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Theory of Architecture 2: Manuals Architectural Design Process and Methodologies The question of the actual design process and

methodology of design is more confusing when dealing with architectural design because architectural design more often involves in a team work. Before, most architects are considered more of an artist; they can design but was not able to explain or defends the need to add a significant amount of funds for the particular design. In todays architectural trends, there are set of rules and guidelines to be followed that could affect or help in making a design. The process should involve the following step. [TSSF Inc.] 1. Assemble the team As stated above the architectural design involves a team of people. At the outset of the project there should be a scheduling or at least a tentative assembly of efficient architects and consultant who identify the projects scope and purpose. There should be a projects team leader who holds the overall responsibility and identifying the right person/s in their fields. Clear Communication As again stated before, the design part involves a team. The communication should be always available for any enquiry of the different involves, especially for the owner or their representative/s. The Project Architect coordinates regular meetings to design staff, specialists and the Owners representative.

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Budget and Cost Control - Cost control is critical to the success of any project. This is true not only for initial construction, but also when considering the cost of operation. The projects budget is developed during the schematic design phase. Its monitored and updated during the design development phase, and finally confirmed during the preparation of construction documents. The Architect performs construction cost estimating, which involves confirming current unit costs for materials and equipment with contractors and suppliers. Staying on Track - Hold regularly-scheduled job progress meetings with the Owners Representative and contractors. These meetings help establish and maintain good communication, assure smooth progress and result in the projects timely completion.

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Methodology [The LaBICHE ARCHITECTURAL GROUP, INC., http://www.labiche.com/methodology.html] The Development Process Schematic Design - Review of program with Client - Preliminary design concepts - Landscape consultant input - Presentation of design concepts to Owner - Owner review and input - Schematic design finalized Design Development - Preliminary design of building systems with consulting engineers - Presentation of design development to Owner

- Review of project cost estimate with Owner - Owner review and input - Design finalized Construction Documents - Working drawings and specifications production - Owner review Bidding & Negotiations - Competitive bidding - Bid evaluation - Contract awarded Construction - Construction begins with on-site construction observation - Substantial completion - Owner occupancy - One-year building review by Architect

Biophilic Design The interiors of the first Optimum Performance Home are designed using the concept of Biophilia: the human need for nature. I have defined and discussed biophilic design in previous articles in Ultimate Home Design as an important approach to creating environments that enhance our physical and psychological health and well being by providing for direct and indirect experiences with nature. The argument for biophilic design is compelling. Research indicates that we need to experience and interact with nature as a central part of our lives to enjoy a variety of benefits including improved physical skills, concentration and memory; increased productivity; relief from stress and mental fatigue; as well as enhanced aesthetic and spiritual experiences. Biophilic design is an excellent (and natural) way to meet the challenges of combining sustainable, universal design qualities with the technologies of a digital home in a life enhancing, aesthetically pleasing environment. This approach represents the new design paradigm that seeks to create environments that are healthy for the planet and for people of all ages by understanding our deeply rooted human-nature connection. Because biophilic design is based upon the universal, inherent needs we have as human beings to experience nature as a vital part of our lives, it is essential to integrate biophilic design attributes into all aspects of the design from site to structure to interiors. Biophilic design attributes are elements and qualities of the physical environment that connect us to the physical, psychological, and cognitive benefits resulting from direct experiences with nature. Dynamic natural light and ventilation, access to open and/or moving water, frequent opportunities for spontaneous interaction with nature, sensory connections with nature, and the use of fundamental natural forms and local natural materials are biophilic design attributes that provide physical links with nature in the home. Symbolic links that appeal to our genetically based affiliation and association with nature and the essential sense of meaning we attribute to the natural world are also important biophilic design attributes. They include concepts of environmental complexity and order, a sense of mystery, and prospect and refuge (strategic viewing conditions from a position of safety and security). These physical and symbolic attributes were discussed in-depth as they applied to the first Optimum Performance Home in the July/August 2006 issue of Ultimate Home Design (Issue 4) and they will be illustrated and discussed further in future articles as the home is completed. Quality Over Quantity

A complimentary aesthetic approach to biophilic design is the design principle described by architect and author of The Not So Big House series of books and contributor to Ultimate Home Design Sarah Susanka as quality over quantity. This design principle embraces the sustainable idea of reducing resource and energy use by designing a smaller overall footprint for the home (i.e. fewer square feet). It also emphasizes the need to fully inhabit our homes by designing flexible, adaptable spaces rich in detail and meaning so that no space is wasted, no space is unused, and all spaces are special. Susanka provides guidelines to achieve a smaller-is-better design that include biophilic design attributes such as dynamic, natural light and visually/physically connecting interior spaces to exterior spaces. The intimate experience of our homes is greatly enhanced by combining biophilic design attributes with this quality-overquantity approach. The interiors of the first Optimum Performance Home are designed with intricate details inspired by and similar to those found in nature that fascinate us and connect us with the larger world. Privacy Needs Unless we design smaller homes with careful consideration, they often fail to provide for the diverse privacy requirements a family has over time. Privacy, the ability to control how much and what types of interactions we have with others, is central to achieving a high quality of life. People of all ages, all backgrounds, and all cultures require privacy to maintain physical and emotional well-being. But achieving privacy it is not a factor of square feet; it is a factor of good design. The book I co-authored, Designing For Privacy And Related Needs, discusses the diverse needs for privacy we experience in all environments, including our homes and throughout the stages of life. Our privacy needs indeed do change as we age. Therefore, any universal home design must be responsive to these changes. But because we tend to equate the ability to achieve privacy with more space, we also tend to equate larger homes with more rooms as being more private. The reality usually is: more space is simply more space, and often these voluminous spaces actually provide less privacy than well-designed smaller spaces. Designing for privacy requires interior features that 1) provide spatial hierarchy (a sequence of spaces that progress from less to more private; 2) create circulation paths that connect but do not pass directly through private spaces; 3) delineate thresholds (places of transition) between public and more private spaces; 4) provide stimulus shelters (places to retreat such as alcoves and window seats within larger rooms; and 5) design opportunities for prospect and refuge (a vantage point from which to view your surroundings relatively unobserved). These interior features subtly but effectively provide adaptable, flexible conditions for privacy that are integrated seamlessly into the overall design of the first Optimum Performance Home. The Process Once the functional design concepts and aesthetic approaches have been fully defined, the process of designing the interiors becomes a focused effort involving many individuals. Designing the interiors of any home is a collaborative process between the interior designers, other design professionals involved with the project, and the homeowners. But, as qualified, experienced interior designers know, the interiors are not a separate element of the home, but rather an integrated component of the entire exterior/interior environment of which the home is a part. Creating a successful interior environment for a sustainable, universally accessible, technologically innovative home requires research and education about products and processes as well as an integrated design approach. It also requires a commitment to a changed and enhanced lifestyle. Determining Owner Needs And Requirements The challenge is to develop interiors that incorporate the homeowners functional and aesthetic requirements while also allowing them to fully experience the enhanced lifestyle of their high performance home. For the first Optimum Performance Home, this challenge involves meeting the multifunctional requirements of an environment that serves as a family gathering place, home office, state-of-the-art home theatre, and intimate retreatall within a series of sustainable, healthy, adaptable, supportive, and beautiful spaces in a stunning Pacific Coast natural setting.

