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CHAPTER 4
INPUT AND OUTPUT

DEVICES G-SCHEME
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BY MR. ARVIND S. SARDAR LECTURER MIT POLYTECHNIC ROTEGAON

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CONTENTS
KEYBOARD MOUSE SCANNER MODEM PRINTER

LECTURES REQUIRED MARKS 12

06
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KEYBOARD
TYPES OF KEYBOARD SWETCHES MEMBRANE MECHNICAL RUBBER DOME CAPACITIVE OPTOELECTRONIC INTERFACING
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INTRODUCTION
It is an input device. Its design came from typewriters that did not use electricity. A person can type a document, access menus, play games and perform variety of other tasks Keys, called Keycaps are the same size and Shape from keyboard to keyboard. These are also placed at the similar distance from one another in a similar pattern.

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INTRODUCTION

A keyboard is a series of switches connected to a microprocessor that monitors the state of each switch and initiates a specific response to a change in that state.

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INTRODUCTION
Standard Keyboard Layout A standard computer keyboard has about 101 keys. Most keyboards use the QWERTY layout, named for the first six keys in the top row of letters.

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INTRODUCTION
Standard Keyboard Layout Most keyboards have keys arranged in five groups 1. Alphanumeric keys (Typing area) 2. Numeric keypad 3. Function keys 4. Modifier keys 5. Cursor-movement keys (Screen control) 6.Modifier key (windows key)
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INTRODUCTION

HOW A KEYBOARD WORKS


A keyboard is a lot like a miniature computer. It has its own processor and circuitry that carries information to and from that processor. A large part of this circuitry makes up the key matrix.

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HOW A KEYBOARD WORKS


When you press a key:

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The keyboard controller detects the keystroke. The controller places a scan code in the keyboard buffer, indicating which key was pressed. The keyboard sends the computer an interrupt request, telling the CPU to accept the keystroke.

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HOW THE COMPUTER ACCEPTS INPUT FROM THE KEYBOARD


Keyboard controller Keyboard buffer Scan code Interrupt request Repeat rate

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FROM THE KEYBOARD TO THE COMPUTER


The

processor in the keyboard is analyzing the key matrix and determining what characters to send to the computer. It maintains these characters in a buffer of memory that is usually about 16 bytes large. It then sends the data in a stream to the computer via some type of connection. type keyboard connector. A USB type of keyboard connector.

A PS/2

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HOW THE COMPUTER ACCEPTS INPUT FROM THE KEYBOARD

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KEY MATRIX

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PARTS OF KEYBOARD CIRCUITRY


Keyboard controller Keyboard buffer Scan code Interrupt request

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TYPES OF KEYBOARD SWETCHES


Capacitive Switch

Two plates of capacitor are brought closer


when the key Is pressed. As the two plates move closer together, the amount of current flowing through the matrix changes.

The processor detects the change and interprets it as a key press for that location.
Capacitive switch keyboards are expensive, but they have a longer life than any other keyboard. Also, they do not have problems with bounce since the two surfaces never come into actual contact.
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TYPES OF KEYBOARD SWETCHES


Membrane Switch

Flat-panel membrane keyboards are most often found on appliances like microwave ovens or photocopiers.
A common design consists of three layers.

The top layer (and the one the user touches) has the labels printed
on its front and conductive stripes printed on the back. Under this it has a spacer layer, which holds the front and back

layer apart so that they do not normally make electrical contact.

The back layer has conductive stripes printed perpendicularly to those of the front layer.

When placed together, the stripes form a grid.

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TYPES OF KEYBOARD SWETCHES


Membrane Switch
When the user pushes down at a particular position, their finger pushes the front layer down through the spacer layer to close a circuit at one of the intersections of the grid. Typical applications include; Industrial controls Access control systems Medical equipment Telecommunications Telephone systems Household appliances Security systems

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TYPES OF KEYBOARD SWETCHES


Mechanical Switch

Two metal contacts are kept in open position and

moved into close position when the switch is


depressed.

Very Durable

Mechanical keyboards have proven popular amongst


the PC gaming community.

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TYPES OF KEYBOARD SWETCHES


Rubber Dome Switch

Dome-switch keyboards are a hybrid of flat-panel membrane and mechanical keyboards. They use small, flexible rubber domes, each with a hard carbon center. When you press a key, a plunger on the bottom of the key pushes down against the dome, and the carbon center presses against a hard, flat surface beneath the key matrix. As long as the key is held, the carbon center completes the circuit. When the key is released, the rubber dome springs back to its original shape, forcing the key back up to its atrest position.

