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Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No.

1, 13-25, February 2007 / Copyright 2007 Japan Concrete Institute 13


Scientific paper
Application of Conventionally Recycled Coarse Aggregate to Concrete
Structure by Surface Modification Treatment
Masato Tsujino
1
, Takafumi Noguchi
2
, Masaki Tamura
3
, Manabu Kanematsu
4
and Ippei Maruyama
5

Received 27 October 2006, accepted 25 January 2007
Abstract
This paper aims to establish a technique for easy concrete recycling as a solution essential for the creation of a closed-
loop recycling society. The technique introduced in this study enables improvement of the recovery rate of original ag-
gregate by enhancing the peeling-off effect of aggregate without any degradation of mechanical properties. The en-
hanced peeling-off effect is realized by applying a surface improving agent to the aggregate.
In this paper, material tests were conducted on recycled aggregates with low quality and middle quality. In the test, two
types of surface improving agent, an oil-type improving agent and a silane-type improving agent, were used. The test
results have shown that the recycled aggregate finished with silane-type improving agent was greatly improved in re-
covery rate but showed lowered strength. On the other hand, the recycled aggregate finished with oil-type improving
agent was somewhat superior in recovery rate compared with non-finished aggregate. In addition the oil-type im-
proving agent improved hardening properties. Flexural tests of reinforced concrete beams were conducted only for the
oil-type improving agent. Consequently, the possible applicability of recycled aggregate finished with oil-type surface
improving agent was verified.


1. Introduction
The recycling system for concrete is now being signifi-
cantly improved under heightened environmental
awareness and pressing requests for recycling along
with the JIS standardization of high-quality recycled
aggregate for widespread use. On the way to establish-
ing a recycling-oriented society, the reverse process,
which requires advanced techniques like heat treatment
and the rubbing method, still faces many hurdles (Shima
et al. 2005, JCI 2005) such as energy-saving, cost-
saving, and the treatment of byproducts such as powder.
The labor-saving design of the reverse process is essen-
tial for the easy attainment of a closed loop. Paying par-
ticular attention to these technical points, this study
aims to establish a technique enabling the easy recycling
of concrete.
The technique introduced to Concrete with Easy-to-
Collect Aggregate (Tamura et al. 1997) in this study is
an easy process that applies surface improving agent to
aggregate. This technique enhances the peeling effect of
aggregate from cement matrix without degrading me-
chanical properties and reduces the high water absorp-
tion of recycle aggregate.
The objectives of this study are to establish the tech-
nique for easy concrete recycling with a surface improv-
ing agent and to consider the applicability to architec-
tural structures. Then, following subjects are discussed
in this study:
- clarification of the influence of surface improving
agent on the properties of recycled coarse aggregate,
- investigation of the mechanical properties of concrete
of recycled aggregate finished with a surface improv-
ing agent,
- peeling-off effect regarding recovery properties,
- durability of recycled aggregate concrete using a sur-
face improving agent, and
- examination of flexural properties of reinforced con-
crete beams.

2. Characteristics of recycled coarse
aggregate
2.1 Quality
The qualities of the recycled coarse aggregate used in
this study are listed in Table 1. The recycled coarse ag-
gregate referred to as middle-quality is screw-ground
with a tertiary crushing after rough crushing with a
jaw/cone crusher, and its particle size is adjusted so that
the grain is ranged within the standard particle size
specified in JIS. On the other hand, the recycled coarse
aggregate referred to as low-quality is ground only
without screw grinding and particle size adjustment.

1
Graduate Student, Dept. of Architecture, Graduate
School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Japan.
E-mail: mt-ch2@bme.arch.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2
Associate Professor, Dept. of Architecture, Graduate
School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Japan.
3
Research Associate, Dept. of Architecture, Graduate
School of Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University,
Japan.
4
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Architecture, Graduate
School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science,
Japan.
5
Associate Professor, Graduate School of Environmental
Studies, Nagoya University, Japan.
14 M. Tsujino, T. Noguchi, M. Tamura, M. Kanematsu and I. Maruyama / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 1, 13-25, 2007
The particle size distribution curves of both types of
recycled aggregate are shown in Fig. 1.
For the test materials, middle-quality recycled aggre-
gate was produced in the laboratory and its mix propor-
tions were known. Waste concrete of unknown mix pro-
portions and for use as sub-grade material was pur-
chased as low-quality recycled aggregate. The mix pro-
portions of the original concrete of the middle-quality
recycled aggregate and the test results of the concrete
are listed in Table 2 and Table 3, respectively.

2.2 Content of paste and mortar in recycled
coarse aggregate
The inclusion of a large amount of cement paste in re-
cycled aggregate has been reported to boost water ab-
sorption and negatively affect the properties of hardened
concrete. This is because cement paste is more porous
than aggregate. Consequently, the content of cement
paste is a typical index of the quality of recycled aggre-
gate. In this study, the constituents in recycled coarse
aggregate were determined with a chlorine dissolution
process. The results are shown in Fig. 2. The difference
in cement paste content between middle- and low-
quality recycled coarse aggregate is approximately three
times, and that of mortar content is about two times.
About 30% of the total weight in middle-quality aggre-
gate and more than 50% in low-quality aggregate are
mortar. This fact suggests that the grinding effect of
tertiary crushing has reduced the mortar deposit rate of
middle-quality recycled coarse aggregate. By contrast,
in the low-quality recycled coarse aggregate, the mortar
deposit rate has not been reduced by rough crushing
only.

