be 316 stainless steel, sheathed and mineral insulated unless otherwise approved by THE COMPANY. All thermocouples shall be ANSI type K. Type T thermocouples may be considered for applications below 0OC. For temperatures up to 540oC thermocouples shall be ungrounded with magnesium oxide insulation and stainless steel sheath. For temperatures exceeding 540oC, the sheath shall be Inconel. Thermocouples shall have Special Limits Of Error accuracy. Copper-Constantan thermocouples shall be provided for negative temperatures. Resistance measured between the leads and sheath of thermocouples shall be in accordance with IEC 60584.

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Thermocouples for temperature-differential measurements shall be electrically isolated from ground. Multiple thermocouple assemblies shall be approved by the Company. All thermocouple instruments shall have thermocouple burnout indication. This will be full up scale reading unless the process requires another function. All thermocouples heads shall be epoxy coated cast aluminium and weather-proof and shall be mounted directly on the thermowell with a union and spring loaded thermocouple. The cover shall be threaded and gasketed with a 316 stainless steel retaining chain connected to the body. Thermocouple heads shall contain terminals for connection to field wiring. Connection to the thermocouple heads shall be 12mm Metric. On rotating machinery all elements, which cannot be replaced on line, shall be duplex or redundant and prewired to accessible terminations. Thermocouple wires (if and when required) shall be as short as possible prior to a temperature transmitter.

4.2.2 Resistance Temperature Devices (RTD)


Resistance temperature devices (RTD) shall be provided in preference to thermocouples and on all allocation transfer applications where greater accuracy is required. RTD may be used for measuring temperatures up to approximately 800C above this temperature, thermocouples should be used. The RTD shall be platinum, four-wire, 316 stainless steel sheathed. The RTD shall conform to the international Standard IEC 60751/DIN 43760, with an alpha coefficient of 0.00385 ohms/ohm/deg C and tolerance class A. Resistance shall be 100 ohms at 0deg C. The RTD shall be mounted in the thermowell, spring loaded with a barrel union. Open-circuit protection shall be provided at the transmitter. The tip of the sensing element and the thermowell shall have a good thermal contact. On rotating machinery all elements, which cannot be replaced on line, shall be duplex or redundant and prewired to accessible termination with a positive seal and provision to prevent wires rubbing.

4.2.3 Thermowells
Thermowells shall generally be utilised for all temperature measuring devices, such as thermocouples, resistance elements, and bimetallic thermometers. Skin type temperature gauges and transmitters shall be utilised for flowlines and considered for compressor suction lines. Thermowells shall be provided for all temperature measuring devices, such as thermocouples, resistance elements, and bimetallic thermometers.

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Test thermowells or temperature gauges where required shall be located within 305mm of the temperature controller sensing points. Thermowells used as test wells shall have a 316 stainless steel plug and chain. Thermowell material shall be compatible with the medium with which the thermowell will be in contact. Thermowell material shall be as per 3.9.1 as a minimum. Thermowell material shall be machined in a tapered configuration from a single bar stock. Welded construction is not acceptable. Thermowells shall have the dimensions specified on the data sheets. The immersion length for 4-inch pipe and larger shall be approximately midway between the centre of the pipe and the opposite wall. The immersion length shall be a maximum of 305mm and a minimum of 64mm for pipe and 229mm for vessels when limiting constraints of calculated fluid velocity is not considered. The immersion length for pipe sizes less than 4 inches shall be 114mm if the thermowell is installed in an elbow (the preferred installation). Pipe sizes less than 4 inches shall be swaged up to 4 inches for perpendicular thermowell installation. The process connection shall be 25mm metric if screwed connection are acceptable by the Piping Design and Materials Specification PI-ES-001and PI-ES-002 If flanged connections are required by the piping classifications, the connections shall be designed to mate against a 2 inch raised-face or ring-joint flange, for piping and vessels. The internal bore shall be suitable for 6mm diameter temperature probes. Special protecting tubes of chrome iron, Incoloy, or other special materials shall be provided as required for fireboxes, kiln, reactors, and oxidising atmospheres. Extensions shall be specified on insulated or hot services. Thermowells shall have stress calculations provided to verify the immersion depth is acceptable. Thermowells shall have wake frequency calculations provided in accordance with ASME PTC 19.3.

4.2.4 Temperature Transmitters


Temperature Transmitters shall comply with the requirements of Section 3.4. Transmitters shall have an accuracy of 0.2% excluding sensor. Loss of input shall give upscale indication for all input types. Transmitter shall have an integral LCD type indicator in engineering units and suitable for remote mounting if required.

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4.2.5 Temperature Controllers


Temperature control shall be provided in the relevant electronic control system eg, PCS, UCP, etc. unless approved by the Company.

4.2.6 Temperature Switches


Temperature switches shall only be utilised on less critical utility services and subject to the Company approval. When local switches are requested, the following points should be considered: Electrical switches shall be locally mounted and shall be of the filled-system bulb type. The switch setting shall be adjustable. The switch contacts shall be snap acting, single pole, double throw (SPDT) 5 amps at 230VAC resistive as a minimum. The switch mechanism shall be user selectable to energise on increasing or decreasing temperature. The switch shall provide cold junction compensation. Capillary shall include stainless steel 316 flexible armour.

4.2.7 Temperature Gauges


Locally mounted indicators/gauges of process temperatures shall be bimetallic thermometers with 100mm dial, every angle heads and hermetically sealed 316 stainless steel cases. Filled system gauges shall be used only where required for indication remote to the sensing point and shall consider the error induced by elevation/ambient conditions. Mercury in glass type indicating thermometers shall not be used. Fully compensated filled system with remote dials shall be used where required for readability or protection from vibration.

4.3

Level Instruments

All level instruments shall be of an external design maintainable on-line unless approved otherwise by The Company. Process connection shall be side by side, flanged to ASME B16.5 Flange standards. External cage level instruments fitted with a displacer level monitoring device shall not be used. Magnetic follower level indicators shall be used to replace conventional level gauges except where varying SG makes the use of these impractical. Switches mounted on such indicators are acceptable only for non-shutdown service. For level measurements Magnetostrictive Level Transmitters (MTL) shall be the principal level Measurement. Level indicators and control transmitters shall cover the full vessel operating range including from hi-hi to lo-lo level shutdown. They shall be rated for the design pressure and temperature of the monitored equipment for the service ratings. Displacer lengths (when utilised) shall be standardised and shall match the cage centre to centre.

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Company approval of the type of instruments to be used on floating facility is required to ensure satisfactory operation under dynamic conditions.

4.3.1 Gauge-glass Columns (Reflex or Transparent Type)


Gauge -glass columns shall be mounted immediately adjacent to level instruments. If two or more columns are required to provide complete coverage of a vessel, the visible portion of the gauges shall overlap at least 25mm). Gauge glass length shall be standardised platform wide. Maximum length of a single gauge glass shall be 1500mm between connections. Tubular type gauges shall not be used. Glass for gauge glass columns shall be tempered borosilicate that is resistant to thermal and mechanical shock. The glass shall be treated or manufactured so that if the glass is broken, an interlocking crystalline fracture (without loose, flying particles) will result. Gauge glass isolation valves shall be of the type that isolate the gauge glass on failure of the glass. If the liquid in a vessel has a tendency to boil, surge, or has a high velocity, gauges shall have large liquid chambers. Glass column level instruments shall be flanged rated for the design pressure/temperature of the equipment in which the column is installed or for the service ratings. Lighting shall be provided on all gauge glass column in locations where the surrounding illumination is less than 54 LUX. Light fixture for column lighting shall have a minimum rating of 50W incandescent or 10W fluorescent. The preferred type is an LED chain certified to the hazardous area classification specified.

