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ASSIGNMENT 2 Critic Articles TITLE:

Criticism of Traditional Organizational Management Theory

Name Student Id Class Lecturer

: Nurul Qistina Abu Bakar : Pgd 130009 : Pxgm 6102 Educational Administration & Organization : Dr. Zuraidah Binti Abdullah

Article 1 : Modern Management Theories And Practices

In this article title Mordern Management Theories and Practices by Yasin Olum from Makerere University at Uganda is discussed overall about the modern management theories and practices and relate it with the cclassic management theories disscussed by Frederic Taylors, Henri Fayol and Max Weber. In this article also discussed about theories X and Y discussed by Douglas Mc Gregor. In this article, the author touch on the definition of management, the management objectives, functions, goals and essentiality, managerial goal and function, woman in management, managerial skills and the organizational hierarchy, management theories, classical organizational theory school, scientific management school, behavioral school, developments in management theory, other management theories and management as practice. In This paper discuss that although some managers in different parts of the world could have achieved managerial success without having basic theoretical knowledge in management, it has to be unequivocally emphasized that those managers who have mixed management theory in their day-to-day practice, have had better chances of managing their organizations more efficiently and effectively to achieve both individual and organizational objectives. Therefore, managers of contemporary organizations ought to appreciate the important role they play in their respective organizations if they are to achieve set goals. Secondly, there is need to promote excellence among all persons in organizations, especially among managers themselves. In this paper, the author define management as the art or science, of achieving goals through people. Managers is the one who supervise and management can be interpreted to mean literally looking over for examples making sure people do what they are supposed to do. Managers are therefore expected to ensure greater productivity and need to be continuous improvement for themselves. In broadly, management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims (Koontz and Weihrich 1990, p. 4). In its expanded form, this basic definition means several things. First, as managers, people carry out the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. Second, management applies to any kind of organization. Third, management applies to managers at all organizational levels. Fourth, the aim of all managers is the sameis to create surplus. Finally, managing is concerned with

productivity will implies effectiveness and efficiency in the organization. Management refers to the development of bureaucracy that derives its importance from the need for strategic planning, co-ordination, directing and controlling of large and complex decision-making process. Essentially, therefore, management entails the acquisition of managerial competence, and effectiveness in the following key areas such as problem solving, administration, human resource management, and organizational leadership. The objectives of management is to ensuring the organizational goals and targets are met with least cost and minimum waste. Beside, management also is looking after health and welfare, and safety of staff and the last one is to protecting the machinery and resources of the organization including the human resources. In this articles, the author disscussed five managerial functions which is planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. Planning involves selecting missions and objectives and the actions to achieve them. It requires decision making. For examples, the manager choosing future courses of action from among alternatives and plans range from overall purposes and objectives to the most detailed actions to be taken. In order to make any decision, managers need to do planning study, analysis, or a proposal. People working together in groups to achieve some goal must have roles to play. These roles have been defined and structured by someone who wants to make sure that people contribute in a specific way to group effort. Organizing is a part of management that involves establishing an intentional structure of roles for people to fill in an organization. Intentionally all tasks necessary to accomplish goals are assigned and assigned to people who can do those best. The purpose of an organizational structure is to help in creating an environment for human performance. However, designing an organizational structure is not an easy managerial task because many problems are encountered in making structures fit situations, including both defining the kind of jobs that must be done and finding the people to do them. Staffing involves filling, and keeping filled, the positions in the organization structure. This is done by identifying workforce requirements, inventorying the people available and recruiting, selecting, placing, promoting, appraising, planning the careers of, compensating, and training or otherwise developing both candidates and current jobholders to accomplish their tasks effectively and efficiently. Leading is the influencing of people so that they will contribute to organization and group goals it has to do predominantly with the interpersonal aspect of

