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Luiz F. W. de Souza

Associate, IEEE CEPEL P.O. Box 68007 21944-970 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil E.-mail: Ifelipe@fund.cepel.br

Edson H. Watanabe

Member, IEEE COPPWUFRJ P.O. Box 68504 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil E.-mail: watanabe@coe.ufrj.br

Mauricio Aredes

Member, IEEE COPPEIEUUFRJ P.O. Box 68504 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil E.-mail: aredes@coe.ufrj.br

AbSlraci: This paper describes the GTO Controlled Series Capacitor - CCSC, an equipment for controlled series compensation of transmission systems. The principles of operation of the GCSC are reviewed and harmonic analysis is performed, showing how much of voltage harmonics are produced by the GCSC. Novel configurations using multi-module and multipulse GCSC's are proposed in order to reduce the voltage har-

monics. Digital simulations using the EMTP are presented to validate the proposed configurations.

Keywords: FACTS,Series Compensation

I. INTRODUCTION

owadays, it is becoming increasingly difficult to construct new transmission lines and generation facilities, because of environment, right-of-way and cost problems. In spite of this, the demand for electric power continues to grow. The utilities need to operate their power transmission systems much more efficiently, increasing their utilization degree. Series compensation of power transmission lines is a useful tool to improve the power transfer capability[l][2]. In power systems where large amounts of power must be transmitted through long transmission lines, sometimes it is necessary to add series compensation, in order to improve system performance. In 1966, Kimbark showed that a series switched capacitor could improve transient stability [3]. With the advance of power semiconductor technology, thyristors able to switch capacitors with a fast response started to be used in practical applications [4][5]. Vithayuthil et al. [6] proposed a circuit for Rapid Adjustment of Network Impedance (RANI). This circuit consists of a Thyistor Controlled Reactor (TCR) connected in parallel with an impedance. The circuit using a capacitor in parallel n series with a transmission with a TCR, when connected i line, is known as Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC). Fig. 1 shows the basic configuration of a TCSC. By regulating the TCR current (iL), the equivalent impedance of the series compensator is controlled [7][8]. The TCSC is a robust equipment but has the disadvantage of presenting a quasi-resonance area due t o the capacitor C i n parallel with a variable inductor (TCR) [9]. On the other hand, Karady et al. [lo] proposed two ar-

rangements of continuously regulated series capacitor that use GTO switches to regulate directly the capacitor voltage, instead of using thyristors in series with a reactor. One of these arrangements is shown in Fig. 2, hereafter called GTO Controlled Series Capacitor (GCSC). It consists of a capacitor and a pair of GTO switches connected in anti-parallel. In practical applications, the GCSC would be used typically for EHV transmission lines compensation, requiring high voltage GTO valves. Therefore, these valves should consist of several GTO devices connected in series. Fortunately, the GCSC is a zero voltage switching (ZVS) equipment, that is, the GTOs always fire and block at zero voltage. Hence, the series connection of the GTOs is not difficult [I I]. Although the use of snubbers to limit dydr at turn on of the GTO valves i s suggested in [101 and [121, they are eliminated in Fig. 2. The authors believe that the newest generation of power switches has become very robust concerning high di/dt and such snubber would be no longer necessary. This work presents an analysis and evaluation of the GTO Controlled Series Capacitor, Special emphasis is given to the harmonic analysis. Novel configurationsusing multi-module and multi-pulse GCSC are presented in order to reduce the voltage harmonic generation and to mitigate the 3d harmonic. This harmonic is normally from zero-sequence nature, as discussed by Povh and fill and answered by the authors in [lo]. Digital simulation results using the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP) are presented to validate the proposed

a

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ously, which varies continuously the fundamental component of the voltage VC. In contrast, the TCSC of Fig. 1 presents discontinuous equivalent impedance due to a prohibitive range of firing angle where parallel resonance appears between the TCR and the series capacitor. Moreover, the dynamic response of the GCSC is much better than that of the TCSC [9][13]. Fig. 4 shows the relation between the fundamental impedance of the GCSC and the blocking angle y. A blocking angle of 90" means that the capacitor is hlly inserted in the circuit, that is, the fundamental impedance is 1 p.u. On the other hand, if the blocking angle is 180, the GTO's are on full conduction, bypassing the capacitor, meaning that its fundamental impedance is zero.

configurations.

Fig. 3 shows the current and voltage waveforms for the GCSC of Fig. 2. It is assumed that the transmission line current, i, is sinusoidal. If the GTOs are kept turned-on all the time, the capacitor C is bypassed and it does not present any compensation effect. However, if the GTOs are turned-off once per cycle, at a given blocking angle y counted fiom the zero-crossings of the line current, the capacitor turns alternately on and off, in series with the transmission line, and a voltage vc appears. Fig. 3 shows that the control signals of G 2c m be made as the complement of GI. Although the gate puke duration is 180" the GTOs start to conduct the line current only when the capacitor voltage (WC) returns to zero. It should be pointed out that the waveforms of i and vc are the dual of those in the Shunt Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR), that is often called Static var Compensator (SVC), if in parallel with a capacitor bank. The GCSC has a great advantage if compared with the TCSC. The blocking angle y of the GCSC can vary continu-

m. HARMONIC ANALYSIS

The voltage waveform of vc contains not only the fundamental component, but also higher order harmonics. The positive half-cycle of the voltage vc has the same shape as the negative half-cycle, if the GCSC is operating in steadystate condition and ~ G = I yG2. The voltage VC contains only odd harmonics and they are given by:

sin[( h - 1) y ] , (1) -cos y ' s i n ( h . y ) } h h-1 where V , is the peak value of the capacitor voltage when it is fully inserted; y is the GTO blocking angle and h is the order of the harmonics (h=3, 5, 7 ,9 ...I. Fig. 5 shows the 3d, 5 ' and 7* order voltage harmonics as a function of the GTO blocking angle y. The voltages are i n per-unit values and the base value is . , V It is important to note that the harmonics have maximum values at different values ,of blocking angle. For instance, the 3d order harmonic has a maximum of about 0 . 1 4 when ~ ~ the blocking angle y is 120". 1 -. 2

-Y(degeeS)

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The total harmonic distortion of the voltage is determined based on the system voltage, instead of relating with the peak value of the capacitor voltage. The total harmonic distortion will be determined as a finction of the percentage of line compensation provided by the GCSC. For this purpose, it is necessary to make some assumptions. Suppose that the GCSC can compensate up to 100 % of the series reactance of the tmnsmission line. The maximum GCSC voltage is 0.5 pu of the nominal voltage of the system, when the blocking angle is y = 90" (the capacitor is filly inserted). For this case, the THD as a h c t i o n of the percentage of line compensation provided by the GCSC is shown in Fig. 6. One can see that the voltage THD, at the system basis, may assume values higher than 4.5 %, for compensations around 50 %. The harmonic level in the GCSC may be harmfhl to the system where it is connected and may limit the total amount of l i e compensation. In order to achieve higher levels of line compensation with an acceptable harmonic distortion, some arrangements of GCSC are proposed in the following

sections.

I V .MULTI-MODULE CONFIGURATIONS

Multi-module configurations use small GCSCs in order to diminish the amplitude of the produced voltage harmonics. In these configurations, all the harmonics are still present, but with lower amplitudes. Fig. 7(a) shows a configuration that uses two modules: 1) a fmed capacitor and 2) a GCSC. The fixed capacitor has a larger reactance than the GCSC and provides most of the series compensation of the line. The GCSC is responsible for

----I0.1

5h

fine-tuning the compensation. The harmonic distortion produced by this configuration is only that of the small GCSC. The GCSC reactance should be chosen considering not only the system compensation requirements, but also its harmonic restrictions. The disadvantage of this scheme is that only part of the series compensation reactance is continuously controllable, but this may not be a problem in most of practical applications. Fig. 7@) shows another configuration, where n modules of GCSC are used. Each module compensates part of the total range of series compensation. For instance, consider a configuration of five modules of GCSCs compensating a maximum of 50 % of the series reactance of a transmission line. Using this arrangement, if 25 % compensation is desired, two modules would be totally inserted, two would be by-passed and the fifth would contribute with half of its reactance. In this configuration, full control of the whole series compensation is achieved with a total harmonic distortion smaller than that of a single, big GCSC module. For this example, Fig. 8 shows the voltage THD as a function of the percentage of line compensation. A comparison is made with the voltage THD that would be produced by a single GCSC capable to perform the same compensation (50% of line compensation). Fig. 7(c) shows a variation of the previous configuration, where only one module is a GCSC and k-l modules are thyristor switched series capacitors (TSC) [4]. All the modules have the same reactance. The switched capacitors are simply inserted or by-passed, depending whether the thyristors are blocked or conducting. The TSC modules compensate in steps, while the single GCSC module provides fine-tuning of the compensation between those steps. The TSC does not generate harmonics in steady state. As in the previous configuration,fill control of the series compensation is achieved with a total voltage harmonic distortion corresponding to that

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7 (degrees)

7.5

I

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(Cl

Line compensation (%)

ocsc

compensation o f the transmission line.

F i g .7: Multi-module confylurations: (a) Fixed capacitor and a small GCSC; (b) Multiple GCSCs: (c) Multiple TSCs and a GCSC for fine adjustment of compensation.

