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UNIVERSITY OF LATVIA
FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT
DOCTORAL STUDIES PROGRAMME IN MANAGEMENT
MODULE BUSINESS MANAGEMENT


MARKET SEGMENTATION IN SOCIAL NETWORKS
THROUGH SOCIAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS










Author: Knut Linke
Student card: kl11001
Supervisor: professor, Dr. rer. oec.
Michael Schlesinger

Riga 2013

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I
I. INDEX
I. INDEX........................................................................................................................... I
II. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................... III
III. LIST OF ILLUSTRATION........................................................................................ IV
IV. LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................... V
INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 1
1. THEORETICAL FUNDAMENTALS ......................................................................... 5
1.1. social media and online-marketing ............................................................................... 9
1.2. social network history and development .................................................................... 14
1.3. approaches to market segmentation ........................................................................... 20
1.4. milieus and social structure analyses .......................................................................... 26
1.4.1. lifeworld development ................................................................................................ 32
1.4.2. lifeworlds of internet users ......................................................................................... 40
1.5. methods of multivariate analysis ................................................................................ 44
2. PRELIMINARY STUDIES INTO HYPOTHESES FORMULATION .................... 49
2.1. evaluation of online surveys ....................................................................................... 51
2.2. assessment of the understanding of networks ............................................................ 57
2.3. assessment of the conception of a current social structure analysis ........................... 63
2.4. alignment of the social structure analysis in social networks .................................... 73
2.5. establishing of the hypotheses .................................................................................... 81
3. SOCIAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS WITHIN SOCIAL NETWORKS .................. 89
3.1. implementation of the survey as part of iss2012 ........................................................ 90
3.2. analysis of iss2012...................................................................................................... 92
3.2.1. validity of the obtained convenience sample ............................................................. 99
3.2.2. analysis of sub-hypotheses ....................................................................................... 105
3.3. results of the sub-hypotheses .................................................................................... 117
3.4. results of the extended data analysis ........................................................................ 119
4. APPLICATION OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS ON THE INTERNET . 124
4.1. analysis of the digital vanguard ................................................................................ 125
4.2. analysis of the responsibility-driven individuals ...................................................... 135
4.3. analysis of the main hypotheses ............................................................................... 148
4.3.1. analysis of the main hypothesis ha ........................................................................... 151
4.3.2. analysis of the main hypothesis hb ........................................................................... 155
4.3.3. analysis of the main hypothesis hc ........................................................................... 161
4.4. interpretation of the findings .................................................................................... 167
II
CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................................................... 174
SOURCES ...................................................................................................................... 180
books and articles ................................................................................................................... 180
electronic sources ................................................................................................................... 193
V. APPENDIX ................................................................................................................ IX
A-1 QUESTIONNAIRE ................................................................................................. A-1
A-2 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS .................................................................................. A-29
A-3 EXPERT OVERVIEW .......................................................................................... A-32
A-4 INTERMEDIATE DATA ...................................................................................... A-34
A-5 GLOSSARY .......................................................................................................... A-73


III
II. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AGIS = Arbeitsgruppe Interdisziplinre Sozialstrukturforschung (Interdisciplinary
Social Development Research Group)
API = Application Programming Interface
ARPANET = Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
BBS = Bulletin Board Service
BPS = Brand Personality Scale
CERN = Conseil Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire
CFA = Confirmatory Factor Analysis
CPI = Cost per Impression
CPM = Cost per Mille
CRM = Customer Relationship Management
DIVSI = Deutsches Institut fr Vertrauen und Sicherheit im Internet (German
Institute for Trust and Safety on the Internet)
DV = Digital Vanguard
EEG = ElectroEncephaloGraphy
EFA = Exploratory Factor Analysis
FFM = Five Factor Model
fMRI = functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
GfK = Gesellschaft fr Konsumforschung (Society for Consumer Research)
GP = General Population
GPS = Global Positioning System
HTML = Hypertext Markup Language
HTTP = Hypertext Transfer Protocol
IAB = Interactive Advertising Bureau
ICQ = I Seek You
Internet = Interconnected Network
IP = Internet Protocol
IRC = Internet Relay Chat
ISS = InternetSocialStructure analysis
KMO = Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin
KPI = Key Performance Indicator
ML = Maximum-Likelihood Factor Analysis
MSA = Measure of Sampling Adequacy
P2P = Peer To Peer
PAF = Principal Axis Factoring
PCA = Principle Component Analysis
PCC = Pearsons Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient
= Placeholder for correlation coefficients by Spearman or Pearson
RSS = Really Simple Syndication
SH = Sub-hypothesis
SRCC = Spearmans Rank Correlation Coefficient
TCP = Transmission Control Protocol
RI = Responsibility-driven Individuals

IV
III. LIST OF ILLUSTRATION
Figure 1 Traditional communication in the mass market (1:n) ............................................... 5
Figure 2 Computer-mediated market communication ............................................................ 5
Figure 3 - Interdependence structure of media markets ............................................................. 6
Figure 4 Market differentiation in media markets .................................................................. 7
Figure 5 Influence of the media on the behaviour of people .................................................. 7
Figure 6 Milieus in Germany 1987 ....................................................................................... 33
Figure 7 SINUS-Milieus in Western Germany 2000 ............................................................ 36
Figure 8 SINUS-Milieus 2005 .............................................................................................. 37
Figure 9 SINUS-Milieus 2011 .............................................................................................. 40
Figure 10 DIVSI-Internet-Milieus of trust and security on the Internet ............................... 41
Figure 11 Formula: Spearmans Rank Correlation Coefficient ............................................ 44
Figure 12 Formula: Pearsons Product-moment Correlation Coefficient ............................. 44
Figure 13 Selected DIVSI Internet Milieus ........................................................................ 124
Figure 14 Scatterplots: SH1aSH1c GP ............................................................................... 57
Figure 15 Scatterplots: SH1aSH1c DV ............................................................................... 59
Figure 16 Scatterplots: SH1aSH1c RI ................................................................................ 60
Figure 17 Comparison: Scatterplots SH1a broadband Internet ............................................ 72
Figure 18 Comparison: Scatterplots SH1a mobile Internet .................................................. 72
Figure 19 Comparison: Scatterplots SH1b............................................................................ 72
Figure 20 Comparison: Scatterplots SH1c ............................................................................ 72