3. Characteristics of coated recycled
coarse aggregate
3.1 Types of surface improving agent
The surface improving agents used in this study are oil-
and silane-type agents. The silane-type agent is pa-
tented (TOYO INK MFG. Co., Ltd. 1995). Table 4 lists
their respective applications and main constituents
(Tsuji et al. 2002, Wang 2003). Schematic diagrams of
the effects of surface improving agents are shown in
Figs. 3 and 4.

3.2 Water absorption of coated recycled coarse
aggregate
The surface improving agent, dispersed in water with a
specific concentration, was applied through repeated
spraying and drying cycles. The number of repetitions
required to obtain a stable coating was four times. The
Table 1 Quality of recycled coarse aggregate.
Types of coarse
aggregate
Code
Oven-dry
density (g/cm
3
)
Surface-dry
density (g/cm
3
)
Water
absorption (%)
Material passing
75 m sieve (%)
Mass per unit
volume (kg/L)
Solid content in
aggregate (%)
Fineness
modulus
Middle-quality M 2.36 2.47 4.8 0.64 1.51
64.1
6.51
Low-quality L 2.33 2.46 5.48 2.1 1.41
60.5
6.24

Table 2 Mix proportions of original concrete of middle-
quality recycled coarse aggregate.
Fine Coarse
C1.3% (AE &
water reducing agent)
58.0 49.1 180 310 858 909
Unit content (kg/m
3
)
Admixture
Water Cement
Aggregate
W/C
(%)
s/a
(%)


Table 3 Test results original concrete of middle-quality
recycled coarse aggregate.
Air (%)
5.5
Compressive strength at time of crush (N/mm
2
)
21.4 18.0
Slump (cm)


13.6%
17.5%
36.4%
13.6%
0
20
40
60
80
100
Original
coarse aggregate
Middle-quality Low-quality
M
i
x
t
u
r
e
w
e
i
g
h
t
(
%
)
Original coarse aggregate Fine aggregate Paste
Fig. 2 Deposit rate of paste of recycled coarse aggregate.

2.5 5 10 20 25
0
20
40
60
80
100
Sieve size (mm)
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
P
a
s
s
i
n
g
(
%
)
Range of std. size
Middle-quality
Low-quality

Fig. 1 Grading curves of recycled coarse aggregate.

100%
72.8%
46.1%
M. Tsujino, T. Noguchi, M. Tamura, M. Kanematsu and I. Maruyama / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 1, 13-25, 2007 15
water absorption test was conducted according to JIS A
1110. The test results of water absorption according to
the number of repetitions are shown in Fig. 5. Reduc-
tion of water absorption is not proportional to the num-
ber of repetitions. This may be due to uneven applica-
tion over whole recycled coarse aggregate including
paste parts with high water absorption. Ultimate water
absorption is 3.5% for the oil-type agent and 1% for the
silane-type agent, indicating that the reduction effect on
water absorption of the silane-type agent is higher than
that of the oil-type agent.

4. Tests for recycled concrete using coated
recycled coarse aggregate
4.1 Types of concrete and mix proportions
The types of concretes and mix proportions are listed in
Table 5. Two types of recycled coarse aggregate were
used, i.e., middle- and low-quality recycled coarse ag-
gregate. Three types of surface treatment were applied,
i.e., no treatment (N), oil-type treatment (O), and a si-
lane-type treatment (S). Concrete was made with two
levels of water/cement ratio, i.e., 60% and 40%. Thus,
twelve types of concrete in all were prepared. For the
mechanical properties and peeling-off tests, two types of
aggregate, crushed stone and river gravel, were added
for comparison with ordinary concrete. In addition,
crushed stones and river gravel finished with oil-type
agent were also added.
Ordinary Portland cement (density: 3.16 g/cm
3
) was
used as cement. Oigawa River sand with a surface dry
density of 2.59 g/cm
3
, water absorption of 0.59% and
fineness modulus of 2.66 was used as fine aggregate.
The mix proportions were selected so that the recycled
concrete using untreated coarse aggregate satisfies the
target properties in a fresh state listed in Table 5. Sup-
plemental air-entraining agent was used if the targeted
air volume was not obtained. The aggregates treated
Table 4 Types of surface improving agents.
Type
Application
Mineral oil (Paraffin) 85-95% Silicon analogue 28-32%
Emulsifying agent 1-5% Emulsifying agent Minute quantity
Lanolin fatty acid salt 1-5% Water 68-72%
State Emulsion Emulsion
Oil (O) Silane (S)
Release agent used in wooden form
Main
constituent
Water-repellent agent with permeability to the concrete surface