managing. Most important problems to managers arise from people their desires and attitudes, their behavior as individuals and in groups. Hence, effective managers need to be effective leaders. Leading involves motivation, leadership styles and approaches and communication. Controlling refers to budget for expense, measuring and correcting of activities of subordinates to ensure that events conform to plans. It measures performance against goals and plans. Its shows where negative deviations exist, and, by putting in motion actions to correct deviations, helps ensure accomplishment of plans. Although planning must precede controlling, plans are not self-achieving. Plans guide managers in the use of resources to accomplish specific goals; then activities are checked to determine whether they conform to the plans. Compelling events to conform to plans means locating the persons who are responsible for results that differ from planned action and then taking the necessary steps to improve performance. Organizing is part of management that involves establishing an intentional structure of roles for people to fill in an organization. Intentional in that all tasks necessary to accomplish goals are assigned and assigned to people who can do them best. Indeed, the purpose of an organizational structure is to help in creating an environment for human performance. However, designing an organizational structure is not an easy managerial task because many problems are encountered in making structures fit situations, including both defining the kind of jobs that must be done and finding the people to do them. Coordination is the essence of managership for achieving harmony among individual efforts toward the accomplishment of group goals. Each of the managerial functions discussed earlier on is an exercise contributing to coordination. Because individuals often interpret similar interests in different ways, and their efforts toward mutual goals do not automatically mesh with the efforts of others, it, thus, becomes the central task of the manager to reconcile differences in approach, timing, effort, or interest, and to harmonize individual goals to contribute to organizational goals.

For managers, they have their goal that they aim for their success. Managers must establish an environment in which people can accomplish group goals with the least amount of time, money, materials, and personal dissatisfaction or in which they can achieve as much as possible of a desired goal with available resources. This is because, productivity implies effectiveness and efficiency in individual in order to improve organizational performance. Managers cannot know whether they are productive unless they first know their goals and those of the organization. Contemporary theories of management tend to account for and help interpret the rapidly changing nature of todays organizational environments. In this paper, the author will discussed with several important management theories which are broadly classified as follows: The Scientific Management School comprising the works of Frederick W. Taylor and Lillian Gilbreths motion study, among others, the Classical Organizational Theory School comprising the works of Henri Fayols views on administration and Max Webers idealized bureaucracy, among others, Behavioral School comprising the work of Elton Mayo and his associates the Management Science School. In this article, the author used Douglas McGregor (1906-1964) teory X and Y to decrive human behaviour. McGregor, stated that management ideas as contained in Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X gives a negative view of human behavior and management that he considered to have dominated management theory from Fayol onwards especially Taylorism. It also assumes that most people are basically immature, lazy by nature, need direction and control, and are incapable of taking responsibility. They are viewed as lazy, dislike work and need a mixture of financial inducements and threat of loss of their job to make them work. While Theory Y is a person who work is as natural as play. The average human being does not inherently dislike work, whether work is a source of pleasure or a punishment depends on nature of the work and its management. Second, effort at work does not need to depend on threat of punishment. If the person committed to objectives the, the person will selfdirect themself and self-control rather than external controls. This means that the person can be independent person in order to accomplish hisor her tasks. The third is commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement. Satisfaction of ego and self-actualization needs can be directed towards the objectives of the organization. Fourth, the average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility. Fifth, high degrees of imagination, ingenuity and creativity are not restricted to a narrow group but are widely

distributed in the population. Lastly, under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentials of the average human being are being only partly utilized. In conclusion, the author has clearly stated that management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment for the purpose of efficiently accomplishing selected aims. Managers is the person who carry out the functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. While managing is an essential activity at all organizational levels. Productivity implies effectiveness and efficiency. Managing as practice is art, organized knowledge about management is science. The development of management theory involves the development of concepts, principles, and techniques. There are many theories about management, and each contributes something to our knowledge of what managers do. Each approach or theory has its own characteristics and advantages as well as limitations. The operational, or management process, approach draws on each school and systematically integrates them. Finally, the organization is an open system that operates within and interacts with the environment. The systems approach to management includes inputs from the external environment and from claimants, the transformation process, the communication system, external factors, outputs, and a way to reenergize the system. No doubt, a manager who makes serious attempts to translate theory into reality is bound to increase productivity more than a manager who chooses to use the fire brigade or trial and error approach.

Article 2 : Early Twentieth Century Management Theories And Models That Shaped Twenty-First Century School Leadership The second article is early twentieth century management theories and models that shaped 21st century school leadership by Vivian Hopp Gordon, Loyola University Chicago.