Research And Education (Products, Processes, Technology) The process begins with research and education. Sustainable products, processes, and technologies are changing and advancing rapidlyas are universal design and home technology products and processes. To be better informed about these changes and innovations, homeowners and their design professionals should attend some of the related design industry conferences, seminars, and workshops held each year throughout the United States and Canada. For example, a wealth of sustainable design information is now available to everyone from the United States Green Building Council's gigantic annual GreenBuild international conference, to local and state sustainable design conferences, to workshops and seminars offered by colleges and universities. Some sustainable design events are directed specifically to design professionals, while others cater more to the general public. The annual West Coast Green conference in San Francisco is the largest residential green building event in the country, combining three days of professional level training courses, seminars, and networking for design and building professionals with a full day for the general public including entry level training and keynote speakers. As a designer, I have found the USGBCs annual GreenBuild conference and the annual EnvironDesign conference to be excellent sources for design professionals. Optimum Performance homeowner, Gary Reber suggests also the National Green Building Conference, The Green Building Conference, GreenBuild Expo, Pacific Coast Builders Show (PCBC), Solar Power 2007, the Sustainable Living Fair, AltBuild, SolFest, and the National Association of Home Builders Building for Boomers & Beyond: 50+ Housing Symposium. Numerous magazines, newsletters, and books for design professionals provide in-depth, state-of-the-art information about sustainable and universal design, and home technologies. The United States Green Building Councils Web site: www.usgbc.org provides excellent information on all aspects of green design and building from new commercial construction to homes, including access to the LEED suite of rating systems. The Center for Universal Design (CUD) is a research center that provides information, technical assistance on most aspects of universal design. CUD evaluates, develops, and promotes accessible and universal design in housing, commercial and public facilities, outdoor environments, and products. Their Web site is www.design.ncsu.edu/ cud/index.htm. A must attend conference and trade show is the Custom Electronics Design and Installation Association (CEDIA) Expo and CEDIA Lifestyles Expo, where one can learn about leading-edge home electronics and electronic system integration. Integration With Other Design Professionals Successful sustainable design rarely is achieved by using the conventional, sequential relay-race model for design and construction in which each design professional does his or her part of the work and then passes it off to the next design professional. This traditional process of design and construction isolates professionals from each other, from the interdependent details, and from the larger goals of the project. Because every aspect of a building effects, and is affected by, every other aspect, the approach to the design must be highly collaborative and multidisciplinary. The term integrated design refers to a design process that brings together all key members of the project team to work together across disciplines throughout the process from beginning to end. The goal of this process is to achieve high performance buildings that provide multiple synergetic benefits at a lower cost. Participation from all design and construction specialties including architecture, engineering, lighting design, electronic lifestyle, interior design, landscape design, and construction is essential to the success of an integrated design approach. When all key players work together at key points in the design process, each part of the design is evaluated from multiple perspectives producing more efficient and effective design solutions. Integrated design ensures that all decisions about the interiors that affect the interiors of a sustainable home are never an afterthought but rather are central to the overall design. The result is a beautiful, comfortable, energy and resource efficient, healthy, life enhancing home for the entire span of the homeowners lives.

Value of Interior Design [US Army Corps of Engineers, http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/ARMYCOE/COEDG/dg_1110_3_122.pdf] We all expect a facility to be functional and maintainable. Achieving coordination of the building interior and furnishings, meeting human ergonomic and psychological needs, and providing optimum aesthetic effect are identifiable and attainable goals for every interior design project. People's reactions to interior environments are critical to the success of every facility type. These reactions were first identified in healthcare facilities, where color, texture, lighting, furnishings, and finishes all contribute to creating an environment which supports patient recovery and wellbeing. Training, maintenance, laboratories, logistic support, medical, administrative, residential, morale, welfare and recreation facilities all have unique functional and aesthetic requirements. When these requirements are satisfied, workers, residents, and customers react positively, take pride in their contributions and in the facility, and perform to their maximum potential. Why should you insist on comprehensive interior design in your facilities? To improve the morale and increase the productivity of the people in your facility. To use your space and financial resources in the most cost effective manner. To assure the health, safety and welfare of facility occupants. To project a professional image of your organization. To provide appropriate and maintainable building materials, finishes, furniture, and furnishings.

Artistic aspects and self-expression


It is characterized by a belief that individual self-expressionor ones inner spiritual self and creative imagination, inner resources and intuitionshould be utilised and/or be the base used when designing. These sentiments are closely linked to a number of artistic values found in movements like Expressionism and the Avant-garde art. Thus, this design value is closely related to abstract forms and expression, personal creative liberty, elitism and being ahead of the rest of society. The spirit of the time design value This design value is based on the conception that every age has a certain spirit or set of shared attitudes that should be utilised when designing. The Spirit of the Times denotes the intellectual and cultural climate of a particular era, which can be linked to an experience of a certain worldview, sense of taste, collective consciousness and unconsciousness. Thus form expression which can be found, to some extent in the air of a given time and each generation, should generate an aesthetic style that expresses the uniqueness related to that time. The structural, functional and material honesty design value Structural Honesty is linked to the notion that a structure shall display its true purpose and not be decorative etc. Functional honesty is linked to the idea that a building or product form shall be shaped on the basis of its intended function, often known as form follows function. Material honesty implies that materials should be used and selected on the bases of their properties, and that the characteristics of a material should influence the form it is used for. Thus, a material must not be used as a substitute for another material as this subverts the materials true properties and it is cheating the spectator. The simplicity and minimalism design value This design value is based on the idea that simple forms, i.e. aesthetics without considerable ornaments, simple geometry, smooth surfaces etc., represents forms which are both truer to real art and represents folk wisdom . This design value implies that the more cultivated a person becomes, the more decoration disappears. In addition,

