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Chapter 4Organization of the Cell

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Evidence that all living cells have a common origin is provided by: a. the cell theory, which states that the cell is the basic unit of life. b. the fact that all new cells come from previously existing cells. c. the fact that cells are the building blocks of the most complex plants. d. basic similarities in cell structure and chemistry. e. the fact that cells are the smallest units that can carry out all life activities. AN : ! "# : 1 $E%: p. &' ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

-. .t is advantageous for cells to be small because: a. a small cell si/e prevents a cell from weighing too much. b. a small cell si/e occupies less space in nature where space is limited. c. a small cell has a small volume relative to surface area, thereby increasing efficient transport. d. a small cell has a small surface area relative to volume, thereby facilitating ion balance. e. a small cell is better able to conserve energy than a larger cell. AN : 0 "# : 1 $E%: p. &1 ()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

Figure 4-1 2se the figure below to answer the corresponding 3uestion4s5.

6. 7hich of the following statements about %igure 891 is true: a. %igure ) has a greater surface area than %igure A. b. %igure ) has a greater volume than %igure A. c. %igure ) has a smaller volume than %igure A. d. %igure ) has a greater surface area to volume ratio than %igure A. e. %igure ) has a smaller surface area to volume ratio than %igure A. AN : E "# : 1 $E%: p. && ()*: )loom+s: Application

8. )ased on your knowledge of basic geometric relationships, the actual surface area to volume ratio for %igure ) in %igure 89- is: a. ;.;1. b. ;.;1. c. 1;;. d. 1,;;;. e. ;.1. AN : ) "# : 1 $E%: p. && ()*: )loom+s: Application

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'. (ne strategy that allows larger cells to have an effective surface area to volume ratio is: a. having a completely spherical shape. b. being short and fat. c. having thin, finger9like pro>ections. d. having a thinner plasma membrane. e. locomotion. AN : 0 "# : 1 $E%: p. &1 ()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

1. 7hich of the following descriptions or structures does N(# match the cell type: a. perm cells have flagella. b. Nerve cells have long, thin extensions. c. Epithelial cells are rectangular. d. 7hite blood cells can change shape. e. mallest cell are egg cells. AN : E "# : 1 $E%: p. &1 ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

&. 7hich scientist first viewed living cells: a. $obert ?ooke b. @atthias chleiden c. #heodor chwann d. Anton van Aeeuwenhoek e. August 7eismann AN : ! "# : 1 $E%: p. && ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

B. #he ratio of the si/e of the image seen with the microscope to the actual si/e of the ob>ect is called: a. magnification. b. resolution. c. resolving power. d. centrifugation. e. fractionation. AN : A "# : 1 $E%: p. && ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

=. Cou want to determine the location of a specific protein in a cell using a colored stain. 7hich of the following is the best techni3ue for this purpose: a. electron microscopy b. phase contrast microscopy c. bright9field microscopy d. fluorescence microscopy e. dark9field microscopy AN : ! "# : 1 $E%: p. &= ()*: )loom+s: Analysis

1;. Electron microscopes have a much higher resolution than either the human eye or any light microscope because: a. of their higher magnification. b. the lenses used are of much higher 3uality. c. of the very short 4nanometer5 wavelengths of electrons. d. the images are viewed on screens, rather than directly using an eyepiece or ocular lens. e. it can be used to view stained or living cells. AN : 0 "# : 1 $E%: p. &= ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

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11. #he scanning electron microscope differs from the transmission electron microscope in that the scanning electron microscope: a. can view a live specimen. b. relies on the detection of electrons from the beam after contact with the specimens. c. can view the internal structure of a cell. d. utili/es a beam of light that passes through the specimen. e. gives a three dimensional image of the ob>ect being studied. AN : E "# : 1 $E%: p. &= ()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

1-. #he accompanying figure is the product of a:

a. b. c. d. e.

phase9contrast light microscope. Nomarski differential interference microscope. transmission electron microscope. scanning electron microscope. confocal fluorescence microscope. "# : 1 $E%: p. B; ()*: )loom+s: Application

AN : !

