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The textile and clothing (industries form a major part of manufacturing production, employment and trade in many developing countries. The textile and clothing industry is one of the oldest, largest and most global industries in the world. It is the typical starter industry for countries engaged in export -orientated industrialisation and is labour-intensive.Textile and clothing offers a range of opportunities including entry-level jobs for unskilled labour in developing countries. The technological features of this industry have made it suitable as the first step on the industrialisation ladder in poor countries some of which have experienced a very high output growth rate in the sector, such as Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Mauritius, and have since become middle income countries (Vietnam, Mauritius). The clothing sector has played such an important role in economic development. The sector absorbs large numbers of unskilled labour, typically drawing them from rural agricultural households to rural locations. Despite relatively low start-up investment costs, expansion of the sector provides a base upon which to build capital for more technologically demanding activities in other sectors. Growth of the sector allows imports of more advanced technologies to be financed through revenues gained from garment exports. However the characteristics of the industry (relatively low capital intensity; low investment costs; and use of low skilled labour), also mean that the industry is relatively footloose and able to adjust to changing market conditions quickly. Textiles are heavily intertwined with environmental, social and governance issues. In the past, efforts of producers and retailers have primarily focused on improving the social aspects of textiles e.g. establishing fair working conditions, setting social standards, establishing minumum wages, ensuring occupational safety, imposing a ban on child and forced labour, etc. All actors along the supply chain have a role to play in reducing the environmental footprint of textile products. First of all producers, because as explained above, considerable impacts might be generated during the fibre production, dying, printing and finishing; but also consumers as considerable environmental impacts occur during the use phase

Chapter1. Supply chain of the product 1.1Products characteristics(definition, evolution, classifications) Textiles are indispensable part of human civilization. Textiles serve the individual, the home and the country. We are all aware that the prime needs of man are food, clothing, shelter and fuel. The word Textile comes from the Latin word Textilis and the French word Texere pertaining to weaving or to woven-fabric. It covers all the woven materials whether made of wool, cotton, silk, jute, rayon or other manmade fibres. The variety of materials is simply tremendous. Textiles are so much a part of our daily lives that it is not unusual that we take them for granted. The fabrics that clothe us can be considered a part of us, just as the air we breathe and the environment that surrounds us. In fact, textiles have created a stimulus for mans indigenousness and creativity since before the recorded history. The recorded oldest indication of fibre usage comes with the discovery and spinning of flax and wool fabrics at excavation sites of the Swiss lake inhabitants in the 6th and 7th century BC The invention of sericulture began in China around 2640 B.C. and was introduced in India in times as ancient as 400 AD. While reports of spinning of cotton date back to 3000 BC. The cultivation date of Hemp, the oldest fibre plant that originated in south-east Asia, and spread to China, dates back to 4500 BC. Similarly, the art of spinning linen and weaving was introduced by Egyptians in around 3400 BC through their self developed tools and objects. By the time civilization reached ancient Egypt, textiles had reached such an advanced state of technology that the linen used to wrap mummies still remains preserved as textile materials. Through the following centuries textiles played a major role in civilization and world economics.

The 18th and 19th centuries witnessed an era of industrial revolution with invention of machines for processing various natural fibres. The result was a tremendous upsurge in fibre production. The introduction of regenerated cellulosic fibres (fibres formed of cellulose material that has been dissolved,purified, and extruded), such as rayon, followed by the invention of completely synthetic fibres, such as nylon, polyester, acrylic, challenged the monopoly of natural fibres for textile and industrial use. A variety of synthetic fibres having specific desirable properties began to penetrate anddominate markets previously monopolized by natural fibres. The first commercial production started was of rayon fibres in America in 1910 and then further nylon fibre was introduced by the Du-Pont company in the year 1939. Since then multitude of fibres viz. Acetate, Acrylic, Polyester, Spandex, Polypropylene etc. have been incubated from various sources and chemical integration through intensive research and development. In this regard several Micro fibres are introduced. (A micro fibre is the thinnest, finest of all manmade fibre, even finer than the most delicate silk, and amongst the line is the most recent fibre introduced is Lyocell fibre in 1993. Lyocell is a manmade environment friendly fibres produced from spieces of trees specifically grown for this purpose. Recognition of the competitive threat from synthetic fibres resulted in intensive research directed towards the breeding of newer and better strains of natural-fibre sources with higher yields. Improved production and processing methods, and modification of fibre yarn or fabric properties and mechanization of textile machinery in this regard were also incorporated. But, if we glance back through the pages of history, the mechanics of textiles have undergone rapid and creative evolutions and inventions. The world economy is imprinted with rich history of the textile industry and its evolution and progress since ages. Weaving is the one of the oldest crafts that has survived till date, dated back to the Neolithic ages, almost 12,000 years back. It is true that mans need for clothing since first signs of civilization and the spinning of wool fibre into yarn and then weaving of cloth is the basic step that has led to development of the new technology for the textile industry.