V
IV. LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Social media and business situations ........................................................................ 13
Table 2 Comparison of media ............................................................................................... 14
Table 3 Forms and influences of the life cycle ...................................................................... 23
Table 4 Grouping: socio-economic ....................................................................................... 23
Table 5 Power of a statistical test and significance ............................................................... 45
Table 6 Reliability of the commonality ................................................................................. 47
Table 7 Benefits and Limitations of Internet research ......................................................... 52
Table 8 Comparison: Results Honesty on the Internet A1A5 .......................................... 53
Table 9 Comparison: Results Honesty on the Internet B1B4 .......................................... 54
Table 10 Comparison: Results Honesty on the Internet B5B8 ........................................ 55
Table 11 Comparison: Results Honesty on the Internet C1C5 ........................................ 55
Table 12 Comparison: Results Honesty on the Internet D1D4 ........................................ 56
Table 13 Perceptual factors regarding social networks ........................................................ 62
Table 14 Distribution: Mentions in the field of associations ............................................... 67
Table 15 Distribution: Participants/family status ................................................................. 92
Table 16 Distribution: Participants/educational qualification .............................................. 93
Table 17 Distribution: Participants/employment status ....................................................... 93
Table 18 Distribution: Participants/income .......................................................................... 94
Table 19 Occurrences: Leisure activities of the participants ................................................ 95
Table 20 Occurrences: Internet use of the participants ........................................................ 96
Table 21 Occurrences: Social network use ........................................................................... 97
Table 22 Occurrences: Functions used by the participants .................................................. 97
Table 23 Occurrences: Motivational factors of the participants ........................................... 98
Table 24 Occurrences: Use of Internet content .................................................................... 98
Table 25 Age segments of ISS2012 according to D21 age segments .................................. 99
Table 26 Age segments of ISS2012 according to DeStatis age segments .......................... 100
Table 27 Correlation overview: Facebook and functions of social networks .................... 111
Table 28 Correlation matrix: Intensity of social network use ............................................ 112
Table 29 Overview: factor analysis GP social networks (shortened item list) ................... 113
Table 30 Comparison: SH1-SH10 results group population .............................................. 118
Table 31 Correlation matrix: finance products ................................................................... 120
Table 32 Factor analysis: Recreational activitiy and Internet use factors .......................... 121
Table 33 Correlation matrix: information exchange .......................................................... 122
Table 34 Correlation matrix: Internet functions ................................................................. 123
VI
Table 35 Comparison: Distribution Clothing style GP and DV ........................................ 126
Table 36 Correlation matrix: PCC intensities of social network use of the DV ................ 130
Table 37 Factor analysis: SH6b DV .................................................................................. 131
Table 38 Comparison: SH1SH10 results DV ................................................................. 132
Table 39 Comparison: Correlation description housing environment DV ........................ 133
Table 40 Comparison: Correlation intensity blog usage and social networks DV ............ 134
Table 41 Comparison: Correlation social network functions and social network use ....... 135
Table 42 Comparison: Distribution living environment GP and RI .................................. 137
Table 43 Comparison: Distribution clothing style GP and RI ........................................... 138
Table 44 Comparison: Literature preferences GP and RI .................................................. 138
Table 45 Comparison: Movie preferences GP and RI ....................................................... 138
Table 46 Comparison: TV station preferences GP and RI ................................................. 138
Table 47 Comparison: TV content preferences GP and RI ............................................... 138
Table 48 Correlation overview: PCC intensities of social network functions use for RI . 141
Table 49 Correlation matrix: PCC intensities of social networks use of the RI ................ 142
Table 50 Factor analysis: SH6b RI .................................................................................... 143
Table 51 Comparison: SH1SH10 results Responsibility-driven Individuals ................... 144
Table 52 Comparison: Correlation description housing environment RI .......................... 145
Table 53 Comparison: Correlation description closing style RI ........................................ 145
Table 54 Comparison: Correlation description housing environment RI .......................... 147
Table 55 Comparison: Year of birth and start of Internet use GP, DV and RI .................. 148
Table 56 Comparison: Distribution living environment GP, DV and RI .......................... 149
Table 57 Comparison: Correlation Demographics and recreational activities .................. 149
Table 58 Factor analysis: Recreational activitiy factors with a focus on celebrations ...... 150
Table 59 Factor analysis: Recreational activitiy factors with a focus on culture .............. 150
Table 60 Comparison: Recreational activity correlations GP, DV and RI ........................ 150
Table 61 Factor analysis: Sparetime factors with a focus on celebrations ........................ 151
Table 62 Factor analysis: Sparetime factors with a focus on Television ........................... 151
Table 63 Factor analysis: Sparetime factors GP ................................................................ 151
Table 64 Comparison: Distribution wishes GP, DV and RI .............................................. 152
Table 65 Comparison: Method of obtaining furniture GP, DV and RI ............................. 153
Table 66 Comparison: Method of obtaining clothing GP, DV and RI .............................. 153
Table 67 Comparison: Prefered literature genres GP, DV and RI ..................................... 153
Table 68 Comparison: Prefered film genres GP, DV and RI ............................................. 153
Table 69 Comparison: Prefered public TV stations GP, DV and RI ................................. 153
VII
Table 70 Comparison: Prefered private TV stations GP, DV and RI ................................. 154
Table 71 Comparison: Prefered TV content GP, DV and RI ............................................. 154
Table 72 Comparison: Mean, Median and Mode of Internet use GP, DV and RI ............. 155
Table 73 Comparison: Median and Mode of social network use GP, DV and RI ............. 156
Table 74 Comparison: Correlation demographic items and social networks/function ...... 156
Table 75 Comparison: Correlation Internet usage and social networks/function ............. 156
Table 76 Comparison: Year of Birth and Internet use GP, DV and RI .............................. 158
Table 77 Comparison: Intensity Internet use and applications GP, DV and RI ................. 159
Table 78 Comparison: Intensity application use GP, DV and RI ....................................... 159
Table 79 Comparison: Correlation data exchange/network functions GP, DV and RI ..... 159
Table 80 Comparison: Correlation use of blogs and social networks GP, DV and RI ...... 160
Table 81 Comparison: Correlation usage Internet applications/social networks functions 160
Table 82 Comparison: SH1SH10 GP, DV and RI ............................................................ 166
Table 83 Comparison: CPM Bild/FTD ............................................................................ A-34
Table 84 Comparison: Honesty on the Internet A1B6 ................................................... A-34
Table 85 Comparison: Honesty on the Internet B7D4 ................................................... A-34
Table 86 Correlation matrix: Honesty on the Internet A1B3 ......................................... A-35
Table 87 Correlation matrix: Honesty on the Internet B4C3 ......................................... A-36
Table 88 Correlation matrix: Honesty on the Internet C4-D4 .......................................... A-37
Table 89 Association result: Electronic devices in your possession ................................ A-38
Table 90 Association result: Non-electronic devices/items in your possession ............... A-39
Table 91 Association result: Goods or services you would like to purchase ................... A-40
Table 92 Association result: Shopping opportunities for furniture .................................. A-41
Table 93 Association result: Characterise your apartment ............................................... A-42
Table 94 Association result: Favourite leisure activities .................................................. A-43
Table 95 Association result: Favourite singers/musicians ............................................... A-44
Table 96 Association result: Favourite books or newspapers .......................................... A-45
Table 97 Association result: Shopping facilities to bought clothing ................................ A-46
Table 98 Association result: Clothing brands ................................................................... A-47
Table 99 Association result: Characterize your clothing style ......................................... A-48
Table 100 Association result: TV programms .................................................................. A-49
Table 101 Association result: Film genres ....................................................................... A-50
Table 102 Association result: Films most well-known among acquaintances ................. A-50
Table 103 Association result: Used social media ............................................................. A-51
Table 104 Association result: Prefered food .................................................................... A-52
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Table 105 Association result: Prefered food at home ...................................................... A-53
Table 106 Association result: Prefered food at restaurant/as a snack .............................. A-54
Table 107 Association result: Classical music ................................................................. A-55
Table 108 Association result: Artists and painters ........................................................... A-55
Table 109 Association result: Well known music ........................................................... A-56
Table 110 Association result: Ways of obtaining music .................................................. A-56
Table 111 Distribution: Population ISS2012 ................................................................... A-56
Table 112 Distribution: Participants/place of residence .................................................. A-57
Table 113 Overview: Participants Clusteranalysis .......................................................... A-58
Table 114 Overiew: Cluster distance 1 ......................................................................... A-58
Table 115 Overiew: Cluster distance 2 ......................................................................... A-58
Table 116 Correlation matrix: SRCC Parents/Grandparents DV .................................... A-59
Table 117 Correlation matrix: PCC financial services significant for the DV ................ A-59
Table 118 Correlation matrix: SRCC Parents/Grandparents RI ...................................... A-60
Table 119 Correlation matrix: PCC financial services significant for the RI .................. A-60
Table 120 Comparison: Median and mode of GP, DV and RI for functions .................. A-61
Table 121 Comparison: Median and mode of GP, DV and RI for motivating factors .... A-62
Table 122 Comparison: Median and mode of GP, DV and RI Internet applications ...... A-63
Table 123 Comparison: Median and mode of GP, DV and RI personality preferences .. A-63
Table 124 Comparison: Correlation SH1 with SH1aSH1c ............................................ A-64
Table 125 Comparison: Correlation SH2 with SH2aSH2d ........................................... A-65
Table 126 Comparison: Correlation SH3 with SH3aSH3c ............................................ A-66
Table 127 Comparison: Correlation SH4 with SH4aSH4e ............................................ A-67
Table 128 Comparison: Correlation SH5 with SH5aSH5b ........................................... A-68
Table 129 Comparison: Correlation SH6 with SH6aSH6b ........................................... A-68
Table 130 Comparison: Correlation SH7 with SH7aSH7g ........................................... A-69
Table 131 Comparison: Regressionanalyses GP, DV and RI SH7 .................................. A-69
Table 132 Comparison: Correlation SH8 ......................................................................... A-70
Table 133 Comparison: Correlation SH9 with SH9aSH9c ............................................ A-70
Table 134 Comparison: Correlation SH10 ....................................................................... A-71

