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SUBMITTED TO: Mr.Mayilvanan Associate Professor SUBMITTED BY: VandanaThakur MSc.Nursing 1stYear

SUBMITTED ON: 25/ 11/2013



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Content Introduction and definition Principles Characteristics Types of projects Essentials of good project Organizing a project Merits Limitations Teachers role Summary Bibliography

Page no. 3 3-4 4-5 5 5 6 6-7 7 8 8 9


Any unit of purposeful experience in which the dominating purpose is an inner urge that fixes the aim or objectives of the action and guides its process to completion . Strong desire to achieve the certain end provides intense stimulus and increases the interest of the child in what he is doing. Practical in nature with emphasis on a single, complete unit of purposeful activity, resulting in concrete achievements. The undertaking must be complete in itself, and the goal, must be definite and objectively measurable. True creative thinking, true mental activity is essential to project method.

A project is a problematic act carried out to completion in its natural setting. Stevenson. A whole-hearted, purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment . Dr. Kilpartrick. A project is a bit of real life that has been imported into the school, in project method, learning by living this life has spontaneity, purpose, significance and interest, freedom. prof. Ballard


The Principle of Purpose

Purpose motivates learning. Interest cannot be aroused by aimless and meaningless activities. The child must have an ideal. "Why is he doing certain things",

(II) The Principle of Activity Children love activity. They become active because of the instincts of curiosity, construction, pugnacity and herd. It is always better to provide children with certain activities both physical as well as mental they should be allowed to 'do' and 'to live though doing' (III) The Principle of Experience Experience is the best teacher. What is real must be experienced. The children learn new facts and information through experience. (IV) The Principle of Social Experience The child is a social being and he has to be prepared for social life. Training for corporate life should be given to him in his childhood. In the project method, child gets enough chance to work in groups. (V) The Principle of Reality Life is real and education to be meaningful must be real. The child should be fully prepared to live a real life and for this he should be trained through his education. The project method is a method of educating the child and, therefore, it must also be real. (VI) The Principle of Freedom The desire for an activity must be spontaneous and not forced by the teacher. The child should be free from imposition, restrictions or obstruction so that he may express himself fully and freely. He must be given freedom to choose an activity, to do an activity according to his interests, needs and capacities. (VII) The Principle of Utility Knowledge will be worthwhile when it is useful and practical the project method develops various attitudes and values which are of great significance from the practical point of view. (VIII) Principle of Democratic Procedures In project method each member of the group has equal rights, duties and responsibilities. The procedures adopted for carrying out the project are democratic.

The methods aim at teaching the child for to get the best out of life. An attempt to use experience. Gives an opportunity for self expression.

Reset the whole curriculum and break all barriers of subject method. The project method proposes the whole sequence of activities involved in a complete undertaking. A large unit of appreciation learning or of attitude development. A play activity and children engaged in the carrying out of a project. Complete surrender to the childs point of view. An attempt is made to establish a positive relation with life.

Types of projects
I. Dr. Kilpatrick has suggested four types 1. Producer type 2. Consumer type 3. Problem type 4. Drill type II. According to the purposes and objectives 1. Learning project 2. Intellectual project 3. Physical/material project

Essentials of good project

It should stress present and future values and experiences. The project must have a bearing and on a great no. of subjects and the knowledge acquired through it may be applicable in a variety of ways. The project should be timely. The project should be challenging.

Should be feasible.

Organizing a project: Proper guidance: the teacher must experience guidance in selection of the project.he should she that the projects are educative and according to the capacity and ability of the pupils. Acceptable & purposeful: whole heartedness acceptance of the project, almost every pupil must be secured if the teacher wants to ensure its success. Good planning: should be done by the pupils beforehand. It may be in the form of drawing or list of steps to be followed. Sufficient preparation: to avoid interruptions and delays later sufficient preparation must be done before executing the project. Careful supervision: the teacher should carefully supervise the students in manipulative skills to prevent waste of materials. Evaluation: the evaluation of the project should be done both by the pupils and by the teachers.

a) As students get proper freedom to execute the project in accordance with their interest and abilities, because of which they get their psychological needs satisfied to considerable extent. b) This method is not only subject centred, but due importance is being provided to the students also. Students are permitted to choose projects on their own, as a result of which they make use of their abilities to maximum possible extent. c) Through this method, students are provided with various opportunities by which they can satisfy their interests and desires.

d) Habit of critical thinking gets developed among the students through this method. Not only get this, an urge to make use of scientific methods to solve various problems also developed among the students through this method. e) With this method, students get the ample chances in which they can develop coordination among their body and mind. Through this method, teacher can lead a well balanced development of the students. f) Through this method, science teaching can be done with considerable success, as science is a practical subject and this method is also scientific and practical in nature. The selected project correlates with the real problems of life which students confront in their everyday life. Thus, they find it quite interesting to sort out such problems. Not only this, through the information gained, they become able to solve out their own life problems independently and effectively. g) This method helps in promoting social interaction and co-operation among the students, as they have to work in a group and have to interact with various persons for gathering information. As the student works with full agreement of the social needs, he gets moulded in accordance with the social needs of the society in which he lives or exists. Thus, through this method, sense of social cooperation and responsibility get developed among the students, by which they can become responsible citizens in the future. h) As students gain knowledge directly through their own efforts, thus, they acquire permanent kind of information, which is retained by them since a long period of time. i) Mostly the projects are undertaken in classroom as classroom assignments, because of which load of home work from the students get reduced to considerable extent.

Learning haphazard and incidental. Time consuming. Impractical in nature. Limited by availabilities.

Leave gaps in the pupils knowledge.


Shortage of resources.
Too ambitious. Unsystematized.

Teachers role
Proper guidance and suggestion. Helpful. Good prompter. Keen observer. Proper planning and organisation. Command respect of the pupils.

The contention of the project is that wholehearted purposeful activity in a social situation as the typical unit of school procedure is the best guarantee of the utilization of the childs native capacities now too frequently wasted. Under proper guidance purpose means efficiency, not only in reaching the projected end of the activity immediately at hand, but even more in securing from the activity the learning which it potentially contains.


1. Neeraja KP Textbook of Nursing EducationJapee Brothers Medical Publishers, Page No.313-316. 2. Basavanthapa BT, Nursing Education Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, second edition, page no. 492-495. 3. M.Quinn Francis and J. Hughes Suzanne Quinns Principles and Practice of Nursing Education Published by Nelson Thornes (2007) 5th edition, page no. 248-250. 4. http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JITE/ 5. http://www.preservearticles.com. 6. http://historymatters.gmu.edu.