Saponification
Hydrolysis reaction
Alkali metal salt formation
Ca
2+
Coating formation of alkali metal salt
Calcium ion
= = Mineral oil
Application
Drying
RCOOCH RCOOCH
2 2
R R COOCH COOCH
R R COOCH COOCH
2 2
RCOOCH RCOOCH
2 2
R R COOCH COOCH
R R COOCH COOCH
2 2
Ca
2+
Ca
2+
RCOOCa RCOOCa
R R COOCa COOCa
R R COOCa COOCa
RCOOCa RCOOCa
R R COOCa COOCa
R R COOCa COOCa
Alkali metal salt film
Surface of aggregate
Surface of aggregate
Surface of aggregate
= Si-OR =Si-OH
1. Fusion
Particles are fused with each other
following water evaporation
from emulsion.
2. Dealcoholization by hydrolysis
Silanol is formed by the reaction
of alkoxyl group, maintained in
polymers, with water.
3. Bonding
Silanol reacts with hydroxyl
group of silicate contained in cement
to bond to substrate.
Condensation.
Further, after water evaporation,
the silanol reacts with another
Application Mineral oil
Water
evaporation

Approach
between particles
Hydrolysis
reaction
Cross-link formation
Surface of aggregate
Surface of aggregate
Reaction Process
Coating formation
Water-repellent coating is formed on the surface of aggregate.
silanol to form siloxane cross-link.
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of an oil-type
agent for surface improvement.
Fig. 4 Schematic drawing of a silane-type surface improv-
ing agent (Hasegawa, 1999).
-( ) Aggregate - Surface improving agent ( ) - - W/C
Notation used in this paper:
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
0 1 2 3 4
Number of Applications
W
a
t
e
r
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
(
%
)
Middle-Silane-type
Middle-Oil-type
3.78%
Low-Oil-type
3.53%
Middle 4.80%
Low 5.48%
Middle-Silane-type
Low-Silane-type
Low-Silane-type
Low-Oil-type
Middle-Oil-type
1.15%
1.07%
Fig. 5 Reduction of water absorption with improving
agent.

16 M. Tsujino, T. Noguchi, M. Tamura, M. Kanematsu and I. Maruyama / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 1, 13-25, 2007
with surface improving agent were used under air-dry
condition to prevent separation of the agent under water,
especially in the case of the silane-type agent.

4.2 Fresh Property
The slump values of concrete are shown in Fig. 6. For
the middle-quality level, the slump values of coated
coarse aggregate are almost similar to those of untreated
coarse aggregate. Accordingly, for the middle-quality
level, sufficient fluidity can be achieved by using aggre-
gate finished with surface improvement agent. The flu-
idity obtained without surface drying indicates that an
alkali metallic salt film due to the oil-type agent and a
water repellent coating due to the silane-type agent are
formed to reduce water absorption of aggregate. By
contrast, for low-quality aggregate, the amount of fine
particles of aggregate in itself is more than three times
greater compared with middle-quality aggregate. This
greater amount of fine particles would result in a de-
crease in fluidity, although a film similar to that of mid-
dle-quality aggregate was formed on the aggregate itself.
Thus it is concluded that in the use of low-quality ag-
gregate containing an abundant amount of fine particles,
the adjustment of admixture is needed to provide against
the decrease in slump. Compared with the slump values
of untreated aggregate, the decreasing rate of slump
values of aggregates finished with surface improvement
agent shows no significant difference at 30 minutes after
mixing. This may be due to the fact that the water ab-
sorption of treated aggregates is low due to film forma-
tion.
As for the amount of air, as stated in the previous sec-
tion, no significant result was recognized owing to the
mixture of air-entraining agent to obtain the desired
amount of air. The amount of air-entraining agent used
was the standard level.
4.3 Experiments on mechanical properties
The compressive strength test, test for static modulus of
elasticity, and split tensile strength test were conducted
at the age of 28 days according to JIS A 1108, JIS A
1149, and JIS A 1113. The compressive strength test and
modulus of static elasticity results are shown in Fig. 7
and the relationship between the compressive strength
and splitting tensile strength test results is shown in Fig.
8.
The main concern regarding surface modification
treatment is a significant decrease in strength due to
peeling-off and variations in strength. If decrease and/or
variations in strength occur, it is difficult to apply an
existing structural design. Therefore, a discussion has
been made to investigate if the concrete using coated
recycled coarse aggregate is equal in mechanical prop-
erties compared with normal concrete.
In Fig. 7, compressive strength can be seen to slightly
Table 5 Types of concrete and mix proportions.
Water Cement Fine Coarse
No treatment (N) 60 4.0(1) 50.0 175 292 891 925
250ml/c=100kg
(AE & water reducing agent)
Oil (O) 40 2.0(1) 44.0 165 413 790 1004
C0.7%
(Superplasticizer)
No treatment (N) 60 4.0(1) 47.0 165 275 870 982
250ml/c=100kg
(AE & water reducing agent)
Oil (O) 40 2.0(1) 42.0 155 388 772 1067
C0.7%
(Superplasticizer)
Crushed
stone (C)
182
River
gravel (R)
182
182 Oil (O)
40
Silane (S)
40
Low-
quality (L)
No treatment (N)
60
950
Aggregate
type
Unit content (kg/m
3
)
Middle-
quality (M)
No treatment (N)
60
182
4.0(1)
Oil (O)
906
C0.7%
(Superplasticizer)
42.0 175
4.0(1) 826 883
250ml/c=100kg
(AE & water reducing agent)
2.0(1) 438 725
C0.7%
(Superplasticizer)
47.0 185 308
47.0 175 292 844
165 413 743 981 2.0(1)
Silane (S)
s/a
(%)
Admixture
Surface
improving agent
W/C
(%)
Slump
(cm)
Air
(%)
250ml/c=100kg
(AE & water reducing agent)
42.0
S
l
u
m
p