1
INTRODUCTION
Virtual communities are social aggregations that emerge from the Net when enough people
carry on those public discussions long enough, with sufficient human feeling, to form webs of
personal relationships in cyberspace (Rheingold, 1993, p. 5).
In today's world, the Internet has achieved a prominent position in the society with a market
penetration of 99% in the age group of under 30 (Berg, 2011; Bertsch, 2011). It is the first
communication medium whose social influence can be observed and documented since its
inception (Rheingold, 2002, p. 24). In the future, the Internet is going to continue developing
and gaining both acceptance and market penetration (Dueck, 2011; Kruse, 2010). Interacting
with customers within social media (Oetting, 2007) is going to become more important for
global companies, especially considering that today people use the Internet while growing up,
and develop differentiated patterns of use (Prensky, 2011). It is important for companies with
global marketing strategies (Armstrong/Kotler, 2003, pp. 584586) to use methods enabling a
simple and effective customer differentiation. It is becoming increasingly more complicated
to classify customers according to pure properties, such as income or gender, due to the
difficulty of stratifying people into clearly defined classes. On the metalevel, sociology
provides the approach of social classes or milieus. People who belong to these milieus have a
similar background which should allow performing more targeted marketing activities. The
analysis of this approach is the prime focus of this deductive and, by combining marketing
and sociology, interdisciplinary doctoral thesis which investigates Internet use and social
networks.
At present, only the basic aspects of a purposeful use of social networks, their functions and
applications have been researched. There has been no attempt to provide a comprehensive
analysis of social network user stratification. Most existing social network studies focus on a
specific use case or direction of analysis. A general study providing fundamental principles
has not been performed. Up to the present moment, social network use has mostly been
analysed in view of specific issues, or in the context of marketing activities. Although there
exists research into data science, the studies are owned by companies and cannot be freely
accessed. A comprehensive and impartial study with the aim of providing recommendations
for the economy, politics and research by analysing general models of German social network
users has not been performed. Although with an emphasis on data security, a transfer of the
existing model had already taken place at the time of starting to develop the present thesis.
A more multi-faceted and independent analysis of the research topic can be ensured by
analysing empirical knowledge and fundamentals relating to sociology than by focusing
solely on marketing models. A focus on sales might cause marketing models to become
2
highly simplified, which can result in information loss during basic research. This can be
prevented by using sociological models that consider the society holistically. Up to the
present time, new and traditional media have not been investigated collectively, and social
networks have not been analysed independently. A comprehensive and explorative analysis
has not been performed in this field. Similarly, the analysis of online use has not been
regarded as a particular form of interaction or societal development, but rather as a normal
development of the society and normal changes in media use. The people remain unchanged;
changes take place only in the type of interaction. Thus, it is advisable to use models of
analysis with long-standing traditions. This can be achieved by using the existing empirical
knowledge to extend current models and obtaining empirical knowledge from existing
studies. A distinctive feature of such an approach is the retention and renewal of scientific
knowledge. The repeated use of existing knowledge, as well as its transfer to new
environments, can be used to confirm general behaviour patters, and demonstrate behaviour
patterns accepted by people, but unconfirmed for the time being. Therefore, the aim of this
study is to modernise and adapt existing scientific models to a new environment so that they
could be used to study Internet users and their preferences.
The scientific goal of the present research is to study the possibility of transferring existing
market differentiation approaches to the Internet and in particular to social networks. The
results of an explorative analysis are expected to improve by using already existing models
for the analysis of the online environment. In the field of sociology, social structure analysis
has become established as the method for researching groups of people and societies. Social
structure analysis offers the possibility to use lifeworlds as a means of producing comparable
results. In addition, social structure analysis allows obtaining significant findings relating to
Internet and social network users. Since targeted sampling was not possibly in the present
study, a random sample was used instead. This leads to the principal hypothesis of the present
research:
H: Analysing convenience samples of Internet users through lifeworlds produces more
significant results than analysing the same sample without considering lifeworlds.
The thesis consists of four chapters including theoretical fundamentals, preliminary research,
the defining of supporting hypotheses, performing of the survey, a preliminary data analysis
and a detailed data analysis. The theoretical fundamentals describe processes occurring within
the media market, especially within social media and online marketing, and provide
fundamentals for market segmentation. In addition to market segmentation, the milieu
approach and the associated social structure analysis have been presented in the context of
lifeworlds. Furthermore, the present study uses specific online milieus which form the basis
3
of a detailed analysis of survey data and help confirm the hypotheses. Finally, the empirical
foundations necessary for the analysis have been explained in detail. The hypotheses
development has been outlined in the chapter on preliminary research. The primary goal of
preliminary research is to supplement and adapt the fundamentals of social structure analysis,
described in the theoretical part, in order to ensure that a differentiation of social network
users is possible. The secondary goal is to successfully conduct the survey within the online
environment. The questionnaire by Pierre Bourdieu served as the basis and was updated in the
course of individual and group interviews, business meetings, workshops and association
questionnaires. These questionnaires were verified by test groups in order to ensure that they
are understood by respondents. Results of preliminary research, as well as the theoretical
fundamentals, were used to create the following hypotheses (HaHc) supporting the principal
hypothesis:
Ha: It is possible to detect consumption preferences typical for the selected lifeworlds.
Hb: It is possible to detect patterns of Internet use typical for the selected lifeworlds.
Hc: A direct comparison of Digital Vanguard and Responsibility-driven Individuals with the
general population reveals significant changes in the results of SH1SH10.
Preliminary research has been used as a basis to develop sub-hypotheses (SH) supporting Hc.
These hypotheses have been formed so that the widest possible range of subsequently
collected data could be analysed. This is intended to show that it is possible to make a
contribution for the fields of politics, economy and research by applying the model of
lifeworld differentiation into milieus to the examining of the online environment. The sub-
hypotheses read as follows:
SH1: A higher household income has a positive and significant impact on the living
environment of the participant.
SH2: There is a significant and positive correlation between particular media content and
gender.
SH3: There is a significant correlation between the duration of Internet use during the week
and at the weekend.
SH4: There is a positive and significant correlation between the time spent using mobile
Internet and the use of certain functions within social networks.
SH5: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using Facebook and the
intensity of using functions in social networks.
SH6: There is a significant correlation between social networks and the intensity of their use.
SH7: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using business networks,
specific users and the factors motivating them to use business networks.
4
SH8: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the use of security settings
and protection of personal data.
SH9: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using the Internet for political
discussions and the intensity of using communication functions.
SH10: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the users degree of
interest in listening to music as a leisure activity and the intensity of using online services
which offer music.
These hypotheses are partly supported by further sub-hypotheses. The supporting hypotheses
take the form of either point or results hypotheses.
The developing of the hypotheses, presented in chapter two, is followed by chapter three,
devoted to data publication and analysis. The questionnaire was named
InternetSocialStructure analysis 2012 (ISS2012), published on the Internet and distributed
using social networks. The collected data were analysed descriptively in order to obtain a
picture of the population reached. These data were compared with the analyses and the
demographic data in order to obtain a significant representativity of the survey. Afterwards,
SH1SH10 were researched within the general population of the study, using factor and
correlation analyses. In order to avoid information loss and lay the basic fundamentals for Ha
and Hb, the data were examined for further significant results. Chapter four is devoted to the
application of a social structure analysis. In order to confirm the principal hypothesis of the
present study, HaHc have been tested for the general population, as well as the groups of the
Responsibility-driven Individuals and Digital Vanguard. The obtained results have been
compared and analysed.
Separate concluding recommendations underlining the use and usefulness of this paper within
the fields of economy, politics and research have been developed on the basis of the research
results.

5
1. THEORETICAL FUNDAMENTALS
The basis for segmentation, social networks, media and empirical research lies in the specific
distinction between information and communication, as well as in the communication within
the society and the updating and processing of information (Luhmann, 1999, pp. 9091).
The form of media known as mass media has existed since the modern history of mankind.
The invention of printing is regarded as an important milestone, as it allowed reproducing and
making existing content available for large numbers of people quickly and cost-effectively.
This process later continued in film and television where the film was adapted as an art
medium for the mass market (Adorno/Horkheimer, 1932, p. 122). This shows the
commercialisation of the film as a medium which later developed into commercial television.
According to a similar approach (Rheingold, 2002, pp. 23), the radiance of the Internet and
its characteristic blogosphere on adolescents is compared to that of neon advertising.
The media market is very complex due to many segments that support and compete with one
another. In this respect, it is important to recognise the change (Hoffman/Novak, 1995, p. 5)
that has occurred between the communication of traditional advertising in the mass market
and the computer-based market communications. This shows that interaction with media users
is increasingly emphasised by both the media and advertising professionals.






