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Waterproofing

Waterproof or water-resistant describes objects relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions. Such items may be used in wet environments or under water to specified depths. Waterproofing describes making an object waterproof or water-resistant "Water resistant" and "waterproof" often refer to penetration of water in its liquid state. Permeation of water vapor is reported as a water vapor transmission rate. The hulls of boats and ships were once waterproofed by applying tar or pitch. Modern items may be waterproofed by applying water-repellent coatings or by sealing seams with gaskets or O-rings. In construction, a building or structure is waterproofed with the use of membranes and coatings to protect contents underneath or within as well as protecting structural integrity. The waterproofing of the building envelope in construction specifications is listed under '07 - Thermal and Moisture Protection' within MasterFormat 2004, by the Construction Specifications Institute, and includes roofing material as well as waterproofing materials[citation needed]. Waterproofing is used in reference to building structures (basements, decks, wet areas, etc.), watercraft, canvas, clothing (raincoat, waders) and paper (e.g., milk and juice cartons). Waterproofing should not be confused with roofing, as roofing cannot necessarily withstand hydrostatic head, and waterproofing can. The standards for waterproofing bathrooms in domestic construction have improved over the years, due in large part to the general tightening of building codes.

Waterproofing conducted on the exterior of a freeway tunnel

Construction waterproofing
In building construction, a structure needs waterproofing since concrete itself will not be watertight on its own (but note concrete is easily waterproofed with additives). The conventional system of waterproofing involves 'membranes'. This relies on the application of one or more layers of membrane (available in various materials: e.g., bitumen, silicate, PVC, EPDM etc.) that act as a barrier between the water and the building structure, preventing the passage of water. However, the membrane system relies on exacting application, presenting difficulties. Problems with application or adherence to the substrate can lead to leakage. In the UK these membranes are rarely allowed below ground below the water table. Over the past two decades, the construction industry has had technological advances in waterproofing materials, including integral waterproofing systems as well as more advanced membrane materials. Integral systems work within the matrix of a concrete structure, giving the concrete itself a waterproof quality. There are two main types of integral waterproofing systems: the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic systems. A hydrophilic system typically uses a crystallization technology that replaces the water in the concrete with insoluble crystals. Various brands available in the market claim similar properties, but not all can react with a wide range of cement hydration by-products, and thus require caution. Hydrophobic systems use fatty acids to block pores within the concrete, preventing water passage. New membrane materials seek to overcome shortcomings in older methods like PVC and HDPE. Generally, new technology in waterproof membranes relies on polymer-based materials that are extremely adhesive to create a seamless barrier around the outside of a structure.

Oil-based waterproofing[edit]
Oil-based waterproofing is generally used for roof leakage after construction and use only wall. This is like primer.

Waterproofing of objects[edit]
Waterproofing techniques have been implemented in several types of objects, going from different clothing products to paper packaging, cosmetics, and more recently, consumer electronics.

Even though it is possible to find waterproof wrapping or other types of protective cases for electronic devices, a new technology enabled the release of diverse water-resistant smartphones and tablets in 2013.[2] The method is based on a special nano-technology coded to be a thousand times thinner than a human hair, that prevents water damage in electronics. [3] Several manufacturers are now using the nanocoating technique on their smartphones, tablets and digital cameras. A research published online October 21, 2013, in Advanced Materials, of a group of scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, proposed that nanotexturing surfaces in the form of cones produces extremely waterrepellent surfaces. These nano-cone textures are 'superhydrophobic' (or super-water-hating).[4][5]

Waterproofing clothing and tents[edit]


Waterproofing for tents, leather and clothing such as Gore-Tex jackets or walking boots once the initial manufacturer treatment has worn out is provided by companies such as Granger's, Fabsil or Nikwax. They work by reapplying the same if not better treatment as the manufacturer. So can often restore your clothing to withstand water as good as new. Some companies manufacture chemical-based waterproofing solutions, but companies like Granger's use environmentally friendly processes whilst still assuring the same improvement in protection. Outdoor equipment manufacturer Karrimor was an innovator in the field in the 1960s, and developed nylon-elastomer fabrics that were robustly waterproof.

Standards[edit]

ASTM C1127-Standard Guide for Use of High Solids Content, Cold Liquid-Applied Elastomeric Waterproofing Membrane with an Integral Wearing Surface ASTM D3393-Standard Specification for Coated FabricsWaterproofness D6135-Standard Practice for Application of Self-Adhering Modified Bituminous Waterproofing IEC 60529-Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code) [British Standards Institution (BSI)] BS.8102:2009 - 'Protection of Below Ground Structures against Water from the Ground'.