4.3.2 Displacement-type Level Instruments


Displacement-type level instruments shall only be used subject to written approval by the Company.

4.3.3 Differential-Pressure Instruments


Differential -pressure level instruments may be used except where very low D.Ps make these impracticable. Electronic transmitters shall be as per section 3.4. Flange facing requirements shall be as follows. Class 150 rating flanges shall be raised face with a stock finish for use with flexible graphite (Klinger C4500 or Company approved equivalent). Flange face shall be in accordance with AMSE B16.5 Paragraph 6.4. Class 300 and 600 rating flanges shall be raised face with a smooth finish for use with a spiral wound gasket. Smooth finish is a surface finish of 3.2 to 6.3 micrometers Ra. Class 900 through 2500 rating flanges shall be ring type joint (RTJ) for which the gasket contact surface shall be 0.4 to 1.6 micrometers Ra.

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Each Transmitter shall be supplied complete with two (2) off calibration rings. Calibration ring material shall be 316L Stainless Steel minimum, unless process conditions dictate a different material. Each calibration ring shall have two (2) off 12mm (female).

4.3.4 Level Switches


Level switches shall only be used subject to written approval by The Company.

4.3.5 Magnetic Level Indicators


Process connection shall be one (1) inch flanged to ANSI standard. The float inside the chamber will always be suspended in the liquid at the same depth and will always have the centre line of its magnetic field at the surface of the liquid. Chamber material shall conform to the wetted material requirement. Insulation for hot service or cold and freeze protection shall be provided as required. Float specific gravity shall be properly selected such that magnetic coverage be 360 degrees. Top and bottom float stoppers shall be provided. Magnetic fluorescent bargraph indicator shall be housed on a hermetically sealed glass tube. All lengths shall be standardised platform wide as far as possible. Vent and drain connections shall be provided.

4.3.6 Miscellaneous Level Instruments


If none of the level instruments described previously in this specification satisfy the requirements of a specific application, other types of instruments, such as Admittance (Conductive service only) radar ultrasonic, vibration, and similar devices may be supplied if approved in writing by The Company.

4.4

Flow Instruments

Flow instrument internal metallic assemblies and related types of equipment, such as orifice plates, shall be manufactured from 316 stainless steel unless higher grade alloy is required by the process fluid as per 3.9.1. The measuring element shall be able to withstand a differential pressure equal to the maximum body rating without affecting calibration. Pressure holding components shall have positive seals. For instruments in gas service requiring static pressure compensation (metering or variable static pressure application), the temperature of the gas shall be measured on the downstream side of the element.

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If instruments in gas or liquid service require temperature compensation (metering or variable temperature application), the temperature shall be measured on the downstream side of the primary element. Differential pressure instruments shall withstand static pressure changes without changes to zero setting. If a single meter is insufficient to meet the turndown then parallel meters shall be applied. Selection of parallel meters shall be automatic on continuous critical service Orifice Plate Assemblies.

4.4.1 Orifice Plate Assemblies


Orifice plates shall be of the square-edged concentric type. Orifice plate dimensions shall conform to the Recommended Dimension Table in AGA 3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas. Quadrant-edged orifice plates shall be provided if the fluid Reynolds number is below 20,000. Orifice plates shall be 316 stainless steel unless the fluid and the plate material are not compatible, in which case they shall be in accordance with requirements in 3.9.1. The minimum orifice diameter shall be equivalent to a Beta ratio of 0.40, or 0.50 inches, whichever is greater. The ratio of the orifice diameter to line diameter (d/D) for orifice plates shall be between 0.40 and 0.70 with 0.6 shall be the preferred d/D ratio approach. Plates shall be bored for the maximum flow that will give an even meter factor. Orifice bores shall be calculated by the formulae from the latest edition of ISO-5167. Weep holes shall be provided in steam or gas flow installations where condensation can occur and in liquid flow installations where gas entrainment can occur. The hole area shall be deducted from the calculated orifice bore area. If the error caused by a weep hole is unacceptable, eccentric orifice plates shall be considered for gas service containing entrained liquids and for liquid service containing vapour. Flange taps shall be provided in accordance with the latest A.G.A. - ASME standards. Tap size shall be 12 mm metric up to an ANSI 600 pound line classification. Tap size shall be 19mm metric for ANSI 900 and 1,500 pound line classifications. Junior or Simplex type orifice assemblies shall be used unless Company approval is granted for the use of conventional orifice flanges. The minimum ANSI rating for an orifice flange shall be 300 LB. Facings other than the raised-face type or the use of other, higher ANSI ratings shall be in accordance with the Company Piping Design and Materials Specifications PI-ES-001 and PI-ES-002 Ring-type plate holders shall be an integral plate mounting. Ring facings shall be ANSI standard oval unless otherwise required by the applicable Piping Design and Materials Specification. Ring-joint orifice plates shall be fitted tightly to the upstream edge of the holding web to prevent leakage between the plate, gasket, and ring web.

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The normal differential pressure range for orifice plates shall be 0 to 100 inches of water. If the normal range is not practicable, the standard ranges shall be 0 to 20, 50, or 200 inches of water. Normal flowrate of an orifice meter shall be between 70 and 80 percent of meter capacity. The anticipated minimum and maximum flowrates shall be between 30 and 95 percent of meter capacity. This does not apply to centrifugal compressor suction meters where the specialists recommendation shall be followed. Full scale differential pressure, in inches of water, shall not exceed the process static pressure. Differential pressure ranges of 100 inches of water are preferred when the static pressure exceeds the above limits. Senior orifice fittings in applications such as test separator service, where wide ranges of operating conditions are encountered, shall allow the plate to be removed from service with the line under pressure. Where senior orifice fittings are required, they shall be of the design with two isolated chambers with a valve seal for plate removal. Two packs of lubricant to be supplied with each senior fitting. Meter runs: Meter run design shall be in accordance with ANSI/API 2530. Fabrication shall be in accordance with Figure 3 of A.G.A. Report No. 3 for a d/D ratio of 0.70. Company approval is required if the lengths are less than the lengths specified. Where space permits, meter runs shall be supplied without straightening vanes. If straightening vanes are supplied, the vanes shall be of the top hot line-mounted type. The minimum meter run size shall be 2 inches. Vertical meter runs shall not be provided without prior approval by The Company. The required metering range shall not exceed 3 to 1. If a wider flow range is required, dual meter runs, dual-range instruments, or other metering devices shall be provided. Meter runs shall have flange taps on mated raised-face, weld-neck orifice flanges. The bolt holes of all flanges shall straddle the vertical center line of the assembled, installed meter tube. The metering runs shall be straight when bolted together. Orifice flange taps shall be on the vertical flange center lines for top meter connections for gas applications and on horizontal flange center lines for side orifice meter connections for clean liquids. Flange taps below the horizontal shall not be used. Pressure and temperature connections shall be provided on the downstream section if other suitable pressure or temperature connections are not available in the meter run system. The connections shall be located on the top of the pipe and on the vertical center lines. The center line of the first coupling shall be at least 6 pipe diameters from the face of the orifice plate. Constant-flow purge units shall be provided if orifice or pressure tap plugging is expected. The type of purge fluid (ie, air, gas, or liquid) shall be approved by The Company.