Figure 1 Traditional communication in the mass market (1:n) (Source: Hoffman/Novak, 1995, p. 5)
The traditional model now faces the shared influence of the content. In this case, media users
and enterprises influence the content of the medium that is used.



Figure 2 Computer-mediated market communication (Source: Hoffman/Novak, 1995, p. 5)
Analysing media in the light of information carrier properties is of importance for marketing
and the type of communication related to it (Faulds/Mangold, 2009, p. 359). Bennett/Maton
Content Medium
E
C
C
C
C
C
E = Enterprise
C = Customer
Content Medium
E C
Content
E = Enterprise C = Customer
6
(2010, pp. 322323) indicate that the Internet has become established as a new medium due to
its pure existence and availability. Media and Internet use comprises a substantial part of the
recreational activities of the inhabitants of the Republic of Germany (ARD, 2011). This study
shows a segmentation of media users according to their age, gender, various forms of
recreational activities and the media usage preferences. Such market structures indicate a
distribution of a mass market that can help companies improve their marketing approaches.
The analysed media market is subject to a constant cycle:

Figure 3 - Interdependence structure of media markets (Source: Wirtz, 2011, p. 25)
In this example, the market is viewed in the traditional context. The content necessary for the
operation of th e company is purchased on the content procurement market. This approach is
defined in terms of traditional business models without the forefront of user-generated
content. The content available for the company is consumed on the recipient market. The
company is subject to a filter function that can be adjusted to the interests of the advertising
market, if the communicated content can be measured according to the advertising demand
and the associated success on the recipient market. To achieve this, the advertising market and
the associated trademarks, products and services are oriented towards the most appropriate
and most easily attainable target audience. It is important for the central media enterprises and
Internet companies to be aware of the market segment in which they operate. The media
market is divided into individual sub-segments, outlined by Wirtz (2011, p. 22), that can be
subdivided in the following sections:
Media
enterprises and
Internet
Content procurement
market
Recipient market

Advertising market
Procurement successStructure of content

Money
Target
audience
7

Figure 4 Market differentiation in media markets (Source: Wirtz, 2011, p. 22)
Wirtz distinguishes between consumer markets and communication channels within the media
market in which a company actively propagates advertising and marketing communications.
The sector of the traditional media also includes analogue electronic and non-electronic
media. This sector focuses on printed publications, television, film, music and radio. Each
media market is influenced by the changing of times. The development of the Federal
Republic of Germany (FRG) in the 70s and 80s clearly shows that watching television
occupied a significant part of the day, the weekend free time, and was an important source of
information. It also shows that over time TV ousted radio from its leading position (Schfers,
1995, pp. 140141). Television as a medium has been assigned a role in the shaping and
acceleration of social processes, which is characteristic of a cultural nation.
Depending on the medium chosen, marketing uses various methods of communicating
advertising material and different sales approaches to attract potential clients. With regard to
the communication performed, it must be distinguished between a pure sales approach and the
fulfilling of demand through marketing (Kotler, 1972, pp. 4654). Thus, the purchased goods
or received services can be used to identify customer needs (Baines et al., 2003, pp. 221, 237).
In principle, media, such as television, can influence ideological views, social ties and
behaviour (Bandura, 2011 p. 281).