Now, if we refer to this one of most basic but important process of spinning, it can be divided into two primary stages. The fleece was opened to create a sliver of fibres which could be drawn out to produce an fine thread. It used to be then twisted into a yarn. It is known that people from early ages probably twisted fibres from a lock of wool to form an extending length of yarn which would then be wound up into a ball. The yarn was afterwards wrapped on to a stick and a flywheel added at the lower end to produce a spindle. This led to the development of spinning wheel in India first and then reached Europe during the late 14th century. This ancient spinning wheel was mechanized over the years and lead to spinning process being carried out on a large scales at mill level Thereafter, these yarns had to be assimilated together for construction of a fabric, the process termed as weaving. To serve this purpose a equipment that is loom was evolved. The first loom is believed to have been simple with a straight tree branch running parallel to the ground. The lengthwise threads were hung from the branch, weighted at their lower ends and the widthwise threads interlaced to create a rough textured cloth. Classification of Fabrics: Fabrics may be classified in different ways Utility: Apparel, Household Industrial, which is modified as:Apparel ,Outer wear,Inner wear, Seasonal wear Staple wear, Fancy wear. Household : Bedding, Home textiles. Technical textiles Mobile textiles, Geo textiles, Construction textiles, Industrial textiles, Medical textiles, Safety textiles, Smart or Intelligent textiles, Military textiles, High-altitude textiles, Agriculture textiles,

Mountaineering textiles,

Outer space textiles,

Horticulture textiles, Sericulture textiles, Dairy textiles., Fishery textiles, etc.

Method of manufacture as: Woven Hand loom, Power loom, Khadi. Knitted Hand knitted, Machine knitted, Wrap knits, Weft knits. Embroidery Hand embroidery, Machine embroidery. Lace Hand- made, Machine- made. Braiding Personal wear, Industrial, Oceanic. Crochet. Tatting. Knotting. Netting. Felting. No-weaving, etc. Materials used as: o o o Natural, Man-made Blends.

4. Yarns used as: Filament (mono/multi), Spun (single/folded/cable/fancy). 5. Fabric condition as: Grey/Greige / Loomstate, Finished: Scoured, Bleached, Dyed, Printed, Mercerized, Stentered, Calendered, Sanforized/Zero-Zero finished, Sized, Glazed, Etched/Embossed, Felted, Raised, Sheared, Gassed/Singed, Fire-proofed, Schreinered, Soilresistant, Soil-release, Stain-resistant, Anti-crease, etc. 6. From Technologists viewpoint as: Structure Weave/Nature of interlacement,

Knitting/Nature of interloping, etc. Texture/Nature of construction. 7. From Engineers viewpoint as: Breadth or width, Length, Yarn size, Setting: Warp, Weft, Weight, Fabric Thickness, Fabric face, Fabric cover. 8. From Standards viewpoint as: Construction, Weight, Application or End use.



1.2 Supply chain of the product and life cycle stages ( characteristics.production,technological process, environmental impact0 The textiles and clothing sectors can be seen as a supply chain consisting of a number of discrete activities. Increasingly the supply chain from sourcing of raw materials via design and production to distribution and marketing is being organized as an integrated production network where the production is sliced into specialized activities and each activity is located where it can contribute the most to the value of the end product. When the location decision of each activity is being made, costs, quality, reliability of delivery, access to quality inputs and transport and transaction costs are important variables. The supply chain in the textile and clothing sector is illustrated by Figure 1. The dotted lines represent the flow of information, while the solid lines represent the flow of goods. The direction of the arrows indicates a demand-pull-driven system. The information flow starts with the customer and forms the basis of what is being produced and when. It is also worth noticing that information flows directly from the retailers to the textile plants in many cases. The textile sector produces for the clothing sector and for household use. In the former case there is direct communication between retailers and textile mills when decisions are made on patterns, colours and material. In the second case textile mills often deliver household appliances directly to the retailers.

Fig1.Supply chain in the textile and clothing sector

At each link in the production chain to the left of the distribution centre in Figure 1, there are usually several companies. In order to make goods, information and payments flow smoothly, a number of logistics and business services are needed. Depending on the size and development of the host economy, such services are provided by the lead firm in the supply chain or independent service providers in the more advanced countries

Textile processes

The textile industry has one of the most complicated industrial chains in the manufacturing industry. It is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector , with a demand mainly driven by three dominant end-uses: clothing, home furnishing and industrial use. Characterizing the textile manufacturing is complex because of the wide variety of substrates, processes, machinery and components used, and finishing steps undertaken. Different types of fibers or yarns, methods of fabric production, and finishing processes (preparation, printing, dyeing, chemical/mechanical finishing, and coating), all interrelate in producing a finished fabric. When one of these components is changed, the properties of the end product are affected. There are several properties that can be used to define a fabric. Some examples of fabric properties include weight, appearance, texture, strength, luster, flexibility, and affinity to dyestuff. Figure 2 is a generalized flow diagram depicting the various textile processes that are involved in converting raw materials in to a finished product. All of these processes do not occur at a single facility, although there are some integrated plants that have several steps of the process all in one plant. There are also several niche areas and specialized products that have developed in the textile industry which may entail the use of special processing steps that are not shown in Figure 2 .