it is linked to the notion that simple forms will free people from the everyday clutter, thus contribute to tranquillity and restfulness. The nature and organic design value This design value is based on the idea that nature (i.e. all sorts of living organisms, numerical laws etc.) can provide inspiration, functional clues and aesthetic forms that architects and industrial designers should use as a basis for designs. Designs based on this value tend to be characterized by free-flowing curves, asymmetrical lines and expressive forms. This design value can be summed up in form follows flow or of the hill as oppose to on the hill. The classic, traditional and vernacular aesthetics design value This value is based on a belief that a building and product should be designed from timeless principles that transcend particular designers, cultures and climates. Implicit in this design value is the notion that if these forms are used, the public will appreciate a structures timeless beauty and understand immediately how to use a given building or product. This design value is also linked to regional differences i.e. varying climate etc. and folklore cultures, which creates distinctive aesthetical expressions. The regionalism design value This design value is based on the belief that buildingand to some degree productsshould be designed in accordance with the particular characteristics of a specific place. In addition, it is linked to the aim of achieving visual harmony between a building and its surroundings, as well as achieving continuity in a given area.[20] In other words, it strives to create a connection between past and present forms of building. Finally, this value is also often related to preserving and creating regional and national identity. SOCIAL DESIGN VALUES Many architects and industrial designers have a strong motivation to serve the public good and the needs of the user population. Moreover, social awareness and social values within architecture and design reflect, to some degree, the emphasis these values are given in society at large. It should be noted that social values can have an aesthetical impact, but these aspects will not be explored as the main aesthetical impact found in design has been covered in the previous sections. Social design values are at times in conflict with other design values. This type of conflict can manifest itself between different design movements, but it can also be the cause of conflicts within a given design movement. It can be argued that conflicts between social values and other design values often represent the continuing debate between Rationalism and Romanticism commonly found within architecture and industrial design. The Social Design Values category consisting of four design values. The social change design value This design value can be described as a commitment to change society for the better through architecture and industrial design. This design value is closely connected and associated with political movements and subsequent building programs. Architects and industrial designers that are committed to the design value of social change often see their work as a tool for transforming the built environment and those who live in it. The consultation and participation design value

This design value is based on a belief that it is beneficial to involve stakeholders in the design process. This value is connected to a belief that user involvement leads to: 1. 2. 3. Meeting social needs and an effective use of resources. Influencing in the design process as well as awareness of the consequences etc. Providing relevant and up-to-date information for designers.

The crime prevention design value This design value is based on the belief that the built environment can be manipulated to reduce crime levels, which is attempted accomplished through three main strategies that are: 1. 2. 3. Defensible space. Crime prevention through environmental design. Situational crime prevention.

The 'Third world' design value This is based on an eagerness to help developing countries through architecture and design (i.e. a response to the needs of the poor and destitute within the Third World). This design value implies that social and economic circumstances found in the Third World necessitate the development of special solutions, which are distinct from what the same architects and industrial designers would recommend for the developed world. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN VALUES The 20th century has been marked by the re-emergence of environmental values within Western societies.[citation needed] Concern for the environment is not new and can be found to a varying degree throughout history, and it is rooted in a number of perspectives including the aim of managing the ecosystems for sustained resource yields (sustainable development), and the idea that everything in nature has an intrinsic value (nature protection and preservation). Generally behind these types of thinking are the concepts of stewardship and that the present generation owes duties to generations not yet born. [18][38] Environmental problems and challenges found in the 19th and 20th centuries led to a development where environmental values became important in some sections of Western societies. It is therefore not surprising[according to whom?] that these values can also be found among individual architects and industrial designers. The focus on environmental design has been marked with the rediscovery and further development of many ancient skills and techniques.[citation needed] In addition, new technology that approaches environmental concerns is also an important characteristic of the environmental approach found among architects and industrial designers. These rather different approaches to environmental building and product technology can be illustrated with the development of environmental high-tech architecture, and the more traditional environmental movement within is ecological based architecture.[39] Environmental technology, along with new environmental values, have affected development in cities across the world. Many cities have started to formulate and introduce "eco-regulations concerning renewable resources, energy consumption, sick buildings, smart buildings, recycled materials, and sustainability".[39] This may not be surprising, as about 50% of all energy consumption in Europe and 60% in the US is building-related.[39] However, environmental concerns are not restricted to energy consumption; environmental concerns take on a number of perspectives generally, which are reflected in the focus found among architects and industrial designers. The environmental design values category consists of three design values.

Green and sustainability This value is based on a belief that a sustainable and/or environmentally friendly building approach is beneficial to users, society and future generations. Key concepts within this design value are: energy conservation, resource management, recycling, cradle-to-cradle, toxic free materials etc. Re-use and modification This is based on a belief that existing buildings, and to some degree products, can be continuously used through updates. Within this value there are two separate schools of thought with regards to aesthetics: one camp focuses on new elements that are sublimated to an overall aesthetic, and the other advocates for aesthetical contrast, dichotomy and even dissonance between the old and the new. Health This design value is based on the belief that the built environment can contribute to ensuring a healthy living environment. Built into this design value, are principles like: buildings should be freestanding; sites need to be distributed to maximize the amount of sunlight that reaches individual structures. Similarly, there is an emphasis on health based construction and reduction of toxic emissions through selection of appropriate materials. TRADITIONAL DESIGN VALUES Within both architecture and industrial design there is a long tradition of being both inspired by and re-use design elements of existing buildings and products. This is the case even if many architects and industrial designers argue that they are primarily using their creativity to create new and novel design solutions. Some architects and industrial designers have openly led themselves be inspired by existing building and products traditions, and have even used this inspiration as the main base for their designs solutions. This design tradition has a considerable history, which can be indicated in many of the labels associated with this tradition; this includes labels such as Classicism, Vernacular, Restoration and Preservation etc. In addition, as indicated in the previous section Classic, Traditional and Vernacular aesthetics, an important element of this tradition is to re-use and be inspired by already existing aesthetical elements and styles. However, the traditional approach also implies other aspects such as functional aspects, preserving existing building traditions as well as individual buildings and products. The Traditional Design Values category, consisting of three distinct values. The tradition based design value This relies on a belief that traditional designs are the preferred typology and template for buildings and products, because they create timeless and functional designs. Within this design value there are three main strategies: 1. 2. 3. Critical traditionalist/regionalist i.e. interpreting the traditional typologies and templates and applying them in an abstracted modern vocabulary. Revivalists i.e. adhering to the most literal traditional form. Contextualists who use historical forms when the surroundings demands it.

The design value of restoration and preservation

This is based on a commitment to preserve the best of buildings and products for future generations. This design value tends to represent restoring a building or product to its initial design and is usually rooted in three perspectives. These are: 1. 2. 3. An archaeological perspective (i.e. preserving buildings and products of historical interest). An artistic perspective i.e. a desire to preserve something of beauty. A social perspective (i.e. a desire to hold on to the familiar and reassuring).