(
c
m
)
M-60 L-60 M-40 L-40
Oil Silane No treatment
0
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
Oil Silane No treatment
0 (min)
30 (min)


Fig. 6 Slump values.
M. Tsujino, T. Noguchi, M. Tamura, M. Kanematsu and I. Maruyama / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 1, 13-25, 2007 17
increase in the concrete with a W/C of 60% made using
recycled coarse aggregate treated with the oil-type agent.
This increase may be due to the air-dry condition of the
aggregate. The compressive strength of aggregate fin-
ished with an oil-type agent reaches the level equal to
that of ordinary concrete. Accordingly, it is considered
that the middle-quality aggregate of W/C = 60% is ef-
fective in the increase of strength with no decrease of
fluidity. In addition, Youngs modulus tends also to in-
crease with increased strength. An oil-type agent would
be effective to improve Youngs modulus of recycled
concrete abundant in paste. The above results show that
the structural design similar to existing methods may be
possible for recycled aggregate concrete using the oil-
type improving agent. The strength reduction in the
concrete with W/C of 40% may be due to film forming,
causing a reduction in bond strength between the aggre-
gate and cement matrix. However the strength decrease
is only 10% compared to the untreated specimens. Con-
sequently, sufficient strength may be obtained through
the application of the oil-type agent. The strength tends
to decrease if river gravel at W/C = 40%, i.e., an aggre-
gate of high solid volume percentage in the high-
strength area, is used. Caution should be exercised dur-
ing structural design, although no serious problem
would occur because strength of about 40 N/mm
2
is
ensured.
By contrast, in all specimens treated with the silane-
type agent, considerable strength reduction was ob-
served, which may be due to significantly weakened
bonding properties. Calculation of strength by using a
universal estimating equation is difficult. Regarding the
use of aggregate finished with a silane-type agent, re-
consideration based on the collection of additional data
is needed.
In this experiment, three test specimens were tested
for each test level. For R-O-40 only, a test specimen
with compressive strength 5% below the average was
found. The other test levels are likely to present few
quality control problems because the variations in
strength are all limited to within 3%.
Next, the splitting tensile strength of concrete fin-
ished with surface improving agent should be consid-
ered because it may decrease significantly due to peel-
ing-off regardless of compressive strength. As shown in
Fig. 8, no test specimen was found to exhibit a signifi-
cant decrease in splitting tensile strength compared with
compressive strength. The splitting tensile strength is
well matched by the existing regression equation (No-
guchi et al. 1995). This fact indicates that compressive
and tensile strength are lowered at the same level. Ac-
cordingly, the existing general-purpose equation can
also be applied for surface improvement aggregate. The
above results indicate that the existing equations can be
used to estimate the mechanical properties of aggregate
finished with an oil-type agent and the applicability of
concrete finished with surface improving agent as a
structural material.
Finally, a compressive test was conducted for test
samples aged 984 days in water to discuss the decrease
in strength due to the degradation of the surface improv-
ing agent under an alkaline environment over a long
duration. The test results are shown in Fig. 9.
2
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
v
e
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
a
t
2
8
d
a
y
s

(
N
/
m
m
)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
M-60 L-60 C-60 R-60 M-40 L-40 C-40 R-40
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Y
o
u
n
g
'
s
m
o
d
u
l
u
s

k
N
/
m
m

2
Compressive strength
Oil Silane No treatment
Young's modulus
No treatment Oil Silane
Fig. 7 Test results of compressive strength and Youngs
modulus.

0
1
2
3
4
5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Compressive strength at 28 days(N/mm )
2
S
p
l
i
t
t
e
n
s
i
l
e
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

N
/
m
m

2
637 . 0
291 . 0
B t
=
Recycle (No treatment)
Recycle (Silane)
Recycle (Oil)
Normal (No treatment)
Normal (Oil)
Fig. 8 Test results of split tensile strength and compres-
sive strength.

M-60 L-60 M-40 L-40
2
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
v
e
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
a
t
2
8
d
a
y
s

(
N
/
m
m
)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Y
o
u
n
g
'
s
m
o
d
u
l
u
s

k
N
/
m
m

2
Compressive strength
Oil Silane No treatment
Young's modulus
No treatment Oil Silane
Fig. 9 Test results of compressive strength at 984 days.
.
18 M. Tsujino, T. Noguchi, M. Tamura, M. Kanematsu and I. Maruyama / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 1, 13-25, 2007
An increase in strength was recognized for all test
levels and the test results show a behavior similar to that
of ordinary concrete compared with the compressive
strength of 28-day aging. Consequently, the property of
long duration can be evaluated as that of 28-day aging.
This fact suggests that the aggregate finished with sur-
face improving agent can be fully used even in a water
environment for a long duration.
In future, the application to an architectural structure
could be established by:
- conducting repeated tests of warm-cool and dry-wet
cycles,
- considering the fire resistance, including mechanical
behaviors at high temperatures, and
- conducting an exposure test over a long duration of
time.