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Static pressure measurements shall be taken downstream from the orifice plate. Integral orifice assemblies may be provided to measure flowrates that are too small for standard meter tubes. The upstream and downstream sections of each meter tube shall meet the requirements of internal diameter tolerances in ANSI/API 2530. Pipe for meter tubes shall be as cylindrical and free from internal blisters and scale as can be obtained commercially. The welding of all flanges to the pipe shall be performed in a manner that will ensure full penetration. The welded joint shall be finished smooth on the inside. One thermowell connection on the downstream side of the meter tube shall be supplied. Orifice flanges on meter tubes shall be of the weld-neck type. Orifice flange and/or orifice fitting bores shall match the mating pipe internal diameter within the tolerances stated in ANSI/API 2530. Orifice plates shall also have the equipment identification number and type of material permanently embossed and readily visible on the metal. The identification shall comply with ISA RP3.2, Recommended Practice for Flange Mounted Sharp Edged Orifice Plates for Flow Measurement. The outlet side of the orifice plate tab handle shall be permanently marked with: instrument tag number, orifice diameter inches, line size and flange rating, and plate material.

4.4.2 Restriction Orifice Plate


Restriction Orifice plates shall be designed to ASME 82 - WA/PVP-8. Restriction orifice plates on high differential pressure drops, on flashing liquids and on cavitating services shall be hardfaced. Restriction Orifice Plates Thickness shall be verified by stress calculation.

4.4.3 Venturi Flowmeters


These shall be in accordance with the operating pressure requirements of ASME/ ANSI standard B16.5 For wet gas measurement these shall be in accordance with the codes or shall be installed in the vertical plane. Installation shall be in accordance with the codes similar to orifice plates unless Company approval is granted for any reduction.

4.4.4 Flow Nozzles


The use and design of flow nozzles is subject to Company approval.

4.4.5 Dall Tubes


The use of Dall tubes and other special application flowmeters are subject to Company approval.

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4.4.6 Pitot Tubes


The use of pitot tubes requires Company approval. The use of pitot tubes shall be limited to clean filtered services and shall not be used on critical control services. Where pitot tubes are installed on any service where it cannot otherwise be removed without a reduction in production then an online retrieval system shall be installed. All pitot tubes shall be flanged.

4.4.7 Rotameters
Rotameters shall be provided for low flowrates if local indication is required. Rotameters shall also be provided if the rangeability, non-linearity, viscosity, or hazardous nature of the fluid makes differential-pressure type instruments unreliable. All wetted parts of rotameters shall be stainless steel. Teflon or other materials shall be considered for corrosive fluids. A safety glass indicating tube shall be provided for pressures below 3.5 barg and temperatures below 38o C on utility service. An armoured tube with magnetic pickup shall be provided for other applications. The manufacturers standard tube and float shall be supplied to provide a normal flowrate between 40 and 80 percent of the meter capacity. The anticipated minimum and maximum flowrate shall be between 10 and 95 percent of the meter capacity. Rotameters shall be accurate within plus or minus 2 percent of the full scale and shall have direct-reading indicating scales or percentage scales with stainless steel factor tags. Indicating scales shall have full-length safety glass with shields and gaskets on both sides. Rotameters shall have beaded, ribbed, or flat tube indicators. Plain tapered tubes are not acceptable. Armoured meter tubes shall have internal guides. Floats shall have dimensional stability and shall not respond to variations in viscosity. Meter bodies shall be provided with inlet and outlet float stops. Gland assemblies shall be of O-ring construction unless pressure, temperature, or flowing medium considerations require packing. Variable area rotameters shall be completely assembled and calibrated prior to shipment. Rotameters shall be magnetic follower on hydrocarbon service.

4.4.8 Turbinemeters
Turbine meters shall be used for selected liquid application metering including diesel where the turndown is unsuitable for a differential pressure measurement plus custody transfer liquid metering. Turbine meter shall not be used in gas service. The Vendor shall calibrate the liquid turbine meters in accordance with the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 5, Section 3.

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All meters shall be equipped with pre-amplifiers. Preamplifiers shall be compatible with the turbine meter pickups both in connection and signal. Preamplifiers shall operate on a 24VDC supply. Turbine meters shall be installed directly in the lines, with minimum straight-line distances calculated according to Appendix C of API standard 2534, Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 5, Section 3, Turbine Meters. The straight-line distances shall not be less than 20 pipe diameters upstream and 5 pipe diameters down-stream, if straightening vanes have not been installed. The meter body housings shall be a minimum of 316 stainless steel unless otherwise specified. Slip on carbon steel flanges shall be provided unless prohibited in the Piping Design and Materials Specification (PI-ES-001/PI-ES-002) Turbine meters shall have 10 to 1 turndown with a linearity of 0.25% and a repeatability of 0.01% for custody transfer. For other services they shall have a linearity of 1% and a repeatability of 0.05%. Rotor bearings for liquid meters shall be tungsten carbide unless otherwise specified. Rotor hubs, blades, and rims shall be, as a minimum, stainless steel. Two magnetic pickups shall be positioned 90 electrical degrees apart and as near as practicable to 90 degrees apart on the meter housing where liquid turbine meters are used for monitoring royalty/custody transfers. The use of insertion turbine meter is subject to Company approval.

4.4.9 Liquid Positive-Displacement Meters


Positive-displacement meters shall be provided for high accuracy liquid measurement applications. These shall not be used for custody transfer unless necessitated by fluid viscosity. Meter body housing shall be carbon steel unless otherwise specified. Meters shall be temperature compensated when used for fiscal purposes. The meter shall provide a 4 to 20 ma signal and local LCD display. The counter shall be an eight-digit non-resetable counter. The units of the counter shall be in tenths of barrels (42 US gallons per barrel). If electronic scaling is required to provide the desired readout units, a convenient method of changing scale factor shall be provided (preferably, thumbwheel switches). Electrically pulsed output transmitters, if specified, shall be integral to the meter. Liquid positive displacement meters shall be calibrated in accordance with API Standard 1101, Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 5, Section 2, Measurement of Petroleum Liquid Hydrocarbons by Positive Displacement Meter ; and API Standard 2531, Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 4, Section 2, Mechanical Displacement Meter Provers; and API Standard 2534.

4.4.10

Magnetic Flowmeters

Magnetic flowmeters shall only be used in liquid service where no restriction in the flow stream is required, or a rangeability of more than 3 to 1 is required.

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Process fluid velocity measurement using magnetic flowmeter shall have an electrical conductivity above 20 mS/m at a temperature below 177C. Accuracy of the meter shall be better than 0.5% of range. The body material shall be in accordance with piping material specification, with flanged (RF) process connections. Selection of liners shall be dependent upon service temperature and resistance to deterioration by the flowing liquid. Electrode materials shall be 316SL as a minimum as per 3.9 .1. Meter electronic housing shall comprise a pre-amplifier for analogue output, digital display for local read-out, and be hazardous area certified. Design an application shall be in accordance with ASME/MFC 16M.

4.4.11

Vortex Shedding Flowmeters

The design and application of vortex shedding flowmeter is subject to Company approval.