Basement waterproofing
Basement Waterproofing refers to techniques used to prevent water from entering the basement of a house or other building. Effective below ground waterproofing will include both drainage and sealers. Waterproofing is needed anytime a structure is built at ground level or below ground. Waterproofing and drainage considerations are especially needed in cases where ground water is likely to build up in the soil and raise the water table. This higher water table causes hydrostatic pressure to be exerted underneath basement floors and against basement walls. Hydrostatic pressure forces water in through cracks in foundation walls, through openings caused by expansion and contraction of the footing-foundation wall joint and up through floor cracks. Hydrostatic pressure can cause major structural damage to foundation walls and is likely to contribute to mold, decay and other moisture related problems.
Contents

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Methods
The three measures developed to prevent this problem differ greatly in ideology and design. [1] The three methods are:

interior wall and floor sealers. interior water drainage exterior drainage combined with waterproofing coatings.

Interior Sealants
In poured concrete foundations, cracks and pipe penetrations are the most common entry points for seepage. These openings can be readily sealed from the interior. Epoxies or urethanes are pressure injected into the openings, penetrating the foundation through to the exterior, thereby cutting off the path of the seepage. These repairs will last for a long time. Many contractors provide 10 year to lifetime warranties on these repairs. In masonry foundations, interior sealers will not provide permanent protection from water infiltration where hydrostatic pressure is present. Interior sealers are good for preventing high atmospheric humidity inside the basement, from absorbing into the porous masonry and to prevent spalling. Spalling is a condition where constant high humidity or moisture break down masonry surfaces causing deterioration and shedding of the concrete surfaces. When the foundation is constructed of concrete blocks, an interior drain tile system, described below, can capture the water entering the block system and drain the water into a sump. Typically, weep holes are drilled into the lowest course of block, allowing the drainage to occur. This system will provide a dry and moisture free basement for years to come.

Interior water drainage


Although interior water drainage is not technically waterproofing, it is a widely accepted technique in mitigating basement water and is generally referred to as a basement waterproofing solution. Many interior drainage systems are patented as well as recognized by B.O.C.A (Building Officials and Code Administrators)as being effective in controlling basement water. They function by draining underground water from alongside the foundation footers and underneath the basement floor. They then channel it with a French drain, PVC pipe, or through a patented product to a sump pump system, which will then pump the water from the basement. Wall conduits such as dimple boards or other membranes are fastened to the foundation wall and extend over the new drainage to guide any moisture down into the system. Foundation sump pumps can be installed

through do-it-yourself kits, plumber installations, or by a professional waterproofing contractor and generally come in plastic and cast-iron models. To simplify:

Water enters the home via the basement wall/floor joint, through cracks in the foundation walls and/or holes created by faulty or decaying masonry/brick.

A perimeter trench drain such as a French drain collects the water before it enters into the basement. Wall vapor barriers/retarders and drip moldings are used and incorporated into the sub-slab perimeter drain to collect water coming from wall cracks and other foundation wall defects, such as pipe protrusions.

The drain directs the water to a sump pump. The sump pump directs the water out of the house.

Interior basement waterproofing systems should be prepared to work in the case of a power outage, the failure of a sump pump, and in the face of overwhelming torrential rain. A proper sump pump, backup sump and/or battery backup sump pump should be installed in a large sump pit with an airtight lid for safety and to keep humidity from seeping through to the basement environment, where it can promote mold growth. This airtight practice will also reduce the possibility of dangerous radon gases for entering the living space.

Interior Waterproofing
Basement waterproofing inside, using coatings, works well where condensation is the main source of wetness. It is also quite effective if the problem is minor dampness. Major leaks cant usually be handled by inside coatings. In such cases, if outside waterproofing has been ruled out, your best inside basement waterproofing solution will probably be sheet or tile coverings which conceal drainage structures to carry the water out and drain it from the home.

Exterior Waterproofing
Exterior waterproofing prevents water from entering foundation walls therefore preventing the wicking and molding of building materials. Waterproofing a structure from the exterior is the only method the IBC (International Building Code) recognizes as adequate to prevent structural damage caused by water intrusion. Prior to the 1980s much of the original exterior waterproofing was actually damp-proofing using a degradable asphalt-based covering. Waterproofing an existing basement begins with excavating to the bottom sides of the footings. Once excavated, the walls are then sealed with a waterproofing membrane and new drainage (weeping tiles) are placed at the side of the footing.

Polymer based compounds]Over the past ten years, polymer-based waterproofing products have
been developed. Polymer-based products last for the lifetime of the building, and are not affected by soil pH. Polymer-based waterproofing materials have the advantage of a low enough viscosity that they can be sprayed directly onto a wall, are very fast curing, and are semi-flexible, allowing for some movement of the substrate.

How Many Different Types Of Waterproofing?