The vernacular design value This value is based on a belief that a simple life and its design, closely linked to nature, are superior to that of modernity. The design value of Vernacular includes key concept such as: 1. 2. 3. 4. Reinvigorating tradition (i.e. evoking the vernacular). Reinventing tradition i.e. the search for new paradigms. Extending tradition i.e. using the vernacular in a modified manner. Reinterpreting tradition i.e. the use of contemporary idioms.

GENDER BASED DESIGN VALUES This design values is closely linked to the feminist movement and theory developed within the 19th and 20th centuries. Design values based on gender are related to three tenets found in architecture and industrial design, which are: 1. 2. 3. Gender differences related to critique and reconstruction of architectural practice and history. The struggle for equal access to training, jobs and recognition in architecture and design. The focus on gender based theories for the built environment, the architectural discourse, and cultural value systems.

Designers that adhere to the Design values based on gender typically have a focus on creating buildings that do not have the same barriers that children, parents and the elderly experience in much of the built environment. It also implies a focus on aesthetics that are deemed to be more 'feminine' than the 'masculine' aesthetics often created by male designers. THE ECONOMY DESIGN VALUE Many architects and industrial designers often dread the financial and business side of architecture and industrial design practice, as their focus is often geared towards achieving successful design quality rather than achieving successful economic expectations. This is the basis for a design value that can be characterised as 'voluntarism' or 'charrette ethos'. This value is commonly found among practising architects and designers. The 'volunteer' value is founded in the belief that good architecture and design requires commitment beyond the prearranged time, accountants budget, and normal hours. Implicit in the 'volunteer' value are elements of the following claim present: 1. 2. Best design works comes from offices or individual designers which are willing to put in overtime (sometimes unpaid) for the sake of the design outcome. Good architecture and design is rarely possible within fees offered by clients.

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Architects and designers should care enough about buildings or products to uphold high design standards regardless of the payment offered.

The 'volunteer' design value can be seen as a reaction to and a rejection of the clients influence and control ov er the design project. THE NOVEL DESIGNVALUE It is common within contemporary architecture and industrial design to find emphasis on creating novel design solutions. This emphasis is often accompanied by an equally common lack of emphasis on studying of the appropriateness of any already existing design solution. The novel design value has historical roots dating back to early design movements such as Modernism, with is emphasis on starting from zero. The celebration of original and novel design solutions is, by many designers and design scholars, considered one of the main aspects of architecture and design. This design value is often manifested through the working methods of designers. Some architects and designers with their emphasis on the big idea will have a tendency to cling to major design ideas and themes, even if these themes and ideas are faced with insurmountable challenges. However, the emphasis on design novelty is also associated with progress and new design solutions that, without this emphasis, would not see the light of day. The design value of novelty is not generally accepted within either architecture or design. This is indicated by the debate in architecture, focusing on whether buildings should harmonize with the surroundings in that they are situated in or not. Equally is the debate where architecture should be based on traditional topology and design styles i.e. classical and vernacular base architecture or if it should be an expression of its time. The same issues are indicated within the industrial design domain where it has been debated if retro design should be accepted or not as good design. MATHEMATIC AND SCIENTIFIC DESIGN VALUES A movement to base architectural design on scientific and mathematical understanding started with the early work of Christopher Alexander in the 1960s, Notes on the synthesis of form. Other contributors joined in, especially in investigations of form on the urban scale, which resulted in important developments such as Bill Hillier's Space syntax and Michael Batty's work on Spatial analysis. In architecture, the four-volume work The Nature of Order by Alexander summarizes his most recent results. An alternative architectural theory based on scientific laws, as for example A Theory of Architecture is now competing with purely aesthetic theories most common in architectural academia. This entire body of work can be seen as balancing and often questioning design movements that rely primarily upon aesthetics and novelty. At the same time, the scientific results that determine this approach in fact verify traditional and vernacular traditions in a way that purely historical appreciation cannot. Social and environmental issues are given a new explanation, drawing upon biological phenomena and the interactivity of groups and individuals with their built environment. The new discipline of biophilia developed by E. O. Wilson plays a major role in explaining the human need for intimate contact with natural forms and living beings. This insight into the connection between human beings and the biological environment provides a new understanding for the need for ecological design. An extension of the biophilic phenomenon into artificial environments suggests a corresponding need for built structures that embody the same precepts as biological structures. These mathematical qualities include fractal forms, scaling, multiple symmetries, etc.. Applications and extensions of Wilson's original idea are now carried out by Stephen R. Kellert in the Biophilia hypothesis, and in by Nikos Salingaros and others in the book "Biophilic Design".

Design and public policy GOVERNMENT POLICY ON ARCHITECTURE 2009 - 2015 SEE THIS SITE: http://www.ahg.gov.ie/en/Publications/HeritagePublications/ArchitecturalPolicyPublications/Gov%20Policy%20on %20Arch.pdf DESIGN DIPLOMACY: ARCHITECTURES RELATIONSHIP WITH PUBLIC POLICY [RICHARD SWETT, FAIA, http://www.di.net/articles/design-diplomacy-architectures-relationship-with-public-policy/ ] By expanding design from its aesthetic sense to incorpor ate people, society and quality of life issues, we shift the paradigm of architecture from the design of buildings to influencing the design process for solving problems in society. Upon my arrival in Denmark as the U.S. Ambassador two years ago, I quickly came to appreciate the Danish ideal evident in this countrys long-standing mix of good architecture, design and public policy. For nearly a decade prior to my posting here I have sought to build a bridge between architecture and public policy in the United States. My first impression of Denmark made me believe that I had finally come to a country where the bridge was already standing. As only the thirteenth architect to serve in the United States Congress and the only one of the twentieth century, I came to Denmark believing that the influence of design on public policy had been cultivated through the successful engagement of architects in the public arena. I quickly inquired about the long list of architects serving as elected public officials and was surprised to find that the profession is just as reticent about running for public office here as it is in the United States. However, here there is much more influence exerted by the profession through other means. Relationships between government officials and designers are more prevalent. The profession has, in the past, taken specific stands on social policy that have influenced legislative policy makers. Still, little is known about the relationship between design and public policy. The interplay of public policy and architecture needs to be examined in order to gain a better understanding of the dynamics of a successful society. The inherent connection between design and public policy is rarely discussed, if at all. I have been very privileged to wear many hats during my career as an architect and public servant. My architectural training has served me well throughout my working life. In private practice, it has enhanced and informed my abilities to provide constructive service to my clients and constituents, beginning with nongovernmental organizations and citizens groups. The practice of architecture continues to enhance and inform my career, where I have served the public as Congressman from New Hampshire and now as I serve my nation as Ambassador to Denmark. As a matter of fact, architecture played a role in my public service career right from the start. My first congressional campaign slogan was, Every House needs a good architect. Throughout, I have witnessed and participated in the maze of complex systems, governmental regulations, professional disciplines, special interest groups, grass-roots community organizations and big businesses, all seeking to impact our built environment. I have found that there are few people well equipped to sort through the cacophony of competitive interests in a constructive way that ultimately achieves harmony. By virtue of our training, skills and perspective, architects should play that role, but, sadly, we rarely do. From this morass of conflict, architects are expected to create sound structures of lasting value; works of art, if you will. These forms we create are more than art, however. They must function as protective machines providing

order and place while they elevate the human condition, both spiritually and literally. And, as you all know, this is easier, much easier, said than done. But that IS what we architects are committed to do-it is the central mission of our profession. Daunting as this architectural mission is, the truth is that in todays wor ld it is no longer enough. We must be prepared to do more. Because of our singular focus on aesthetic design without regard to social design, because we have turned our noses up at the more mundane or administrative aspects of our profession, and because we have narrowed our leadership responsibilities to avoid liability rather than expand them to gain influence, we have seen our roles as leading visionaries in society follow a diminishing path. It is time to change our perspective. The title of this article, Design Diplomacy: Public Policy and the Practice of Architecture, may have intrigued and even confused many of you. But let me explain what I mean by Design Diplomacy. By expanding design from its limited aesthetic sense and broadening it to incorporate people, society and quality of life issues, we shift the traditional paradigm of architecture from the design of buildings to influencing the design process for solving problems in society (or public policy formation). The creative process of architects is a constructive, inclusive processtherefore more diplomatic than the aggressive and adversarial methods of engagement in politics. Hence, Design Diplomacy: Public Policy and the Practice of Architecture. Architects are essential contributors, even the actual shapers, of the environment in which we live. Yet they have always seemed to be supporting actors at best or bit players at worst, in the various dramas unfolding on societys main stage. It is time to take a fresh look at our profession and the role it plays in todays world. So it seems logical to start off with a new definition and an outline of a few key topics and terms: 1. The Global Village & Globalization 2. The New Economy 3. Knowledge Management & High Technology 4. Management of the Environment & Energy Resources 5. Accountability and Responsibility to the Local Community 6. LEADERSHIP Perhaps not all of these topics seem, at first blush, to interface with the world of architecture and design, but they most certainly should. The Global Village and its recently coined noun, Globalization, has become a common catch phrase. But it fails to capture an inevitable but very unpredictable development of our global community: the creation of community infrastructure. Examples can be found all around us. Witness the resund Bridge in Copenhagen. The engineering feat of a sixteen-mile span of suspension bridge and tunnel is changing much more than the cultural and commercial lives in this city and Malm across the sound in Sweden. This is the final piece of the transportation network that connects all of Europe. Now it is possible to truck goods and raw materials across all of Europe, all the way to the remotest parts of Northern and Eastern Europe and the vast terrain of the former Soviet Union. This bridge physically links the developed world with remote societies largely detached from the technology and prosperity we so often take for granted. This brings me to the New Economy. What does this sound -bite mean, especially for architects? As old paradigms are shifting, being redefined or being demolished altogether, how do we as a profession adapt? How do we remain in command of our established role while modern society is morphing around us? The traditional chain of command, where information is passed down in smaller and smaller increments, has been turned on its head.

Now huge amounts of data are collected and transferred to the small group of decision-makers at the top. Already now, and more so in the near future, vast numbers of individuals will have access to information on choices in life no longer limited by their immediate, physical surroundings. These are opportunities created by this new surge of information. They will no longer have to travel in order to work, to shop or to educate themselves. We will have more and more of the planets economies vesting greater and greater resources into the development and expansion of global intellectual property. Where does the architect figure in this? One example I can give where architects have already begun to play a role in helping to create the New Economy is the United States Intermodal Surface Transportation Act of 1992. Originally known as the Highway Bill, architects fought hard to expand the requirements of this legislation to do more than provide highway engineering and construction. Issues of sustainability and the creation of livable communities through social design were addressed. Architects and planners were made a part of the process so that best use scenarios would be examined prior to the creation of a new highway. Interconnections between transportation systems, or intermodal points enhanced the use of rail, air and sea transportation networks in conjunction with the highways-not separate from them. Let me quote a passage from Understanding Media: The Extensions of Mankind published nearly 40 years ago by Marshall McLuhan: To reward and to make celebrities of artists can...be a way of ignoring their prophetic work, and preventing its timely use for survival. The artist is any man in any field, scientific or humanistic, who grasps the implications of his actions and of the new knowledge in his own time. He is the man of integral awareness. The artist can correct the sense ratios before the blow of new technology has numbed conscious procedures. He can correct them before numbness and subliminal groping and reaction sets in. If this is true, how is it possible to present the matter to those who are in the position to do something about it? Good Question! Obviously, before an answer can be formulated, the architectural profession must first take stock. The issue of knowledge management is broad and critical. How do we manage our knowledge? How do we employ high technology? How do we apply this ever-increasing body of knowledge to the task at hand? How do we communicate amongst ourselves? How do we communicate to the public at large, beyond the physical reality of the buildings we construct? How can we match our skills and demonstrate our value to society as effectively as those youngsters, the I.T. whiz-kids, who are now the highest paid professionals (many of whom are leaving our profession), cutting across all levels of socio-economic and cultural barriers? Perhaps the answer lies in our accountability and responsibility to our communities. Not just to the international community of architects, but to those in our home communities. This is an area unconsidered and under-valued by our profession. But of course, we are not alone in this. We stand to learn a great deal from our colleagues in public service on this account. The profession of Politics has a negative reputation in the publics mind thanks to the glaring mistakes of some of its high-flyers. And so too does architecture when it becomes party to grave political misconceptions. To drop some infamous examples I offer Albert Speers Berlin or Brasilia, the utopian capital gone monumentally wrong. These are the worst-case scenarios realized out of grandiose political schemes met with equal fervor by likeminded architects. Examples of integrated artistic, social and environmental harmony created by architects who have served both their calling and the needs of society are harder to recall. They are not glamorous like the skyscrapers of corporate power nor are they the permanent reminders of empire building like the Roman Coliseum or the Great Wall of China. Pierre lEnfants well -designed new capital of the United States, Washington, D.C. survives as an evolving example of a good base for comprehensive city planning. Even Strget (or The Walking Street) of Copenhagen or the urban garden of Tivoli can be considered successfully harmonic examples.