4.4 Experiments on peeling-off effect (recovery
of original aggregate)
The importance of the peeling-off effect lies in, as
shown in Concrete with Easy-to-Collect Aggregate
(Tamura et al. 1997), recycling at low energy and main-
taining aggregate size. In this study, the area of aggre-
gate on the split surface of the specimen was measured
by means of image analysis as proposed by Noguchi et
al. (Noguchi et al. 2001) following execution of a split
tensile strength test to evaluate the peeling-off effect of
surface improving treatment and the recovery of origi-
nal aggregate. The peeling-off effect was determined by
the ratio of the aggregates that are peeled at the coated
surface to total recycled aggregates. To clearly distin-
guish between the peeled aggregates and the crushed
aggregates, specimens were prepared by adding a red
pigment of iron oxide in the amount of 3% of the ce-
ment weight. The results of image analysis on the peel-
ing-off effect in concrete are shown in Fig. 10.
As shown in Fig. 10, the peeling-off of a silane-type
agent is highly effective. This fact suggests that aggre-
gate finished with a silane-type agent can be recycled
with an easy recovery system with low energy require-
ment and maintaining aggregate diameter. Thus, al-
though silane-type agent is considered to be vastly supe-
rior in recycling effect, a trade-off relationship exists
between the peeling-off effect and strength, as previ-
ously described. How to balance the peeling-off effect
with strength must be studied by investigating the
amount of application.
By contrast, it is indicated that the use of crushed

Fig. 10 Results of image analysis on peeling-off effect in concrete.
.
M. Tsujino, T. Noguchi, M. Tamura, M. Kanematsu and I. Maruyama / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 1, 13-25, 2007 19
stones of poor grain shape and of acute angle in normal
aggregate treated with the oil-type agent results in low
peeling-off effect, and the use of river gravel of rounded
smooth grain and smooth surface results in high peel-
ing-off effect. River gravel is considered not to hinder
the development of cracks when stress occurs at the
interface part. In this condition, although significant
decrease in split tensile strength is a concern, river
gravel maintains sufficient strength as stated previously.
Thus, the decrease in split tensile strength poses no par-
ticular problem in practical use. In addition, for the
middle-quality recycled aggregate finished with an oil-
type agent, the peeling-off effect is not so effective be-
cause the low strength part of old mortar is lower than
the peeling strength. However, the test results obtained
indicate that the peeling-area percentage is higher by
10% compared with non-treated aggregate. Thus it can
be concluded that the application of an oil-type agent is
effective.
The results show that a silane-type agent has suffi-
cient peeling-off effect for low-quality aggregate of rich
paste and, on the other hand, an oil-type agent has high
peeling-off effect for hard aggregate such as river gravel
of rounded smooth grain.

4.5 Resistance to carbonation
An accelerated carbonation test was conducted by using
cylindrical test specimens with a diameter of 100 mm
and a height of 200 mm under the testing and aging
condition specified in JIS A 1153. The carbonation
depth was determined according to JIS A 1152.
Figure 11 shows the relationship between the root of
the duration of aging, up to 91 days, and the carbonation
depth determined by an accelerated test. The coefficient
of velocity of carbonation (a value in Fig. 11) was
also calculated from a regression equation through the
origin on the assumption that linearity exists between
the two axes.
For both W/C = 60% and 40%, the aggregate con-
crete finished with oil-type surface improving agent is
most resistant to carbonation. This phenomenon may be
due to the air-dry condition of the aggregate in the
course of concrete depositing. Accordingly, the actual
water/cement ratio decreases and the effect of increased
resistance of the cement matrix is considered. For mid-
dle-quality aggregate, significantly non-lowered fluidity
of concrete may result in possible improvement of resis-
tance to carbonation of the concrete with recycled ag-
gregate treated with the oil-type agent. By contrast, al-
though concrete of aggregate finished with a silane-type
surface improving agent uses also the air-dry condition
of the aggregate, carbonation is more developed. In the
case of the silane-type agent, re-emulsifying followed
by dissolution may adversely affect the hydrolysis of
cement. A solution to this problem is needed.

4.6 Experiments on drying shrinkage
A drying shrinkage test was conducted according to a
dial gauge method specified in JIS A 1129-3. Specimens
were removed from moulds at the age of one day and

Y = a x
0
4
8
12
16
20
0
1
2
3
4
5
0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Age (weeks)
3.70
3.13
4.75
Y = a x
No treatment
Oil
Silane
4.06
3.28
5.31
Y = a x
No treatment
Oil
Silane
0.21
0.11
0.16
Y = a x
No treatment
Oil
Silane
0.19
0.09
0.19

No treatment
Oil
Silane
MiddleW/C=60
LowW/C=60
MiddleW/C=40
LowW/C=40
D
e
p
t
h
o
f
c
a
r
b
o
n
a
t
i
o
n
(
m
m
)
D
e
p
t
h
o
f
c
a
r
b
o
n
a
t
i
o
n
(
m
m
)

Fig. 11 Depth of carbonation.