Figure 5 Influence of the media on the behaviour of people (Source: Bandura, 2011 p. 281)
Upon examining the consumer behaviour of the traditional media, special attention is paid to
types of media that can be used repeatedly. Printed material can be easlily shared and passed
around. Similarly, TV and radio programmes can be watched and listened to by several
Markets for
media
Markets for
non-electronic
media
(printing press
markets)
Newspapers
Rearer
markets
Advertising
markets
Procurement
markets
Periodicals
Rearer
markets
Advertising
markets
Procurement
markets
Books
Rearer
markets
Advertising
markets
Procurement
markets
Markets for
electronic
media
TV
Viewer
markets
Advertising
markets
Procurement
markets
Films
Viewer
markets
Advertising
markets
Procurement
markets
Radio
Listener
markets
Advertising
markets
Procurement
markets
Music
Listener
markets
Advertising
markets
Procurement
markets
Internet
WWW
User markets
Advertising
markets
Procurement
markets
Apps
User markets
Advertising
markets
Procurement
markets
Mobile
User markets
Advertising
markets
Procurement
markets
Media
influence
Connections in a
social system
Behaviour
change
8
people simultaneously. On the Internet, more specifically, on social networks, each user can
act as a sender or receiver, but the final content is usually consumed by a single person. As a
result, Cost per Mile (CPM) has become established as the Key Performance Indicator (KPI)
that takes this into account. The CPM is calculated by dividing the costs relating to the
placement of advertisements by the number of visual contacts. As concerns the contact
volume, 1,000 customers is regarded as the base unit in mass media. The statement of the
CPM takes place without information about the client group. If the information is processed,
it is usually provided by the media during a continuous customer analysis. The significance of
the target audience is revealed in a comparison (Springer 1, 2011; Springer 2, 2011; G+J
Media, 2011) between the CPM of the German newspaper Bild and the daily financial
newspaper Financial Times Deutschland (FTD). Both newspapers are aimed at different
customer segments. In order to adequately distribute the advertising budget, advertising
clients observe the CPM and the related costs in the light of the newspaper readers. A user
distribution with 25% of the relevant target audience for Bild and 85% for FTD is assumed in
A4.1. This constitutes a theoretical CPM price distribution of 131.56 for Bild and 91.53
for FTD, based on the CPM rates of each medium. Information regarding the users may
provide a cost advantage if a certain medium achieves the relevant aims more cost-effectively.
With the inclusion of the influence of social factors, the CPM acts as a valuable and effective
instrument which ensures that advertising material is disseminated with a higher rate of
success probability, and the company is perceived in the appropriate environment.
Furthermore, the CPM can be strengthened by a factor that reveals how the advertising
material is perceived by the recipient (ConcordMonitor, 2011).
In addition to newspapers and magazines, the television market has gained a permanent
position in the daily use of media. As concerns the television market in Germany, there is a
clear distribution of consumption with 42.9% for public broadcasting companies, followed by
the RTL Group with 25.2%, the Pro SiebenSat.1 Group with a near 22.1% and others with
9.8%. The advertising market in television is controlled by the Pro SiebenSat.1 Group with
42.5% and followed by the RTL Group with 40.9%. Public broadcasters have secured a small
share of the advertising market with 5.1%, thus falling behind the other stations by 11.5%.
The advertisers in the television sector pay standardised advertising prices which depend on
the time and type of the broadcast during which the commercial is broadcast (Wirtz, 2011, p.
377). As concerns German TV stations ARD and ZDF, this is revealed as a creative leeway
for advertising (ARD-Werbung, 2011; ZDF-Werbefernsehen, 2011), which provides a
division of advertising rates per month, time of day and TV content. The division is limited to
the choice of Bundesligacontent or a regular programme. Similarly to the television market,
9
the placement of advertising has developed in the cinema market; however, this market has
been shrinking for several years (IVW, 2011).
1.1. social media and online-marketing
The connection between individuals and companies achieved by means of marketing activities
within mass media communication was first researched by Wiebe (1951) in the context of
radio and television commercials. The researcher focuses on the impact of television upon
consumers against the background of creating and supporting a connection between the
product to be sold, the manufacturer and the customer. Wiebe examined whether it is possible
to use such media as television and radio to create a connection with the customer, similar to
that of a personal shopping site, which helps the consumers reach social and cultural aims. As
part of his research, Wiebe (1951, pp. 685687) has come to the interim conclusion that the
motivation can manifest itself as a force and that it ensures a mechanism which can provide
motivation for an organisation. This can also be used as the regular way of addressing users if
their preferences are known. Wiebe (1951, p. 688) goes on to point out the political
possibilities of this tool and concludes (Wiebe, 1951, p. 699) by noting the option of acquiring
customers with the support of media content which allows defining a customer group. This
customer group can be approached with the help of mass media, such as television or radio.
This study has been referred to by Kotler/Zaltman (1971, p. 3) who have indicated that the
motivation of people for social or organisational purposes would be more successful if the
influencing factors were respected and communication were implemented as a marketing
measure. In this context the social marketing approach by Wiebe, is regarded as a concept
relating to non-business organisations that use a bond with the customer to sell their products.
Kotler/Zaltman (1971, p. 5) have considered the influencing factors presented by Wiebe in
connection with the objectives of marketing measures, such as the use of communication
channels and additional marketing activities (Kotler/Zaltman, 1971, pp. 510). Thus, the force
approach becomes synonymous with promotion, which is a part of the marketing mix.
Promotion is understood as a concept comprising advertising, direct sales, public relations and
sales promotion. The social marketing planning system in this case has to take into account
the environment, the planning variables, information communication channels and changes.
Along with the dawn of the online market, this medium has seen the development of
advertising approaches that create a social bond with customers to increase the potential
success of the company. This began with paid advertisements in electronic messages, and the
establishing of sponsorship for websites. As is the case with all advertising activities,
measuring and comparing the results with previously stored success factors is necessary.
10
This is achieved using central indicators (KPI) for the standardisation of these measurements
(IAB, 2009, pp. 612). These indicators allow measuring the number of users, the visitor flow
and the use and display of advertising. The most frequently used measurements are those of
visitors, return visits, the number of pages viewed during a visit (interaction rate) and the time
spent on the website. The available IP address acts as a basis for calculating the number of
visitors, which is used as a comparison when the visit is stored and the visitor returns. In order
to calculate the number of pages visited by a user, the websites viewed are linked with the
users IP address. Pages displayed within a network can be divided in communities, as well as
main or subpages. Subpages can be designed as special country pages on a number of topics
or spheres and have purely informative or sales-oriented properties. Haller et al. (2010, p.
135) have identified the KPI for the type of websites that rely on the communication of
content, as well as websites focusing on e-commerce. The author also recommends using the
KPI to monitor visits, customer conversion, transaction and sales performance, and to observe
the bounce, conversion and transaction rates.
In order to turn visitors into customers, it is important to be aware of the customer base of the
social network or the website as such. Here the long tail approach involving small gains on
long-term customer loyalty is of continuous importance. This is consistent with the approach
by Scott (2007, p. 18) who states that the goal of our culture and economy is shifting from the
creation of mainstream products and markets to an increased focus on long-term sales within
niche markets. Due to a continuous reduction of production costs, a steady decline in
transportation costs within the mass market, as well as increasing personal transportation
costs and shifts in the consumption behaviour within the online environment, customers
cannot always be reached with a one size fits all approach. At this point, a market advantage
can arise if the production of goods and services for a scattered mass market becomes more
attractive economically. In addition to the KPI and the long tail approach, banner marketing
should be mentioned. As an international KPI it is closely connected with CPM, while
strongly related to TKP as a natioal KPI. This defined indicator has taken hold as a means of
measuring different types of representation of graphical advertising spaces on the Internet.
Internationally, the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) has become established for
graphical advertising on the Internet (IAB, 2011). The IAB standardises advertising formats