How many different types of waterproofing are there in the market and which one do I choose to use for my usage? This is the most frequently ask questions when choosing types of waterproofing system to use. Often when comes to the design stage, most of the architect or consultant will ponder the question. There are few types of the most commonly use system of waterproofing in the construction industry. They are : 1. Cementitious waterproofing Cementitious waterproofing is often used in the internal wet areas such as toilets. Most of the time the type of cementitious waterproofing is semi-flexible, some even toward rigid type. It is still good to use because internal toilets are not exposed to sunlight and weathering and so it do not go through the contraction and expansion process continuously. 2. Liquid waterproofing membrane Liquid membrane is a thin coating which consists of usually a primer coat and two coats of top coats. It offer more flexibility than the cementitious types of waterproofing. The elongation properties of the coating can reach as high as 280%. But the durability of the waterproofing coating also depend on what type of polymer the manufacturer use for the making of the liquid waterproofing. 3. Bituminuos coating Bituminuos waterproofing coating is made of bitumen based materials and it is not suitable for expose to sunlight. It become very brittle and fragile when long exposure to the sunlight unless it is modified with more flexible material such as polyurethane or arcylic based polymers. The flexibility of the finished products always depend on the solid content of the polymer added to the bitumen. 4. Bituminuous membrane Bituminuous waterproofing membrane have torch on membrane and self adhesive membrane. Torch on membrane is the more preferred one use because of its shelf life and ease of use during application. The self adhesive type must be use fast as the bonding properties of the membrane is reducing through time. Very often applicators find the self adhesion membrane already lose its bonding properties when they want to apply. therefore, they have to use one additional primer to prevent the debonding problem in the near future. Torch on membrane have exposed and covered types. Exposed membrane often has mineral granular aggregate to withstand the wear and tear of the weathering and the other types of membrane, contractor need to apply one protective screed to provent the puncture of the membrane. But one has to be very careful when applying the protective screed which is often cement mortar. The cement ratio has to be high and the mixing has to be thorough through out the process. There are premixed type of cement mortar in the market available for use for better quality and consistency. Site mix usually will compensate the quality of the finish work but the cost is always cheaper compared to premixed mortar. 5. Polyurethane liquid membrane

Polyurethane is also use for the flat roof area and exposed to weathering but it is expensive. It can offer higher flexibility. Polyurethane is very sensitive to moisture content present, therefore before application, one has to be very careful evaluating the moisture content of the concrete slab. Otherwise peeling or debonding easily observed after some time.
ASTM International's roofing- and waterproofing-related standard guides and practices
The following list of ASTM International standard guides and practices applicable to roofing and waterproofing provides a synopsis for each standard. This is not an all-inclusive directory of all available standards though many standards developed specifically for use in roofing and waterproofing construction are included. It is not practical to provide a comprehensive inventory of the ASTM International resources roofing professionals use because of the sheer variety of subject matter related to roofing and waterproofing applications. An ASTM International standard guide provides options or instructions that offer direction but do not recommend a specific course of action. A guide's purpose is to increase the awareness of information and methods in a subject area. An ASTM International standard practice is a specific set of instructions for performing one or more specific tasks that does not produce a test result. ASTM International's Annual Book of ASTM Standards volumes and individual standards can be purchased by calling (610) 8329500 or visiting ASTM International's Web site, www.astm.org. ASTM C981, "Standard Guide for Design of Built-Up Bituminous Membrane Waterproofing Systems for Building Decks," provides design guidelines for built-up waterproofing systems in plaza deck and promenade applications, which provide for a separate wearing course, over occupied spaces. ASTM D1079, "Standard Terminology Relating to Roofing and Waterproofing," is a glossary of standard terminology used in roofing and waterproofing. It provides up-to-date definitions of industry terms. ASTM D529, "Standard Practice for Enclosed Carbon-Arc Exposures of Bituminous Materials"; ASTM D4798, "Standard Practice for Accelerated Weathering Test Conditions and Procedures for Bituminous Materials (Xenon-Arc Method)"; and ASTM D4799, "Standard Practice for Accelerated Weathering Test Conditions and Procedures for Bituminous Materials (Fluorescent UV, Water Spray, and Condensation Method)", provide guidelines for exposing asphalt- and coal-tar-based materials to ultraviolet light, moisture and temperature variation under controlled laboratory conditions. Such exposure in a laboratory is intended to reproduce, in a much compressed time period, the weathering effects that occur when materials are exposed for extended time periods in their intended service environments. Materials suitable for investigation using these standard practices have a minimum softening point of 200 F, meaning the bitumen does not visibly flow when vertically oriented specimens are exposed inside the weathering apparatus. ASTM D2829, "Standard Practice for Sampling and Analysis of Existing Built-Up Roof Systems," provides guidelines for removing test specimens from existing built-up roof systems and for determining the approximate quantities of roof system components. ASTM D3617, "Standard Practice for Sampling and Analysis of Built-Up Roof Systems During Application," provides guidelines for sampling before the application of flood coating and top surfacing. Guidelines are also provided for determining the approximate quantities of system components and the presence of moisture and/or dry (unbounded) spots between built-up plies. ASTM D3805, "Standard Guide for Application of Aluminum-Pigmented Asphalt Roof Coatings," provides guidelines for application of materials complying with ASTM D2824 over built-up roof systems, polymer-modified bitumen roof systems, bituminous base flashings, concrete surfaces, metal surfaces, emulsion coatings and solvent-based coatings. ASTM D5036, "Standard Practice for Application of Adhered Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Sheet Roofing," provides the minimum requirements for the installation of adhered PVC roofing materials. It includes criteria for delivery, storage and handling of materials, prevention of safety hazards, environmental conditions suitable for installation, substrate preparation and different available installation techniques. ASTM D5082, "Standard Practice for Application of Mechanically Attached Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Sheet Roofing," provides the minimum requirements for the installation of mechanically attached PVC roofing materials. It includes criteria for delivery, storage and handling of materials, prevention of safety hazards, environmental conditions suitable for installation, substrate preparation and different available installation techniques. ASTM D5295, "Standard Guide for Preparation of Concrete Surfaces for Adhered (Bonded) Membrane Waterproofing Systems," provides recommendations for preparation of concrete deck surfaces before the installation of adhered waterproofing. The guide addresses concrete deck surface cleaning, conditioning and repair practices used to remove surface defects and provide adequate adhesion between a waterproofing system and concrete surface. ASTM D5469, "Standard Guide for Application of New Spray Applied Polyurethane Foam and Coated Roofing Systems," provides guidelines for the application of new spray polyurethane foam (SPF) roof systems. It includes requirements applicable to substrate preparation, SPF application technique and equipment, and protective top coating and granule surfacing application.