4.4.12

Coriolis Flowmeters

Coriolis flowmeters shall include density and temperature measurement, and be suitable for direct mass flow rate measurement for liquid hydrocarbon, produced water or liquid with high viscosity where pressure drop across the meter is not significant to the process downstream. Rangeability of coriolis meter shall be 10:1. Accuracy shall be 0.05% or better of normal flow range. Process connection shall be of flange connection conforming to pipe rating. Meter body material shall be in accordance with 3.9.1 and piping material classification. Electronic housing shall be certified suitable for the hazardous area classification specified. Measurement shall in compliance with ASME/MF11M. Secondary containment chamber shall be rated for piping design pressures. Where this is not practical, chamber shall include pressure relief device, pressure switch for alarm/trip indication and relief line shall be piped to closed drain. Coriolis meters are acceptable for gas measurement except on custody / allocation transfer subject to Company approval.

4.4.13

Target Flowmeters

Target flowmeter shall be considered for dirty fluids, light slurries higher viscosity liquids, and tarry and sediment bearing fluids. Wetted material shall be as per 3.9.1.

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Electronic transmitter shall be similar to 4.1.1 except both primary element and transmitter shall be combined single unit. The meter shall be suitable for flow measurement of 3:1 rangeability of any given span setting.

4.4.14

Ultrasonic Flowmeters

Ultrasonic flowmeters shall be used for liquid or gas measurement with the following requirements: wide rangeability (100 : 1) for corrosive or abrasive wear fluid which render conventional flowmeters unsuitable. large pipe size It can be used on any type of fluid that propagate sound waves, whether conductive or nonconductive, regardless of temperature, density, viscosity and pressure. The preferred type shall be the in-line type and shall conform to material requirements in 3.9.1 and associated piping specification. Note the Clamp-on type of ultrasonic flow meter shall require written Company approval. Accuracy shall be 0.5% of scale to 2% of span as a minimum. Electronic enclosure shall be weather proof and certified for hazardous area classification specified.

4.4.15

Thermal Flowmeters

The use of thermal flowmeters requires written Company approval. . The application of thermal flowmeter is similar to ultrasonic flowmeters except that they are not suitable for slurry fluids. This shall be of insertion type with wetted material as per 3.9.1. Accuracy shall be 1% of full scale. Electronics shall include pre-amplifier with analogue output. The primary and the electronics housing shall be combined single unit with electronic housing certified weatherproof and suitable for the hazardous area classification specified.

4.5

Control Valves

Control valves shall be pre-assembled with actuators, transducers, solenoids, diodes, limit switches and position indicators, boosters, speed controls, locks etc. as required. Actuation medium shall be instrument air exception. When instrument air is not available instrument gas will be used. Hydraulic fluid shall replace instrument air/gas as actuation medium if minimum pressure needed is higher than 620kPa. All actuators shall be spring return to failure position under worst conditions without the use of volume bottles except where unavoidable, subject to Company approval. Control valves shall be furnished with stem scaled travel indicators.

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Control valves shall be designed to prevent damage to the valve body & trim and the downstream pipework. Control valves shall not be used as primary shutdown isolation valves in hazardous process such as hydrocarbons and toxic chemicals. Control valves shutoff class shall be selected to minimise upset during shutdown and to permit rapid restart. Control valve trim characteristics shall be chosen to suit the duty. Control valve trims which effect PSV sizing shall be fitted with a warning safety sign to that effect. High speed valves shall be fitted with safety guards over exposed moving parts. Anti-surge control valves shall be chosen to suit service conditions and have high performance, quick responses and linear flow characteristics. Control valves requiring quick response shall use boosters sized to achieve the required response timing. Systems utilising quick exhausts shall not be acceptable. Conventional electronic positioners shall be provided unless deemed unacceptable due to the critical aspects of the service in which case separate I/P converters and pneumatic positioners shall be provided. Conventional electronic positioners shall be 4 to 20 mA. Tubing fittings shall be 316 SS Swagelok or as per project requirements.

4.5.1 Valve Selection


Valve selection shall be based on the following criteria: Operating and design conditions Operating range Fluid handled Leakage class (min. Class IV and Class VI for tight-shut-off) Allowable noise level Rangeability required Special body types shall be considered for unusual applications such as slurry handling, highly erosive or viscous streams, or for noise control. Control valves, bypass valves and other manual regulation valves shall be engineered instrument tagged items. Where manually operated control valves are fitted, then indication of the controlled variable shall be provided within site of the handwheel. Valves with small ports and trims or complex labyrinths in trims shall have an upstream strainer or filter to prevent blockage. The trim shall be of a stack construction, which can be disassembled for cleaning.

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4.5.2 Noise
Noise levels of control valves and accessories shall be in accordance with the following requirements: The noise generated by a control valve installation in gas or vapour service shall not be greater than 85 dBA measured at 1 metre) from the valve assembly under all normal operating conditions. Upstream and downstream silencers and special noise-control trim shall be considered for valves with a calculated noise level above 85 dBA at 1 metre (). Exceptions to noise level requirements may be granted based on such factors as frequency of valve operation and worker proximity. Exceptions shall require the written approval of THE COMPANY. Only during shutdown or extreme upset conditions may noise levels exceed 85 dBA at 1 metre (Under no circumstances shall noise levels exceed 105 dBA at 1 meter (). Hydrodynamic noise, caused by cavitation in control valves, shall be controlled by selecting valve type and trim to preclude cavitation within the control valve and downstream piping.

4.5.3 Valve Sizing


Valves shall be sized in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. Otherwise, valve sizing shall be in accordance with ISA S75.01, Control Valve Sizing Equations or ISA S75.02, Control Valve Capacity Test Procedure. The Vendor/Contractor shall calculate and record on the data sheet the minimum, normal, and maximum required valve CV. The maximum possible flow through the control valve under the selected flow coefficient shall be calculated and noted on the detailed specification sheets. If the calculated control valve size is two or more sizes smaller than line size, a valve body shall be one size smaller than line size with reduced inner valve trim. If approved by The Company, smaller body size may be acceptable if the availability of reduced trim is limited. Butterfly valves shall be sized for maximum angle opening of 60 degrees. Tables of Control Valve (Appendix 3) shall be used for trim selection. Travel: Control valves with equal percentage characteristics shall be sized to operate at approximately 75 percent travel under design flow conditions and less than 95 percent travel under maximum flow conditions. Control valves with linear valve characteristic shall be sized to operate at approximately 70 percent travel under design flow conditions and less than 90 percent travel under maximum flow conditions. Control valves shall pass the minimum design flow at no less than 20 percent of valve travel. Anti-surge control valve sizing shall follow the specialists recommendations. Split-range control:

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In cases where high rangeability (design minimum flow occurs at less than 20 percent of valve travel), or where high capacity is required, two control valves, split-ranged in parallel, shall be used. If high capacity is required, the valves shall be sized to split the flow equally. Where valve are controlled by an electronic system split ranging shall be in the electronic system and each valve shall receive a full 4-20mA signal. Valve turndown The following requirements apply to globe body control valves: Two control valves shall be provided in parallel under the following conditions: The normal flowrates through a valve vary by more than 8 to 1 The associated process conditions would use more than 90 percent or less than 10 percent of the rated Cv of the valve. One of the parallel control valves shall be sized for the low flowrate and the two-valve combination shall be sized for the high flowrate.