Historical theories and models of management and administration have aided us in defining and understanding the role of the school administrator and have become recognized as the historic beginnings for our understanding of the role of the 21st century school administrator. From the earliest works of philosophers trying to understand the organization of society and its institutions to the development of theories of bureaucracy and finally to the modern application of social scientific methods, leadership has been an important topic of study. While contemporary school administration and management seem to be extensions of various business models, there remains a desire to view schools as somehow different from businesses. In studying the historic attempts of theorists to understand the nature and role of administration in the early 20th century, we can better understand the complex nature of public administration and management. For it is these historic theories and models that have shaped our views of educational administration today and often provide points of resistance to the non educational models.

To a great extent, the theories and models proffered by earlier 20th century management theorists have become the bases, or at least a component, of the origins of what is now current school administration theory and practice. Many of these earlier theories and models stem from attempts by theorists and academicians to isolate those qualities necessary to becoming a successful administrator with the notion that once these qualities can be identified, they can be generalized to the larger field of administration and management, includin public school administration and management. At the turn of the 20th century, educational theorists began looking at school administration primarily as a process of applying scientific methods and reasoning to all management in any context, including schools.

In this article the author stated that Frederick W. Taylor, recognized the need for employing scientific methods to management as opposed to an intuitive approach. In his view, management problems of growing industry should be viewed in concrete, rational terms rather than responding through a rule of thumb or instinctive reactive approach to administration

(Knezevich 1975). Other management theorists, like Henri Fayol, also focused on process, but stressed basic elements or principles extrapolated for examining organizations. He assumed that these basic principles also could be applied to school leadership, believing that there were administrative functions common to all types of organizations, including schools (Fayol 1949).

He identified those common administrative functions as planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling of the institution. Other 20th century theorists have confirmed Fayols approach and applied it to both industrial and public sector management, such as school leadership. For example, in 1950, Sears wrote there was no reason for departing significantly from Fayols approach when applying administrative processes to schools (Sears 1950). Other management theorists, such as Fowlkes, recognized educational administration as a more complex process that included formulation, execution and appraisal of policies (Fowlkes 1951). Most 20th-century theorists agree there is no ideal list of tasks or skills, no matter how complex, that can completely define the role of administrators, including school administrators, in all situations. Rather, they identified certain variables as attempts at addressing the challenges of the position. Many early management theorists identified decision-making as a key function within school administrative practice. Often, the focus of these theorists was attempting to define decision-making. Barnard defined decision-making as conscious choice made from among a well-defined set of often competing alternatives (Barnard 1938).

For Max Weber (1947), it was his hope that patterns or models would enhance productivity. Webers concept, while somewhat mechanistic, was characterized by a division of labor within any organization based on functional specialization, a hierarchy or authority and a system of procedures based on technical competency. This model emphasized form and structure of organizations (Weber 1947). One of the most intriguing characteristics of the Weberian model was its attempt at universality. His model could be applied to a wide variety of organizations, including businesses, government agencies and educational institutions like schools. Taylor, working at the same time as Weber, is often credited with the scientific management movement (Fayol 1949), and extended Webers concept of order in practice to increase productivity (Fayol 1949).

Article 3 : Review of Classical Management Theories

The third article I choosed is Review of Classical Management Theories by Ziarab

Mahmood and Muhammad Basharat Hazara University, Mansehra & Zahid Bashir, NUML, Islamabad. For the authors, management is art of getting thing done with the help of other people.

They stated that there a jungle of management theories which are categorized as Classical, Behavioral and Situational Management Theories. Three well known Classical Management Theories (Scientific, Administrative and Bureaucratic) were reviewed in this article. Knowledge of management theories (along other factors) is basic requirement for managers of any organization to meet the challenges of the organization. To provide knowledge and pros and cons of management theories to managers and management scholars, this article is written. Chain of command, autocratic management style and predicted behavior are common features of Classical Management Theories.

Although these are old theories yet these are in practiced in some shape in most part of the world. In this article, the author define management as the term management drives from Latin word Manu agere which means to lead by hand. Lead by hand means, giving directions. It also implies that the leading person first goes where he or she wants to send the followers (Shied, 2010). According to Drucker (1974) Management is the activity of getting things done with the help of others peoples and resources. It means that management is a process of accomplishing work with the help of other people. According to Weijrich and Koontz (1993) Management is process of planning, leading, organizing and controlling people within a group in order to achieve goals. It is also the guidance and control of action required to execute a program. It indicates that there should be definite plan or program for affective management (Shied, 2010).