ASTM D5843, "Standard Guide for Application of Fully Adhered Vulcanized Rubber Sheets Used in Waterproofing," provides information for developing specifications for the application and protection of adhered EPDM, butyl and neoprene vulcanized rubber waterproofing systems installed over concrete substrates. It provides material delivery, storage and handling criteria, safety precaution recommendations, guidelines for addressing concerns related to environmental conditions during installation, recommendations for substrate preparation and installation practices, and guidelines for quality assurance. ASTM D5898, "Standard Guide for Standard Details for Adhered Sheet Waterproofing," addresses typical conditions encountered in adhered sheet waterproofing on below-grade structures and plazas. In addition to construction detail drawings, it provides general information regarding materials and construction practices used in adhered sheet waterproofing applications. ASTM D5957, "Standard Guide for Flood Testing Horizontal Waterproofing Installations," contains guidelines for testing the watertightness of waterproofing systems installed on substrates sloped at a maximum of 1/4 inch per foot. The guide is intended for waterproofing applications in parking garages, plaza decks over habitable spaces and on other elevated structures. It is not intended for use with building roof systems. The guide addresses recommendations for materials used in testing, test procedure and reporting. ASTM D6135, "Standard Practice for Application of Self-Adhering Modified Bituminous Waterproofing," provides installation recommendations for self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheets used in new waterproofing installations. It includes criteria for delivery, storage and handling of materials and recommendations for substrate preparation and waterproofing system installation. ASTM D6369, "Standard Guide for Design of Standard Flashing Details for EPDM Roof Membranes," provides guidelines and illustrations to assist designers with the preparation of details for flashing conditions encountered in new ballasted, mechanically attached and adhered EPDM sheet roof systems. ASTM D6622, "Standard Guide for Application of Fully Adhered Hot-Applied Reinforced Waterproofing Systems," provides minimum installation recommendations for adhered reinforced waterproofing systems applied with hot bitumen to low-slope and vertical surfaces. The standard defines an identification classification made of four types of waterproofing systems. Also, it provides material specification recommendations; material delivery; storage and handling criteria; safety precaution recommendations, guidelines for addressing concerns related to environmental conditions during installation; recommendations for substrate preparation and installation practices; and guidelines for quality assurance, inspection, testing and repair. ASTM D6705, "Standard Guide for Repair and Recoat of Spray Polyurethane Foam Roofing Systems," provides guidelines for the repair and recoating of existing spray polyurethane foam (SPF) roof systems. It includes information related to existing roof system inspection and primer selection and requirements applicable to substrate preparation, SPF application and protective coating and granule surfacing application. ASTM D6769, "Standard Guide for Application of Fully Adhered, Cold-Applied, Prefabricated Reinforced Modified Bituminous Membrane Waterproofing Systems," provides installation guidelines applicable to below-grade and below-wearing-surface vertical or horizontal applications. It includes recommendations addressing materials storage and handling, environmental conditions, material types, substrate preparation and installation practices. ASTM D6950, "Standard Practice for Application of Heat Weldable Atactic Polypropylene (APP) Modified Bituminous Waterproofing Membranes Systems for New Building Decks," provides the minimum installation recommendations for torch-applied and/or hot-air welded APP polymer-modified bituminous waterproofing systems installed over occupied spaces and covered by a separate wearing course. It includes material specification recommendations, criteria for delivery, storage and handling of materials, recommendations for environmental conditions suitable for installation, and guidelines for substrate preparation and waterproofing system installation. ASTM D7119, "Standard Guide for Sampling Spray Polyurethane Foam and Coating in Roofing," provides guidelines appropriate for investigating existing spray polyurethane foam (SPF) roof systems and performing quality assurance for new systems. It provides information about sample cut types and their uses, visual inspection techniques, physical property tests and methods used for repairs at sample locations. ASTM D7186, "Standard Practice for Quality Assurance Observation of Roof Construction and Repair," provides guidelines for performing visual monitoring of roof system construction and defining the role, qualifications and responsibilities of qualityassurance observers. It applies to new construction, reroofing, repairs and maintenance work. ASTM E1980, "Standard Practice for Calculating Solar Reflectance Index of Horizontal and Low-Sloped Opaque Surfaces," provides a procedure for calculating Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) values. SRI incorporates solar reflectance and emittance in a single value, which is a relative measure of the steady-state surface temperature with respect to the standard white (SRI = 100) and standard black (SRI = 0) surfaces under the standard conditions defined in the practice.