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TYPES OF KEYBOARD SWETCHES


Rubber Dome Switch

Rubber dome switch keyboards are inexpensive, have pretty good tactile response and are fairly resistant to spills and corrosion because of the rubber layer covering the key matrix.

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TYPES OF KEYBOARD SWETCHES


Opto-Electronics Switch

Flat-panel membrane keyboards are most often found on appliances like microwave ovens or photocopiers.

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TYPES OF KEYBOARD SWETCHES


Opto-Electronics Switch Have LED which generates light when proper electric power is supplied. Opposite to the LED, A Phoito-transitor is used. The property of Phoito-transitor is the it allow the current flow in the circuit , as long as light is applied to it, when light falling to Phoito-transitor is removed, it will no longer allow the current to pass through it.
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INTERFACING

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A keypad consists of a number of key switches arranged in a

matrix of rows and columns.

In small matrices, rows and columns are connected directly

to the microprocessor I/O lines. In large matrices, decoders


are used to save the number of I/O lines used.

For a 4 4 Hex keypad, there are four rows and four columns.

The rows are high since they are connected to +5V. To


identify a pressed key, the technique is to send a logic 0 on each column, one at a time, then find out which row as a low

logic. The combination of having logic 0 for both column and


row will identify which key is pressed.
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INTERFACING

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A logic 0 is sent down on column 0 first.

If a logic 0 is detected at row 0, it means that key-0 has been pressed. If a logic 0 is detected at row 1, it means that key-4 has been pressed. The process is repeated for all 4 rows.
Then a logic 0 is sent down on column 1 and try to find out which row received this signal and thus which key has been pressed. The same is repeated for column 2 and 3. Note: The pull-up resistors are not built-in inside keypad, they are all external components. the

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SWITCH BOUNCE

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Mechanical switches tend to bounce. When the switch makes or breaks, it makes a number of very rapid make and break actions before the contacts become stable.
This bouncing tells the microprocessor that the switch has been pressed a few times instead of once which means that false information has been sent to the MCU and misled it. To debounce a switch, a software time delay is used that provides a time delay (20~30 ms) longer than the duration of the switch bouncing action.

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KEYBOARD CONNECTOR

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The keyboard connector is the device at the end of the cable

that is used to attach the keyboard to the system.


There are Three standard types of connectors. The 5-pin DIN The 6-pin / "mini-DIN / PS/2

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KEYBOARD CONNECTOR
Pin # 1 5-pin DIN Connector Keyboard Clock 6-pin "mini-DIN" Connector Keyboard Data

2
3 4 5 6

Keyboard Data
(not connected) Ground Power (+5V) --

(not connected)
Ground Power (+5V) Keyboard Clock
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(not connected)

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KEYBOARD CONNECTOR

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COMPARISON OF KEY SWITCH TECHNOLOGIES


Type Technology Travel
Tactile Feedback Audible Feedback

"Feel"

Durability

Cost

Commonality

Mechanical

High

High

High

Hard, solid

High

High

Low

Foam and Moderate Foil to High Contact Rubber Dome

Low

Low

Soft, quiet

Low to Moderate

Low

Low to Moderate

Moderate Moderate To High

Low to Moderate

Moderate, springy

Moderate

Low to Moderate

High

Membrane

Low

Low to Moderate

Low to Moderate

Hard, springy

Moderate to High

Low

Low (for PC Keyboards)

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Capacitive Capacitive High High High Hard, solid Very High Very High Low

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MOUSE

Opto-mechanical Optical ( New design)

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WHAT IS A MOUSE?

The mouse is a pointing device. You use it to move a

graphical pointer on the screen.

The mouse can be used to issue commands, draw, and perform other types of input tasks.

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MOUSE TECHNIQUES

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Using the mouse involves five techniques:


1.

Pointing: Move the mouse to move the on-screen pointer.


Clicking: Press and release the left mouse button once. Double-clicking: Press and release the left mouse button twice.

2.

3.

4.

Dragging: Hold down the left mouse button as you move the
pointer.

5.Right-clicking: Press and release the right mouse button.

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TYPES OF MOUSE
Types of mouse

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Based on technology Mechanical

Based on buttons Singel Double

Based on Interface
Serial Bus

Opto Mechnical

Three Scroll Mouse port

Optical Wireless

USB

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OPTO- MECHNICAL MOUSE

An Optomechanical or optical-mechanical mouse is same as the mechanical mouse except that the sensors used in it are

optical and not mechanical. The device is a combination of


optical and mechanical technologies, wherein, the ball is

present but the mouse movement is detected optically leading to more accuracy.

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OPTO- MECHNICAL MOUSE


1.

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2.

3.

4.