16. !ifferential centrifugation is a process that: a. separates different components of the cell that function differently. b. separates components of the cell that have a different chemical makeup. c. analy/es the chemical components of the cell. d. separates components of the cell that have different densities. e. allows researchers to view the contents of the cells. AN : ! "# : 1 $E%: p. B; ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

18. A eukaryotic cell: a. is usually smaller than a prokaryotic cell. b. has its !NA concentrated in one area of the cell without a nuclear membrane. c. typically has a cell wall, in addition to a plasma membrane. d. is exemplified by bacteria. e. has a variety of membranous organelles. AN : E "# : 1 $E%: p. B()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

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1'. @embrane9bounded organelles facilitate faster chemical reactions because: a. reactants are within close proximity to each other. b. membranes lower the activation energy of biochemical reactions. c. membrane9bounded organelles act as catalysts for biochemical reactions. d. reactants move faster within membrane9bounded organelles. e. reactants are less likely to encounter each other within membrane9bounded organelles. AN : A "# : 1 $E%: p. B()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

11. 7hich of the following structures or activities is N(# directly part of the endomembrane system: a. budding b. lysosomes c. ribosomes d. peroxisomes e. Dolgi complex AN : 0 "# : 1 $E%: p. B6 ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

1&. !NA is associated with proteins, forming a complex called: a. chromosomes. b. nucleoli. c. nucleus. d. genes. e. chromatin. AN : E "# : 1 $E%: p. BB ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

1B. Nucleoli contain chromosomal regions that speciali/e in making: a. proteins. b. $NA. c. ribosomes. d. lipids. e. hormones. AN : ) "# : 1 $E%: p. B= ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

1=. A single cell in a smoker+s lung has become cancerous. .t doubles its !NA and divides much faster than a normal lung cell. #he most likely change that would have caused this condition took place in the: a. nucleus. b. nucleolus. c. microtubule. d. mitochondria. e. lysosome. AN : A "# : 1 $E%: p. BB ()*: )loom+s: Analysis

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-;. .n the classic experiments by )racht and ?ammerling, the nucleus of Acetabularia was removed, the cap was cut off, a nucleus of a different species was inserted, and the cap was allowed to regenerate. #he new cap was then removed. After the second regeneration, the cap was observed, and the following conclusion was made: a. #he shape of the cap was controlled by the nucleus, thus, the nucleus was the control center of the cell. b. #he shape of the cap was under the control of the stalk, which produced a control substance. c. #he shape of the cap was independent of both the stalk and the holdfast. d. #he EcrenE caps were defective due to some mutation in the cap. #hus, EcrenE caps are independent of control from both the base and the holdfast. e. At the time no conclusion could be made because in the early -;th century, biologists did not know about the composition of !NA. AN : A "# : 1 $E%: p. B19B& ()*: )loom+s: Analysis

-1. .f a toxin, such as a bacterial toxin, destroys ribosomes, what cellular activity will be affected first: a. protein synthesis b. !NA synthesis c. movement d. energy storage e. active transport AN : A "# : 1 $E%: p. B= ()*: )loom+s: Application

--. #he smooth endoplasmic reticulum: a. is absent in most plant cells. b. synthesi/es proteins. c. provides structural support. d. synthesi/es lipids. e. is re3uired for ribosome synthesis. AN : ! "# : 1 $E%: p. B= ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

Figure 4-2 2se the figure to answer the corresponding 3uestion4s5.

-6. $efer to %igure 89-. #he cellular structure indicated by the arrow is responsible for: a. lipid and fatty acid metabolism. b. protein synthesis. c. digestion of unused organelles. d. replication. e. cellular respiration. AN : ) "# : 1 $E%: p. =;9=1 ()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

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-8. 7hich of the following functions would most likely be occurring in the structure surrounded by the box in %igure 89-: a. apoptosis b. dynein movement c. formation of hydrogen peroxide d. molecular chaperone activity e. cholesterol synthesis AN : ! "# : 1 $E%: p. =; ()*: )loom+s: Application

-'. "roteins made on ribosomes may be further modified within the: a. lysosomes. b. nucleus. c. mitochondria. d. Dolgi complex. e. peroxisomes. AN : ! "# : 1 $E%: p. =19=()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

-1. #he cis face of the Dolgi complex is most directly involved in which of the following: a. packaging molecules in vesicles b. accepting vesicles from the E$ c. synthesi/ing proteins d. transporting molecules out of the Dolgi e. cataly/ing the efficient folding of proteins AN : ) "# : 1 $E%: p. =1 ()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

-&. A glycoprotein destined for secretion from the cell would move through the Dolgi complex in this se3uence: a. cis face to medial region to trans face b. trans face to cis face to medial region c. trans face to medial region to cis face d. cis face to trans face to medial region e. medial face to trans face to cis face AN : A "# : 1 $E%: p. =()*: )loom+s: Application

