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Case : The Oblique.

The oblique form of a noun or a pronoun expresses the grammatical relations with
the help of the case signs (postpositions):

-, , U, 0, +| and +|

Always placed after the noun or pronoun
Called postpositions because they have the function of prepositions.
Postpositions should always be written as separate words with nouns as -
| - , +U - .... but should be tagged on to the pronoun as
- , U+| , |+U+| ....


` - `
When a verb is transitive and used in the past tense i.e. past perfective , past
imperfective or simple past, -' is added to the subject and the verb agrees
with the object in gender and number, e.g.,

| - |+ 01 || Ram wrote a letter.
- = |+| 0 | = I have read this book.
- |c| || You ate bread.
1|0| - |c| || | Gopal had eaten bread.
U|| - |=| U|| Sita learnt Hindi.

" +| "
+| is used for denoting :
(a) A person who does something involuntarily ( such as like , dislike,
remember, be injured, be offended, suffer, feel, enjoy, receive, to see or
to hear, to do something under compulsion, requirement, necessity,
obligation etc.)

| +| 1| Ram felt hunger/hungry.
| +| =T| Mother felt unhappy.
-|+ +| |-| 0| The servant had to go.
| +| |-| = Ram has to go.
| +| || Ram received punishment.
|z +| | 1| The brother was offended.

(b) An Animate object, provided it denotes a particular being-

+ +| |T| Call the boy.
T|| +| | = I see the man.
= +| +| 1| he will search for the girl.

(c) The Object of a verb in the neutral construction-

| - + +| | Ram saw the boy.
|z - =- +| | The brother saw the sister.
0| +| 1+ || 1| The stones were thrown away.

Note: In Hindi, verb is modified according to the gender, number and person of the
subject or object (hence subjectival and objectival construction respectively). In the
neutral construction, verb agrees neither to the subject or the object, but is placed in
the third person singular masculine form.

(d) Every secondary object (indirect object) which is generally animate:-

| - |=- +| 01 || Ram wrote a letter to Mohan.
| + +| 1 | = The mother gives fruits to the boy.

(e) The object of a verb requiring a predicative word referring to the object:-

= |--| +| 0|0 |-| = He regards poverty as a sin.
|+|| +| 1| +| Do not make the books dirty.

(f) Nouns denoting time when used adverbially:-

m| +| T|T| Come in the evening.
U|| +| |1| I will go on Monday.


" U "
U is used for denoting-
(a) The subject of a verb in the passive:

| U 01 -=| || || Ram is unable to write a letter.
+ U || -=| 1| The boy could not run.

(b) The indirect object (usually persons) of the verb meaning 'to say', 'to
tell', 'to ask', 'to beg', 'to demand', 'to claim', 'to request:

|z - | U +=| |+ .... Brother told Ram that.
- + U 0| |+ .... I asked the boy .

(c) Means, Instrument or Agency:

|+ U 1 +|c| Cut the fruit with a knife.
U U1 -=| +| I do not travel by train.
|+ U U|| | Send the news by post.

(d) Manner:

|- U U-| Listen carefully(with attention).
| U 0| You read loudly.

(e) Cause, Reason, Origin:

= = U | He died of Cholera.
0 U 0 U 1 The leaves dried up due to sunshine.
=| U -| = Yogurt is made from milk.

(f) Separation or keeping away from:

0 U 0| |1| The leaf fell from the tree.
= m= U | 1| He went away from the city.
c| U | Keep away from the wicked.


(g) Starting point (place or time):

-| m= U = The river is far from the city.
| + U || = Ram has been ill since yesterday.

(h) Duration:

= | U| U || = He has been here for the last 4 years.
| | |- U =| = He has been here for last 2 days.

(i) Difference and comparison between two persons or things:

= |+| UU T1 = This book is different from that.
| |=- U | = Ram is older than Mohan.
= UU |c| = He is the youngest.

" "
used for denoting:-
(a) Location or presence (of something) in or within something:

| 0 m= = My house is in the city.
| + = Mother is in the house.
| m++ -=| = There is no sugar in the tea.

(b) Duration:

= |+| - |- |- 0| I read this book in three days.
+|- |+ U| | =T| The house was constructed in one year.

(c) Price:

| - |+| |+ | || Ram bought this book for a dollar.
1|| U =| || = A Car costs 10000 dollars.

(d) Difference or Comparison:

T|| T|| T = There is a difference between man and man.
z- +| | UU = Ram is the most intelligent among these boys.


" 0 "
denotes:
(a) Location or position on or upon or at something:

|+| 0 = The book is on the table.
0 0 1 = There are fruits on the tree.
| 0 = Ram is on the roof.

(b) Point of time at which an action takes place:

|+ U 0 0=| I reached at the right time.
| + U |-c 0 T|| = The train arrives at ten minutes past 2.

(c) Sequence of actions or happenings:

=| |- 0 - | |+.. After reaching there I saw that
Clinton + T|- 0 U| =| 1 Everybody got up when Clinton arrived.

(d) Objects of(compound)verbs signifying mercy, faith, confidence, anger

|| 0 | +| Be kind to animals.
1|- 0 |)|U +| Have faith in God.


" +| "

+| denotes relation between noun-noun or
noun-pronoun
pronoun-noun etc.
If noun that follows is masculine plural, then +| changes into + :
0 + 0 ' houses of stone '
| + |z ' Ram's brothers '
If noun is masculine singular then +| :
| +| |z ' Ram's brother '
If noun is feminine singular or plural then +| changes into +| :
| +| =- ' Ram's sister '
| 1||| ' My cars '

(a) Possession and relationship:

| +| |z Ram's brother
| +| =- Ram's sister

(b) Material or composition:

U|- +| 0| ' a watch of gold '
+|1 +| -| ' a boat of paper '
T|| +| U| ' an assembly of women '

(c) Worth and Measure: (time or space)

|+ | +| |c| ' bread worth a dollar '
|+ | +| | ' a distance of one mile '

(d) Source, origin, cause :

0 + -|c+ ' the plays of Premchand '
+| 0 ' the produce of the field '

(e) Part of a whole:

|c| +| c+| ' a piece of bread '
|+| +| 0-| ' a page of the book '

(f) Purpose:

0|- +| 0|-| ' water for drinking, '
|- +| ' a table for eating on '
0=-- + +0 ' clothes of wearing '

(g) Characteristics:

+| U| ' the innocence of a child '
| +| | ' the love of a mother '

Note: A noun or pronoun, to which +| has been attached, assumes the nature of an T|-
ending adjective and qualifies the noun which follows it. The kw form, therefore change
like an T|-ending adjective, with the number, gender and case of the noun which they
qualify.

The oblique form of pronouns having +|, |, -| namely :
zU+|, U+|, |, =||, T0-| etc are always used as adjectives.
In fact, the oblique form of all the nouns with +| may also be considered as Possessive
Adjectives.

Hindi Program
Department of Asian Languages and Literature
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities