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Bone

Bone General Characteristics - calcified ECM - vascular - innervated Functions: - Protection - Support - Locomotion - Mineral Reservoir o Ca2+ o PO4 o Mg2+ Structure: Periosteum !around the "one# - $ense C% - Sharpeys fibers attach o numerous - &uter fi"rous la'er - (nner osteo)enic la'er Endosteum - thin C% - lines all inner surfaces - osteopro)enitors - osteo"lasts

Sharpe'.s fi"ers

dentin &steoc'te /in lacuna0 %ooth soc1et P$L

canaliculi

canaliculi c'lindrical spaces that perforate "one matri* - allo+ for diffusion of meta"olites - e*chan)e "et+een "one and "lood vessels - +here filopodia of osteoc'tes reside (nterchan)ea"le %erminolo)': - cancellous , tra"ecular , spon)' - compact , dense , osteonic , cortical - +oven , primar' , immature - lamellar , secondar' , mature

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Red marro+ Bone Bone linin) cells osteo"lasts

Cells Osteoprogenitor cells - derived from mesench'me - source of ne+ osteo"lasts - on or near free surface

Osteoblasts - s'nthesi2e and secrete osteoid /uncalcified matri*0 - cu"oidal to columnar - release matri* vesicles - located on activel' formin) "one surfaces - have receptors for P%3 produce osteoclast stimulating factor

osteoc'te

osteopro)enitor osteoclast

&steo)enic periosteum Fi"rous periosteum Osteocytes - derived from osteo"lasts - surrounded "' "one - in lacunae - flattened - filopodia of ad4acent cells lin1ed "' )ap 4unctions - 5 RER - 5 Gol)i - Osteocytic osteolysis mineral homeostasis Osteoclasts 3o+ship.s - from monoc'tes lacuna - "one resorption - numerous )ol)i and l'sosomes - ruffled "order facin) "one surface o!ships lacunae +here osteoclasts reside - Gap 4unction communication - 3ave receptors for calcitonin Bone "ining Cells
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osteoclast

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Bone

ECM or)anic o colla)enous 789 #ype $% & collagen :89 o ;on- colla)enous Structural 'ibronectin(osteonectin )glycoproteins* Osteocalcin )BP+* Si)nal peptides Bmp (nor)anic o 3'dro*'apatite cr'stals o Citrate and car"onate o M)6< o =< o ;a<

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Bone

Cancellous Bone - a1a: o tra"ecular o spon)' - >$ lattice of spicules? tra"eculae? and plates - Marro+ in spaces o Red hemapoietic o @ello+ adipose

Spon)' Bone FP &s BB MC 3% Fi"rous Periosteum &steo)enic periosteum Blood Bessel Medullar' Cavit' 3ematopoietic %issue

Compact Bone - a1a: o dense o cortical o osteonic - solid mass of "one tissue - hi)hl' or)ani2ed around "lood vessels

$ecalcified Compact Bone (L &s 3c L BC (nterstitial lamella &steon 3aversian canal Lamella Bol1man.s canal
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Bone

Microscopic Bone ,o-en Bone - -st "one laid do+n - Coarse Eoven "one - (nter+oven fi"ers - 5 mineral content - C osteoc'tes - Dsuall' temporar' "one - Replaced "' lamellar "one e*cept in: o tooth soc1et o Sutures o $ura o %endon-"one attachments "amellar ali)ned ro+s of osteo"lasts +or1in) in unison colla)en fi"ers arran)ed in la'ers parallel la'ers in tra"ecular "one concentric la'ers in compact "one

Lamellar "one

3avesian canal /lon)itudinal section0

Dndecalcified Ground Bone C 3C L canaliculi 3aversian canal lamella

a-ersian System - desi)ned for nutrition - concentric lamellae - in lacunae - canaliculae +here cellular process /filopodia0 of osteoc'tes reside - &ol.mannss canals o connectin) haversian canals - interstitial lamella - circumferential lamellae

osteon

3aversian Canal

(nterstitial lamellae

Bol1mann.s Canal

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Bone

istogenesis $ntramembranous Bone +ro!th - embryonic o initial blastema formation mesench'mal cells proliferate cells condense to)ether C cell intensit' la' do+n matri* %'pe ( Colla)en &steopontin &steocalcin - sutural o sites of "one )ro+th no cartila)inous intermediate e*trinsic forces drive formation secondar' adaptive re)ions of "one remodelin) o centers of "one )ro+th cartila)inous )ro+th places intrinsic )ro+th potential and tissue separatin) capa"ilities replaced "' "one o > t'pes of craniofacial sutures /* 0butting(butt suture sa))ital suture 2* Comple1 o-erlapping suture Facial suture 2* Simple o-erlapping coronal suture o frontal and parietal "ones overlap o coronal suture "lastema "et+een "ones o Ffi"ro"lasts. o fi"rous C% - periosteal o occurs in em"r'onic mesench'me o mesench'mal cells osteopro)enitors osteo"lasts osteoid minerali2ation o spicules tra"eculae compact "one

%his ima)e is of an 3HE slide? "ut has "een chan)ed to "lac1 and +hite to sho+ the structures

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Bone

Endochondral ossification - for lon) and short "ones - em"r'onic o mesenchymal blastema formation mesench'mal condensation o cell proliferation o cell condensation o ECM production formation of hyaline cartilage )type $$ C#* model of bone o (nterstitial and appositional )ro+th o Formation of bone collar "' intramem"ranous ossification Surrounds mid portion of the cartila)e model hypertrophy and destruction of chondrocytes Cells im"i"e )l'co)en s+ell Calcification and condensation of ECM Bascular invasion and an)io)enesis osteoid deposition 3 minerali4ation calcified cartilage spicules Calcium is replaced "' "one ;&% converted to "one - gro!th plate e1tension )epiphyseal endochondral ossification* o occurs postnatall' o Forms Iones: /from )ro+th plate to marro+0 567resting 4one P67proliferati-e 4one 67hypertrophic cartilage 4one C67calcified cartilage 4one O67ossification 4one

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Bone

Secondary Cartilage - not derived from the primar' cartila)enous s1eleton - forms ad4acent to intramem"ranous "one apart from primar' cartila)e - e*: o mandibular condylar cartilage o interma1illary suture cartilage o an)ular cartila)e o fracture callus - from "ipotential cells of periosteal ori)in - movement and "iomechanical stimulation maintains persistence - develop as a result of "iomechanical stimulation - "e)ins to develop around Jor K +ee1s o primar' cartila)e develop earlier +ithin first J +ee1s - has more t'pe ( C%? less t'pe (( Mandibular Condylar Cartilage - "e)ins to form around J or K +ee1s - perichondrium of MCC is continuous +ith periosteum of mandibular ramus o fi"rous la'er continues as articular la'er of MCC o osteo)enic la'er continues as prechondro"lastic la'er of MCC #M8 istological Structure La'ers o articular o prechondro"lastic o condro"lastic o h'pertrophic o 2one of "one formation

Signaling 'actors 5egulating Bone and Cartilage 'ormation and +ro!th +ro!th 'actors9 o %ransformin) Gro+th Factors L o Fi"ro"lasts Gro+th Factors o (ndian 3ed)eho) o (nsulin-li1e Gro+th Factor ( o Bone Morpho)enic Proteins #ranscription 'actors o So*: o $l*AM7 o %+ist o Ms*-M6 o Run*6

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Bone

Minerali4ation - Ca6< and P&A- supersaturated environment - Matri* ph'rophosphate de)raded release inor)anic phosphate - ;o spontaneous precipitation "ecause o Osteocalcin and osteopontin inhi"it minerali2ation o (nitial cluster of ions is unsta"le o Formation of initial cluster reNuires e*penditure of ener)' Mechanisms o matri1 -esicles small mem"rane-"ound vesicles "ud off osteo"lsasts contain: phosphoserine hi)h OCa6< P hi)h OP&A-P cQMP Q%P Q%Pase CaBPs Ql1aline phosphatase 6< Ca pumps cause influ* of Ca6< c'rstalli2ation occurs"rea1s vesicles open Cr'stal formation occurs in a"sence of vesicles o eterogenous nucleation Gaps "et+een colla)en fi"ers act as nucleation sites for cr'stal formation