4.5.4 Valve Actuators


Actuators shall be adequate to stroke the valve and sized based on the line rating as the differential pressure to which the valve will be exposed. Valve actuators shall be air or gas operated and of the spring return diaphragm type unless the required actuator break torque exceeds the torque available then a double-acting piston actuator shall be considered, but subject to the Companys approval. Hydraulically operated actuators shall not be used. Spring and diaphragm actuators shall be sized based on a diaphragm pressure range of 0.2 to 1 bar where available. Springs shall be fully enclosed in a metal housing. Valve actuators shall be air/gas operated with spring return to the failed position. Seal materials shall be selected to suit the service.

4.5.5 Valve Construction


Pressure classification The minimum pressure ratings for carbon steel or alloy valves shall be in accordance with ASME B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings, as follows: The minimum ANSI flange rating classes for valves shall be 150 lbs The use of cast iron requires written Company approval In no case shall the valve body rating be less than that permitted by Piping Design and Materials Specification, PI-ES-001/002.

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Body Materials for valve bodies shall be in accordance with Piping Design and Materials Specification, PI-ES-001/002 The minimum valve body size for hydrocarbon and steam services shall be 25mm. The minimum body size for air or water services shall be 19mm ( inch). Body sizes smaller than 19mm may be used for pressure regulator service and for special applications that have a line size of 12mm and smaller. Odd body sizes such as 32mm (1-1/4 inch), 63mm (2-1/2 inches), and 127mm (5 inches) are not allowed. Body tests Test pressure for valve bodies shall be in accordance with the rating defined in ASME B16.5. Operational tests shall consist of measuring valve stem position for increasing and decreasing input signals. Performance shall meet the following requirements: System position error shall not exceed plus or minus 1 percent of rated travel. Hysteresis plus deadband shall not exceed 5 percent of rated travel. Face-to-face dimensions The face-to-face dimensions of globe style flanged control valves with integral flanges shall be in accordance with ISA S75.03, Uniform Face-to-Face Dimensions for Flanged Globe Style Control Valve Bodies. The face-to-face dimensions of screwed control valve bodies shall be in accordance with ISA S75.04, Face-to-Face Dimensions of Flangeless Control Valves. Trim Standard trim (plugs, seat rings, valve plug stems, stem lock pins, packing springs, spacers, and packing followers) shall be fabricated from 316 stainless steel, unless otherwise specified in Piping Design and Materials Specification, PI-ES-001/002 Cages of cage-guided valves shall be a minimum of 17-4 PH stainless steel or equal. Trim for the following services shall be Stellite or Alloy 6: Flashing liquids Fluids containing solids Pressure drops above 20.7 bar Services above 316C () unless a higher grade material is required. Valve stems shall be finished to 1mm (). If the valve packing is of the semi-metallic type, the valve stem shall be hard-chrome plated. Guide bushings Guide bushings shall be fabricated of a minimum of 17-4 PH stainless steel.

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Packing glands Packing glands shall be equipped with flange-style gland followers secured by two bolts. The bolts shall be at least equal to Grade B7 of ASTM A193, Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High-Temperature Service. Packing material for specific services shall comply with the Piping Design and Materials Specification, PI-ES-001/002 or valve manufacturers recommendations. Body connections Flangeless valves (ball or butterfly valves which must be installed between process piping flanges with exposed bolts) are not acceptable, even when metal shields are installed around the bolts. One-inch valves and larger shall have flanged connections as required by the applicable specification, Piping Design and Materials Specification, PI-ES-001/002. The flanges shall conform to ASME B16.5. Valves smaller than 1 inch and self-contained regulators 2 inches and smaller may have screwed connections if The Company general piping specifications permit. Handwheels Handwheels shall be provided if manual operation of the valve is required. Handwheels shall be side-mounted, and shall be disengaged during normal operation of the valve. Handwheels shall be sized so that the rim pull does not exceed 27 kilogram force in a minimum maintenance scenario after five years. Extension bonnets Extension bonnets shall be provided on throttling services above 230OC and below minus 17OC, or in accordance with the manufacturers recommendation. If possible, on-off control valves shall have high-temperature packing rather than extension bonnets. Lubricators All control valves with non - PTFE stem packings shall have lubricators and steel isolating valves. Lubricators shall be charged with a suitable lubricant. A spare box of refills shall be provided for each valve. Bellows seal bonnets are not allowed on modulating control valves.

4.5.6 Valve Accessories


All accessories are to be suitable for a Zone 1 Gas Group IIA T3 Temperature Class hazardous area. Control valves shall be furnished with stem travel indicators with scales.

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For offshore applications bug screens shall be installed on the exhaust ports of all pneumatic instruments. For offshore, a small length of tubing directing the air to a safe area (eg; down) shall be used. Pneumatic instruments shall be supplied with filter-regulator assemblies. regulator shall be stainless steel. For offshore sites ,the

Accessories to be installed on the control valve shall be mounted and piped with seamless 316 Stainless Steel tubing. Valve positioner A positioner shall always be provided on piston-operated valves in throttling service regardless of the response speed of the process systems. Valve positioners shall be mounted on the actuator and furnished with a gauge to indicate each of the following: Supply pressure Controller input signal Positioner output signal. Pneumatic Valve positioners for all services shall be calibrated for an input of 0.2 to 1 bar. Positioners shall be provided with a bypass except on split ranges, reverse-acting positioners, or if the input and output signal ranges differ. Valve positioner and booster cases shall be of corrosion resistant Company approved material. Valves that are not furnished with positioners shall be provided with a gauge to suit the bench set of the valve. The gauge shall indicate the input signal to the valve. For special applications eg, anti-surge, great care shall be exercised in designing control scheme with respect to linkages, positioners, boosters tubing sizes, etc. Performance requires very fast, linear, minimal hysterisis, speed approximately same in both directions and no hunting etc. These speeds shall follow the specialists recommendations. Only valves used on on/off control applications may be operated without a positioner. Booster A booster shall be provided if: Tubing lengths are greater than 76 metres between pneumatic modulating instruments. Tubing volume plus the valve actuator casing volume minus the clearance (zero travel) volume is greater than 1640 cubic metres. On any application for which the speed of response would otherwise be too slow. Selection of an auxiliary device is dependent on the response speed of the process system. Slow-response systems, such as temperature-control services, may require a positioner. Fast response systems, such as close-coupled flow loops, may require a booster. Boosters shall be used in place of quick exhaust unless approved otherwise by The Company.

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I/P transducers I/P transducers are only applicable where electro-pneumatic positioners are not available. I/P transducers shall be furnished for mounting separately from the valve. The transducer calibration shall be based on an input of 4 to 20 milliamps (mA) and an output of 0.2 to 1 bar. The I/P transducer cases shall be of corrosion resistant construction. Solenoid valves If required, solenoid valves shall be furnished for mounting separately from the control valve. On control valves with valve positioners, solenoid valves shall be installed in the tubing between the positioner output and the valve actuator, and shall be mounted on the control valve yoke. Pneumatic pilot valves Pneumatic pilot valves shall be mounted and piped to the actuator. Limit switches shall be of the magnetic coupling or proximity type. Limit switches shall be manufactured of stainless steel. Limit switches shall be snap-acting and have the minimum form of two single-pole, single-throw (SPST) contacts.