But what we can see here in Denmark are design ideals played out on broader and better, more integrated levels that transcend the traditional top-down approach. In the design of managed communities for senior citizens, in the day-care centers for Danish children, in the sensitively-restored period architecture and in the planned post-war suburban communities integrated into the rolling hills of the Danish landscape, Denmark provides a stellar example of a truly integrated and societal approach to architecture and public policy. Danish architects are as famous for their buildings of international acclaim as they are for their dining room chairs and their desk lamps. No design task is too small or inconsequential. All aspects of the design of a civilized lifes accouterments, from the shelter we need to the implements for feeding ourselves, are treated with the same high standards of design integrity and respect. The awareness of architectures role in managing our precious natural resources and the responsibility to design the built environment with efficient energy use and conservation in mind are now universal. But making it a social, political and economic priority has led to a world-class role for the Danish industrial and architectural design community. The architects of the world should take note. This holistic approach forms the bedrock of a subtle, sustained leadership. It means taking many, many things into consideration. It involves combining the complex relationships architects must achieve to create their work while constructing purposeful physical structures with an inherent use of our environment. We are in an increasingly interdependent world in which not only commerce, but also professions and national interests overlap more and more. Despite occasional adversarial conflict in the arenas of trade, politics and special interest groups, it is interesting to note that architects remain one of the few academic professions still held in high regard by the public. Yet, the profession is losing market share. I would even go so far as to say it is losing touch with the environment, in which we not only live, but also are so integral in creating and managing. This interplay between the practice of architecture and public policy is at the crux of these questions. Architects have not adequately participated in the public policy debate in a way that I wholeheartedly believe would be so beneficial to our profession and to the public at large. By our very nature, architects are constructive, cooperative and creative problem solvers and as such, have splendid leadership qualities to offer. Likewise, public policy can only evolve and mature if architects better use their integrated creative skills to have a greater say in local, national and even international governmental affairs. I am not criticizing or downplaying the accomplishments of the profession in the public arena. Nor do I wish to diminish the very important role of design in our profession. I only suggest that architecture is made up of much more than just the aesthetics of design, and that we must consider a broader set of issues and set new objectives for participation in public life. Five years ago Herbert Muschamp wrote for The New York Times, a Fleeting Homage to an Architect Who only Dreams: The realization of an architectural design isnt purely a technical matter. It also has a cultural dimension....Im thinking, for example, of an artist like Christo, who regards the process of realizing as an essential part of his art. When Christo wraps up a monument, like the Berlin Reichstag building, the projects meaning is partly drawn from the involvement of public officials and private citizens in its creation. Architects draw on that level of meaning as a matter of a course. It is not only the public use of buildings that makes architecture a social art, it is also the architects engagement with clients, communities, contractors and others whose participation is required to alter the material world. If architects can fully gratify their creativity on paper, they are squandering the opportunity they have to activate the creativity of others. We could only benefit by the effort of participation in public life and through it the activation of the creativity of the public.

Thomas Jefferson, an architect of great skill and sensitivity and an unparalleled politician, played a pivotal role in designing the blueprint of the American democratic system. In doing so, he effectively realized the confluence of the arts, democratic politics and morality. In a letter to James Madison written in 1785, he wrote, I am enthusiastic on the subject of the arts. But it is an enthusiasm of whi ch I am not ashamed, as its object is to improve the taste of my countrymen, to increase their reputation, to reconcile them to the rest of the world, and to procure them praise. There are great opportunities, as so nobly expressed by Jefferson, for our profession to seize. How many architects hold senior government positions charged with Housing and Urban Affairs, Culture, Transportation and Environmental Management? How many architects are politically active and practically involved in their local and national governments? Buildings have been designed and built, but beyond that, what is the legacy of leadership that architects have left for societies? Will gated communities cut off from their neighbors be the future? Will glass and marble towers be gracefully integrated into their surroundings or alienate themselves from the very blocks on which they are located? The fact is too many architects are seriously marginalized, and I would go so far as to say, intentionally isolated, from the political process that determines the zoning, funding and the complex social and legal regulations that control the building of our shared environment. This subject needs to be confronted, debated and discussed in detail. Yet, we need to do more. Well-known Austrian architect Hans Hollein, when recently asked, Do you ever wish you had been only a fine artist? responded, I would have a much more comfortable life just sitting in a studio in the country. But I wanted to be involved in building in the city; I wanted to contribute to daily life with all its idiosyncrasies and difficulties. During the recent conference, we concluded by assisting in the design of a blueprint that will frame the future influence of our profession beyond the limitations of bricks and mortar. Such a plan suggests that our fellow architects take up leadership roles in order to balance the tectonic, economic and political aspects of city/state planning more consciously. Thomas Jefferson also wrote in 1785: I am proud to be an architect and dont propose we go out and tear down any buildings. I do propose, however, we tear down some of the myths and misperceptions that architects have about public policy and vice versa.

Activity Analysis and linkages for efficiency in shelter Please see the following link for the resources: 1. BUILDING LINKAGES FOR COMPETITIVE AND RESPONSIBLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP: https://unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Services/PSD/CSR/Building_Linkages_for_Competitive_and_Res ponsible_Entrepreneurship.pdf GREEN ARCHITECTURE: ENVIRONMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN: http://www.slideshare.net/ditzgarobo/philippine-ddays-intro-to-green-architecture ARCHITECTURAL THEORIES OF DESIGN : http://www.scribd.com/doc/80579364/Architectural-Theories-ofDesign

2. 3.

4.

ARCHITURE IN THE PHILIPPINES FILIPINO BUILDING A CROSS-CULTURAL CONTEXT: http://www.scribd.com/doc/80950174/Architecture-in-the-Philippines-Filipino-Building-in-a-CrossCultural-Context

Environmental concepts of Architectural Design Please see this site: http://www.scribd.com/doc/20563539/Environmental-Concept-of-Design-and-EnergyConservation-Theory-of-Architecture

Architecture of the well-tempered Environment [6205 Environmental Technologies http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic256758.files/L01.EnvironmentalConcepts.pdf ]

in

Buildings,

Roger Benham, Architecture of the weel-tempered environment (1984) Book on the historical development that lead to the separation of the building structure from the plant and the resulting relationship between the architect and t consultant engineer.

Environmental Building Concept What is the use of a house if you dont have a tolerable planet to put it on? {Henry David Thoreau} All design aspects that influence a buildings indoor environmental conditions, i.e. how the building maintains adequate thermal, visual, and acoustic conditions for the building occupants, as well as its resulting environmental footprint.

Figure 9: An extreme closeup view of the desktop, upon which a plan view of the contextual environment for the design task has been laid out.