in order to ensure a simpler and more extensive integration of similar advertising content
(IAB, 2012). Since 2008, standard recommendations for video advertising have been issued
as an alternative to the traditional forms of advertising on the Internet (IAB 1, 2008, p. 5). The
cost of all advertising forms is calculated according to the CPM. The described advertising
activities are generally used in conjunction with localisation techniques and context sensitive
11
advertising. Context-sensitive advertising is a method of displaying advertisements depending
on the content viewed by the visitor of the website (Alpar, 2011). Information concerning the
location of the user can be used alongside context-sensitive advertising (GeoTek, 2010).
Another possibility to obtain information on the location of the user, as well as advertising
messages, is to use mobile GPS technology, provided that the user has shared this information
(Khne/Wner, 2007). Both techniques, namely using GPS and the IP address, can be
connected with context-sensitive advertising. This information is important for a company
that wishes to successfully implement marketing activities within the growing Internet market
(Microsoft, 2009, p. 7). According to Wirtz (2011, p. 703), several development trends can be
effective in performing strategic management of enterprises and Internet companies which
convey media on the Internet. These are influenced by the main factors, such as competition,
customers, complexity and visualisation. In this regard, the competition is influenced by an
intensification based on the increasing market transparency, the decreasing entry and
switching barriers, as well as disintermediation. These factors are contrasted with customers
and their behaviour changes caused by substantial amountsof information, the increasing
purchasing capabilities and problems regarding the declining customer loyalty. In this respect,
the increasing market complexity, characterised by a rising speed of innovation and market
segmentation, as well as the different varying visualisation of products, organisations and
alliances or networks is of additional and influencing significance. The current fast-paced
market allows reaching a high and varied range.
According to Weber (2009, pp. 1011), the benefit of using the Internet as an advertising
market lies in the increasing CPM prices within traditional media and the advantage of the
Internet as a new form of communication which allows providing a direct link with
customers. It is important for companies to build trust and privacy in in social media use and
tackle the fear regarding the loss of confidential data. It is also important for a company to
have a clear division of what is communicated, how it is done and who receives it (Emerald,
2009, p. 20). A trend present in the new DIVSI (2012) study based on the SINUS milieus, to
be introduced later, examines online preferences of target audience based on their safety
requirements. This trend also defines new target audiences for this area (DIVSI, 2012, pp. 55
156).
In this context, the term social media or social media marketing, introduced at the beginning
of the chapter, is brought to the foreground again. It is a subject thoroughly discussed in
theory with common distinctions. The new media Web 2.0 approach a part of modern social
media marketing strategies is applied to social networks and the increase in user interaction
on the Internet. Web 2.0 is defined as an application that can be adjusted and used according
12
to user requirements. Web 2.0 has been developed to support the communication and
distribution of information on other networks, thus enabling a stronger interaction between
the network users (Emerald, 2009, p. 21). Craig (2007, pp. 154155) introduces Web 2.0, as a
term coined by Tim OReilly. This rather loosely defined concept consists of a gravitational
core that enables user experience by means of pre-existing, independent and inter-locking
applications used by a group. The users have the possibility to transfer their content to other
networks even in existing applications. Surrounded by a triangle of data, applications and
other users, the user plays a key role in Web 2.0. Based on the introduced theory of
interaction and the connection by means of emotions, social media use is reasonable even
within an Internet application. Weinberg (2010, p. 5) sees social media marketing as a
process that allows people to advertise products and services for their websites within social
networks and address a large community, which would be impossible through traditional
channels of advertising. Thus, social media particularly stresses the collective, not the
individual. According to Heymann/Reder (2011, p. 20), social media are Internet platforms
where users build relationships and communicate with other users without limiting the
communication to the exchange of verbal messages, and including many multimedia
elements. The users of such a social media platform are collectively referred to as a
community. Stauss (2000, pp. 234235) defines social media as part of the new media and a
set of email, World Wide Web and newsgroups against the background of the social media
criteria communication needs of the customer and the company control over the content of
communication. In this case, communication between customers can occur to cover the
information about a company, products, deliveries and supply measures, research and
development, distribution and dissemination of information. Scott outlines his approach to
social media with the assertion that one-way interruption marketing is yesterdays message
(Scott, 2007, pp. 6; 810) which is presented by Moran (2008, p. 9) as traditional marketing
was about interrupting people, and likewise supported by Weber (2009, pp. 3435) by the
observation of one-way, as opposed to bi-directional communication. As outlined by Scott
(2007, p. 25), here marketing goes beyond the bounds of the normal placement of advertising.
PR becomes an instrument which not only directly reaches the current target group of
journalists, but can also be accepted by regular individuals. Thus, the interaction between
companies and people becomes more authentic, thus strengthening the feeling of
participation. Moran (2008, p. 24) divides social media into four basic trends: first, social
media can be content-based. Second, websites can be designed with a focus on users in order
to support and strengthen their networking and enable self-representation. Third, social media
can be based on interests and topics. Fourth, Moran shows that virtual worlds can also fall
13
into the realm of social media. The above is consistent with approach by Rheingold (1991, pp.
350354) to the integration of a network within a society. Social media use (Gillin, 2009, pp.
1017) may help reverse negative emotions and supply a return channel which can provide
the customer with a positive experience. The possible range of a network makes social media
use cost-effective. Faulds/Mangold (2009, p. 358) offer a comprehensive overview of social
media technologies which differentiate the Internet into social networking sites, creativity
works sharing sites for the sectors of video, photo, music, content or general intellectual
property sharing, user-sponsored blogs, company-sponsored blogs or websites, invitation-only
social networks, business networking sites, collaborative websites, virtual worlds, commerce
communities, podcast, news delivery sites, educational materials sharing, open source
software communities, social bookmarking sites. Stauss (2000, p. 242) suggests that
companies should consider all information communicated using the Internet to current,
potential or former customers should be understood as focused Internet customer
communication. The information sender has to take into account the medium used and the
direction of the communication. The acceptance of social media and e-commerce has been
growing continually since 2000 and is regarded as stable at the moment. The medium has
become part of the consumer (Freed, 2011, p. 4). Faulds/Mangold (2009, p. 360) add that
Consumers are turning away from the traditional sources of advertising: radio, television,
magazines, and newspapers. Consumers consistently demand more control over their media
consumption. They require on-demand and immediate access to information at their own
convenience.
Gillin (2009, p. 17) recommends different combinations for conducting business transactions
taking place in the context of Internet customer communication:
Blog Podcast Video Social
Network
Private
Community
Customer
Review
Engine
Virtual
World
Build customer
community
X X X X X X
Crisis management X X X X X X
Generate traffic X X X
Humanise the
company
X X X X X
Market research X X X X X
Media relations X X X X X
Generate new
product ideas
X X X X X
Product promotion X X X X X X
Product support X X X X
Sales leads X X X X X X
Table 1 Social media and business situations (Source: Gillin, 2009, p. 17)
14
A study on business users of social media in the USA (Ovaitt, 2008, p. 13) indicates a wide
acceptance of blogs, video content and newsgroups. Virtual worlds, instant messaging and
podcasts have been mentioned as the least effective. In order to successfully exist on the
Internet, Scott (2007, p. 64) encourages to support the search behaviour by using appropriate
keywords and communicate with clients over the mentioned channels on social networks.
According to Moran (2008, p. 14), the self-segmentation of products by the customer can act
as a further approach to the integration of social media. This takes place against the
background of the new relationship between the company and the customers (Scott, 2008, pp.
195196). Heitmann/Prykop (2006 p. 308) show how relationships develop and interests may
be satisfied in view of the media used:
C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