In this article, the authors describe leadership as a process in which one individual influence others toward the attainment of group or organizational goals. According to Grey (2005) and Shaik (2008) leadership is a: Is a process of social influence Cannot exist without a leader and some followers There is voluntary action by the followers Changes the followers behaviors.

the aouthors also explain teh differences between management and leadership. Management and leadership are complementary for each other. Both go hand in hand. But they are not the same things. The difference between them can be expressed in planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling and coordinating are the functions of management and mangers who perform these functions has formal authority in the office while inspiration and motivation is the job of leadership and formal authority is not necessary for leader. A manager may be or may not be a good leader (Shied, 2010, Murray, 2011). According to Weijrich and Koontz (1993), Murray (2011) managers are principally administrators, they write plan, set budget and monitor the progress. In the other hand, leaders change the individual and organization. Management is a function such as planning, organizing, controlling, directing, leading, monitoring, staffing, communicating and coordinating, while leadership is relationship such as selecting talent, motivating, coaching and building trust between leader and followers. The authors have share ways on becoming a leader by Warren Bennis.

1. The managers are administrator while the leaders are innovator. 2. The manager copies the rules and applies them while the leaders formulate rule and regulation. 3. The manager maintains the system and environment while the leader develops the system and environment. 4. The focus of manager is the system and structure of organization while the focus of leader is people. 5. The manager controls the system to achieve targets while the leader creates the trusts to said purpose.

6. The vision of manager is shorter than the vision of the leader. 7. The questions of manager are how and when while these are what and why in case of leader. 8. The manager follows the rule and regulation while the leader formulates rule and regulation. 9. The manager accepts the status quo while the leader challenges it. 10. The manager does things right while the leader does the right thing (Bennis, 1989). These ten differences clearly differentiate between management and leadership. The leadership is broader term which influences other people through his leadership skills to attain goals while manager use authority to get work from subordinates.

Management theories can be categorized as classical management theories, humanistic management theories, situational management theories and modern management theories etc. classical management theories were reviewed in this research work. Classical management theories were developed to predict and control behavior in organizations. In Classical management theories, the authors have divided management in three levels:


Top Level Management This level of management is generally called administration. It consists on board of directors, general manager in business organizations, president, rectors, vice chanslers and Deans in universities etc. this level of management is responsible to develop long term strategic plans to meet the objectives of the organizations. Other than planning, organizing and directing are the major functions of top level management (Weijrich and Koontz, 1993, Stoner, Freeman, & Danial, 2003).


Middle Level Management This level of management falls between the top level and bottom level of management. Its responsibilities are to coordinate the activities of supervisors and to formulate the policies and plans with the line of strategic plans of top level management. In education, Head of department, deputy and assistant directors, deputy and assistant controller exams, deputy registrars, District education officers, assistant education officers and head teachers are included in this category. In business organizations,

manager (production manager, office manager, finance managers), deputy and assistant directors are included (Weijrich and Koontz, 1993, Stoner, Freeman, & Danial, 2003).


First Level Management This level of management consists of supervisors that are why it is also called supervisory management. Policies and plans are implemented in this phase. Day to day activities are supervised. In education, teachers are included in it while in business unit, Forman, supervisor and shift in charge etc. fall in this category (Weijrich and Koontz, 1993, Stoner, Freeman, & Danial, 2003).

Four Principles of Management to Increase Efficiency 1. It is needed to develop the science of work. It means to study the job in practice now and to find the ways to do it. To collect information of each ways in shape of time and motion. Try different method to find the best method (Koontz, 1980, McNamara, 2011).

2. New method should be selected and worker should be selected and trained scientifically according to best way of performing that work. Different worker should be selected for different jobs and training should be given to them according to their positions in the organization so that they each worker may be expert in his job and can perform better (Koontz, 1980, McNamara, 2011).

3. Science of work should be matched with scientifically selected and trained worker to get maximum result. Its means that those workers should be selected whose jobs match the new rules. Payment and reward should be linked with the productivity of each labor. High incentives should be given to high achiever and vice versa (Koontz, 1980, McNamara, 2011).