4.5.7 Globe Valves


Cage-guided globe valves may have balanced or unbalanced trim. Globe valves shall be either single or double seated. High-performance ball or butterfly valves shall be supplied instead of double-seated globe valves if large pressure drops and pressure ratio are not a factor. Double-seated valves shall be top-and-bottom guided. Single-seated valves may be either top-andbottom or top guided. Normally closed valves that control pressures and levels (such as for flares and dumps) shall have single port trim for positive shutoff. 0-ring seats are not acceptable for positive shutoff.

4.5.8 Butterfly Valves


Butterfly shutdown valves may be used where permitted by the pipe specification as an isolation valve, which is normally limited to relatively innocuous utility services. Butterfly valves may also be applied on process services where the criticality of the shutdown is low and where the consequences of leakage are not serious. The quality of the selected butterfly valves must be of the highest available with positive metal seats rather than a friction seating (eg, Vannesa or Company approved equal). Butterfly valves generally shall be: Line sized

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Heavy-pattern lugged wafer or flanged design A minimum ANSI rating class of 150 LB accordance with ASME B16.5, and may be supplied if the pressure drop is 0.34 bar (or less). The wafer of a butterfly valve shall be double-pinned to a solid shaft. The shaft of a butterfly valve shall be sealed at both ends and supported with external bearings. If tight shutoff is necessary, the vane of a butterfly valve shall be eccentrically mounted. Butterfly valves that have been modified by having holes cut in the wafers or discs are not acceptable.

4.6

Regulators

Special consideration shall be given to the ratings of the downstream section of regulators with respect to the maximum upstream shut in pressure based on the assumption that the regulators will leak. Self-contained regulators shall be considered for services such as starting gas or air, blanket gas, individual engine fuel-gas, and other applications with the following characteristics: The setpoint is changed infrequently. Pressure only control is not an impediment to effective process control. Remote control of the valve is not necessary. The application is at a remote location where air or gas is not available for control valve operation.

4.7

Actuated Isolation Valves

All valve design and materials shall be in accordance with the applicable sections of Specifications PI-ES-001 and PI-ES-002.

4.7.1 Shutdown and Blowdown Valves


All shutdown and blowdown valves shall be supplied as a fully assembled unit including the actuator, solenoid operated valves, combined position indicator and open/close position switches (proximity type), filters regulators, speed controllers and accessories. All items shall be readily accessible from a single location. All shutdown and blowdown valves shall be certified fire-safe to API 6FA or API 607. All accessories including filter regulators, etc. shall be of 316 stainless steel construction. Tubing and fittings shall be in accordance with Instrument Installation, Testing, Document Ref. No.IN-ES-003 Shutdown valves of 36 inch 900 LB ANSI and greater shall be hydraulically operated spring returnpiston type. Pneumatic actuators shall be of failsafe, spring return, piston type.

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Double acting actuators and/or electric motor operators shall not be used for ESD shutdown; critical shutdown, or blowdown without the written authorisation of The Company and approval of sizing basis of actuator, volume bottles, etc. Hydraulic accumulators shall have sufficient volume to close the valve 3 times over. Double acting actuators or electric motor operators may be used for non critical block valve applications. Double acting actuators are acceptable for non shutdown unit isolation or switching. Actuators shall be of a semi-closed loop design where vented air is drawn into the spring chamber on shutdown/blowdown thus minimising corrosion. The sizing basis of the actuators shall be based on the requirements that most valves are not normally operated except on occasional shutdowns and will be subject to minimal maintenance. New torque figures plus 50% shall be used without exceeding the design of any of the components. In the case of piggable valves, facility for the control room operator intervention shall be provided. The required speeds of all shutdown/blowdown valves in both directions shall be calculated. Large valves shall be fitted with bypasses for start up unless inherently contoured for the start up condition. Such bypasses shall include a ball valve plus a restriction orifice or globe valve. On ESD service the bypass ball valve shall be an automatic ESD valve. In each case the ball valve shall have open and closed limit switches wired back to the relevant control system. Limit switches shall be of the magnetic coupled or proximity type. Actuator internals shall have a special protective plating/coating to prevent corrosion. Handwheels are not permitted on shutdown or blowdown valves. All volume bottles shall be ASME coded if not of pipe/pipe fittings construction. All volume bottles shall be supported up from the deck. Plated balls shall not be acceptable on any shutdown/blowdown/switching service ie, balls must be solid alloy or alloy clad. Actuator shall be non-breathable type and not draw saliferous air into cylinders when operated.

4.7.2 Motor Operated Valves


Isolation valves for equipment which requires regular access and where the total energy required to open or close the valve is large shall be fitted with locally operated motor operators. Motor Operated Valves shall be supplied with motor, gearbox and handwheel and shall be complete with integral control unit, motor starter, control gear and selector switch for local-off-remote and spring-return rotary knob switch for open/close and emergency stop pushbutton. Valve position switch for the indication of valve position either in the fully open or fully closed position shall be provided. Local position indication shall be provided. The maximum closure time for MOV shall be two (2) minutes for size 8 and below while larger size shall require Company approval prior to purchase. As a guide, the following gates, globe, rotating plug and ball valves may be fitted with motor operators 10 2500 lb ANSI or 10,000 lb. API.

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12 1500 lb ANSI. 14 900 lb ANSI. 16 600 lb ANSI. 18 300 lb ANSI. 20 150 lb ANSI.

The above shall not be applicable to butterfly valves. For frequently operated valves, motor operators may be fitted for: 8 1500 lb ANSI. 10 900 lb ANSI. 10 600 lb ANSI. 12 300 lb ANSI. 16 150 lb ANSI

4.7.3 Wellhead Adjustable Choke Valves and Fixed Bean Choke


The adjustable choke valves shall be pneumatically or hydraulically actuated using conventional actuators or stepping actuator with declutchable hand wheel override as determined by service. Wellhead choke valves shall be directly flanged onto the X-mas trees. Wellhead choke valves shall be speed limited in remote such that they cannot be opened to maximum production in less than time governed by process conditions and will be specified for each project (usually 3 minutes). A 4-20 mA position transmitter shall be provided for remote monitoring of choke valve. Open/close limit switches should be provided. Fixed bean chokes are required in addition to adjustable chokes only if high flow alarms are not provided.

4.8

Relief Valves

4.8.1 General
All relief valves shall be checked for noise at worst condition. This noise shall not cause instant hearing damage to personnel in the proximity at the time of relief. Should estimated / anticipated noise generated during relief be greater than 85 dBA, at one meter from the valve, the Vendor shall advise the Purchaser. All relief valves shall comply with the referenced codes and standards including API 520/521.

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Nomenclature shall be in accordance with API RP 520, Recommended Practice for the Design and Installation of pressure-relieving Systems in Refineries. Lifting levers shall be provided only for air/steam service applications covered by ASME Section VIII. Test gags shall be provided only if required by applicable codes. Test gags shall be used to hold the relief valve closed during hydrostatic testing when pressures are above the setpoint. Test gags shall be removed after hydrostatic testing.

4.8.2 Pilot Operated Relief Valves


Pilot operated relief valves are required on hydrocarbon gas services for sizes 75 x 100mm and larger. The location of the sensing line shall be remote from the valve unless the PSV is directly located on a nozzle of a line or vessel. Pilot operated relief valves shall be furnished with a field test connection complete with a check valve and a block valve in the pilot supply line. Backflow preventers shall be supplied on all pilot operated relief valves. All pilot sensing lines shall have 316 stainless steel filters. Modulating pilots are required unless approved otherwise by the Company.