7. Scaling and Simultaneous Multiple Scales While creating and experiencing a design at full scale is an expected goal for an immersive design system, it is not usually the best sole environment for architectural design because it is often necessary to understand and develop the design at multiple scales. Our virtual design environment supports simultaneous multiscale viewing so that conceptual models can be designed and observed at any scale, typically ranging from the scale of an architectural model - a foot or two across - up to actual size.

Simultaneous multiple scales are supported so that a project can be designed, for example, at a relatively small scale while simultaneously being inhabited or observed at full scale, or vice versa, with modications made to the model at one scale appearing simultaneously at the other. For example, one may want to model an entry way at full scale while simultaneously being able to view the design at a scale that allows understanding the relationship of the entry way to the whole house and the surrounding site. In future research we intend to explore the effects of body sense while designing at different scales and the perceptual advantages of working at multiple scales simultaneously.

Figure 10: A series of images demonstrating of the use of multiple scales in the context of designing a display system for the interior courtyard of the Architecture building. Interactive design can take place either at the desk or out in space.

Figure 11: In this image, the model has been scaled to t in place on the building plan laid out on the desk.

8. Future Work We have several developments presently underway that we expect to incorporate into our system in the near future: 1) We are working on implementing a browser 3 within the space in order to allow access to standard html documents, either locally or over the web. We would like to enable images/videos/documents/library objects/environments to be drag/dropped directly from the browser into the model. A browser could also permit access to a variety of JAVA applications, such as simple paint programs and analysis tools, that could be useful in supporting a rich design environment. 2) We presently have a standalone "Virtual Grafti" sketching tool for drawing on surfaces within a virt ual environment using tracker output. We intend to make that drawing tool available within the virtual design environment together with the ability to export the resulting images.

3) Images and videos brought into the environment are presently not supported in stereo. Future development will allow for stereo pair images and videos to be placed within the environment. This will include stereo images of the"snapshots" created within the environment and images used to create the overall environment. We anticipate the possibility of creating "virtual holograms", constructed from multiple superimposed images selectively viewed in a position dependent manner. 4) Presently all images and videos come into the virtual environment through the spinning drum provided with the kiosk. We will be adding a "DesignStation" folder for images and videos to be placed directly into the DesignStation, where they can be further arranged by the designer. Our overall goal is to develop a virtual environment that empowers designers. We intend to rene our system by observing how design is done in the existing virtual design environment and developing new approaches to meet perceived needs. To this end we will be making the system and the space available both to a number of different architectural design studios in the professional architectural graduate program at the University of Minnesota and for use in selected design projects undertaken by local architecture and interior design rms. Design sessions will be videotaped and the design process critiqued together with the designer. Although our virtual design environment is being developed with the specic needs of architectural conceptual design in mind, we anticipate that this kind of environment could nd wider use as well. It could be alternatively thought of as a working environment for the spatial manipulation and creation of images, with the necessary supporting geometric tools. We hope that our future research will involve a wider variety of faculty and researchers who would like to "design" spatially distributed information spaces.

Energy Conservation and the Design Process An Energy Conservation Architectural Design Tool for Warm Climate (LTV): The tool development and testing. [Richard Hyde and Aldomar Pedrini, http://www.thedaylightsite.com/filebank/An%20energy%20conservation%20architectural%20design%20tool%20f or%20warm%20clima%20.pdf] The use of design tools in architectural design is common place. Yet, in recent years the need has arisen to provide design tools to assist with the evaluating the energy usage of buildings. A number of tools are available for this type of work. Unfortunately, many of these tools are inappropriate for integration in the architectural design process. The research described here reports development work on lighting, thermal and ventilation tool for use at the conceptual stage in the design process. The main contention is that this type of tool is crucial to effective passive low-energy design as it is difficult to integrate energy saving feature at later stages in the design process. Part of this work has necessitated a critique of the concept of the passive strategies for non-domestic buildings; this is an important element in assessing the energy contribution of the external environment to the building. INTRODUCTION Research work has been underway to develop a design tool for assessing the environmental impacts of nondomestic buildings. In this case energy -use is taken as an indicator of environmental impact. This tool is called the Lighting Thermal and Ventilation (LTV) architectural design tool (1). It models the energy consequences of using climate responsive design strategies in the building design. Yet the question arises as to the form this tool should take for it to be most effective for giving architects feedback of the consequences of the building design on energy consumption. It is argued here that the key to this question lies in the design process. It

is widely acknowledged that the best opportunity for improving a buildings energy performance occurs early in the design process when basic decisions are made (2). Moreover, the penalty for not addressing climatic responsive design issues early in the process is that opportunity will be lost to make significant savings by relatively simple adjustments to the design. Increasingly sophisticated or costly efforts are needed to save energy (2). A number of phases can be determined; the phase that is of most interest is the conceptual design stage where basic climatic responsive strategies are used. In large commercial non-domestic buildings this involves the conceptual layout and thermal zoning of the building. Thermal zoning is a key concept in assessing the thermal response of the building. It is the relation of the spatial organization of the building to the exposure to environmental factors. Thermal zoning is the subdivision of spaces inside the building that have varying thermal temperatures. Zones vary with orientation and with exposure to environmental conditions. A common nomenclature in cool climates is to use two main zones, the passive and non-passive (active) zone. Passive zones can be day lit and naturally ventilated and make use of solar gain for heating. Non-passive zones have to be artificially lit and ventilated (3). The importance of this description is that passive zones use less energy due the use of natural energy than non-passive zones, which use man-made energy ie, electrical energy. Therefore a basic climate responsive planning stage at the conceptual stage is to make this passive zone as large as possible to reduce energy consumption. The extent of the passive zone is deemed to be twice the ceiling height for cool climates and gives a depth of 6m as seen in Figure 1 (3). At present little work has been carried out to determine the nature of the passive and non-passive zone for warm climates. It may be larger for warm climates due to higher levels of day lighting (4). This is further complicated by the need for shading which can reduce day lighting to minimize thermal gains for direct sunlight. This paper examines these issues from a theoretically and experimentally stand point. The first part includes a theoretical discussion of climate responsive design strategies to determine the concepts for zoning in warm climates; the second describes experimental work to establish the dimensions of the passive zone.

Figure 1 Passive active zone concept

Part 1: Climate responsive design strategies A review of the passive, low energy design principles used in non-domestic buildings revealed the following factors important in warm climates. These are framed as design strategies that can be used by architects to reduce energy consumption. .