Fig 2 generalized flow diagram of the various textile processe


Environmental impact Cotton is the most pesticide intensive crop in the world: these pesticides injure and kill many people every year. It also takes up a large proportion of agricultural land, much of which is needed by local people to grow their own food. Herbicides, and also the chemical defoliants which are sometimes used to aid mechanical cotton harvesting, add to the toll on both the environment and human health. These chemicals typically remain in the fabric after finishing, and are released during the lifetime of the garments. The development of genetically modified cotton adds environmental problems at another level. Growing cotton uses 22.5 percent of all the insecticides used globally. Growing enough cotton for one t-shirt requires 257 gallons of water. On top of that, bleaching and then dyeing the resulting fabric creates toxins that flow into our ecosystem. First of all, the cotton must be grown; this entails vast amounts of chemical fertilizers and pesticides that pollute and deplete the soil. Despite mechanized harvesting, the cotton industry is still largely dependent on cheap labour. The raw cotton is then dyed, meaning chemicals and heavy metals with harmful effects on the environment. Finally bands of cotton are assembled in factories to be sown into a T-shirt. From wastewater emissions to air pollution and energy consumption, the textile industry weighs heavily on the environment. Wool pollution: both agricultural and craft workers in the UK suffer from exposure to organophosphate sheep dip problem. Getting from fibre to cloth - bleaching, dyeing, and finishing - uses yet more energy and water, and causes yet more pollution. Nylon and polyester - made from petrochemicals, these synthetics are also nonbiodegradable, and so they are inherently unsustainable on two counts. Nylon manufacture creates nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas 310 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Making polyester uses large amounts of water for cooling, along with lubricants which can become a source of contamination. Both processes are also very energy-hungry. Rayon (viscose), another artificial fibre, is made from wood pulp, which on the face of it seems more sustainable. However, old growth forest is often cleared and/or subsistence farmers are displaced to make way for pulpwood plantations. Often the tree planted is eucalyptus, which draws up phenomenal amounts of water, causing problems in sensitive regions. To make rayon,

the wood pulp is treated with hazardous chemicals such as caustic soda and sulphuric acid. The use of rayon for clothing is contributing to the rapid depletion of the world's forests. Petroleumbased products are detrimental to the environment on many levels. Other materials used in clothing industry include: PVC .Harmful solvents - used e.g. in glues and to stick plastic coatings to some

waterproof fabrics. Harmful solvents used in glues, to stick plastic coating to some water proof fabrics. Dyeing alone can account for most of the water used in producing a garment; unfixed dye then often washes out of garments, and can end up colouring the rivers, as treatment plants fail to remove them from the water. Dye fixatives - often heavy metals - also end up in sewers and then rivers. Different fibres have different impacts on the environment. MADE-BY, a European NGO with a mission to make sustainable fashion common practice, published a study in which the environmental impact of the production of several fibres is benchmarked. The table below summarises the results of the study. The fibres under Class A) are believed to be the most environmentally friendly. This classification is not only based on water use, but also on energy use, land use, the use of non renewable resources and the use of hazardous chemicals

Table 1. Environmental Benchmark for Fibres


Energy and Water Use Energy consumption and water usage in the textile industry are extremely high and occur at each stage of the lifecycle of textiles at the production stage, in the use phase, where consumers use and care for textiles and garments and at the end stage, which covers either disposal and/or re use of the materials. In regards to energy use, different fibres will have varying energy impacts depending on the raw materials used in their production. Polyester is made from non-renewable petroleum and requires huge energy inputs to produce the fibre. Over 70% of the total energy used for a polyester garment occurs at this production phase. However, for cotton most of the energy impacts occur in the use phase, when the consumer is washing, drying and ironing the garment. The main effects of this energy use is the emission of greenhouse gases, which are causing global warming. Like other industries, the textile and garment industry is beginning to implement strategies to control or reduce their carbon emissions and tools such as Lifecycle In regards to water use, the impacts include the over-use of water and the release of chemical pollution in waste water. Again, the impacts vary according to the fibre type. Cotton is one of the most water-intensive agricultural crops whereas bamboo, a regenerated cellulose fibre, uses very little water to grow. In modern intensive cotton agriculture, between 20, 000 40, 000 litres of water are used to grow each kilogram of cotton. A lot of energy is used in the production process of textiles. Especially the wet processing of textiles costs a lot of energy since most of the time the water has to be heated. Another important source of energy use is the use of machinery in all other stages of the production chain. There are several reasons why the reduction of energy use has a positive impact on the environment. Nowadays, most energy still comes from fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal). These are non-renewable resources which will become scarce in the long therm. Furthermore, the use of fossil fuels has a negative impact on the environment because of the emission of CO2 , a greenhouse gas which is generally believed to contribute to global warming and climate change.