4.8.3 Conventional Relief Valves


Conventional relief valves are preferred for liquid, gas or vapour service if the sum of the maximum superimposed back pressure and built up back pressure is less than 10 percent of the set pressure. The valves shall be of the direct spring loaded, top guided, and high lift nozzle type. The valves shall have a closed bonnet. The bonnet shall be internally vented to the discharge side of the valve.

4.8.4 Bellows Type Relief Valve


Bellows type relief valves shall be installed where the spring and trim should be protected against severe fouling and corrosion and if the sum of the maximum superimposed back pressure and built-up back pressure is less than 10 percent of the set pressure. The bellows area shall be equal to the area of the nozzle that overcomes the effect of backpressure on the set pressure.

4.8.5 Balanced Bellows Relief Valves


Balanced bellows relief valves shall be provided if a variable back pressure exists in the vent system or if the sum of the maximum superimposed back pressure and built-up back pressure is greater than 10 percent of the set pressure. The valves shall have a bonnet vented to the atmosphere. The bonnet shall not be vented toward possible sources of ignition.

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The valves shall be installed so that vapour does not release into personnel areas or impinge on lines or equipment. Balanced bellows relief valves shall not be used in services where expansion or flashing can cause the discharge temperature to drop below 0C (as frost formation on the spring would affect valve operation.

4.8.6 Relief Valve Sizing


All pressure relieving valves shall be sized in accordance with API RP 520. The equivalent area of pilot-operated relief valves shall be the area between the piston and the nozzle. The area controlling flow shall be the equivalent area and not the nozzle bore.

4.8.7 Relief Valve Construction


Full nozzles shall be provided for valve sizes 25mm and larger. Modified nozzles shall be provided for thermal relief service for valve sizes no greater than 19mm by 25mm. Plain closed bonnets shall be provided with a tapped and plugged vent for easy conversion to balanced relief valves. All valves shall have screwed caps. Flanged connections shall be furnished on all process and utility service relief valves unless approved otherwise by The Company. Flanges shall conform to ASME B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings. The face-to-face dimensions of flanged steel relief valves shall conform to API RP 526, Flanged Steel Safety Relief Valves. Metal-to-metal seats shall be rated for commercial tightness, which permits a leakage in accordance with API RP 527, Commercial Seat Tightness of Safety Relief Valves with Metal-to-Metal Seats. Valve seats with bubble tightness, which permit no leakage, shall only be supplied under conditions in which hydro-carbons are released into the atmosphere resulting in a hazard to personnel and equipment.

4.8.8 Rupture Discs


The use and application of rupture discs shall be subject to Company approval.

4.9

Solenoid Valves

Solenoid valves shall function as pilot devices only and shall not control process flow. Solenoid valve coils shall be rated for continuous duty, encapsulated high temperature coils, 180C, with IEC 60255 insulation requirements. Solenoid valves shall have 316 stainless steel bodies and trim, Direct acting.

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Solenoid valve packing type shall be Packless. Solenoid valve coils shall be fitted with surge suppression diodes and Wattage of coil below 4W.

4.10 Micro-Switches
All switches shall be hermetically sealed, with gold plated contacts rated 0.5A at 24 volts DC with single pole, double throw (SPDT) contacts as a minimum.

4.11 Analysers
4.11.1 Carbon Dioxide Analyser

The use and application of on-line CO2 measurement shall be subject to Company approval.

4.11.2

Oxygen Analysers

The use and application of Oxygen-Analysers shall be subject to Company approval.

4.11.3

Oil and Condensate Analyser

The vapour pressure measurement shall be according to ASTM D323 method. The RVP analyser shall include analyser unit with sample conditioning and sample take-off system. The design of RVP analysers and their associated sample conditioning systems is subject to Company approval.

4.11.4

Dewpoint Analysers

The electronics of the analyser shall be field mounted in a housing suitably certified for hazardous area requirements and satisfying the project weatherproof requirements. Each dewpoint analyser must include a comprehensive and effective sample and sample conditioning system, which ensures a representative sample and reliable accurate operation with a minimum of maintenance. The sample conditioning system shall include a multistage filter coalescer, enclosure temperature control, pressure regulation, and the likes. The sample conditioning system shall include local gauges for the measurement of all points and parameters in the system relevant to the correct operation of the analyser including gas flow rotameters, temperature gauges, and pressure gauges.

4.11.5

Gas Chromatographs

The use of and design of field gas chromatographs shall be specified in the specific package specifications, ie, CO2 removal and associated pre-treatment, sales gas custody transfer metering. As a minimum gas chromatographs shall be capable of measuring hydrocarbon gas components down to C7+.

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4.12 Measurement/Monitors
4.12.1 Conductivity Monitor

A conductivity meter shall be used to monitor the salinity of potable water supply. Upon high salinity detection, an alarm shall be generated. It shall be a microprocessor based analyser complete with comprehensive self-diagnostic function, multiple configurable alarms capacity, polarisation detection and calibration functionality supporting with wet and dry calibration. The analyser shall be of compact design complete with digital display and push-button keypad. It shall operate on loop power providing 4 to 20 mA for direct interface with the PCS. The measuring cell/sensor shall be either 2 or 4 electrode with integrated temperature sensor of Pt 100. The sensor type shall preferably be inductive conductivity sensor with completely encapsulated sensor electronics.

4.12.2

Sand Level Monitors

The use and application of sand level monitors shall be subject to Company approval. Sand level monitor shall be installed at each production manifold sand catchpot and shall be connected to the PCS for alarm purposes. The monitor shall be of non-intrusive type and on-line maintainable. The monitor shall be ultrasonic or nucleonic sand level monitor subject to Company approval.

4.12.3

Sand Detection System

The use and application of sand detection system shall be subject to Company approval. The principle of the system will be the quantity of the sand production and not be a measure the erosion. The system shall be suitable to detect sand particles with a grain size anywhere between 0.025 mm and 0.3 mm. The sand detector shall be clamp-on or intrusive type supplied complete with mounting accessories. The sand detection system shall support simultaneous multi channel input, data storage, channel (input/output) selection, etc. The system shall be capable of hardwired or serial interfacing (using MODBUS protocol) with the PCS.

4.12.4

BS & W Measurement

The BS & W meter shall be an on-line retrievable type with a flange type in accordance with the project piping specification. Sensor range shall be 0-100% water with accuracy of 0.2% absolute. The BS & W output shall be a 4-20 mA analogue signal.

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4.12.5

Vibration Monitoring

Vibration monitoring shall be provided for machinery packages for characteristic measurement (eg, sales gas compressors, turbine generators, refrigeration compressors and vapour recovery compressors). The vibration monitoring shall be an independent microprocessor based system complete with X-Y proximity measurement of all radial bearings dual axial position monitoring of thrust bearings. The actual vibration monitoring locations and other requirements will be detailed in the specification project specifications for the major items of rotating machinery.

4.13 Pig Detector


Pig detector shall be for local indication only. It shall be insertion (paddle) type flange connection (RF). The local indicator for pig detection shall be a mechanical flag or equal subject to Company approval.