Waterproofing is the formation of an impervious barrier, which is designed to prevent water entering or escaping from various sections of building structures. In this regard, hydrostatic pressure is pressure exerted or existing within a liquid at rest with adjacent bodies. Hydrostatic pressure rises as the water table rises in the monsoon. While, for structures located in the vicinity of a water body, the hydrostatic pressure may be permanently present. The deeper the structure is set into the earth, greater the hydrostatic pressure will be, which will try to force water into the pores of concrete and assist in a rapid deterioration. Internal areas that are waterproofed include bathrooms, shower recesses, laundries and toilets. While, external areas waterproofed extends to roofs, planter boxes, podiums, balconies, terraces, retaining walls and swimming pools. In this paper, we shall restrict us to Waterproofing in basements, which shall cover the evolution, importance, role, types of waterproofing treatments, brief procedures, pros and cons of each o f this type, Box type waterproofing treatment which is the most popular treatment in India, drainage in basements and the future of waterproofing.

EVOLUTION The first real need for waterproofing dates back to the days of Noahs Ark. The 40 days of incessant rain inspired people to take some course of action to prevent water from entering their habitat. In the early days people relied upon thatch, such as straw, reed, leaves and other dried vegetable matter as a barrier against water entering their home. Over time more sophisticated waterproofing materials were adopted. These included: animal skins, timber shingles, and natural stones like slate. The architectural designs of the day such as high pitched roofs helped overcome some of the shortfalls and limitations of the materials that were used. Over the centuries other waterproofing materials were used such as metals eg. copper, lead, zinc, and tin. Waterproofing has come a long way since Noah's day. The discovery of oil, coupled with the advances of chemistry saw the arrival of numerous petroleum derived waterproofing products such as bituminous, butyl rubber, neoprene rubber, hypalon etc. Technological improvements and breakthroughs are occurring on a daily basis. Over time today's waterproofing membranes such as polyurethanes, acrylics and polyesters will become as antiquated as leaves and animal skins are today.

THE IMPORTANCE OF WATERPROOFING If we refer back to the definition of waterproofing as an impervious barrier designed to prevent water entering or escaping from building structures, then the importance of waterproofing is reflected in the consequences of not waterproofing. Water which enters or escapes from buildings can have immediate and long term undesired effects. Apart from damage to the buildings contents, structural damage is unavoidable if the problem persists. Water damage is second only to fire as a cause of building decay and deterioration. Furthermore, majority of building materials have a considerable shorter life span when subjected to moisture or emersion over a prolonged period of time. The casualties of water damage include: Rotting of timber structures and finishes such as floor joints, beams, floors, studs, skirting, architraves and frames. Corrosion of metals such as steel reinforcement in concrete, steel beams, lintels, metal door frames etc.

Swelling of plasterboards and the subsequent debonding of ceramic tiles. Electrical hazards causing the possible short circuit of lighting and power points. The blistering of paint. Unsightly deterioration of the building facade. Health problems due to dampness, which may lead to respiratory problems. Rotting carpet. The importance of waterproofing can not be overstated. The damage caused to the building's structure, coupled with the high cost of rectification warrants the careful design and application of waterproofing.

THE ROLE The role of waterproofing is to protect a building's visual and structural integrity. It achieves this by forming an impervious membrane that prevents water entering or escaping from wet areas to dry areas. In order to effectively fulfil this role a membrane must possess the following qualities: The membrane must be impermeable to prevent the passage of water. Flexibility - membranes need to accommodate any normal movement that may occur in building structures. The membrane must be durable, it must be able to retain it's integrity over a long period of time. The membrane must lend itself to design details in a building. It must be suitable for each specific application. The membrane is useless if it cannot be applied where needed because of structural details. The membrane must be able to breathe permitting the escape of moisture vapours from building interior and substrates. The membrane must be compatible with adhesives to ensure long term adhesion where tiles are directly fixed over the membrane. User friendly, the membrane must be easy to apply, relatively lightweight, non hazardous, and environmentally safe. In exposed areas such as rooftops, the membrane should require little maintenance, and in the event of damage must be easily repairable. It should provide a continuous film, without areas of weakness such as overlaps, which could prove to be a potential source of water entry. The membrane must be suitable to withstand environmental and climatic conditions.