4. Task and responsibility should be equally divided between the workers and the management to complete task efficiently and economically (Taylor, 1917).

In this article the authors discussed about the administrative Management Theory is another well known Classical Management Theory which was developed by Henry Fayol in 1916. It is also called Fayol Administrative Theory. Fayol was a senior manager. He developed this theory on his personal experience. This theory is about business management as well as general management. Its main focus is management. He introduced six functions and fourteen principles of management in his theory (Grey, 2005; Shaik, 2008, Onkor 2009). Primary six functions of management are as under:

Functions of Management Forecasting Planning Organizing Commanding Coordinating Monitoring

He proposed 14 principles of management which are as under.

Division Of Work Fayol beliefs that work specialization is the best way to use human resources so he thinks that Work should be divided among individuals and groups to ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task (Onkar, 2009).

Authority Fayol defined the authority as the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Responsibility is close term of authority which involves being accountable. It means responsibility is the part of authority. When authority is assign to any one, responsibility is also assigned to him/her (Shaik, 2008 and Grey, 2005).

Discipline Discipline is considered essential in a successful organization. The workers should be fined in ignoring discipline in organization because the success of organization requires the common effort of all workers (Koontz, 1980, McNamara, 2011).

Unity of Command There should be unity of command in organization so that workers should receive orders from only one person/ managers (Koontz, 1980; Onkar, 2009; McNamara, 2011).

Unity of Direction According to Fayol, for successful organization, there should be unity of direction. It means that the entire organization should move towards a common objective in a common direction (Koontz, 1980, Shaik, 2008, McNamara, 2011).

Subordination of Individual Interests to the General Interests General interest/ benefit of organizations should be given preference on interest/ benefit of any individuals (Shaik, 2008, Onkar, 2009 and Grey, 2005). .

Remuneration Salaries of workers should not based on productivity of workers but it should based on many variables, such as cost of living, supply of qualified personnel, general business conditions, and success of the business (Onkar, 2009).

Centralization According to Fayol, centralization or decentralization of management should be opted according to need/ culture and organization. He defined centralization as lowering the importance of the subordinate role. Decentralization is increasing the importance (Cole, 2004; Grey, 2005).

Scalar Chain There should be hierarchies of management in organization. Authority should be assigned to each manager according to the status of managers in hierarchy. Top level manager should be given most authority and vice versa. Lower level managers should always informed upper level managers about their work activities (Shaik, 2008; Onkar, 2009).

Order There should be effective and efficient operation in organization. All personnel and materials have specific place and so should be placed in their specific place. In short people and material should be at right place at right time (Cole, 2004; Onkar, 2009).

Equity Equity means that all employees should be treated as equally as possible. It indicates that for success of organization, basic rights, rule and regulation should be same for all workers. There should be justice within the organization. It should also be kept in mind that salaries and facilities cannot be assigned equally (Cole, 2004; Shaik, 2008).

Stability of Tenure of Personnel Fayol believes that for successful organization, salaries and other benefits should be given according to the length of service in that organization because for new appointments there is cost of recruitment and selection. Secondly new worker requires time to be efficient in work (Onkar, 2009).

Initiative For continuous improvement of organization, management should encourage worker initiative. There are some workers in organization who are innovator and they take step to perform the task with new and additional activity through self direction (Grey, 2005; Shaik, 2008; Onkar, 2009).

Administrative Management Theory seeks to establish an organization which leads to efficiency and effectiveness. It respects the worker against the scientific management theory, planning, organizing, controlling and leading are major function of this theory. Unity of command, unity of structure, division of work, authority equity and order are important principles among fourteen principles of this theory. The functions and principles given by Fayol are still in practice in the management of organization of the world (Horner, 1997; Grey, 2005; Shaik, 2008; Onkar, 2008). In the other hand, the author also discussed about the bureaucratic management theory of Max Webber where Webber focuses on the ideal structure of organization. It has eight principles. Written work is the major principle of bureaucracy. Other important principles are written rule, authority of manager check and balance system and reward. Bureaucracy is still in practice in the big organization of the world (Horner, 1997; Grey, 2005; Shaik, 2008; Onkar, 2008). Classical theories enhance the management abilities to predict and control the behavior of the workers. These theories are designed to predict and control behavior in organization. These theories consider the tasks functions of communication in the organization and ignore the human relational and maintenance functions of communication. These are applied in simple, small and stable organizations while these are not applicable in big, complex and aggressive organizations of today (Pindur, Rogers and Kim, 1995; Cole, 2004; Grey, 2005).