5.

moving the mouse turns the ball. X and Y rollers grip the ball and transfer movement Optical encoding disks include light holes. Infrared LEDs shine through the disks. Sensors gather light pulses to convert to X and Y vectors.

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OPTO- MECHNICAL MOUSE

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OPTICAL MOUSE

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An optical computer mouse uses a light-emitting diode and photodiodes to detect movement relative to a surface, unlike a mechanical mouse which has a ball which rotates orthogonal shafts which drive chopper wheels for distance measurement. The main components of the optical mouse are: Inbuilt optical sensor High speed camera which can take 1000 pictures at a time LED

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OPTICAL MOUSE - WORKING

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These optical mouse do have an inbulit optical sensor. The optical sensor reads the movements of the optical mouse (moved by the user) with the help of the light rays which comes out from the bottom. When the user moves the optical mouse, the LED (Light Emitting Diode) present inside the mouse emits the light according the minute movements. These movements are send to the camera as light rays. The camera captures the difference in light rays as images. When the camera captures the images, each and every pictures and compared to one another with the digital technology. With the comparison, the speed of the mouse and the direction of the movement of the mouse are rapidly calculated. According to the calculation, the pointer moves on the screen.

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OPTICAL MOUSE

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BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AN OPTICAL MOUSE

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COMPARISON BETWEEN A ROLLER/BALL MOUSE AND OPTICAL MOUSE:

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The optical mouse does not have any movable parts as of the ball mouse. So, the life of the optical mouse is long compared to the ordinary mouse. Since the mouse works with the sensor recognition, the movements are clearly captured and so the moves gives out a same function in all moves. Since the ball is absent in the optical mouse, the weight of the optical mouse is less than that of the ball mouse. The dust clustering problem is abolished in the optical mouse as its parts are all static.

The optical mouse can also function good without a mouse pad, which is impossible with ordinary mouses.Any way, optical mouses cannot be used above reflecting glasses or any glass materials.

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SCANNER
Flat Bed Sheet-fed Handheld Block diagram of flat Bed and specifications OCR TWAIN Resolution Interpolation.

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SCANNER

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Scanner is a special input device to convert both picture and text into

stream of data.

A scanner, simply put, is a device used to analyze an image and process it. Bring existing image into the computer.

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FLATBED SCANNER

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Used for scanning most documents, photos, and even flat objects from a PC or laptop Works like a copy machine

Scans documents placed face down on the glass (scan bed) Most common type of scanner
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SHEET-FED SCANNER

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More portable than a flatbed scanner Used to scan paper documents and photos

The paper moves through the scanner Usually smaller than a flat-bed and portable
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HANDHELD SCANNER

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Smaller than the previous two scanners The user must move the scanner across the document

Image quality is usually lower

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DRUM SCANNER

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Used by the publishing industry Document is placed on a glass cylinder Generates very high-quality scans

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USING YOUR SCANNER

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Most flatbed scanners are connected to the computer via the Universal Serial Bus (USB). A software program called a TWAIN driver is used by the computer to communicate with the scanner.

An image editing program can then be used to manipulate the scanned image. Most modern scanners connect to the computer through the USB.
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PARTS OF SCANNER

Charge-coupled device (CCD) array Mirrors Scan head Glass plate Lamp Lens Cover Filters Stepper motor Stabilizer bar Belt Power supply Interface ports) Control circuitry

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WORKING OF SCANNER

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BLOCK DIAGRAM OF FLAT BED SCANNER

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BLOCK DIAGRAM OF FLAT BED SCANNER

Light Source

Paper

Reflector Light sensitive Diode

C a r r i a g e

Motor and motor control

Latch Interface And control

A/D Converter

To Computer

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SCANNING FORMATS

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Depending on your scanning software, you may have different options of file formats in which to save your scanned image or document. Images may be saved as jpg, bmp, tif, or png. Documents may be saved as pdf or any of the image formats

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OCR

OCR Optical character Recognition is a process of scanning printed

pages as image on scanner and then using OCR software to recognize


the letter as ASCII text.

Converting images with printed text to text format

Making printed text accessible for text utils


Sources: scans, screenshots, photos?, pdf's, edocs Destination: ASCII/UTF-text, HTML/XML, TeX

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OCR
OCR systems consist of four major stages :

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Pre-processing
Segmentation Feature Extraction

Classification
Post-processing

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TWAIN

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The TWAIN is a standard of communication between the computer and scanner that allow images to be directly scanned from an image editing program. All scanner manufacturers agree to use this standard.
The TWAIN driver controls the scanner and serves as the interface between the scanner and your graphics program. TWAIN is not an acronym for anything. Twain is an old form of the word two. The TWAIN software refers to the computer and scanner and the difficulty in connecting the two.

