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# Interactive Figure: Change of Phase

Explore the Interactive Figure to help you with the following set of questions. If you need more help, click on "How To Use" for more information. Instructions: Click the Start button, and observe what happens. To return to the starting point, click Reset at any time.

Part A
What happens when you heat ice that is at -40 C?

## Hint 1. Heat and change in internal energy

The ice absorbs the heat. How would that affect the internal energy of the ice? How would that affect the temperature of the ice? ANSWER: The temperature stays constant. The temperature increases forever. The temperature increases until the ice reaches its melting point.

Correct

Part B
What happens when you heat ice that is at 176 C?

## Hint 1. Energy for melting the ice and temperature

The melting point of ice is 0 C. When you heat ice at that temperature, all of the energy you supply is used to melt the ice. What would then happen to the temperature of the ice? ANSWER: The temperature increases until all of the ice is melted. The temperature increases forever. The temperature stays constant until all the ice is melted. The temperature stays constant forever.

Correct

Part C
What happens when you heat water that is at 0 C?

## Hint 1. Energy for boiling the water and temperature

Adding heat to water makes the molecules move faster by providing them with more energy. What would that do to the temperature? ANSWER: The temperature does not change. The temperature increases until it reaches 100 C. The temperature increases forever.

Correct

Part D
What happens when you heat water that is at 100 C?

## Hint 1. Energy for boiling the water and temperature

When you heat water that is at 100 C, its boiling point, all of the energy you supply is used to boil the water. What would then happen to the temperature of the water? ANSWER: The temperature increases forever. The temperature stays constant until all the water is boiled. The temperature stays constant forever. The temperature increases until all of the water is boiled.

Correct

## Vibrational Motion and Waves Tutorial

Work through the tutorial by clicking the image or link below, then answer the questions below. Vibrational Motion and Waves

Part A
A 5-kg mass is attached to a spring and is oscillating with a period of 2 seconds and an amplitude of 5 cm. If the amplitude is made to be 10 cm, the period of oscillation will be _____.

## Hint 1. What determines the period of oscillation?

Does the period of oscillation depend on the mass and the springs stiffness? ANSWER: 2 seconds less than 2 seconds more than 2 seconds

Correct
The period of oscillation does not depend on the amplitude (it depends only on the mass and the springs stiffness).

Part B
Two blocks, one with a mass of 10 kg and another with a mass of 5 kg, are hanging on identical springs. If both blocks are displaced and released, which one will oscillate with a higher frequency?

## Hint 1. Frequency versus period

Frequency is the number of oscillations per second and is the reciprocal of the period of oscillation. ANSWER: Both blocks oscillate with the same frequency. the 10-kg block the 5-kg block

Correct
The spring is able to accelerate the 5-kg block more quickly than the 10-kg block, which causes the frequency of oscillation to be higher (and the corresponding period of oscillation to be lower).

Part C
Which of the two waves shown in the figure has the longer wavelength?

## Hint 1. Wavelength versus amplitude

The wavelength is the distance it takes for the wave to complete one cycle (this is independent of amplitude). ANSWER: wave 1 wave 2 Both have the same wavelength.

Correct
Wave 2 has a higher amplitude, but both have the same wavelength.

Part D
Two waves with the same wavelength are moving to the right. Wave 1 is moving faster than wave 2. Which wave has a higher frequency?

## Hint 1. How to compare frequencies

For which wave would crests pass by an observer more frequently? ANSWER: wave 1 wave 2 Both have the same frequency.

Correct
The frequency is equal to the speed of the wave divided by the wavelength.

Part E
You are floating in the ocean, and waves with a wavelength of 12 meters are causing you to bob up and down. If the waves are moving with a speed of 4 m/s, what is your frequency of oscillation?

## Hint 1. How to calculate frequency

The frequency of a wave is equal to the speed divided by the wavelength.

ANSWER: 3 seconds 4 cycles per second 0.33 cycles per second 0.25 cycles per second

Correct
The frequency is equal to the speed of the wave divided by the wavelength, or 4/12 Hz = 1/3 Hz.

Part F
An astronomer notices that radiation emitted by a star is slightly redshifted (the wavelength is longer). This means that the star _________.

## Hint 1. How do astronomers measure velocity?

Astronomers use the Doppler shift to determine how the star is moving. ANSWER: is moving away from Earth is moving toward Earth is not moving

Correct
The Doppler shift causes light from objects moving away from us to be redshifted.

Part G
Suppose you are speeding through an intersection at 100 km/h and notice a policeman trying to measure your speed using his Doppler gun, as shown in the figure. Because of the Doppler effect, the policeman will measure a speed of __________.

## Hint 1. Doppler shift and velocity

The amount of the Doppler shift depends on the component of the velocity along a line connecting the object with the observer. ANSWER: more than 100 km/h 100 km/h zero

Correct
Since the velocity of the car is perpendicular to the direction from the car to the policeman, there is no Doppler shift.

Part H
Red light has a longer wavelength than blue light. Which type of light has a higher frequency? (The speed of light is independent of wavelength.)

## Hint 1. How to determine frequency

Frequency is equal to the speed of a wave divided by the wavelength. ANSWER:

## red light blue light Both have the same frequency.

Correct
Since frequency equals speed divided by wavelength, the smallest wavelengths have the highest frequencies.

## Video: Doppler Effect

Watch the video, and then answer the following questions.

Part A
When the bug is stationary and creating waves, how does the frequency of the wave some distance away from the bug compare with the frequency of the vibration of the bug? ANSWER:

The frequency of the wave some distance away is less than the frequency of the vibration of the bug. The frequency of the wave some distance away is greater than the frequency of the vibration of the bug. The frequency of the wave some distance away is equal to the frequency of the vibration of the bug.

Correct

Part B
When the bug that is creating waves swims in the direction of the waves, how does the speed of the wave some distance away in front of the bug compare with the speed of the wave created by a stationary bug?

## Hint 1. What to look for in the video

Please watch the video again, and listen specifically to the part when Dr. Hewitt talks about the bug that is swimming toward the right. ANSWER: The speed of the wave some distance away is greater than the speed of the wave due to a stationary bug. The speed of the wave some distance away is less than the speed of the wave created by a stationary bug. The speed of the wave some distance away is equal to the speed of the wave due to a stationary bug.

Correct

Part C
When the bug that is creating waves swims forward, how does the frequency of the wave some distance away in front of the bug compare with the frequency of the wave produced by a stationary bug?

## Hint 1. What to look for in the video

Please watch the video again, and listen specifically to the part when Dr. Hewitt talks about the bug that is swimming toward the right. ANSWER:

The frequency of the wave some distance away in front of the bug is greater than the frequency produced by a stationary bug. The frequency of the wave some distance away in front of the bug is equal to the frequency produced by a stationary bug. The frequency of the wave some distance away in front of the bug is less than the frequency produced by a stationary bug.

Correct

Part D
When the bug that is creating waves swims forward, how does the frequency of the wave some distance away behind the bug compare with the frequency produced by a stationary bug ANSWER:

The frequency of the wave some distance away behind the bug is less than the frequency of the wave produced by a stationary bug. The frequency of the wave some distance away behind the bug is equal to the frequency of the wave produced by a stationary bug. The frequency of the wave some distance away behind the bug is greater than the frequency of the wave produced by a stationary bug.

Correct