Article 4 : The Practical Uses Of Two Classic Management Theories In Everyday Managerial Communication Situations.

The fourth article that I choose is The Practical Uses Of Two Classic Management Theories In Everyday Managerial Communication Situations by Reginald L. Bell, Prairie View A&M University and Jeanette S. Martin, University of Mississippi. Many employees are unaware that Frederick Winslow Taylors principles of scientific management underlie their modern work routines. This is because, in Taylors principles, many employees are trained to be machine-like in certain aspects of their jobs they do for improved efficiency and profitability. For example, fast food restaurant such as McDonals and KFC employees efficiency is directly related to corporate profits. Nowadays, managers are not likely to equate the importance of communicating to their employees the importance of time and motion, in relation to corporate profits. Training generally is on the how to do something and not on the why we do it this way. John Stacey Adamss Equity Theory has been a part of classical management literature since 1963. Adams asserted that when people feel distress from inequity they may react in one or all of the following ways. First, they may restrict their inputs to a level they believe is consistent with the outcomes they receive. Second, they may meet with their supervisors to verbally negotiate a better deal. This means that they will struggle to find a balance between work and reward. Taylor (1998) maintained that the principle objective of management is to secure prosperity for both the employer and the employee. He believed that his scientific approach would enable both employer and employee to maximize their prosperity, thus contributing to greater surplus for the organization. A proper workman was not necessarily formally educated in a college or university, but, to Taylor, a proper workman could handle a 92 pound piece of pig-iron and work all day with supervised rest periods if sufficiently motivated through a piecerate system. Nevertheless, the notion that owners would share their surpluses with labor was the most distrusted part of his scientific management principles (Gabor, 2000). The trust aspect of Taylors notion of prosperity for examples generated by managers directive communications with their employee is still questioned today and managers convincing employees requires excellent managerial communication skills. This convincing may also raise ethical issues.

Taylors scientific management asserts that employee efficiency leads to greater profits. Adamss Equity Theory can be used by managers to communicate with their subordinates to understand that equity and fairness exists among employees. Many times if managers simply talked with their subordinates and explained what was required at a given position to get a certain raise, or how a given amount of monies were distributed, their employees would be more likely to understand and neither reduce their output nor leave the organization. When workers see that the manager cares and is trying to be equitable, they are more likely to be satisfied in their given position. Of course, this assumes that management is trusted by the employees. Often, employees will not consider management behaviors or claims to be credible. Vrooms (1964) research in the showed that pay raises provided very temporary satisfaction for employees. Employees are more interested in having management show that they care about them as an individual. Most minimally-skilled employees will not be thinking about their time and motion in relation to the bottom line unless they are taught. It is important for managers to use Taylors scientific methods of determine the component tasks identified with a specific job and how long it takes to perform each component in order to know if the work load is balanced between all of the workers, or if the work needs to be reapportioned. When managers lead by example rather than allowing employees to find out and interpret information on their own, both the company and the employees win. Transparency is more important today because of peoples feelings for social equity. Nevertheless, some of the managerial problems then still remain. Many managers dont know how to teach their employees the value of doing specific operations with machinelike precision.

Article 5 : A Theoretical Approach to the Science of Management

In this study, the historical development process of science of management has been analyzed. When studying the historical development of science of management, three basic phases forming science of management have been regarded. These phases are; Taylor, Fayol and Weber composing Classic Term; Mayo theory, Hawthorne experiments composing Neo-classic Term and Modern Approaches. Science of management is a process arise of which goes back to Sumerians (5000, BC) and which experiences its maturation phase with Taylor, Fayol and Weber, continuing to exist up to present with modern management methods and principles such as, Total Quality Management, Process Management and it is a theory which will never complete its development. When studying how science of management has evolved in historical development process, its seen that its bases go back to history of human-being. It hasnt been possible for human beings to meet their needs by themselves in any term of history. For this reason, it has been a compulsory for them to live together (Bolat and others, 2008:22). In such a society arising out of obligation, meeting needs caused by social life makes it compulsory to compose an organization; otherwise, there wouldnt be an order owing to individual demands. For this reason, it is expressed in most works written about management that management idea has arisen since human beings began to live together (Bolat and others, 2008:22). In addition to this, it will be more proper to study science of management by being distinguished to distinct terms. The first term is Classic term represented by Taylor, Fayol and Weber and their followers; the second term is Neo-classic Term during which human factor gains more value again and the last term is Modern Management Approaches described as Contemporary Term. These terms will be analyzed distinctly, mostly considering their founders/forerunners and principles they have earned to science of management.