Chapter 2. Consumption patterns 2.1 Interested parties ( identification,roles and responsabilities) The apparel industry is the quintessential example of a buyer-driven production chain marked by power asymmetries between the producers and global buyers of final apparel products. The most valuable activities in the apparel value chain are not related to manufacturing per se, but are found in the design, branding, and marketing of the products. These activities are performed by lead firms, which are large global retailers and brand owners in the apparel industry. In most cases, these lead firms outsource the manufacturing process to a global network of suppliers. Apparel manufacturing is highly competitive and becoming more consolidated, with increasing barriers to upgrading. Developing countries are in constant competition for foreign investments and contracts with global brand owners, leaving many suppliers with little leverage in the chain. The result is an unequal partition of the total value-added along the apparel commodity chain in favor of lead firms. Beginning in the 1970s, East Asian suppliers extended their upgrading opportunities in the apparel value chain from simple assembly to a series of new roles that included OE (fullpackage) production, ODM (design), and OBM (brand development) stages (Gereffi, 1999). As intangible aspects of the value chain (such as marketing, brand development, and design) have become more important for the profitability and power of lead firms, tangibles (production and manufacturing) have increasingly become commodities. This has led to new divisions of labor and hurdles if suppliers wish to enter these The main stages of functional upgrading in the apparel value chain are described below

Assembly/CMT: A form of subcontracting in which garment sewing plants are provided with imported inputs for assembly, most commonly in export processing zones (EPZs). CMT stands for cut, make and trim or CM (cut and make) and is a system whereby a manufacturer produces garments for a customer by cutting fabric provided by the customer and sewing the cut fabric into garments in accordance with the customers specifications. In general, companies operating on a CMT basis do not become involved in the design of the garment, but are merely

concerned with its manufacture. Under CMT, a factory is simply paid a processing fee, not a price for the garment, and uses fabric sourced by, and owned by, the buyer. Original Equipment Manufacturing (OEM)/FOB/Package Contractor: A business model that focuses on the manufacturing process. The contractor is capable of sourcing and financing piece goods (fabric) and trim, and providing all production services, finishing, and packaging for delivery to the retail outlet. In the clothing industry, OEMs typically manufacture according to customer specifications and design, and in many cases use raw materials specified by the customer. Free on Board (FOB) is a common term used in industry to describe this type of contract manufacturer. However, it is technically an international trade term in which, for the quoted price, goods are delivered on-board a ship or to another carrier at no cost to the buyer. Original Design Manufacturing (ODM)/Full Package: A business model that focuses on design rather than on branding or manufacturing. A full package garment supplier carries out all steps involved in the production of a finished garmentincluding design, fabric purchasing, cutting, sewing, trimming, packaging, and distribution. Typically, a full package supplier will organize and coordinate: the design of the product; the approval of samples; the selection, purchasing and production of materials; the completion of production; and, in some cases, the delivery of the finished product to the final customer Original Brand Manufacturing (OBM): A business model that focuses on branding rather than on design or manufacturing; this is a form of upgrading to move into the sale of own brand products. For many firms in developing countries, this marks the beginning of brand development for products sold in the home or neighboring countries. In the apparel value chain, there are three main types of lead firms (retailers, brand marketers, and brand manufacturers). These lead firms not only have significant market power because of their size (reflected in sales), but they also have moved beyond production to different combinations of high-value activities, including design, marketing, consumer services, and logistics.

Fig3. Types of lead firm

Within the retailer category, we can distinguish between mass merchants (who sell a diverse array of products) and specialty retailers that only sell apparel items. Brand manufacturers traditionally formed production networks in which the brand owner was involved in the production process, either through ownership or supplying inputs to production. In contrast to brand manufacturers, brand marketers and retailers opt for sourcing strategies that involve constructing networks with OEM or full-package producers. In this model, the buyer provides detailed garment specifications and the supplier is responsible for acquiring the inputs and coordinating all parts of the production process: purchase of textiles, cutting, garment assembly, laundry and finishing, packaging and distribution


2.2 Market description The textile industry has played an important role in the development of human civilization over several millennia. Coal, iron/steel and cotton were the principal materials upon which the industrial revolution was based. Technological developments from the second part of the eighteenth century onwards led to an exponential growth of cotton output, first starting in the U.K., and later spreading to other European countries. The production of synthetic fibers that started at the beginning of the twentieth century also grew exponentially . Assuming that world population will grow to 10 billion in 2050, and further to 11.6 billion in 2150 when it is expected to plateau, total textile consumption is forecast to double, even using the relatively conservative 1990s figure of per capita annual average t extile consumption (8 kg/person). The textile industry is traditionally regarded as a labor-intensive industry developed on the basis of an abundant labor supply. The number of persons employed in the textile and clothing industry was around 2.45 million in the European Union (EU) in 2006 (European Commission, 2009a), around 500,000 in the U.S. in 2008 ,and about 8 million in China in 2005 China is the worlds top textile exporter with 40% of world textile and clothing exports (European Commission, 2009b). The textile and clothing industry is the largest manufacturing industry in China with about 24,000 enterprises. The value of its total output was 1,064 billion Yuan in 2002 (US $129.8 billion2). China is the largest clothing producer in the world and has the largest production capacity for textile products consisting of cotton, manmade fibers and silk (Qiu, 2005). In 2008, the total export value of Chinas textile industry was US $65.406 billion, an increase of 16.6% compared to 2007. With the rising living standard of the Chinese people, local demand for high quality textiles and apparel goods continues to increase China is also the largest importer of textile machinery and Germany is the largest exporter of textile machinery Figure 4 and Figure 5 show the leading exporters and importers of textiles in 2003 with the amount of exports and imports in billion U.S. dollars. It should be noted that the graphs are just for textiles and do not include clothing. As can be seen in the figures, EU, China, and US are the top three textile importers and exporters. The EU textile and clothing sector represents 29% of the world textile and clothing exports, not including trade between EU Member countries, which places the EU second after