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TWAIN

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Multiple platform support


Support for multiple devices Wade sprade acceptance

Extensibility and revisions


Easy implementation Longevity

Multi data capacity

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INTERPOLATION

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Is a process to increase the perceived resolution of an image.


This occur by creating extra pixeles in betwwen the ones actually scanned by the CCD array.

Resolution : Image resolution is the detail an image holds.

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MODEM
Internal External Block diagram and specifications

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MODEM

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Modem Short for modulator-demodulator. A modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over, for example, telephone or cable lines. Computer information is stored digitally, whereas information transmitted over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog waves. A modem converts between these two forms.

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MODEM CONNECTION

PC
110011

PC modem

modem

110011

DCE DTE

DCE DTE

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MODEM

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An input/output device that converts digital data from a computer to analog data for transmission over the telephone lines by modulating it into waves; at the other end, the modem converts the analog data back to digital form so that it can be read by the computer. Modems are made for different frequencies from 28.8k bps to 56k bps (bps Bit Per Second) There is one standard interface for connecting external modems to computers called RS-232. Types of modem There are two types of modem Internal modem External Modem
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MODEM
1. Internal Modem:

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Internal modems are built into the motherboard or a circuit board that plugs into an expansion slot inside a computer. Internal modems are also known as analog or dial-up modems. Modern analog modems transfer information at about 56 kilobits per second (56K) over a telephone line. Analog dial-up modems are susceptible to phone-line noise or interference from electrical devices and slower internet connection speeds. However, 56K dial-up modems can be used anywhere a phone line is available.

2. External Modem: The modem which is placed outside the computer is called External Modem. External modems are portable devices that you can attach to a serial or USB (Universal Serial Bus) port on your computer. External modems can be disconnected from your computer and used with other computers.
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MODEM CONNECTION

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BLOCK DIAGRAM INTERNAL MODEM


NVRAM controller Modulator BUS
ADDRESS DECODER

UART

Telephone interface

RJ 11
Demodelator

Telephone line connector

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BLOCK DIAGRAM EXTERNAL


NVRAM

controller
Telephone Interface

Modulator Demodulator

RJ 11 Telephone line connector


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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Data rate: 14400, 12000, 9600, 7200, 4800, 2400, 1200, and 0-300 BPS Fax rate: 14400, 12000, 9600, 7200, 4800, and 2400 BPS Data compression: MNP-5 and V.42bis Error correction: MNP2-4 and V.42 Data operation: Full and half duplex Dialing mode: Rotary and touch-tone Data compatibility: CCITT V.32bis, V.32, V.22bis, V.22, V.21, V.23 and Bell 103 and 212A Fax compatibility: ITU-T V.17, V.33, V.29, V.27ter, and V.21 (Channel 2) Data commands: "AT" compatible command set Fax commands: Class 2 fax command interface Phone connectors: RJ-11C Internal bus interface: ISA

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL MODEM


Item
External Modem

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Description

This particular modem uses a serial interface (connection): (compare the pros and cons) + Easy to install with serial cable + Does not occupy internal slot + Does not draw from computers power supply + Has LED indicator light, which make it easier to diagnose problem + Can be turned off without turn off the computer Uses a serial port for connectivity Slightly higher because of case, power supply, and cable. Internal Modem This particular modem goes inside your PC in an ISA or PCI expansion slot. (compare the Pro and Cons) + Usually supply it own port + Provides own high-speed UART + Slightly Less Expensive Occupy an internal expansion slot Some Models offers a windows display of progression for connectivity. In some situation, lockup of modems can only be cured by resetting entire computer.

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PRINTER
Printer Characteristics Dot matrix Inkjet Laser :Block diagram and specifications.

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PRINTER

A printer produces a paper copy of information generated by a computer.

Printers fall into two categories:

Impact printers use a device to strike an inked ribbon, pressing ink from the ribbon onto the paper. Non-impact printers use different methods to place ink (or another substance) on the page.

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TYPES OF PRINTERS

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Dot Matrix Printers

Ink Jet Printers


Laser Printers

Snapshot Printers
Other High-Quality Printers

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TYPES OF PRINTERS CONT.

Dot matrix printer Dot-matrix printers were once very popular, but have been replaced in popularity by ink-jet p5rinters. Dot-matrix printers typically use continuous form multipart paper and are commonly used for documents such as sales invoices and purchase orders. Inside a dot-matrix printer a print head containing small blunt pins strikes an inked ribbon to stamp images on a page.

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TYPES OF PRINTERS CONT.

Dot Matrix:
Been around since the first PCs. Use mechanical means to press ink from ribbon onto page.

9 or 24 pin print head


9pins == low quality and 24 pin has smaller pins close to each other giving better quality print (Near Letter Quality (NQL). Various size and shape ribbon cartridges Multipart forms: Carbonless paper forms keep these printers around. Tractor feed and friction feed Uses a sprocket to mesh with holes in the side of continuous form paper. Typewriters use friction feed.

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TYPES OF PRINTERS CONT.

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Peter Nortons Introduction to Computers 4th Edition

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TYPES OF PRINTERS CONT.


Dot-matrix printers are two important characteristics :

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Speed : Given in characters per second (cps), the speed can vary from about 50 to over 500 cps. Most dotmatrix printers offer differen speeds depending on the quality of print desired. Print Quality : Determined by the number of pins (the mechanisms that print the dots), it can vary from 9 to 24. The best dot-matrix printers (24 pins) can produce near letter-quality type, although you can still see a difference if you look closely.

Advantages :

can print on multi-part stationery or make carbon copies. Impact printers have one of the lowest printing costs per page. They are able to use continuous paper rather than requiring individual sheets. The ink ribbon also does not easily dry out.

Disadvantages :

Impact printers are usually noisy. They can only print low resolution graphics, with limited colour performance, limited quality and comparatively low speed. They are prone to bent pins (and therefore a destroyed printhead) caused by printing a character half-on and half-off the label.

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TYPES OF PRINTERS CONT.

Ink-jet Printer An ink-jet printer produces high-quality documents at a relatively low price. You can use the documents produced by an inkjet printer in most circumstances, except when only the highest quality is acceptable, such as for important business correspondence.
An ink-jet printer sprays ink through small nozzles onto a page to produce images.

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TYPES OF PRINTERS CONT.

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Peter Nortons Introduction to Computers 4th Edition

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TYPES OF PRINTERS CONT.

Laser Printer A laser printer is a high-speed printer that is ideal for business documents and graphics. Laser printers produce the highest quality images, but are relatively expensive.

A laser printer works like a photocopier to produce images on a page. A laser beam draws images on a light-sensitive drum. The drum picks up a fine powdered ink called toner, and then transfers the toner to the paper to create the images. Laser printers produce higher-quality print than ink jet printers, but are more expensive. 79

TYPES OF PRINTERS CONT.

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Peter Nortons Introduction to Computers 4th Edition

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TYPES OF PRINTERS CONT.

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Peter Nortons Introduction to Computers 4th Edition

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Before choosing a printer, the following features should be researched: Print Quality The type of printer you should choose depends on the quality of the printed pages you require. Speed Printer speed indicates how quickly a printer can produce printed pages.

CHOOSING A PRINTER

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Resolution Printer resolution determines the quality of the images the printer can produce. Software Most printers intended for home sue include software you can use to create special documents, such as greeting cards.

CHOOSING A PRINTER

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CHOOSING A PRINTER

Consumables All printers require items that have to be replaced on a regular basis, such as ink or toner. Make sure you are aware of how they cost.

Print Media when choosing a printer, you should check the size and type of paper the printer accepts. If you are going to need to print on envelopes and labels, make sure the printer has that feature.
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Color Color printers usually use cyan, magenta, yellow and black ink to create color images on a page. Color ink jet printers are the most popular because they are less expensive. Warranty The length of a printer warranty may range from 90 days to one year. Consider an extended warranty or service contract for you printer.

CHOOSING A PRINTER

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1. 2.

3.

Before connecting a printer, turn off the computer. If necessary, remove any spacers or tape used to secure the printer's internal components during shipping. Then assemble the printer according to the instructions in the printers documentation. Connect the printer cable to the port on the printer.
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CONNECTION AND SET UP

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CONNECTION AND SET UP


4.

5.

6. 7.

Connect the printer cable to a parallel port at the back of the computer. Some printers connect to a USB port. Connect the power cable to the power connector on the printer. Plug the power cable into an electrical outlet. All printers require a driver to operate. A driver is the software that allows the computers operating system to communicate 87 with and control the printer.

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NETWORK PRINTERS
Connect straight through cable from NIC on printer to a live network feed ethernet port Assign a static IP address to the printer Configure any network computers with correct printer software drivers Verify connection with the ping CLI command

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1.

2.

3.

Before connecting a printer, turn off the computer. If necessary, remove any spacers or tape used to secure the printer's internal components during shipping. Then assemble the printer according to the instructions in the printers documentation. Connect the printer cable to the port on the printer.
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CONNECTION AND SET UP

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