Classic Term Taylors Approaches Taylors ideas who are mentioned to be the first one who studied management subject as a scientific research field for the first time are described in literature as Theory of Scientific Management.Taylors ideas about management subject have seriously affected many scientists and researchers. Taylors ideas about management subject have been carried out for many years not only in private sector but also in public sector. However, Taylors ideas having gained high importance have been criticized irrelevantly at the same time. Some authors accused him of being Management engineer who assesses workers as working machines. Claims that he doesnt give value to human factor and that he only considers production and result have become widespread. Besides, his thoughts that duties and functions during production process must be distinguished from each other with certain lines and thus can be reached to efficiency providing specialization and division of labor in organization have been criticized (Aktan,1999:21). Taylor, in his studies, found out that enterprisers cant satisfactorily benefit from workers and believed that forming and programming of doing works should be re-regulated by a scientific analysis and more output would be gained if they were standardized and continued his studies accordingly. When Taylors Scientific Management Approach is analyzed, findings about human factor below can be made out as the workers are:

lazy and have an inclination of less work Unproductive Dont struggle for the progression of enterprise De-motivated Dont have a defined mission and vision. Taylors observed that this unproductive work order and environment existing in enterprises may give big damages at a degree that can reach to losses at an extent effecting national economy, he has also observed that some radical decisions must be taken in order to turn these factors causing inefficiency and effecting production negatively into neutral or to

minimize them and hes formed The Principles of Scientific Management accordingly. Principles refer to Taylor can be summarized as follow (Simsek, 2009:95-98):

1. Workers and managers must work according to scientific principles rather than working haphazardly when carrying out organizational activities.

2. Organizational activities must be performed in a coordinated and consistent way, not in an inconsistent and incoherent way.

3. Organizations and their methods, rather than submitting low unproductiveness, must reject this and must try to provide the highest productivity.

4. Each labor must be parted to sub-factors forming it. When defining activities which workers must carry out, not only intuition and experience, but also scientific methods must be used as well.

5. People whose mental and physical skills are sufficient for works being standardized must be chosen, that s to say, the most suitable staff member must be chosen.

6. Specialization in every part of a defined labor must be provided.

Henry Fayol- Management Process Approach What makes Fayols studies important and what motivates him is the fact that Taylor has made his studies in small enterprises and couldnt meet the needs of big enterprises. Hes tried to make easy the labors of big enterprises by earning Taylors values such as labor defining, standards and specialization of workers, functions such as organization, planning, controlling and coordination in management. On the contrary to the representatives of scientific managements aiming to increase productivity by dealing with the form of works being done and work design more at factory level, Fayol tries to develop a good organization design and its management principles by analyzing the whole organization.

Management Process Approach, like Scientific Management, takes productivity, economical efficiency and rationalism as basis (imsek, 2009:99-100). Considered from this point, it is seen that Fayol thinks as Taylor does; and that they complete each other like the circles of a chain. Views of them both about the human factor in enterprises from the same angle and claims that workers, instead of the ability to manage, have desire to be managed and generally avoid taking responsibility. In addition to this, Fayol expresses the necessity of carrying out penal sanctions. However Fayol has given more value to human factor than Taylor, for whom the importance of human agent in production isnt considered satisfactorily (Fayol, 1916).