China. In 2000, the European textile and clothing industry represented 3.4% of the EU manufacturing industrys turnover, 3.8% of the added value and 6.9% of the industrial employment

Fig 4 .Leading Exporters of textile in 2003 ( WTO,2004)

Fig 5. Leading Importers of textile in 2003 ( WTO,2004)


2.3 Consumers behavior In an environment of competitive market, the success of every industry largely depends on how precisely it can understand the target consumers. Because, such an understanding is the sole means to translate the needs and wants of the prospective consumers into products or services. Regarding textiles, understanding consumer is the nucleus of its production and

marketing, as clothing is the manifestation of the behavioural aspects of the wearer in its totality. Consumer behaviour is the behaviour that consumers display in searching for,

purchasing, using, evaluating products or services and ideas that they expect will satisfy their. Consumer Decision - Making Process Consumers make decisions for deriving the expected level of satisfaction by purchasing products or consuming services. Manufactures as well as marketers are found to be inquisitive to understand and analyze the consumer decision-making process, as it portends the fate of a product or service in the prevailing market environment. Cost and utility of the target product or service are the dyadic conditions which pervade every consumer decision-making process. Obviously, it varies from context to context and household to household. However, a typological approach may be made in the categorization of the consumer decision-making process. Although the consumer decision-making process varies considerably, they can be

included in one of the three categories: routine response behaviour, limited decision- making and extensive decision The routine response behaviour is associated with frequently purchased articles and the consumers inake the decisions spontaneously. The limited decision making is applicable in the context of occasional buying. And the consumers are increasingly interested in gathering the needful information so as to make the appropriate decision. When unfamiliar and infrequently bought products have become the target, the consumers adopt the policy of "think- 46 twice before you leap" and hence very keen in information - search and processing in order to avoid the post purchase dissonance. Joint decisions and iodividual decisions are the later additions to


lassification of consumer decision - making process. The former represents group

involvement while the latter denotes involvement of a single individual in the decision- making process. Joint decision - making is different from individual decision - making not only in terms of the unit but also in terms of the process Many major consumer decisions are arrived at by consultation or give-and take among group members .And there are several stages in the consumer decision-making process for deriving the expected level of satisfaction. Stages in Consumer Decision -Making Process Every consumer decision-making process is the meridian of several phasic stages. These stages are problem or need - recognition, information search, evaluation of al tematives, purchase and post - purchase- evaluation . Both the personal and the non-personal aspects of consumers may influence each stage in the decision- making process. I Where there is a discrepancy between the desired condition and the actual condition, the consumers locate a problem to be solved or a need to be satisfied. Economic advancement, change in the stages of lifecycle, technological development and socio-cultural environment are the major contributory factors that may arouse the urge for solving a problem or satisfying a need. Besides, factors like market environment and promotion campaigns of marketers are instrumental to accelerating the process of problem- solving or need - satisfaction. Awareness of a problem induces the consumers to search for information. Product features, brand, seller and price are the major subjects, which are to be analysed with the help of the information obtained from the various sources. Now-a-days, consumers have been hugged by information explosion;particularly by the coverage given by the mass media. Consumers use decision information overload If consumers are provided with too much information at a given point of time, it exceeds their processing limils.

rules to cope with exposure to too much information or

After profiling the characteristic features of the target product1 brand and evaluating the alternatives, the consumer proceeds to the actual buying process, by which prospective

consumers will become actual consumers. Perhaps consumers may go for a compromise, if the products/ brands, which have secured the highest ratings are not available in the immediate vicinity. Purchase is characterized by factors like store loyalty, brand affinity, timing and even group-involvement. Consumers may also use a preference formation strategy that is otherbased-in which they allow another person to make the selection or purchase for them. Post-purchase evaluation is the last phasic stage in the decision-making process. If the product is an expensive one, the consumer will be keen in evaluating the product. If the evaluation evokes a dissonance, it causes mental fatigue to the consumers. The discontented consumers will give word - of-mouth that may discourage the other prospective buyers. Unless precautionary measures are taken by the marketers against the injurious word - of - mouth of the consumers, their existence will be at stake. Perhaps the most important thing for marketers to understand about word -of -mouth is its huge pckential economic impact Understanding the factors that can exert an influence on the behaviour of prospective consumers is the short-cut to reach at this destination. Factors Affecting Consumer Behaviour Cultural Factors The cultural setting of consumers is conspicuously integrated with their behavioural aspects, because culture envisages distinctive modal patterns of behaviour, and the underlying regulatory beliefs, norms and premises . In general, the cultural background of consumers acts as the control surface with regard to their consumption process. Choice of products1 brand, mode of buying, type of vendor selected may be pointed out as the examples for the interplay between the culture and behaviour of consumers. In the textile market, culture is a vital factor that influences the fashion adoption. Now-a-days, cultural tiends have tended to redefine the usage pattern of many a product, ranging from consumer products to sptus - symbol products. In a country like India, cultural norms exceedingly influenced by religious doctrines, have considerable implications on the behavioural aspects of consumers.