For the purpose of the study these strategies are used as variables that can be manipulated in a work-back process. This involves generating a number of possible design scenarios an architect may take and find the energy consequences. Architects tend to evaluate design concepts in terms of the plan and section of the building. A hierarchy is found in the decision making process which relates to priorities designers have in the design process. For convenience, first order decisions are those that relate more to the planning decisions whilst second order are those in the section. Planning Strategies Plan / Room Depth Service Spaces Zoning Function Zoning Thermal Zoning Faade Strategies Ceiling Height Orientation Window Area and Position Thermal Defense Solar Shading and Light Guiding Natural Lighting Table 1: The climate responsive design strategies Service Strategies Air conditioning Electric Lighting Natural Ventilation

Second order decisions examine relationship between solar shading lighting and energy consumption was examined. This is called the solar design strategy. It is common practice for buildings in warm climates to apply this strategy in favour of reducing thermal loads through the faade by over shading. Yet this can mean higher electrical lighting consumption. The loss of natural light is also a reduction of amenity to users. Earlier models have recognized the significance of the effect of natural light on reducing electrical consumption (5, 6) but there has been little work into examining this relationship for subtropical and tropical climates. The outcomes of this work show optimum shading and window wall ratios for these design variables (7). In the study reported here the first order involved study of the planning strategies used to improve energy efficiencies. Previous work has established that considerable savings in energy use can be achieved by planning the building to achieve optimum plan depths, environmental zoning of spaces, ceiling height and orientation. This is an important area for saving energy, 30% savings inenergy use can be achieved by using this strategy alone (Hyde R.A. 1997). To assist architects in assessing the energy consequences of planning decisions the concept of the passive zone has been developed (Baker and Steemers 1996). This concept has been developed for warm climates but not related to tropical or subtropical climates. Work on this deficiency has led to a more complex model to acknowledge the need for shading to buildings to accommodate high solar gain in these climates (Hyde 1999 forthcoming). In this model a variety of zones can be established both inside and outside the building from the line of enclosure to control the external climate. These are:

Figure 2: Thermal zoning in section

External zones: 1. Environmental zone: micro climate of the site 2. Buffer zone: microclimate created by the building

Internal zones: 1. Enclosure zone: internal climate, immediately adjacent to the line of enclosure 2. Passive zone: the area defined in plan to receive a significant contribution from the external environment for heating, lighting and ventilation. The convention is to use a dimension equal to twice the ceiling height to define the extent of this zone from the faade 3. Non-passive zone: the area defined in plan and which receives an insignificant contribution from the external environment for heating, lighting and ventilation. For quantitative assessment the crucial design variables can be related to the passive zone and therefore to this end a study using series of computer simulation exercises were carried out using DOE 2. It is acknowledged that the qualitative variables concerning lighting or other factors are not addressed in this study i.e. factors such as glare. The main aim of the study was to examine the extent of the passive zone for warm climates. A rule of thumb has been established for cool climates. The extent of the passive zone is function of room depth and the ceiling height, where the passive zone is seen as twice the ceiling height. Thus for a ceiling height of 3meters, the passive zone extends 6 meters to towards the interior, at 90 degrees from the faade. Part 2: Discussion The extent of the passive zone is controlled by two main sets of factors: 1. The room depth that is the depth from facade 2. The solar design strategy, the level of transparency in the facade to provide daylighting

Figure 1: Daylighting control

Figure 2: Shadow angle definition.

Figure 3 Analysis of the window location on facade

The defaults for the test cell are shown below Characteristics Size Weather Operational Schedule Lights Daylight Control Work plane height Reflectance Window Value Dimensions: width = 10m, ceiling height = 3m, variable depth Brisbane TRY Lights and air conditioning working between 8 am and 6 pm 320 Lux in work plane, with light power density equal 10 W/m electric lights are either off, one third-on, two third on or fully-on Height from floor: 0.765m Wall: 0.5; floor: 0.2; ceiling: 0.8 Window width = 10m (frame width 0.051m), single clear glazing 3mm, light transmission 0.898, U-factor (center of glass) = 6.31 W/m/C; window front facade: 10 m. No shading was provided to the window Walls, floor and roof thermally insulated Packaged, EER (energy efficiency ratio) = 2.638 W (cooling)/W (consumption); cooling set-point: 22C

Envelope properties Air conditioning

Table 1 - Characteristics of the test cell


Results The results of this test cell are plotted in Figure 4. Energy optimum consumption is shown for varying room depths, also the optimum window wall ratio.

Figure 4 Optimum energy consumption and window wall ratios (WWR) for different room depths

The following observations can be made: 1. Without shading to the windows the optimum WWR is between 10 to 30 percent. Thus, for a northerly facade, small windows between 3 and 9m2 in area for every 10 meters of linear length are appropriate. As the room depth is increased, the larger window wall ratio of 30 percent is appropriate; as the depth is reduced a smaller ratio of 10 percent is appropriate. The optimum room depth is 8 meters with lowest consumption using a 10 percent WWR.

2.

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Figure 5 Annual consumption per area for different room depths

Figure 6 Annual consumption per area for different room depths

Part 2 Discussion From these results it is clear that the assumptions concerning the size of the passive zone found in European climates is different for subtropical climates such as Brisbane. The higher levels of solar gain and availability of daylighting means that the optimum plan depth can be increase to 8 meters with a lower wall to window glazing ratio. In this study shading was not considered although the method for assessing this has been developed. Further work has been carried out to assess optimum shading, window wall ratios and plan depth (8). Furthermore a more subtle definition of the passive zone emerges which is more dynamic, related to sectional information rather than plan information. In this conception rather than try and make hard definitions of zoning, it seems appropriate to use this type of information for making strategic design decisions.

Figure 7 Graphical tool for assessing thermal zoning strategies

Further outcome of this work is that it is possible to use this information in a number of ways. The earlier definitions of the passive zone are aimed at providing a method of assessing plans to give information regarding total energy use of the design. The contention here is this information is particularly useful for bench marking purposes. Benchmark figures for building types can be set and optimum design variables selected to meet the benchmark. Thus the benchmark for northern orientated facades may be 30 kWh/m2. A range of window wall ratios and rooms are therefore available to meet this standard. This gives boundaries in which the designer can work. This flexibility can begin to intellectualize the design process so that choices available to designer can be clearly indicated and the consequences of choices articulated. Additional information can also be obtained from the graphs, which enables the selection of optimum window wall ratios for room depths or visa versa. This assists with the design of particular zones of the buildings. Some preliminary work has been carried out with regard to this issue. It is clear that this information can be integrated into a graphical tool, which gives visual information of the consequences of selections made by designers as shown in Figure 7.

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/25807.pdf

http://www.thedaylightsite.com/filebank/An%20energy%20conservation%20architectural%20design%20tool%20f or%20warm%20clima%20.pdf http://www.slideshare.net/Aarongrt/energyconservingdesigndetails

http://www.weebly.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escalator