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compensationfor a single and a multimodule GCSC.

50

angle of y = 120". The GCSC are Y-connected, but the secondary side of the transformers are A-connected. In the Yconnection, there may be zero-sequence components in the line-to-neutral voltages, but not in line-to-line voltages, which excite the transformer windings. Another feature of using Y-connected GCSC is that the line-to-line voltage in this case is fi times the line-to-neutral voltage, so that one can achieve a higher level of compensation of the line with a smaller reactance. The primary windings of the transformers are connected in series with the compensated transmission line. In Fig.9, the transformers have I : I voltage ratios, but may assume any other suitable voltage ratios for better dimensioning purposes.

of the small GCSC module. The voltage THD in this scheme is the same as the one for the previous configuration (Fig. 7b), shown in Fig. 8.

B. Twelve-pulse Configuration

In the twelve-pulse connection, not only the third order harmonic and its multiples ( 9 " , 15*, 21 .) are cancelled, but also the 5", 7", 17*, 1 9 " ,2 9 " , 3 1fi... The first harmonic present in the composed voltage is the 1 l*, with a magnitude of 1% of the maximum fundamental voltage. The voltage contains harmonics of order 12n f 1 (n = 1,2,3...). Fig. 1 1 shows a twelve-pulse GCSC. In this arrangement, there are two transformers, both with primary windings connected in series with the transmission line. Both GCSCs are Y-connected, as in the six-pulse connection. The secondary windings of one transformer are A-connected, while the windings of the other are Y-connected. The voltage ratio of the first transformer is I : I , while the voltage ratio of the second transformer is ki. The value of R necessary for canceling the 5", 7'h, 17*, 19*... harmonics is I/&. As in the six-pulse connection, the voltage ratio may be any other, as long as the ratio between the primary voltages of the first and the second transformers remains equal to I/k. Fig. 12 shows the voltages in the' secondary of both transformers, the resultant compensation voltage (the sum of the primary voltages of both transformers VR + Vd and the line current, all for phase A.

V. MULTI-PULSE CONFIGURATIONS

The goal in multi-pulse configurations is to cancel voltage harmonics by using transformers. The windings of the transformers are connected in such a way that some lower orders of voltage harmonics are canceled [131.

A. Six-pulse Configuratwn

In the sixpulse connection, the third order harmonic and t...) are cancelled. These harmonic its multiples (9*y 15*, Zl* orders are normally fiom zero-sequence nature. Fig. 9 shows the six-pulse connection. Fig. 10 shows the phase voltages of the GCSC (phases U and b), the composed voltage VX on the transformer winding and the line current i,, for a blocking

1 . ,

1:1

Fig. 9: Six-pulseGTO controlled series capacitor.

11

I

The proposed configurations were simulated using the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). Three different cases are presented here: a futed capacitor with a small GCSC,a six-pulse and a twelve-pulse configuration.

In this case, a fixed capacitor is used to compensate 50%, while a small GCSC compensates 15% of the series reactance of the line, giving a total compensation of 65 % of the line impedance. The simulated system is shown in Fig. 13. It is a 230 kV interconnection of systems S and L through a transmission line of 180 km. Data for those systems are:

I

30

10

15

20

25

time (ms)

Fig. 1 0 Six-pulse connection: voltage and current waveforms.

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svstem

system

Fig. 1 3 Simulated system for fixed capacitor and small GCSC case.

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System S: Y = lLO' p.u. ;Psf = 10,000 MVA System S: V = 0.98L20' p.u. ;Psc = 8,500 MVA At the beginning, the GCSC is operating with no compensation (y= 1809. The hique compensation is that of the fixed capacitor. Then, at t = 0.9 s, the GCSC blocking angle y is changed to 110". The voltage in the GCSC is shown in Fig. 14. The line current increases due to an increment in compensation (Fig. 15). Although the capacitor C2 is fixed, the voltage in C2also increases, as the line current increases. The voltage THD at the system basis is 1.48 %. Note that there is no harmonic cancellation in this approach, but the magnitudes of the voltage harmonics are relatively small.

.

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The voltage harmonic spectrum for the six-pulse GCSC does not contain the 3d harmonic and its multiples. The voltage THD in the system basis is 1.30 %.