Social Factors The social characteristics of consumers may be identified as a factor, which has an enduring impact on consumer behaviour. There are three types of social character; tradition directed, inner - directed, and other - directed Nevertheless, the interaction between social factors and consumer behaviour varies from social class to social class. The basic distinction between the middle -class and the working class is that the latter advanced as a result of group activity whereas those above them moved forward by individual initiative .In the social set up, con- sumers get ample opportunities to interact with others, and to be influenced by them. The group that exercises influence on consumers is termed reference group in consumer behaviour science. Reference group is any person or group of people that significantly influences an individuals behaviour Personal Factors There can be free interplay between the personal factms of consumers such as age or lifecycle stage, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle, personality and self concept and their behaviour. The personal factors may influence many aspects of consumers like thinking, searching, and processing of information, decision- making and judgement of products or services. For instance, an educated consumer having a lucrative occupation will be more competent to take a wise decision with regard to con- suming and using products or services. Life Cycle Stage The behaviour of consumers is subject to radical changes during the entire life span, because they require different types of products at different stages of the life cycle. To quote an example, the requirements of the elderly are diametrically opposite to those of the youngsters. Over the years, the elderly segment of consumers has .been widened, as people are enjoying longer and healthier lives Similarly, age or life cycle- stage causes drastic changes in the formation of attitude aild perception. Now-a-days, psychological life cycle - stages have also been identified by the marketers as an input while designing products as well as strategies for different market segments.

Occupation The trenchant changes that have taken place in the market environment on the global level are due to the changes in the occupational scene of the consumers. A sizeable number of consumers have given up agriculture as their source of income, and have occupationally migrated to other avenues, particularly white- collar jobs. This has considerably improved the economic status of consumers; thereby spectacular changes have been witnessed in the c2onsumption process and pattern. Exposure to information, preference for brand, store and media habit are some of the important facets of changes that have been brought about by the occupational mobility of consumers. Change in media habit tlue to the new horizons of occupation is apparent from the enhancement in the number of readers of dailies and magazines. Readership is the strongest among college graduates and among those in executive-managerial professions Psychological Factors The four identifiable psychological factors that modulate the behaviour of consumers are motivation, perception, learning and attitude. Motivation Human needs and motives are siamese twins. Hence, striking a precise difference

between the two concepts seems to be a hair-splitting task. As Bayton has observed, some psychologists claim that words such as motives, needs, urges, wishes and drives should not be used as synonyms; others are content to use them). In the absence of a comprehensive

conceptual framework, motivation can be regarded as a desire that springs from the "unsatisfied needs" of human beings, which leads to a goal-setting. Motivation activates the behaviour of an individual in a direction towards a typical activity. A motivated organism will engage in an activity more vigorously and more effectively than an unmotivated one


Chapter 3. Strategies for including in the supply chain the sustainable consumption concept 3.1 Production stage With the eco-fashion industry still in its infancy, the main responsibility at the moment lies with clothes manufacturers and fashion designers, who need to start using sustainable materials and processes. There are a variety of materials considered "environmentally-friendly" for a variety of reasons. First and foremost, the re-new ability of the product. Renewable resources are items that can be replenished in a relatively short amount of time (as opposed to millennia). The second factor is the ecological footprint of the resource - how much land (usually measured in acres) it takes to bring one of the individuals (plants or animals) to full growth and support it. The third thing to consider in determining the eco-friendliness of a particular product is how many chemicals it requires to grow/process it to make it ready for market. Fabrics considered in this list include organic cotton, Organic silk, Organic wool, soy silk, Milk-silk, Pine apple fabrics, Hemp, Peat, Fortrel eco-spun tm, Ingeo tm corn fibre, bamboo, Recycled fabrics from recycled fibre. ORGANIC COTTON The Cotton Project supports small-scale farmers, especially in Africa, to change to new systems which are farmer-centred and in which pesticide use is reduced or eliminated. Its International Organic Cotton Directory includes UK retailers of organic cotton clothing, including Bishopston Trading Company, People Tree, Gossypium, and Greenfibres. All the cotton that Patagonia uses for their outdoor gear is organic as well. Organic cotton garments are often also free from chlorine bleaches and synthetic dyes.