TYPES OF WATERPROOFING

There are generally two types of waterproofing membranes - sheet membranes and liquid membranes. The nature of the problem to be addressed determines which type of membrane to be used. 1. SHEET MEMBRANES: The purpose of sheeting membrane is to completely cover any imperfections in the substrate or background. They are numerous and include: Metal sheets in the form of lead, copper or stainless steel flashing or trays. Multilayer bituminous paper system with gravel topping for protection. Butyl rubber sheeting Semi-rigid asbestos asphalt sheeting Bitumen/polyethylene sheets E.P.D.M. Ethylene propylene Diene Monomer Chlorosulphanated rubber (Hypalon) PVC Polyvinylchloride Neoprene rubber Torch-on sheeting consist of layers of polypropylene bitumen modified.

The sheeting membranes can be applied as fully bonded to the substrate or unbonded. The most commonly specified sheet materials are self-adhering rubberized asphalt membranes. These 60-mil-thick membranes are composed of rubberized asphalt laminated to a waterproof polyethylene film. The asphalt side is incredibly sticky but is covered by a release paper, which you remove during application. In both cases sheets must be overlapped about 100mm wide and bonded to each other by adhesive or by heat welding. The seams are the weakest point in the system. It takes two people, one on top to smooth it out and stick it down, the other on the bottom to pull off the paper. The work output of this treatment is tremendous. Once a piece is down, you won't get it back up again at least not in reusable condition. However, the system allows easy repairs of holes, fishmouths, puckers, and wrinkles. You'll patch holes or damaged areas with a piece of membrane placed right over the first layer. With a fish-mouth or wrinkle, all you do is slit the raised area, press it down flat, and cover it with a patch.There are many details about surface preparation, priming, patching, joint treatment, terminations, lap joints, penetrations, and corners. Advantages: The advantages of sheeting membranes provide highly trafficable surfaces and have insulating properties. A chief advantage of sheet membranes is their consistent thickness. Because they're manufactured to exacting tolerances, you can be sure of the 60-mil coverage. These membranes also have good elongation. Disadvantages: Sheeting membranes in general suffer from poor exposure resistance, temperature stability and little recovery from deformation.

All sheet membranes require venting if the substrate is water logged, or severe bubbling will occur developing stresses onto the adhesive leading to eventual adhesion fracture. A higher in-place cost is one of the main disadvantages of sheets. The cost of the material itself is likely to be greater on a square-foot basis than the liquid membranes. Labor cost is also higher, because of all the cutting, handling, reinforcing, and detailing you have to go through during installation. Not everyone agrees, however, that sheet membranes lessen the quality-control risk. A rubberized liquid forms a continuous, seamless coating, whereas a sheet membrane results in many seams, with the potential for a poor seal. It has to be made sure that the lap joints are tight and properly detailed and the correct use of the manufacturers mastic or other accessories are made. For example, one manufacturer requires you to apply a bead of mastic to every lap joint within 12 inches of a corner when using its product.

2. LIQUID MEMBRANES The liquid applied membrane provides a fully bonded, continuous seam-free, homogenous layer with no laps or joins which is a major advantage over sheeting membranes. Some of the liquid membranes available are: Mastic asphalt Two components polyurethane tar modified Two components tar epoxies modified Single pack moisture curing polyurethane Water based epoxy two part for hydrostatic pressure situations Polyester resin two parts reinforced wit fibreglass matt Flexible epoxy resin two parts Bitumen latex modified single pack Acrylic co-polymer water based single part Acrylic co-polymer cement modified two components A liquid membrane is applied by spray, roller, or trowel. The liquid cures into a rubbery coating on the wall. One manufacturer has a spray-applied liquid membrane composed of polymer-modified asphalt. Polyurethane liquid membranes in separate grades for trowel, roller, or spray are also available from various manufacturers. The manufacturer probably has a special procedure for treating voids, form-tie holes, and joints. At the wall-footing joint, you may be required to use cement or other trowel-grade material to form a "fillet" (radius or cove) before applying the overall coating. Advantages: Liquid coatings have the advantages of quick application, low in-place cost, and excellent elongation.

In general liquid applied membranes are easy to apply, seamless, semi-flexible or elastrometric, ease of detailing, ease of maintenance and repair, UV resistant and economical. One of the important characteristics of liquid membranes is it's ability to breathe. Disadvantages: One of the chief disadvantages is the possible inconsistency in coverage. The typical application thickness is 60 mils, but it takes a careful applicator to be sure of always achieving that minimum coverage. Regardless of which class of membrane is used, waterproofing membranes are only as good as the applicator. Manufacturers and distributors expect their product to be applied as specified. Failure to adhere to their recommendations can retard the performance of the membranes.

3. CEMENTIOUS WATERPROOFING: Advantages: Cementitious products are probably the easiest waterproofing materials to use. They're readily available, and they're easy to mix and apply. You'll get better bonding and a more solid, durable coating. Disadvantages: The chief disadvantage cementitious products have is that cement just doesn't stretch to any degree. They will stand up fine to a head of water, but will tolerate almost no joint or crack movement.