Max Weber- Bureaucracy Approach

One of the other models and theories composing Classic Management Thought is Bureaucracy Model. Bureaucracy Model grounds fit with scientific management and executive theory assumptions. On the other hand, there is a similarity between the features of ideal Bureaucracy Model and the principles of the two other approaches. Besides, these three theories have formed at the same environmental conditions and have developed at the same term. Because of all these causes, these three models are in Classic Management thought (Baransel, 1993:101) Weber has researched which type of organization form societies require as a result of accelerating urbanization and industrialization; at the end of these researches decides that Bureaucracy Model is the most suitable and ideal form of organization and management (Akat, ., Budak, G., Budak, G., 2002; Bolat, 2008:34). Bureaucracy Model put forward by famous German socialist and scientist Max Weber and which forms a part of Classic Management Theory introduces the idea that duties should be regulated to form a hierarchic system in Bureaucracy Model as an organization structure (Weber, 1921). In every step of hierarchy, authority and duties are determined formally by pre-determined law, method and administrative regulations. Labors being distinguished to parts is carried out in accordance with determined rules and standards by specialized staff member. Processes and communication are done in written form; workers obey to directives as they are based on legal authority. Again, according to Weber, the legal structure of contemporary state is licit in humans esteem. This lawfulness covers social lawfulness beyond legal lawfulness.

In order to speak of a contemporary state, administrative and legal rules, the compulsion power of an administrative organization and legal government application must be observed in a politic society (Akn,2010:2).When considered from this point, it is seen that Webers approach is effective in all public institutions and associations, especially forming the structure of a state. Bureaucracy Approach is sometimes so exaggerated that it makes workers in special enterprises and clerks in public completely a social. Authority and limitations required for the functionality of everybody and every unit are sometimes so clear that it may contribute to the growing of the problem by abiding to existent rules in states when defined rules cannot meet the needs. This approach which doesnt support human factor to behave instinctively and emotionally very much

defends that productivity can be increased in business life by starting with clearness. In addition to Taylor and Fayols approaches, It also stresses the necessity of earning a hierarchic structure to every part of enterprise by giving more clearness and clarity to organizational and business life. Weber, with his Bureaucracy Approach, puts forward that pure Bureaucracy is superior to organization forms in terms of punctuality, continuity, discipline and reliability (Byrt, 1973:47; Baransel, 1993:172). This makes Webers Approach highly rationalist.

Scientific Management, as seen, denotes a process constantly developing and changing. Because, it is known that even in Adams family, the first communities in world, works were done through being shared. But, science is based on knowledge, document and experiment. In this point, first systematic studies in the field of management are associated with Taylor. Because Taylor tried to prove causes behind workers approaches and the target aimed when management takes decision in written form and experimentally. Fayols studies follow Taylors studies. Fayol gives a little more importance to human factor and has drawn attention to workers effect on production. However, Weber has mentioned the bureaucracy side of management by assessing science of management from a different angle. Webers highlighted that bureaucracy is important in management and that everybody must carry out his duties in a hierarchic structure. Modern Approaches, anyhow, unites all these studies and plays an important role in managements coming to its today used form.


In conclusion, all five article above describe mostly about the management theory provided by Taylors, Max Webber, Douglas McGregor and Henry Fayol. Most of the article above discussed about the management functions that include planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. Even though all of the articles is explaining from difference of fields, but the mission of the entire article is to discuss how to manage the management in organization, the difference of leadership and management, how leadership is important in the organization in order to make the organization to run smoothly. Besides that, all of the articles also discussed about managerial purpose and what are the function of a manager. The articles also discussed about theory X and Y stated by Douglas McGregor where the human behavior in Theory X and Y are totally opposite of each other.

In the articles also shows the important of theory management to all people in organization even as individual as all the theory stated by Taylors, Fayol, Webber and McGregor was really give impact to the organization to open their eyes to how they need to learn to appreciate the employees and treat the employees right. The articles also discussed about the goal of organization and how the employees and the managements can change the organization to failure or to grow higher. All this is depending on the managerial and the employees. How the organization shows their appreciation toward the employees and also how they implementing the right rules and regulations in the organization. Management classic theories teaches us a lot and in order to move on to 21st century country, we need to change the way of organization treating the employees by using the modern management implementation towards their employees. The organization on 21st century should be more interesting and peaceful place for employees to feel appreciated, enjoy their work environment, feel secure toward the job and the most important is the facilities offer by the organization must be enough so that the employees feel comfortable with the service from the organization towards the employees. All theories and concept above shows that it is important for each one of us to understand the nature of management in order to implement it in the organization.


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