Organic cotton is much more environmentally friendly than the traditional variety as it uses no pesticides, herbicides, or insecticides during the growing cycle. There are many growers of this crop, and the number is steadily increasing. Usually manufacturers using this plant to make textiles follow up the process by using natural dyes to further reduce the amount of chemicals dumped into our ecosystem. Even more promising is new cotton that is grown in the tradition of the Aztecs - coloured cotton. Sally Fox, a biologist, spent ten years perfecting coloured cotton with long enough fibres to be spun into thread. She managed to get it to grow naturally in shades of green and brown. It has the added benefit of not fading (in colour) and in fact, it gets more vibrant with the first few types of washing. GEO -JUTE - The Eco-friendly Fiber One of the oldest industries in India, Jute has traditionally been used for packaging. However, its versatility is only coming to light now as the world looks on for natural options to save the environment. TENCEL Tencel is a natural, man-made fiber. It has many of the qualities of synthetics, but is made of natural cellulose found in wood pulp making it fully biodegradable. The pulp used to produce Tencel is grown in tree farms, and the closed-loop production process recovers a solvent used in the spinning process and is able to re-use 99% of it. The process also uses no chlorine for bleaching, making the entire process relatively environmentally friendly. Products that can be made from this material include all forms of clothing such as shirts, pants, skirts, and suits, as well as sheets or any other cloth application where something other than cotton is desired. Tencel can be blended with other materials to produce other effects, however depending on the materials it is blended with it may or may not affect the biodegradability of the product. This is an important product because traditionally synthetic clothing has been made from oil, which has many downsides. Cellulose is a renewable resource, whereas a lack of oil will result in a lack of synthetic clothing in addition to all of the fuel-related issues. Tencel could be an excellent replacement for synthetic materials such as Rayon. The full product lifespan has been taken into

consideration during design as well; when an article of clothing made of Tencel is at the end of its useful life cycle, instead of being thrown away it can be composted safely. MILK YARN Cyarn milk protein fiber dewaters and skims milk, and manufactureshe protein spinning fluid suitable for wet spinning process by means of new bio-engineering technique, and new high-grade textile fiber is made by combining them. In April 2004, it passed Oeko-Tex Standard 100 green certification for the international ecological textiles. Then there is the matter of bleaching the wool to get it white, or dyeing it, but with a responsible eco-friendly manufacturer most of these issues can be overcome. SOY SILK Legend has it that Henry Ford wore a suit made of soy silk in the 1940s, but the US Government of the day decided to go with rayon instead. Here in the 21st century, though, it's soy silk that has the greater potential. Soy silk is made from the by-products of the tofu-making process. The liquefied proteins are extruded into fibres which are then spun, and used like any other fibre (woven, knitted, etc.). INGEO CORN FIBER Ingo is created by extracting the starch and then sugars from corn, and processing them to make a fibre, which can be spun into a yarn or woven into fabric. BAMBOO It's hard to see how this fabric qualifies as "environmentally-friendly" when the manufacturer's site contains the following sentence: "Firstly, bamboo pulp is refined from bamboo through a process of hydrolysis-alkalization and multi-phase bleaching." Bamboo is a highly renewable grass, and it is probably this property that has resulted in its being classified as "eco-friendly". It also has natural antibacterial properties and the fabric "breathes". The resultant cloth is biodegradable.


FORTREL EcoSpun Recycled polyester fleece jackets made from recycled drinks bottles. Even some hi-tech waterproofs can potentially be recycled - if facilities exist. These include water-based coatings (applied without harmful solvents) and membranes such as Sympatex, which is 100% polyester. Avoid PVC, laminates and polyurethane. A polyester fibre made out of recycled plastic bottles which can be made into fleece. Manufacturing this fibre is preferable to creating new petroleum-based fibres, and a plus given the sheer amount of plastic bottles in existence 3.2 Usage stage Despite improvements in the environmental impacts in the manufacture of textile and clothing over the last 25 years, the overall volume of production and consumption of these products has increased. The relocation of manufacturing from Western countries to Asian nations and more efficient production has reduced the cost of clothing and textiles, but this has had the unintended consequence of increasing consumption and counteracting some of the environmental benefits of new manufacturing technologies. In addition, the fast cycles of textile and deliberately planning products to have a limited lifespan have shortened the life cycle of textiles and clothing. Garments have become cheaper, the quality reduced and clothes are typically worn for only a short time before disposal. Although reuse and recycling of clothing has also increased, this only partly offsets the increased levels of textile consumption, the proliferation of textile waste, and the environmental and social impacts, (such as where and how fibres are cultivated) associated with higher volumes of textiles and clothing production. However, the EU Ecolabel1 for textiles is another way for consumers to select products with better environmental performance. For example, the use of a product could be extended if it is designed to be personalised. This would allow consumers to develop an emotional attachment with the garment or textile and can be achieved by mass customisation of products using fast digital manufacturing technologies that enable consumers to select from a variety of styles and colours to design their


own look. Digital textile printers, embroidery and laser cutting machines can design products tailored to an individuals specifications. The manufacture of halfway products, for example, kits that offer consumers the opportunity to creatively assemble (and repair) the product could also increase attachment and usage, as could clothing designed with detachable parts that can be customised by the consumer. In addition, designers can co-create products with consumers to increase attachment to the product, for example, through the internet, with consumers making the final design decisions. Services that focus on consumer needs can also be used to extend the lifetime use of textiles and clothing and postpone product replacement. For example, high-quality garments that can be used in renting, leasing, lending or sharing schemes; and services that modify the garments can all be offered. New business opportunities could be found in this switch to a services-orientated economy; manufacturers can offer higher quality garments, increase customer satisfaction and extend the use of the product. Reuse is today mainly limited by economic conditions with low cost of virgin textile and fast changing fashion. There are however opportunities in that second hand may be a fashion in itself and that the informal second hand market is to a large extent working without any specific policy instruments. If the quality of new textiles is not high enough to enable a second hand use. Much of the textiles is collected by charity organisations are not of a sufficient quality to be sold and reused on the market. This is to some extent solved by exports to less demanding markets outside the country but also can lead to incineration. Social, institutional: Fast fashion makes out of style clothing hard to sell second hand. Some clothing is fashion sensitive, which when fashion changes creates a large supply of this type of clothing when at the same time there is little or no demand Economical: Price of second hand textiles is not competitive compared to new textiles. Handling costs (collection, sorting and selling) of reused textiles are in some countries higher compared to material and productions costs in textile producing countries such as India and China which makes second hand clothes comparably expensive.