-B. #he FFFFFFFFFF can be considered a sorting, processing and packaging center. a. centriole b. centrosome c. Dolgi complex d. vacuole e. cytoskeleton AN : 0 "# : 1 $E%: p. =19=()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

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-=. !uring an infection, white blood cells travel to the infected site and phagocyti/e the pathogens. After phagocytosis, primary lysosomes fuse with the phagocytic vesicle to form a larger vesicle called a secondary lysosome. #he reason for this is: a. to introduce antibodies to the phagocytic vesicles. b. to wrap the pathogen in additional membrane, rendering them harmless. c. to coat the bacteria in lipids derived from the Dolgi complex, which cover and smother them. d. to mix the pathogens with strong hydrolytic en/ymes and destroy them. e. to prepare the bacteria for export from the body. AN : ! "# : 1 $E%: p. =6 ()*: )loom+s: Analysis

6;. All of the following functions are performed by plant vacuoles EG0E"#: a. maintaining hydrostatic 4turgor5 pressure. b. waste storage and recycling. c. storage of proteins. d. breakdown of unneeded cellular materials. e. storage of nucleic acids. AN : E "# : 1 $E%: p. =6 ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

61. (ne function of peroxisomes involves the process of: a. cell death. b. water storage. c. protein synthesis. d. !NA replication. e. detoxification. AN : E "# : 1 $E%: p. =8 ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

6-. #he theory that chloroplasts and mitochondria had their evolutionary beginnings in eukaryotic cells as endosymbionts is supported by all of the following EG0E"#: a. chloroplasts and mitochondria are completely autonomous within eukaryotic cells. b. chloroplasts and mitochondria have !NA. c. chloroplasts and mitochondria have small ribosomes for protein synthesis. d. chloroplasts and mitochondria are approximately the same si/e as prokaryotic cells. e. chloroplasts and mitochondria have the same shape as prokaryotic cells. AN : A "# : 1 $E%: p. =8 ()*: )loom+s: Analysis

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Figure 42se the figure to answer the corresponding 3uestion4s5.

66. #he organelle featured in %igure 896: a. is present in a few prokaryotes. b. is the ma>or site of protein synthesis in the cell. c. plays a vital role in packaging materials to be secreted. d. plays a central role in energy metabolism. e. is located in the nucleus. AN : ! "# : 1 $E%: p. =' ()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

68. #he structures indicated by the arrows in %igure 896 are: a. intermembrane space. b. grana. c. cristae. d. matrices. e. plastids. AN : 0 "# : 1 $E%: p. =' ()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

6'. #he main process that occurs at the site of the structures marked by arrows in %igure 896 is: a. protein synthesis. b. photosynthesis. c. conversion of food molecules to A#". d. processing and packaging of proteins. e. transcription. AN : 0 "# : 1 $E%: p. =' ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

61. 7hich of the following organelles plays an important role in apoptosis, or programmed cell death: a. ribosomes b. mitochondria c. chloroplasts d. vacuoles e. peroxisomes AN : ) "# : 1 $E%: p. =' ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

6&. A cellular structure found in plant but not animal cells is the: a. chloroplast. b. ribosome. c. endoplasmic reticulum. d. microtubule. e. microfilament. AN : A "# : 1 $E%: p. =1 ()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

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Figure 4-4 2se the figure to answer the corresponding 3uestion4s5.

6B. $efer to %igure 898. .f you treated this organelle to remove (NAC the chlorophyll, which label indicates the portion of the organelle that would be most directly affected by this treatment: a. A b. ) c. 0 d. ! e. E AN : ! "# : 1 $E%: p. =1 ()*: )loom+s: Analysis

6=. #he formation of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water occurs in the portion of %igure 898 labeled: a. A b. ) c. 0 d. ! e. E AN : A "# : 1 $E%: p. =1 ()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

8;. 7hich of the following structures would not be found in cells of a plant+s roots: a. mitochondria b. chloroplasts c. endoplasmic reticulum d. nucleus e. Dolgi complex AN : ) "# : 1 $E%: p. =& ()*: )loom+s: Application

81. 7hich of the following is a key component of the cytoskeleton: a. centrosome b. microtubules c. !NA d. ribosomes e. endoplasmic reticulum AN : ) "# : 1 $E%: p. =& ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

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8-. Cou isolate a cellular structure and determine that it is composed of 9tubulin and 9tubulin. )ased on this evidence, you correctly identify this structure as: a. a structural @A". b. a microfilament. c. a microtubule. d. an actin filament. e. a myosin filament. AN : 0 "# : 1 $E%: p. =& ()*: )loom+s: Analysis