20 M. Tsujino, T. Noguchi, M. Tamura, M. Kanematsu and I. Maruyama / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 1, 13-25, 2007
cured in water up to the age of nine days, followed by
dry condition at 20 degrees and 60% R.H. Figure 12
shows the experimental results of drying shrinkage and
mass change and the predicted values of drying shrink-
age up to the age of 726 days, which are calculated us-
ing AIJ equations (AIJ 2006) for natural aggregate con-
crete (hereinafter referred to as ordinary concrete) with
the same mix proportions.
In the case of W/C of 60%, the drying shrinkage of
concrete containing recycled aggregate treated with the
oil-type agent is smaller than that of non-treated aggre-
gate and aggregate finished with a silane-type agent.
The drying shrinkage of middle-quality aggregate is
smaller by 10% compared with that of untreated aggre-
gate. The reduction of mass in concrete containing recy-
cled aggregate treated with the oil-type agent is smaller
than that of untreated aggregate and almost equal to that
of ordinary concrete, which may indicate the absence of
any significant problem in practical use. The silane-type
agent was observed to have very little effect on drying
shrinkage and mass change.
In the case of W/C of 40%, the drying shrinkage of
concrete containing recycled aggregate treated with the
oil-type agent is smaller than that of concrete with un-
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
M
-
N
-
6
0
M
-
O
-
6
0
M
-
S
-
6
0
L
-
N
-
6
0
L
-
O
-
6
0
L
-
S
-
6
0
M
-
N
-
4
0
M
-
O
-
4
0
M
-
S
-
4
0
L
-
N
-
4
0
L
-
O
-
4
0
L
-
S
-
4
0
Weight rate of change
AIJ shrinkage strain prediction equation
(natural aggregate concrete of the same formulation)
Experimental value
W
e
i
g
h
t
r
a
t
e
o
f
c
h
a
n
g
e
(
%
)
D
r
y
i
n
g
s
h
r
i
n
k
a
g
e
s
t
r
a
i
n
(

)

Fig. 12 Drying shrinkage strain at the age of 726 days.
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500 600
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
0 100 200 300 400 500
Time since loading (days)
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Time since loading (days)
2
-
6
Time since loading (days) Time since loading (days)
S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
c
r
e
e
p
s
t
r
a
i
n

1
0
/
(
N
/
m
m
)

S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
c
r
e
e
p
s
t
r
a
i
n

1
0
/
(
N
/
m
m
)

2
-
6
No treatment Oil Silane
AIJ creep strain prediction equation
(natural aggregate concrete of the same formulation)
Fig. 13 Specific creep strain.
M. Tsujino, T. Noguchi, M. Tamura, M. Kanematsu and I. Maruyama / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 1, 13-25, 2007 21
treated aggregate. The oil-type agent is effective in the
reduction of drying shrinkage regardless of the wa-
ter/cement ratio, which gives concrete structures long
service life and leads to sustainability.

4.7 Experiments on creep
Figure 13 shows the experimental results and predicted
values calculated with an AIJ equation (AIJ 2006) for
the change in specific creep strain in ordinary concrete
with the same mix proportions as those of recycled ag-
gregate. The specific creep strain was calculated so that
both the elastic strain at loading and the drying shrink-
age strain were subtracted from the total strain.
The specific creep strain in recycled aggregate con-
crete is greater than that in ordinary concrete regardless
of the water/cement ratio. This phenomenon may be due
to the paste content in concrete made using recycled
aggregate.
Concrete with recycled aggregate treated with the oil-
type agent shows nearly the same amount of change in
creep behavior as concrete with untreated aggregate,
which proves that the oil-type surface improving agent
has no significant influence on creep. By contrast, the
creep strain of concrete with recycled aggregate treated
with a silane-type agent is very large. This phenomenon
may be from the result of the decreased bond strength at
the interface between the aggregate and cement paste.

4.8 Experiments on flexural properties of rein-
forced concrete beams using aggregate treated
with surface improving agent

4.8.1 Outline
Flexural tests have been conducted in reinforced con-
crete beams made using concrete with aggregate treated
with surface improving agent, except for concrete with
aggregate treated with a silane-type agent, which was
greatly reduced in strength in spite of excellent aggre-
gate recovery, and whose use for structures was consid-
ered problematic. The aim of the flexural test is to
evaluate the strength and the cracking resistance of the
concrete with aggregate treated with the oil-type agent,
and to check practical use compared with ordinary con-
crete made using crushed virgin aggregate. The outline
of loading is shown in Fig. 14.

4.8.2 Cracking moment
Figure 15 shows the experimental results and calculated
values obtained by substituting the mechanical proper-
ties at loading age into the equation. As shown in this
figure, cracking moment in recycled coarse aggregate
concrete is slightly smaller than that in ordinary con-
crete. However, no singular point is recognized in the
concrete with recycled coarse aggregate treated with the
oil-type agent, and the experimental results are nearly
equal to the calculated values. Therefore, a conventional
equation for designing can be used to predict a bending
moment causing cracks.