3.3 Post usage stage Recycling is a non-existing market which is due to economical, technical and institutional hindrances. Textiles are today a complex material which makes it hard to recycle but different niche markets may provide a basis for an increased recycling. It must however be approached with care since it if implemented improperly may replace reuse which is not recommended from an environmental point of view Economical: Current recycling technology produce low grade products with a low

value. Current recycling technologies are rather crude and produce low value products. Due to cheap virgin production there is little incitement to try to compete with high end products. Technical, economical: Textile waste is not a homogenous material. Textiles are not one

material but an infinite mix of different fibres not only in different garments but also in the same fabric. The fibres and fabrics have of course different colours and are hard to dye if the exact composition is not known.


Conclusion The textile and clothes industry is one of the most globally dispersed of all industries across both developed and developing countries, with some garments companies havingtheir goods produced simultaneously in as many as forty countries around the world It is an organisationally complex industry, containing elements of both very new and very old organizational practices, and changing constantly in its organisation and geography The textile and clothes industry is currently unsustainable due to pollution, dwindling natural resources, unjust labor conditions and wages, and insatiable consumption. Because many facets within the textile and clothes industry are tied to infrastructure problems within other major industries (i.e. transportation and manufacturing) The textile industry is one of the most ecologically damaging industries in the world. Petroleum-based products release dangerous emissions that wreak havoc on our environment, and bleaching and dying create toxins that pollute our air and waterways. The growing trend of eco-friendly fabrics, however, reduces the carbon footprint of both the textile industry and the consumer. With the eco-industry still in its infancy, the main responsibility at the moment lies with clothes manufacturers and fashion designers, who need to start using sustainable materials and processes. There are a variety of materials considered "environmentally-friendly" for a variety of reasons. First and foremost, the re-new ability of the product. Renewable resources are items that can be replenished in a relatively short amount of time . Energy and Water Use Energy consumption and water usage in the textile industry are extremely high and occur at each stage of the lifecycle of textiles at the production stage, in the use phase, where consumers use and care for textiles and garments and at the end stage, which covers either disposal and/or re use of the materials .The textile industry is expected to play an ever-more-progressive role in developing environmentally friendly technologies and processes. There is a lot of potential for savings. By saving energy and water, the textile industry can not only save a lot of money, but also help to slow down climate change.

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Muhendislik Fakultesi, 20070 C amlk, Denizli, Turkey 2007 o Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry Ali Hasanbeigi China Energy Group Energy Analysis Department ,Environmental Energy Technologies Division September 2010 o To Riches From Rags:Profiting From Waste Reduction A Best-Practices Guide for Textile and Apparel Manufacturers April 2001 o Textile Development and Marketing Department A Comprehensive Material Utilization Study: Parts 1 and 2." Apparel Manufacturer, May and August 1989. o Achievements in Source-reduction and Recycling for Ten Industries in the United States." Tillman, J. W., A. Robertson, and E. L. George, Science Applications International Corp., o U.S. EPA, DOC EPA-68-C8-0062; EPA-600/2-91/051, September 1991.


o Apparel Care and the Environment: Alternative Technologies and Labeling.U.S. EPA, DOC EPA-744/R-96/002, September 1996. o Best Management Practices for Pollution Prevention in the Textile Industry. U.S. EPA, DOC EPA-625/R-96/004, September 1996. o Profile of the Textile Industry: Sector Notebook Project, U.S. EPA, DOC EPA310/R 97009 o Akamatsu K (1962). A historical pattern of economic growth in developing countries. Journal of Developing Economies, 1(1) 3-25, March-August. o Hidalgo, C. Klinger, B. Barabasi, A. And Hausmann, R. (2007) The Product Space Conditions the Development of Nations, Science 317, 482 o Defra (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs), 2008. Sustainable Clothing Roadmap Briefing Note. December 2007 (updated March 2008). o Humphrey, J and Schmitz H. (2004) Local Enterprises in the Global Economy: Issues of Governance and Upgrading, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham. o ILO (2005) Promoting Fair Globalisation in Textiles and Clothing in a post-MFA Environment, Report for discussion at the Tripartite Meeting on Promoting Fair Globalisation in Textiles and Clothing in a Post-MFA Environment, International Labour Office: Geneva


o Websites;

o http://www.epa.gov/waste/conserve/smm/wastewise/pubs/texfact.pdf o http://www.epa.gov/compliance/resources/publications/assistance/sectors/noteboo ks/textilsn.pdf o http://www.wpi.edu/ o http://www.innovationintextiles.com/