86. 7hich of the following pairs is correctly matched: a. chloroplaststorage of en/ymes b. lysosomepowerhouse of the cell c. centrosomecell division d. plastidsstructural support of the cell e. Dolgi complexproduction of energy AN : 0 "# : 1 $E%: p. =B ()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

88. #he force necessary to cause microtubules of cilia and flagella to slide alongside one another is provided through the action of FFFFFFFFFF proteins, which derive the energy to perform their work directly from FFFFFFFFFF molecules. a. kinesinH A!" b. kinesinH glucose c. tubulinH A#" d. dyneinH A#" e. dyneinH A!" AN : ! "# : 1 $E%: p. == ()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

8'. 7hich of the following statements concerning centrioles is %AA E: a. #hey are present in most animal cells but not most plant cells. b. #hey are duplicated before cell division. c. #hey have a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules. d. #hey are found in the centrosome. e. #hey are thought to play a role in microtubule assembly. AN : 0 "# : 1 $E%: p. =B ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

81. A basal body is most closely related to a: a. ribosome. b. thylakoid. c. centriole. d. centrosome. e. lysosome. AN : 0 "# : 1 $E%: p. == ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

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8&. As a result of testing an experimental drip on a vertebrate cell, you notice that the cell cortex becomes more fluid, and although the cell remains strong, it loses its ability to move. )ased on this evidence, you correctly conclude that the drug most directly affected: a. 9tubulin. b. 9tubulin. c. actin filaments. d. myosin. e. intermediate filaments. AN : 0 "# : 1 $E%: p. ==91;; ()*: )loom+s: Analysis

8B. #he structures in the micrograph are:

a. b. c. d. e.

chloroplasts. cilia. rough E$. flagella. ) and !. "# : 1 $E%: p. 1;; ()*: )loom+s: Application

AN : E

8=. .ntermediate filaments are most closely associated with which of the following: a. actin. b. microvilli. c. pseudopodia. d. keratins. e. myosin. AN : ! "# : 1 $E%: p. 1;1 ()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

';. 7hich of the following pairs is correctly matched: a. middle lamellacellulose b. integrinsreceptors c. primary cell wallpectin d. fibronectinswood e. secondary cell wallglycoproteins AN : ) "# : 1 $E%: p. 1;()*: )loom+s: Application

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'1. 7hich of the following is N(# a cell covering or part of a cell covering: a. glycocalyx b. extracellular matrix c. cristae d. cell wall e. integrins AN : 0 "# : 1 $E%: p. 1;()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge

'-. 7hich of the following is4are5 located between the primary walls of ad>acent cells: a. intermediate filaments b. myosin c. actin filaments d. middle lamella e. secondary wall AN : ! !HO"T #$!%E" 1. Aist the similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. .dentify three ways that these differences impact cell function. AN : imilarities between prokaryote and eukaryote cells are that each have plasma membranes, cytosol, ribosomes, !NA, and $NA. Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles which includes a nucleus with linear !NA, mitochondria, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and vesicles. peciali/ed organelles permit eukaryote cells to be larger than prokaryote cells. ?owever the large si/e of eukaryote cells results in a slower division rate than prokaryote cells. Eukaryotes can gnerate more A#" than prokaryotes because they have the mitochondria devoted to A#" production whereas A#" production by prokaryotes occurs uin their plasma membrane. "# : 1 $E%: p. B19B1 ()*: )loom+s: ,nowledge "# : 1 $E%: p. 1;()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

-. )riefly explain the relationship between the surface area and volume of a cell and overall cell si/e. Aist two ways in which organisms have successfully EsolvedE this problem. AN : #he surface area of a cell must be large enough to support the metabolism of the cell volume. #o solve this problem some cells have long flat extensions and others have fingerlike pro>ections to increase surface area. "# : 1 $E%: p. &19&& ()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

6. Aist the similarities and differences between the functions of the chloroplasts and mitochondria. .nclude the identification of specific structures in your comparison. AN : @itochondria and chloroplasts are both energy converting organelles. @itochondria make A#" on internal membranes from chemical energy. 0hloroplasts convert light energy to make A#" and NA!"? on internal membranes,

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"# : 1

$E%: p. =89=&

()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

8. .dentify two structural components of the cytoskeleton, and briefly describe their function4s5. AN : @icrotubules of the cytoskeleton are involved in chromosome movement during division. @icrofilaments provide mechanical support for cellular structures. "# : 1 $E%: p. =&91;1 ()*: )loom+s: 0omprehension