4. BENTONITE:
Sodium bentonite, a clay material, has enjoyed a steady upsurge in popularity over the past several years. In panel form, bentonite has become the choice of a growing number of architects and builders. Bentonite works because it can absorb a tremendous amount of water. As it takes in water, the clay swells to 15 times its original volume and pushes itself into cracks and voids. When it reaches its maximum volume, it stays in these areas permanently to seal against water. One firms panels are 4x4-foot corrugated cardboard with clay particles held within the flutes of the cardboard. The panels can be nailed, fastened with a powder-actuated tool, or simply laid in place for horizontal applications. Advantages: Bentonite has its advantages, however: It's safe to work with, non-polluting, easy and quick to apply, and can go on even at low temperatures. One company makes a sheet membrane that uses a compound of bentonite and butyl rubber. Disadvantages: With other products, you can inspect the finished waterproofing application and confirm the integrity of the seal before backfilling. With bentonite panels, the seal doesn't form until the foundation is backfilled and water reaches the panel.

BOX TYPE WATER-PROOFING

Introduction:

For basements, Swimming Pools and under-ground ducts such as lift-pits, the waterproofing has to withstand the water pressure in addition to its basic stress. Shahabad Box Type treatment method of waterproofing is very commonly used in India.

Invention:

Bhati Mohiuddin, the founder of the New Construction Waterproofing Company, born in 1919 in Sikar, Rajasthan, started his career with the India Waterproofing Company, the pioneers of the cement based structural waterproofing in then united India. His progress there was phenomenal, and he became the head of his division in no time. He had an inquisitive mind since his childhood and he felt a sense of wonder in everything. This sensitivity increased and got enhanced with the years and pervaded in his sphere of vocation that is waterproofing. He was always introspecting in methods, means and techniques to better and develop further the structural waterproofing which resulted in the invention of Box Type waterproofing with Shahabad tiles which was tried in the Churchgate Subway for the first time. It was so successful that it became one of the classical treatments of waterproofing. His experimentation in his field of endeavour led him to adopt various techniques which resulted in greater durability, lesser time consumption and saving of costs in waterproofing treatments. He had empathy with structures and method of work. He took structures as living things and treated leakages, seepages, leaching, thawing effloresence, etc. as a physician will treat the injuries and infections of his patients. And of course, he had patience, which allowed him to meticulously workout, plan, detail out, execute and accomplish his feats.

Fig.1: Box Type waterproofing for basements

Procedure: A base-coat in cement mortar 1:4 mixed with waterproofing compound is laid over the Raft PCC and above this rough Shahabad tiles of size 2-0 X 2-0 or 2-0 X 3-0 are fixed with minimum thickness of joints. Joints ar e staggered. Thickness of the Shahabad tile should be between 32mm to 40mm (1.25 -1.5). After fixing the tiles, the joints are sealed with C.M. 1:3 and 15mm metal is pressed in the joints for enhanced strength and less shrinkage. Over this, a jointless layer of C.M. 1:3 with waterproofing compound approx. 25mm thick is applied and cured for 7 days. This layer provides a smooth layer for the raft and also protects the Shahabad tiles from getting damaged by steel bars laying and labour movement. Over this plastered base, raft is cast and RCC retaining walls are erected. Shahabad tiles are fixed to the vertical retaining walls from outside. Cement paste is applied on all four corners of a Shahabad tile and it is pressed firmly on the RCC wall in line and level. At a time only a height of 1m is fixed. Total height above the ground level is taken as 1 6. Joints are then sealed in C.M. 1:2 (Pointing). The Shahabad dado is then grouted using cement slurry with waterproofing compound and cured for 7 days. After curing, a jointless waterproofing plaster coat is applied and cured. Thickness of this treatment is around 65mm to 75mm. This entire process forms a box around the structure and does not allow any water to seep through or leak from the basement. DRAINAGE IN BASEMENT WATERPROOFING: The ground water table in the area where the basement is located, rises considerably above the basement level in the rainy season. The water flows are also found at various depths below the ground level. Due to the rise in the water table and the up thrust of the water pressure from below, the waterproofing measures for the basement may sometimes fail and damage the basement. Additional measures to protect the basement are carried out for large projects or commercial complexes as details below.

Fig. 2: Drainage in basements

Procedure:

Pathway of size 0.6m to 0.9m width is proposed, with compacted impervious material with specified flooring on the top. The area beyond this pathway is excavated to form a trench throughout the periphery of the basement. The highest level of the trench is kept at least 0.15m below the bottom of the basement. The perforated pipes, of about 0.45m diameter are laid in gradual slopes. Joints of these pipes are kept open. The collecting chambers are not plastered from inside and outside, to receive water from the surroundings. The perforated pipes are then covered with loose material like chips and metal, to form a filter media. The size o the filing material goes on decreasing towards the ground level.

Working: The underground water finds the way of least resistance through the filter media. The water is collected in the perforated pipes through the filter media. Due to the slopes provided, this water is further collected in the chambers in between. All the water, thus carried away, is finally collected in the deepest chamber or sump. The water collected in this sump is either pumped out or laid into the public storm water drain.