4.8.3 Cracking behavior
Regarding the investigation of the properties of cracks
against long-term allowable stress, Figs. 16 and 17
show the results of cracking properties due to service-
able load when, assuming a RC section, the force ap-
plied on the main reinforcement attains the long-term
allowable stress, 215 N/mm
2
. In addition, Fig. 18 shows
the deflection at the long-term allowable stress.
The maximum crack width did not increase with the
200 600 200 200 600 200
2000
D6@100(SD345)
D13(SD345)
200
30 140 30
2
3
0
3
0
1
7
0
3
0
Displacement gauge PinRoller bearing
Testing bench
Test piece
Load cell
Loading plate
Pressing head
Cross-section

Fig. 14 Schematic diagram of loading in RC bending test (Unit: mm).
22 M. Tsujino, T. Noguchi, M. Tamura, M. Kanematsu and I. Maruyama / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 1, 13-25, 2007
use of the oil-type agent. This may be considered due to
the fact that the effect of the bond of recycled coarse
aggregate is smaller than that of ordinary aggregate.
However, this should pose no problem in practical use,
because for all the levels, the extent of cracking is sig-
nificantly smaller than 0.3 mm, which is the allowable
crack width to ensure resistance to degradation in a gen-
eral environment as specified in Recommendations for
Practice of Crack Control in Reinforced Concrete Build-
ings (Design and Construction) (AIJ 2006), published
by the Architectural Institute of Japan. In addition, al-
though the maximum crack spacing of recycled coarse
aggregate concrete tends to be small compared with
ordinary concrete, no significant difference is recog-
nized due to the use of the oil-type agent.
Although the recycled coarse aggregate produces lar-
ger deflection in RC beams, the extent is not of great
significance for practical use and the low water/cement
ratio may overcome the increase in deflection.
Consequently, in this experiment, as significant deg-
radation of crack behavior due to a surface improving
treatment is not recognized, durability related cracking
behavior need not be given much attention. Recycled
concrete containing the oil-type agent may be applicable
to structural use in combination with a surface finishing
material that can restrain water penetration and follow
the movement of cracks.

4.8.4 Plastic behavior
Figure 19 shows the load-deflection curves of RC
beams. All specimens collapsed due to the failure of
concrete at the ultimate compression fiber.
No significant difference in yielding moment and ul-
timate moment is recognized between recycled coarse
aggregate concrete and ordinary concrete. The load-
deflection curves are similar to those obtained by Sato
(Sato et al. 2000) and Mukai (Mukai et al. 1979) as well
as those of ordinary concrete, and no influence of the
oil-type agent is recognized in any of the specimens.
Further, the observed concrete strains at ultimate com-
pression fiber were constant, nearly 3500 u, in this study.
Figure 20 shows a comparison of measured values and
calculated values obtained by using equivalent compres-
M
-
N
-
6
0
M
-
O
-
6
0
L
-
N
-
6
0
L
-
O
-
6
0
M
-
N
-
4
0
M
-
O
-
4
0
L
-
N
-
4
0
L
-
O
-
4
0
No treatment
Oil
Calculated values
0
5
10
15
s
t
o
n
e
C
r
u
s
h
e
d
-
6
0
s
t
o
n
e
C
r
u
s
h
e
d
-
4
0
B
e
n
d
i
n
g
m
o
m
e
n
t
c
a
u
s
i
n
g
c
r
a
c
k
s

k
N


Fig. 15 Cracking moment.

0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
No treatment
Oil
M
-
6
0
L
-
6
0
M
-
4
0
L
-
4
0
s
t
o
n
e
C
r
u
s
h
e
d
-
6
0
-
4
0
s
t
o
n
e
C
r
u
s
h
e
d
M
a
x
i
m
u
m
c
r
a
c
k
w
i
d
t
h

m
m

Fig. 16 Maximum crack width.



M
-
6
0
L
-
6
0
M
-
4
0
L
-
4
0
s
t
o
n
e
C
r
u
s
h
e
d
-
6
0
-
4
0
s
t
o
n
e
C
r
u
s
h
e
d
No treatment
Oil
0
100
200
300
M
a
x
i
m
u
m
c
r
a
c
k
i
n
t
e
r
v
a
l

m
m

Fig. 17 Maximum crack spacing.


0
1
2
3
No treatment
Oil
M
-
6
0
L
-
6
0
M
-
4
0
L
-
4
0
s
t
o
n
e
C
r
u
s
h
e
d
-
6
0
-
4
0
s
t
o
n
e
C
r
u
s
h
e
d
D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

m
m

Fig. 18 Deflection.