F
r
a
m
e

Face-to-Face Online Mobile
Member
entities
Identifiable Anonymous,
pseudonymous
Identifiable
Shared
Interest
Variable; activity,
occupation or
passion
Variable; activity,
occupation or passion
Variable; activity,
passion (occupation)
Relations Immediate,
restricted, variable
intensity and
recurrence
depending on
interaction partners,
different types of
relations possible
Mediated, due to
asynchronous
communication more
choice in recurrence
and intensity of
interaction; variable
types of relations
Mediated, recurrence
and intensity is slightly
restricted depending on
mode of interaction,
variable types of
relations
Space of
Interaction
Dependent on
presence of others,
highly geotemporal
dependent, difficult
access
Multiple option in
mode of interaction
e.g. chat rooms, news
boards; always
accessible, geo-
temporal independent
Options in mode of
interaction, always
accessible, completely
geo-temporal
independent.
Table 2 Comparison of media (Source: Heitmann/Prykop, 2006 p. 308)
It is attempted to make products or services available in the place where the customer expects
them or information about them to be found. This has also been indicated by Yang (2011, pp.
5456) who notes that customer interaction and interest from companies and institutions is
constantly increasing. The growing application and mobile market is of particular interest in
terms of social tie development, since a direct personal and long-term identification is
expected. This will have a certain impact on social network use which needs to be examined
alongside Internet use.
1.2. social network history and development
The technological capabilities of the Internet allow people to use social networks for
interaction purposes. At present, communities and social networks, have become part of
15
marketing measures implemented to reach customers. This development has taken place
largely due to the establishing of Web 2.0 which focuses on interacting with users and
customers (Bonsn/Flores, 2010, p. 3). Companies may view Web 2.0 as a combination of
social networks which they may utilise (Bonsn/Flores, 2010, p. 6). Bonsn/Flores (2010, p.
8) indicate that the range of a participant or a group influences the quantity and intensity of
communication. This makes it easier for brands to enter the market. In order to gain an in-
depth understanding of the market, it is necessary to view social networks as tools and market
participants. Essentially, social networks are media used to convey content and impulses, and
their basic function is to communicate content between two or more people, which may take
place over the e-mail, telegraphy, as well as the radio.
In 1971, the e-mail function was introduced within the electronic environment of the Internet
(Tomlinson, 2011). The first interaction platform was established on 16 February 1978 as a
BBS (Gilbertson, 2010). In 1979, the technical principles of Usenet were presented with the
ideological basis for the BBS (Hauben, 1990). Usenet was introduced in the USA as an
alternative to APARNET. The first UNIX newsreader for Usenet (Lukosch/Schmmer, 2007,
pp. 283284), resembling the present RSS readers, allowed the users to mirror content and
store it centrally (Anderson, 1996). In Europe, the BBS continued developing alongside
Usenet. In 1988, integrating the Internet Relay Chat (IRC) ensured an increase in the range of
this service (Stenberg, 2011). The usability of IRC lies in the technical foundation of the
Internet and the TCP. Displaying content within the Internet via selectable WWW addresses,
individual formation of the content by HTML and the connections between content by
hyperlinks was presented by Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee at the Conseil Europen pour la
Recherche Nuclaire (CERN) on 6 August 1991 (Berners-Lee, 1991). The growth of the
WWW began as the first private Internet service providers enabled the technical access to the
Internet (Borders, 2009). One of these providers, the company Beverly Hills Internet, from
1995 onwards offered services under the name of GeoCities. This allowed users to publish
content on the Internet, in line with the WWW, and add their sites to a webring in which
individuals with a similar background or interests could be connected. In the case of
GeoCities, this approach was used to connect websites and their creators by local origin
(Altman/Bohnet, 1995). The next step was the establishing of sixdegress.com in 1997.
Travers/Milgram (1969, p. 425) have termed it the small world paradigm and in addition to
a standardised user profile, the network offered a new possibility to include other users as
friends in a buddy list (Lukosch/Schmmer, 2007, pp. 109114). The users were motivated
by the approach of presenting their connections to other people. For this purpose, the
approach by Travers/Milgram (1969, pp. 432440) was used. On the basis of the number of
16
links between groups of people, this method shows how the possible availability of each
person is calculated through the connection circles of another person and their friends and
their levels of friends. By using this method, the network laid the foundations of current social
networks, such as Facebook, especially concerning the representation of personal information
and market penetration (Boyd/Ellison, 2007). The project was terminated in 2001 (Prall,
2010). This period also includes the first social networks which were created on a Peer-to-
Peer (P2P) basis and placed on Internet technology. The most successful system of the time
was the Napster network. Its success became evident in 2001, as the Napster network was
used by 26.4 million users over the world (Lipsman, 2001). When sixdegress.com ceased to
exist, other functionally similar systems launched on the Internet. Friendster was the first to
appear on the Internet in 2002, followed by MySpace and Second Life in 2003. These
networks set the framework for many other Web 2.0 networks (Skloog, 2011).
As concerns social networks, some of them have become global players and are active in the
mass or niche markets. In addition to Facebook, the rapidly growing Twitter and Google+,
which has been connected with the social media platform YouTube since 2012, also belong to
the mentioned category. Other networks, which have established in the niche market, are such
sites as LinkedIn or FourSquare (4SQ). LinkedIn, which was established in 2003, has settled
in the international field of business networking with over 100 million users in 2011
(Rao, 2011). In 2004 the Xing network took hold in the German market Regarding GPS-based
social networks, the 4SQ network has currently established itself internationally with over 10
million users (FourSquare, 2011). In addition, there are local providers which have been able
to achieve a considerable popularity by a faster linguistic diversification. These include also
the network VKontakte, which originates from Russia. It has positioned itself in the range of
100 million users (VKontakte, 2012). Another network which belongs to this category is the
Chinese renren.com which has situated in the Asian region with 160 million users (Hille,
2011). Orkut.com has established in the South American region with 60 million users and 230
million visitors (DoubleClick, 2012). The German market is also differentiated further. Local
market leaders have developed to serve the needs of the different target groups in Germany.
In April 2011, the data on the German market showed that 40 million citizens of the Federal
Republic of Germany had been registered on social networks, particularly, people under the
age of 30. 96% of the people in this age group had registered in a social network (Bertsch,
2011). In addition, there is the provider Stayfriends.de which pursues a premium approach. In
July, 2011, Stayfriends.de had 12 million registered users (Stayfriends 1, 2011).
Stayfriends.de has been active in the German market since 2002, and in 2004 it was acquired
by classmates.com (Stayfriends 2, 2011; Stayfriends 2004). The network with the second
17
highest range in Germany is Wer-kennt-wen.de. The company, which was started in 2006,
(Wer-kennt-wen, 2007) and bought by the RTL group in 2009 (Siebenhaar, 2009), pursues the
approach of free use. In July 2011, the network wer-kennt-wen.de was one of the five best
available networks in Germany with 9.7 million users (Wer-kennt-wen, 2011). Due to the
availability of the media partner RTL, (Weigert, 2009) the network is able to establish
networking with one of the leading German websites in the field of television. The global
network leader, measured in the number of visitors and page views, in July 2011, was
Facebook with over 750 million registered users (Alexa, 2011). According to a Facebook
statistics report, 50% of the users log in on a daily basis. On average, a user has 130 friends,
and he spends over 700 billion minutes per month with them on the network (Facebook 1,
2011). Facebook was able to position itself in the market quickly, considering Gillin (2009, p.
119) who shows that the national market in the USA in 2007 was still differentiated with 72%
for MySpace 16% for Facebook. Facebook itself started to operate on the Internet in February
2004 (Facebook 2, 2011). From this time until September 2006 registration on Facebook was
only possible for students with an .edu email address. In November 2007 Facebook began to
offer the Facebook Pages service. In May 2008 the social site introduced the function of
Facebook Connect which enables the integration of internal functions in external websites via
an open ID approach. In February 2009, the Like it button was brought to life. It has
developed into one of the most used Facebook plug-ins. In August 2010 the offer Places was
expanded. Facebook Places allows the virtual logging on a local point together with Facebook
friends. In July 2011 the next release featured Facebook Questions (Facebookbiz, 2011). In
2011, over 20 million Internet users in Germany had registered on Facebook. The most
pronounced trend was observed in the core group of persons aged 13 to 44 with 17.2 million
registered users (Allfacebook, 2011). In addition to Facebook Pages, Facebook Ads offers
context-sensitive advertising which refers to the content communicated by a user. Content
communicated by a user can be shared with his friends using the Sponsored Stories function.
According to Yousif (2012, pp. 123127) Facebook is fundamentally moving towards the
integration of marketing messages within normal user communication, thus rendering
advertising material more valid and trusted. Furthermore, Facebook offers to combine
advertising with fan pages, applications and events (Facebook 3, 2011). As regards target
group selection, such demographic characteristics as age, gender, language, education and
relationship status are available. In addition, it is possible to use interests and preferences
indicated by the users. Furthermore, users can be selected according to the applications, pages
or events they have added.
18
In 2006, social networks, which have a constant and international range, was supplemented by
Twttr, today known as Twitter (Patel, 2011). Twitter acts as a micro-blogging platform that
allows the user to stay in contact with friends or other persons of interest. As concerns the
users, at the beginning of 2011 Twitter had 200 million registered users (Shiels, 2011). As key
measurement values in the German Twitter market, the number of tweets or active user
information from March 2011 is available. At the time, 16.7 million messages had been
posted by 480,000 active users. Active users in this case are those who have indicated German
as their language and have sent a message in the last 30 days (Pfeiffer, 2011). In this regard it
is noted that 25% of the user accounts are new. This may mean that Twitter is also subject to
strong fluctuations in its use, and certain groups are more active at certain times. Google+
could establish as an additional network. Google+ was launched in June 2011 as part of an
Invitation Rollout and reached 20 million users in the public beta phase (Musil, 2011). It was
officially presented in August 2011. In December 2011 it was integrated in the YouTube
network of Google, thus, connecting both these systems. The stored information on a
registered person can be made available on Google search. Contrary to Facebook, Google +
imposes dividing the persons with whom the user is in contact into separate groups instead of
a general friends list. Google offers the function +1 which is similar to the Facebook Like
it feature. Google uses this information in developing the Social Search of Google.
In addition, local providers have emerged alongside the global companies. Concerning
premium services, Xing is one of the most successful companies in the European market.
Xing in Germany pursues the same approach as LinkedIn offers to the English-speaking
customers. Open Business Club (Open BC) established in 2003, shortly after LinkedIn. In
order to grow in the Asian market, it changed its name in 2006. In January 2012, LinkedIn
clearly positioned itself ahead of Xing with 94 million users registered world-wide and 827
million page views per month (Quantcast, 2012). The network Xing has over 10.8 million
customers, 0.759 million of which are registered as premium customers (Xing, 2011). The
network is available in over 16 languages and in June 2011 it had more than 45,000 groups
which produced events and exchange. In addition, the company VZ Netzwerke offered a
service for the German-speaking audience which resembles the first version of Facebook. In
Germany the network was launched in October 2005 and was later expanded to MeinVZ and
SchlerVZ. The network was partly made available in other languages (Schmitz, 2007). At
the end of January 2009, the non-German version of the site was discontinued, as it was
unable to compete in the range against Facebook (Frickel, 2008). The company VZ
Netzwerke offers contextual advertising similarly to Facebook.
19
In general, all networks offer similar functions and content. Consequently, the question of the
reasons of use arises. Joinson (2008, p. 3) has identified the main reason for using social
network as the wish to stay in loose contact with other people. Exchanging pictures or
information is considered as a secondary characteristic of the network. It is further pointed out
that the background to the use of networks is not only networking, but also the gathering of
information on a person. As concerns user profile visits, Joinson (2008, pp. 45) indicates that
viewing photos is the main reason for interaction in the user group he has observed. Ewing
(2008, p. 577) has identified two main points regarding the activities within socialnetworks.