Now, a twelve-pulse GCSC, as shown in Fig. 11, is replacing the six-pulse of the previous case. The GCSC can compensate the whole series reactance of the transmission line. The reactance of each capacitor is half of the reactance of the capacitor in the six-pulse connection, in order to achieve the same compensation level. Fig. 18 shows the compensating voltage of the twelvepulse GCSC (sum of the voltages in the primary windings of the transformers). As in the previous case, the GCSC firstly operates without compensation (y = 180'). At t = 1.4 s the blocking angle is changed to y = 120". Now, not only the 3d harmonic and its multiples are cancelled, but also the 5*, 7*, 17*, 1Sm, 29*, 3 1I t . . . order voltage

The simulated system in this case is the same of previous Case #1, but with a six-pulse GCSC replacing the fixed capacitor and the small GCSC,as shown in Fig. 16. The sixpulse GCSC is designed to compensate the whole series reactance of the transmission line. The GCSC is firstly operating without any compensation (7- 1800). At t = 1 s, the GCSC starts to operate with a blocking angle y = 120'. The compensating voltage of the six-pulse GCSC is shown in Fig. 17.

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harmonics are cancelled. The voltage THD in the system basis drops to 0.34 %. This is an acceptable level of harmonic pollution for applications in high-voltage power systems.

VII. CONCLUSIONS

The GTO Controlled Series Capacitor is a very simple equipment, suitable for series compensation of power systems, improving their operation and performance. The GCSC can vary its fundamental impedance continuously fiom 0 to 1 pu, with no need of an inductor. If necessary, a series inductor could be inserted in series with the proposed GCSC to provide a continuous range of series compensation, fiom inductive to capacitive equivalent impedance. In this case, the GCSC becomes exactly the dual series compensator of the well-known SVC, that is a shunt compensator. Novel configurations using the multi-module and multipulse GCSC are proposed in order to reduce the generated voltage harmonics and to mitigate the 3rdharmonic that normally is fiom zero-sequence nature. Multi-module compensators use smaller GCSCs, leading to lower voltage harmonic levels. Multi-pulse compensators need transformers connected in series with the transmission lie, to cancel some orders of voltage harmonics. The simulation results have shown that both configurations have good performance and fast response. Moreover, they are very effective to reduce the total harmonic distortion of the controlled GCSC voltage.

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VIII. REFERENCES

T.J.E. Miller. Reacthe Power Control in Electric @stem, New York Wiley, 1982. P. Kundur, Power @stem Stability und Control, Califomia: McGraw Hill (The EPRI Power Engineering Series), 1994. E.W. Kimbark, "Improvement of System Stability by Switched Series Capacitor," IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. 85, February 1966,pp. 180-188. B. Pilvelait, T.H. Orheyer. D.Maratukulam, "Advanced Series Compensation for Transmission Systems Using a Switched Series Capacitor Module," IEEE Trans. Power Delivery. vol. 8. no. 2,April 1993,pp. 584-590. Pastemack, H.N. Scherer Jr , "Power Flow R.M. Maliszewski, B.M. Control in a Highly Integrated Transmission Netwok," ClGRfi 1990 Session, paper 37-303,Pans. August 1990. J J. Vithayathil, C.W. Taylor, M. Klinger. W.A. Mittclstadt, "Case Studies of Conventional and Novel Methods of Reactive Power Control on an AC Transmission System," CIG& 1986 Session. paper 38-02, Paris, August 1986. D .Torgerson, N.Christl, R. Hedin, K.Sadek, P. Lutzelberger, P.E. Krause, S.M. McKenna, A H. Montoya, "Advanced Series Compensation (MC) with Thyristor Controlled Impedancc," CERE 1992 Session, Joint Session 14/37/38, paper 05, Paris, August 1992 E.V. Larsen, K. Clark, S.A. Miske Jr., J. Urbanek, "Characteristics and Rating Considerations of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation," IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 9, no. 2 , April 1994, pp. 992-1000.

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(')

1.5

1.55

1.6

[9] S.G Helbing, G.G. Karady, "Investigations of an A d v a n d Form of , Series Compensation," IEEE Trans. Power Deliwry, vol. 9, no. 2 April 1994,pp. 939-947. [IO] G.G. Ksrady, T.H. Ortmeyer, B.R Pilvelait, D. Maratukulam. "Continuously Regulated Series Capacitor," IE&E Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 8, no. 3, July 1993,pp. 1348-1354. [ I l l E.H. Watanabc, M.Aredes, L.F.W.deSouza, M.D.&Ilar, "Series Connection of Power Switches for Very High Power Applications and Zcro Voltage Switching," ISIE'97 - IEEE International Svmpapium on Industrial Electronics, vol. 2, GuimariIes, Portugal, July 1997, pp. 399-404. [I21 M M.Nejad. T.H. Ortmeyer, %TO Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor Switch Performance," IEEE Trans. Power Deliwry, vol. 13, no 2 . April 1998.pp. 615621. [13] L.F.W.de Souza, "GTO Controlled Series Capacitor," M.Sc. Thesis, COPPERIFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, March 1998 (in Portuguese).

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