M. Tsujino, T. Noguchi, M. Tamura, M. Kanematsu and I. Maruyama / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 1, 13-25, 2007 23
sive stress on Bernoullis Eulers assumption, when the
compressive edge strain reaches 3500 u. First, the
measured values are considered to be almost the same
degree for all levels. No significant difference is found
compared with ordinary concrete. Moreover, the meas-
ured values match the calculated values. Thus the ulti-
mate strength can be assessed for the concrete using an
oil-type agent.
In this experiment, many cracks occurred in the range
from yielding point to ultimate point in the concrete
containing aggregate treated with surface improving
agent. The cracking after the yielding point may be ef-
fective from the viewpoint of aggregate recovery at the
demolition of a structure. However, as this action may
reduce compressive strength under positive-negative
cyclic load conditions, further discussion is warranted.
The shear property of concrete in the reinforced con-
crete is also needed for structural design of RC structure.
Then, the shear property of concrete as well as the test
under positive-negative cyclic load conditions will be
discussed in future.
Based on the above results, it is difficult to consider
that the bending of reinforced concrete beams is prob-
lematic in practical use because the oil-type agent has
efficient performance in strength as well as cracking
resistance. An oil-type agent would be sufficiently ap-
plicable to structural materials if yielding of reinforce-
ment were made to occur in advance by making the re-
inforcement ratio less than the balanced steel ratio.

5. Conclusions
The following concluding remarks were obtained

120
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25
0 5 10 15 20 25
Deflexion (mm)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
--60
--60
-60 Crushed stone
30
0
20
40
60
80
100
Deflexion (mm)
--60
--60
-60 Crushed stone
--60
--60
-40 Crushed stone
--60
--60
-40 Crushed stone
L
o
a
d
(
k
N
)
L
o
a
d
(
k
N
)
Fig. 19 Load-deflection curves.

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
No treatment
Oil
Calculated values
M
-
N
-
6
0
M
-
O
-
6
0
L
-
N
-
6
0
L
-
O
-
6
0
M
-
N
-
4
0
M
-
O
-
4
0
L
-
N
-
4
0
L
-
O
-
4
0
s
t
o
n
e
C
r
u
s
h
e
d
-
6
0
-
4
0
s
t
o
n
e
C
r
u
s
h
e
d
U
l
t
i
m
a
t
e
b
e
n
d
i
n
g
m
o
m
e
n
t

k
N


Fig. 20 Ultimate bending moment.

24 M. Tsujino, T. Noguchi, M. Tamura, M. Kanematsu and I. Maruyama / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 1, 13-25, 2007
through the experiments.
(1) A surface improving agent reduced water absorp-
tion of low- and middle-quality recycled aggregate.
(2) For the middle-quality level, sufficient fluidity can
be achieved by using the air-dry condition of ag-
gregate finished with surface improving agent. On
the other hand, it is concluded that in the use of
low-quality aggregate containing an abundant
amount of fine particles, adjustment of the admix-
ture is needed to prevent a decrease in fluidity.
(3) As the oil-type agent does not degrade the me-
chanical properties of concrete significantly, it can
be used for the surface improvement of recycled
aggregate in structural concrete. By contrast, the
silane-type agent decreases the strength signifi-
cantly. The calculation of the strength by using a
universal estimating equation is difficult. To use
aggregate finished with a silane-type agent, recon-
sideration based on the collection of additional
data is needed.
(4) As the peeling-off effect of aggregate treated with
a silane-type agent is significantly higher than that
of untreated aggregate, a silane-type agent is very
effective from the viewpoint of aggregate recovery.
On the other hand, an oil-type agent has high peel-
ing-off effect for hard aggregate such as river
gravel of rounded smooth grain. The middle-
quality recycled aggregate finished with an oil-
type agent is not so high in the peeling-area per-
centage compared with non-treated aggregate. It is
concluded that an oil-type agent is effective to im-
prove the recovery percentage even though the
peeling-off effect is not high for all levels.
(5) For both W/C = 60% and 40%, the aggregate con-
crete finished with oil-type surface improving
agent is most resistant to carbonation.
(6) The oil-type agent possibly reduces drying shrink-
age of recycled aggregate concrete with W/C of
60% to that of ordinary concrete.
(7) The creep deformation of recycled aggregate con-
crete treated with the oil-type agent is not signifi-
cantly different from that of concrete with un-
treated aggregate.
(8) Although the recycled aggregate treated with the
oil-type agent reduces the resistance to bending
cracking, the crack width never exceeds 0.3 mm,
which is the threshold limit value from the view-
point of durability. This indicates that recycled ag-
gregate concrete treated with the oil-type agent
may be applicable to structural use combined with
a surface finishing material that can restrain water
penetration and follow the movement of cracks.
(9) The bending strength of RC beams made using
recycled aggregate treated with the oil-type agent
is comparable to that of ordinary concrete and the
load at which cracks occur may be estimated. In
addition, ultimate strength also can be estimated
assuming that the concrete strain at ultimate com-
pression fiber is 3500 u.
(10) It is difficult to consider that the bending of rein-
forced concrete beam is problematic in practical
terms because the oil-type agent has efficient per-
formance in strength as well as cracking resistance.
An oil-type agent would be sufficiently usable for
structural materials if yielding of reinforcement
were made to occur in advance by making the rein-
forcement ratio less than the balanced steel ratio.

Acknowledgements
This study was supported by a scientific research grant
on waste disposal sponsored by the Ministry of Envi-
ronment for FY2004-2005, Development of the Next-
Generation Recycling Technology of Demolished Con-
crete (Research representative: Dr. Takafumi NOGU-
CHI). Grateful appreciation is extended to all those who
encourage and support this study.

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