TREATMENT OF FOUNDATIONS ON BAD SOILS:

Where the sub-soil water is not properly drained (in clay or peat soil) the structure should be disconnected from the face of the ground excavation and a trench made all around for a width of 600 mm taken down to a point at least as low as the underside of the concrete footings. The bed of the trench should be provided with a good slope at each end and the trench filled with coke, gravel or stone, graded with fines to fill the voids. An open-jointed land drain may be laid at the bottom to collect and drain out the sub-soil water. A waterproof coat should be given outside the structure foundations (on the external face of the walls) and continued through the thickness of the walls (under the walls over the foundation concrete) and under the floor. A 75 mm layer of waterproof cement concrete can be laid all around. Dampness can also be sometimes be reduced by leaving out an air gap around the external wall of the foundation.

Where sub-soil drainage has been ignored and necessary precautions have not been taken, water will stand about in the foundations, and the warmth of the interior of the building acting through porous concrete floors will set up suction of moisture which will eventually give rise to dampness in the floors and walls. Where the sub-soil water is near the ground surface and can be lowered by underground drainage owing to the flatness of the ground or any other reasons, the level of the floors of the buildings should be kept sufficiently high. It is considered that the height of the plinth should be kept at least 1.8-2.4m minus the level difference between the ground level and the sub-soil water table. WATERPROOFING IN THE FUTURE Waterproofing membranes will have more than one role. Not only will they be impervious to water they will also incorporate sound proofing, thermal insulation and ceramic tile adhesive qualities. There is no TAFE trade course exclusively for the waterproofing industry. Waterproofing is a subject within the tiling and building courses. In the future waterproofing will be a stand alone trade course. The standard of waterproofing will be higher as the next generation of waterproofing applicators become more skilled through greater training. As the importance and role of waterproofing increase applicators may become regulated, and manufacturers may become more discerning to whom they supply. Waterproofing membranes will be more robust to keep abreast of changes that occur in building designs, building materials, systems, and techniques.

Waterproofing membranes will be environmentally friendly, free from harmful carcinogenic substances. Governments will have a greater input in the contents, handling and application of chemicals. Many people in the waterproofing industry are genuinely excited about the Industry's future, the advent of new products, wider fields of application, and a growing recognition of it's importance augurs some encouraging signs for the future.

SUMMARY The awareness and understanding of waterproofing has grown significantly over the last decade. More and more people are recognising the important role that waterproofing plays in today's building industry. Few years back, there were no industry associations. Today, industry bodies such as Waterproofing Industry Council Of Australia (W.I.C.A.) have emerged as waterproofing grows in prominence as a building material. Waterproofing is a critical component of any building structure. The four keys to successful waterproofing are: proper consideration at the design stage choosing the right product for the job adequate preparation the correct application. The ramifications of failing to waterproof, or waterproofing inadequately can be horrendous.

1.1 thesis Introduction


A waterproof coating is
a su bstance or materialmade to coat an object or surface and prevent itfrom suffering any negative effects from exposureto water. Waterproofing is a treatment which isused to protect the surface or structure from thewater. It creates a water resistant barrier which isimpervious and protective to the surface below. Inold structures, due to aging there may beproblems of leakages and dampness which causeunhygienic conditions. Even in new constructiondue to poor quality of material or workmanshipleakage and dampness problems start in earlydays which generally affect the strength as well asthe aesthetics and finally cause non serviceabilityto the occupants. Whenever any building elementstarts showing the dampness or leakagesometimes it becomes difficult to identify thesource and after identifying the source theselection of the appropriate technology is the maintask. Photo 1. Effect of absence of waterproofing Treatment Different waterproofing techniques prevail in thecurrent scenario like Polyurethane coatings,Cement paints, Sealers, Silicon based water repellents, Nanotechnology, etc. Waterproofing istypically done for internal areas like bathrooms,toilets, basements etc. and external areas likeroofs, balconies, retaining walls and terraces.Waterproofing of swimming pools, terracegardens, and sunken slabs requires good skillsand experience. Good quality of waterproofing canincrease the life of the structure. 1.2 Need for the

Study Photo 2. Leakage on sunken slab There are many factors which affect theservicability of the buildings and water relatedproblems are a major concern. Construction is apart of development of any area or city and speedydevelopment sometimes it leads to the problemsto the structure. Leakage and dampness are themain problems which affect the structure and themain cause of that may be poor quality of materials, poor quality of workmanship, improper plumbing, inadequate supervision, defectivedesign or improper construction practice. For making structure waterproof or water resistantthere are many waterproofing techniques availablewhich may protect the structure from negativeeffects of water, but it is difficult to choose thecorrect waterproofing technique for the structure.There are many factors which affect the selectionof appropriate waterproofing technique likeappearance, environment exposure, cost, loadingto the structure etc. Thus there is a need to studyvarious waterproofing techniques to facilitate theselection of appropriate waterproofing technique. Photo 3. Effect of absence of waterproofing Treatment on wall