'. !raw and label a rough structural diagram of a flagellum. .dentify the role of each labeled structure in the process of movement associated with this organelle. )(N2 : 0onsider how your answer would differ if you were asked to discuss cilia. AN : ee figure 89-& "# : 1 MO&IFIE& T"UE'F#L!E 1. #he smooth E$ is the primary site for the synthesis of proteins and cholesterol needed to make membranes. FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF AN : %, phospholipids "# : 1 $E%: p. B= ()*: )loom+s knowledge $E%: p. ==9 1;; ()*: )loom+s: Analysis

-. #he existence of a separate set of enzymes and !NA molecules in mitochondria and chloroplasts provide support for serial endosymbiosis. FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF AN : %, ribosomes "# : 1 $E%: p. =8 ()*: )loom+s knowledge

6. .n animal cells the main microtubule organi/ing center 4or centrosome5 is important in cell division. FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF AN : # ()*: )loom+s knowledge "# : 1 $E%: p. =B

8. @itochondria play an important role in cell necrosis. FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF AN : %, apoptosis "# : 1 $E%: p. =' ()*: )loom+s comprehension

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'. "eroxisomes are found in large numbers in cells that synthesi/e, store, and degrade lipids, and one of their functions is to break down protein molecules. FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF AN : %, fatty acid "# : 1 $E%: p. =8 ()*: )loom+s knowledge

1. !NA is associated with $NA and certain proteins forming chromatin. FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF AN : # ()*: )loom+s knowledge "# : 1 $E%: p.BB

&. En/ymes called proteases in the E$ lumen cataly/e folding of proteins into proper conformations. FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF AN : %, molecular chaperones "# : 1 $E%: p. =; ()*: )loom+s knowledge

B. "roteasomes direct the destruction of defective DNA. FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF AN : %, proteins. "# : 1 $E%: p. =1 ()*: )loom+s knowledge

=. 0ells that secrete large amounts of glycoprotein have many Dolgi stacks. FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF AN : # "# : 1 $E%: p. =1 ()*: )loom+s knowledge

1;. Dolgi complexes of prokaryotic cells produce extracellullar polysaccharides that are used to make cell walls. FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF AN : %, plant "# : 1 E!!#( 1. ome cells are very large, seemingly in defiance of maintaining a large surface area to volume ratio. 7hat are some strategies or adaptations that these cells may use in order to maintain a reasonable surface area to volume ratio: AN : Con)ept* to Con*i+er, 0hanging cell shape in order to increase surface area without substantially increasing volumeH having long thin extensions of the cells in order to increase surface area. "# : 1 #(": Essay $E%: p. &'9&& ()*: )loom+s: Analysis $E%: p. =1 ()*: )loom+s knowledge

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-. A bacterial pathogen has >ust entered the body of a person. !escribe the se3uence of events that lead to the production of en/ymes that will hydrolytically destroy the bacterial cell, beginning with events in the nucleus and ending with destruction of the pathogen. AN : !e-uen)e of e.ent*, !NA transcription into $NAH translation of the $NA on ribosomes into a hydrolytic en/ymeH post9transcriptional modification of the resultant protein en/yme in the E$ lumen and the DolgiH packaging of the en/yme in a primary lysosomeH fusion of the lysosome with a phagocyti/ed vacuole containing the engulfed bacterium. "# : 1 A(0: Essay $E%: p. =6 ()*: )loom+s: ynthesis

6. %or the following medical conditions, describe the likely cellular organelle or structure that has been affected in such a way as to cause the condition 4note: #here may be more than one organelle or structure involved5: A. #he sperm of a man cannot swim, thus rendering him infertile. ). A child experiences kidney failure due to %abry+s disease where the cells lining the inside of the kidney tubule accumulate abnormally large amounts of glycolipids that are usually degraded by en/ymes. 0. A person dies within minutes after ingesting cyanide because A#" is no longer being synthesi/ed. AN : Con)ept* to Con*i+er, A. #he problem may be due to nonfunctioning mitochondria, which power the beating of the flagella, or the problem may be dysfunctional microtubulesH ). "eroxisomes, which contain en/ymes that break down lipids and fats, may be nonfunctioning or may not be produced by the Dolgi apparatus. (n the other hand, the en/yme itself may not be produced due to a mutation in the !NA or some post9transcriptional problemH 0. 0yanide prevents the normal functioning of mitochondria. "# : 1 $E%: p. =191;1 #(": !iscussion or #hought Iuestions ()*: )loom+s: Analysis

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