4.14 Fusible Plugs Requirements


For fusible plug requirements refer to the Fire and Safety Philosophy Document Ref. SF-ES-001.

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5. 5.1

INSTRUMENT CABLES AND ANCILLARIES Instrument Cables

Instrument cables shall be selected in accordance with the Electrical & Instrument Cable Specification Document No. EL-ES-011 Mineral insulated cable, metal clad and steel wire amour cables shall not be used. Cabling design and selected cables shall comply with fieldbus foundation requirements for installation of fieldbus transmitters in the future. Separate cables are required for the following services as a minimum: 4 to 20 mA signals mV signals Pulse signals RTDs 24 VDC digital signals 24 VDC solenoid signals Vibration probes/proximitors Communication Earthing (overall screened) (individually screened pairs) (individually screened pairs) (overall screened) (overall screen) ( )

(individually screened triples) (as required by application) (1C)

5.2

Cable Numbering

The cable numbering system shall be: Multipair or single pairs connected between cabinets I 4 digits eg, Cable from a PCS cabinet to a HVAC panel would be I-001 Multipairs connected to a junction box shall adopt the junction box number Cables connected to a tagged device shall adopt the same name eg, Cable connected to CPP-PT-001 would be numbered CPP-PT-001 A small i suffix shall be used for intrinsically safe cables The package/skid vendor may number all cables wholly within the package/skid.

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5.3

Instrument Cable Glands

Cable glands shall be standardised on a single manufacturer by type marine brass shall be used for outdoor services and areas requiring hazardous area certification. All brass components shall be Nickel plated. Cable glands outside of the air-conditioned areas shall be weatherproof to IP56 or equivalent when fully installed without shroud. Marine brass earth tags or star washers shall be used on all unthreaded entries to ensure proper earthing. Cable glands shall be of a design, which permits removal for maintenance of the items without having to remake the gland. Glands shall be in metric sizes with metric thread connections. All glands shall be certified Ex(d) to Zone1,Class II B,T3 requirements A sealing ring, shall be fitted between the gland and instrument or junction box to maintain the units ingress protection rating. Gland shrouds or denso tape shall be used for all glands in outdoor service, Heat-shrink sleeving over the glands is not permitted.

5.4

Cable/Trays/Ladders

The material specification for outdoor use shall be 316 stainless steel or fibreglass Cable rack routings must consider the practicalities of the bending radius of large diameter cables during cable pulling.

5.5

Earthing System (Grounding)

The design of the earthing system shall be in accordance with the Instrument Earthing Philosophy, IN-PH-002, the Specification for Control Panels, Cabinets and Racks IN-ES-008 and Specification for Electrical Design EL-ES-001.

5.6

Cable Transits

Multi cable transits shall be generally installed where cables pass through the following locations. Type A60 or greater enclosures Gas tight/fire walls Any continuous or sealed wall, bulkhead or deck Non-hazardous areas to hazardous areas Cable transits shall not be installed in roofs or top entry applications. Multiple cable penetrations through firewalls or gas tight walls shall be through cable transits.

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Single cable deck/bulkhead penetrations shall be mild steel painted to the applicable specification.

5.7

Junction Boxes

Junction boxes shall be of 316SS material and shall have hinged lids with captive 316 stainless steel bolts, and neoprene/cork gaskets. Small individual equipment/instrument termination enclosures do not require hinged lids. Junction boxes shall have predrilled threaded holes or detachable gland plates and shall be provided with 20% spare certified plugged cable entries. All junction boxes shall be certified Exe with 316 stainless steel vents and drains. All home run cable termination junction boxes or other significant junction boxes shall have internal mounting plates, with cable rails and plastic wiring ducting with generous spacing. Intermediate junction boxes or cable splices are not permitted on power cabling. Separate junction boxes shall be provided for signals as follows: Analogue signals (4 to 20 mA, pulse signals & RTDs) mV signals 24 V DC digital/solenoid signals Any other signal type. Intrinsically safe signals shall use separate junction boxes to non intrinsically safe signals. Control and Safeguarding can co-exist in the same junction box or multipair. Junction Box Numbering shall be: A number with area or module, followed by JB and three digits, sequentially incrementing for each box within the area/module. For example a junction box located in Module 8 would be 08-JB-001 and in Process area 120 would be 120-JB-001. Each junction box shall have a tag and service traffolyte label fitted.

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Appendix A Instrument Tagging System


Shown below is the structure of a typical alphanumeric instrument tag system.
XXXPLATFORM IDENTIFIER P XXX XXXX A

LOOP MEASUREMENT OF INITIATOR DESIGNATOR

INSTRUMENT ALPHABETIC DESIGNATORS (MODIFIERS/READOUTS/ OUTPUT FUNCTION)

EQUIPMENT NUMBERING

SUFFIX TO IDENTIFY INSTRUMENTS WITH IDENTICAL TAG NUMBERS IN A LOOP

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VIETSOVPETRO JOINT VENTURE GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION GENERAL INSTRUMENT DESIGN

Appendix B Fire and Gas Tagging System


Shown below is the structure of a typical alphanumeric Fire and Gas tag number.
XXXPLATFORM IDENTIFIER SD 05

FIELD DEVICE DESIGNATOR

ZONE NUMBER

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VIETSOVPETRO JOINT VENTURE GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION GENERAL INSTRUMENT DESIGN

The following list is not meant to be exhaustive and shall be further developed in the Detailed Design. SDI SD HD FD GD = Remote Smoke Indicator = Smoke Detector = Heat Detector = Flame Detector = Gas Detector (F = Fixed, O = Open Path)

GPA = General Platform Audible Alarm GPL = General Platform Visual Alarm EDL = Extinguishant Discharge Light EPDL = Extinguishant Pre Discharge Light EDY = Extinguishant Release Solenoid ERA = Extinguishant Release Abort EDS = Extinguishant Duty Selector ERD = Extinguishant Release Detector DSS = Door Status Switch

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Appendix C Characteristics
TABLE 1

Table

of

Control

Valves

TRIM CHARACTERISTIC SELECTION LIQUID LEVEL CONTROL


With increase pressure drop Is constant Decreases Decreases Increases Increases in load, Pressure drop load/no load Over 0.2 Under 0.2 Under 2.0 Over 2.0 ratio, full Trim Characteristic Linear Linear Equal Percentage Linear Quick opening

TABLE 2 TRIM CHARACTERISTIC SELECTION PRESSURE CONTROL


Fluid Liquid Compressible Compressible Compressible Compressible Compressible Downstream system Any Under 3 meters of piping Vessel Vessel Over 30 metres (100 feet) of piping Over 30 metres (100 feet) of piping Pressure variance All All Under 4 to 1 Over 4 to 1 Under 4 to 1 Over 4 to 1 drop Trim characteristic Equal percentage Equal percentage Linear Equal percentage Linear Equal percentage

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TABLE 3 TRIM CHARACTERISTIC SELECTION FLOW CONTROL


Measurement element linear with: Differential pressure Differential pressure Differential pressure Differential pressure Flow Flow Flow Flow Control valve location In series In series In bypass In bypass In series In series In bypass In bypass Flow range Wide Small Wide Small Wide Small Wide Small Trim characteristic Linear Equal percentage Equal percentage Equal percentage Linear Equal percentage Linear Equal percentage

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Rev 0 15-Apr-2009