On the one hand, the number of existing users is important, as well as the number of users
who enliven the network with fresh content. In his literature review Ernst et al. (2010, p. 90)
indicate that human behaviour within using social networks is determined by influencing
factor, and the single motivation that prevails is meeting social norms. During his
investigation, Ernst et al., (2010, p. 91) have gathered information which indicates that people
use new technologies in order to become more effective in implementing personal or business
decisions. Zhou (2010, pp. 134135) sees social networks as similar to networks in the
society and has conducted a study in Shanghai to determine if the social status has an impact
on the adaptation (Zhou, 2010, pp. 136140). In the study, he arrives at the conclusion that
the cultural characteristics of a person dominate his social status (Zhou, 2010, pp. 140142)
and influences his patterns of social network use. Cha et al. (2009, pp. 14) consider the
personal interaction between friends and acquaintances to be the basis for networking in
social networks. He considers the development of purely digital communities to be secondary
in the interaction within social networks. It also becomes apparent that virtual connections are
only important if the people know each other already, or there is no interaction between the
two people in the real world. In this regard, sending birthday wishes is identified as a
metaphor, according to which the user distinguishes between active and former friendships. A
more abstract explanation is provided by Rheingold (2002, p. 35). He indicates that the
borders of a virtual group are clearly defined, the rules in the use of goods are matched to the
necessity of use, the rules and borders of a group can change quickly and easily, and a
monitoring within the community is performed by the help of various penalty schemes that
allow resolving conflicts quickly and easily.
A field which has developed alongside social networks is the blogosphere. Weblogs (blogs)
offer the traditional mode of blogging which focuses on the communication of rich content.
Communication takes place via blog systems which are supplied and run by companies. IAB
(2009, p. 4) defines blogs as a type of websites used by individuals, groups or business
entities to publish opinions and commentary on various topics. Content can be focused on
20
very narrow topics or can cover current events, popular themes, or even take a personal
shape. Weinberg (2010, p. 96) has investigated the topic of who reads and writes blogs
qualitative and introduced in this respect the following distinctive groups of bloggers. The
largest contribution to the blogosphere is made by hobbyists. With 64%, this group constitutes
the backbone of the blogosphere. The hobbyists are followed by freelancers and the self-
employed. This group is the second strongest with 22%. In addition, there are the part-time
bloggers. According to Weinberg, 13% of the blogosphere belongs to them. Blogs by
companies constitute just one percent of the blogosphere. Corporate bloggers usually write
about topics which concern the company and the corporate life. According to Scott (2007, p.
50), the blogosphere, from the perspective of a company, can be used for marketing. The
blogosphere follows a separate Codex. Scott (2007, pp. 204205) has tried to position this on
the basis of transparency, privacy, truthfulness of statements and credibility. Weinberg (2010,
pp. 120124) distinguishes various tools that can be used to follow blogs. These include not
only a direct access, but also access by an RSS reader, e-mail or newsletter. In this regard,
further methods, like the Blog-Parade/Blog-Carnival, as well as the Blog Meme are listed.
The Blog-Memes can be used by companies in order to enlarge their reach on the Internet. In
addition, Weinberg points out the further coverage extension by using Social News Sites and
bookmarking. This can contribute to increasing the coverage of search engines, if the users
visit the website of the medium and use it to reach the blog. An advertising market for the
blogosphere has established in both the USA and Germany. The IAB (2009, p. 4) has defined
separate forms of advertising which simplify advertising within blogs, as the data can be
quickly and easily incorporated into existing blog formats and designs. In terms of marketing
approaches, blogs offer the additional benefit of establishing and actively involving an
interactive information channel to the customers.
In general, the mentioned networks can be used to establish a stronger bond between the
customer and the company. Thus, it is necessary to gain more knowledge about the network,
as well as the way it is used by its users in order to successfully implement marketing
measures and product development. This requires learning more about the users of these
networks, so that it classifying company customers becomes possible This might take place
with the help of the customer relationship management model (CRM) and and market
segmentation.
1.3. approaches to market segmentation
The use of customer relationship management (CRM) in social networks can follow different
approaches (Lambert, 2009, p. 4). It should aim to create the most efficient network and
framework possible for each customer group. The framework measures and supports the
21
interests and preferences of the customers (Lambert, 2009, p. 9). There can be advantages and
disadvantages to using the CRM in order to increase customer loyalty towards a company
(Diller, 2000, p. 32). In order to learn more about your clients, it is important to know which
customers receive which products and how these customers interact. This might be based on a
market segmentation, with initially providing market segmentation fundamentals. A suitable
explanation has been proposed by Levitt (1960, pp. 4445): In business, the followers are the
customers. To produce these customers, the entire corporation must be viewed as a customer-
creating and customer satisfying organism. Management must think of itself not as producing
products but as providing customer-creating value satisfactions.
Markets have been segmented since products were differentiated from services
(Dickson/Ginter, 1987, pp. 15). Market segmentation will exist as long as providers use a
variety of channels and ways to reach their customers. In this regard, a company has to
distinguish between deliberately differentiated and undifferentiated marketing activities. The
advertising performed by the company needs to be in the form of a goal-driven marketing
strategy and based on the purposeful choice of a customer segment. Market segmentation
aims to define a market in understandable elements which are clearly different from other
markets in design. According to Dickson/Ginter (1987), this approach was expanded by
Michael Porter and Paul Samuelson who view product differentiation in an interplay of
physical product characteristics and the Marketing Mix. Here marketing demand is to be
understood as a combination of market segmentation and product differentiation. A segment-
based product development strategy can be implemented as an additional solution. The
strategy is aimed at an existing or evolving segment which can be reached via a demand curve
(Dickson/Ginter, 1987, pp. 78). In general, it is important for a company to achieve a large
and general equality to implement coordinated activities successfully and cost-effectively.
The selected marketing strategy, along with the philosophy of management and the market
analysis connected with it, is important and has to be considered in the marketing plan. This is
done by Freter (1983, pp. 1718) prior to the method of sales organisation, and in particular,
prior to the method of product differentiation, which serves the split submarket. This market
segment serves to differentiate the offer of a company. According to Freter, the segmentation
is a tool used to render a market transparent, a two-step process of dividing a mass market
into submarkets and the processing of a submarket or several submarkets. This allows
distributing the overall market into homogeneous groups of buyers or segments, as well as
dividing a market into homogeneous subgroups and customers, each of which can be viewed
as a target market which should be reached with a particular Marketing mix. Within the
Marketing mix (McCarthy, 1978, p. 36) differentiates the following uncontrollable variables
22
as factors influencing the company which constitute the Marketing mix: political and legal
environment, cultural and social environment, resources and objectives of firm, competitive
environment, economic environment. These basic factors form the ways how a company can
operate in the market. The 4-Ps by McCarthy (1978, p. 40) is a method which is tailored to
the expectations of the customers in order to ensure success for the company. One concern is
determining the market direction in which the company is moving. In this context Rosenberg
(2000, pp. 358359) indicates that, based on a literature review on the reasons for a
segmentation within markets, customers are mostly influence from internal, external or other
influences. He also points out that a customer segment which is segmented out from the
social aspects of a customer, which is influenced by environmental and health aspects. To
meet these distinctions, it helps the markets differentiate between demographic, psychological
and behavioural dimensions. This distinction can be performed for a company even on one of
the dimensions, taking into account which dimension of the business activity of the company
can be neglected. By focusing on a particular segment, the expectation of a positive response
can be increased. This is a significant influencing factor for the strategy of a company which
requires an explanation as to (Koch, 2006, p. 71) a sensible combination of market and
product. In this regard, the market segmentation is used (Freter, 1983, pp. 2022) to better
meet the needs of consumers in the selected segments by using market identification in
conjunction with the distinction of the relevant total market for a product. This results in a
division of heterogeneous total markets into homogeneous submarkets, by simultaneous
detection of neglected submarkets. In addition, the determination of market potential in the
submarkets allows a sound forecast of the market development which allows for a more
accurate derivation of market response functions. As concerns marketing development, the
market segmentation serves as the concretisation of both qualitative and quantitative
marketing objectives, while monitoring the achievement of goals and attainment of a
competitive advantage through customised problem solutions for the selected segments. The
socio-environmental criteria, according to Freter (1983, p. 49), can be referred to as classic
market segmentation criteria. These have become very important in the practice of describing
buyership. Here, McCarthy (1978, p .44) distinguishes three dimensions within a target
market. The first is the geographical position and the influence of the demographic factors as
a potential basis for a customer. These are expanded in the second dimension to peoples
personal needs and behaviours in the light of the availability of a potential product or service
which fits the requirements and behaviour of the consumer. The third dimension, according to
the author, is the necessity to satisfy current needs in the light of the expense of making and
comparing a purchase. McCarthy (1978, p. 146) goes on to simplify his customer model to the
23
activation by a stimulus which is understood by the customer as a black box which triggers
the responses required by the company. Here the marketing mix, along with other necessary
activations, makes sure that a person makes decision regarding the purchase or non-purchase
of a product or service. McCarthy (1978, p. 147) sees the environment as a factor which
influences the customer. The environment is made up of the culture, social class, the target
audience and the family and people surrounding the customer. Various factors and
characteristics which can influence a person and his environment have been identified in a
study by McCarthy (1978, p. 155):
Activities Interests Opinions Demographics
Work
Hobbies
Voluntary work
Holidays
Entertainment
Club or association membership
Society
Shopping
Sports
Family
Home
Work
Society
Clothes
Food
Media
Success
Recreation
Self-
understanding
Politics
Social influences
Economics
Education
Products
Future
Culture
Age
Training
Income
Profession
Family size
Residence
Place
Size of city
State in the life cycle
Table 3 Forms and influences of the life cycle (Source: McCarthy, 1978, p. 155)
These forms allow (Brassington/Pettitt, 2005, p. 84) building relevant clusters which are
accessible over different markets.
Group Social class Characteristics of the chairman of the budget
A Upper middle class Higher management, administration or experts
B Middle class Middle management, administration or experts
C1 Lower middle class Supervisors, office workers, junior managers, administrators,
experts
C2 Skilled working class Skilled and educated workers
D Working class Unskilled or semi-skilled workers
E At subsistence level Receivers of public safeguards, temporary workers
Table 4 Grouping: socio-economic (Source: Brassington/Pettitt, 2005, p. 84)
McCarthy (1978, p. 195) defines the proposition that a market consists of various submarkets
which correspond to a specific pattern and makes the market demarcated and definable
against the forms of other markets. In this instance the markets are similar to the markets
which one is surrounded by.
The basis of consumer behaviour is formed by the social behaviour of users, which is
important in understanding how the two phenomena interact and realising the basis on which
this interaction, as well as other behaviours are established. Armstrong/Kotler (2003, p. 23)
regard social marketing as a concept which results from an interaction of society and the
prosperity of the customers, as well as their drive satisfaction and the companies and their
pursuit of profit. Another point to be taken into consideration, according to Armstrong/Kotler
(2003, p. 79), is Forcing Shape in the Internet Age, which sees customisation and
24
customization, digitalisation and connectivity, new types of intermediaries, the explosion of
the Internet as the factors influencing the development of the Internet. This differentiation
can be seen in the approach of segmenting consumer markets (Armstrong/Kotler, 2003, pp.
242250) which pursues segmentation by geographic, demographic and behavioural data. In
this connection, Brassington/Pettitt (2005, p. 19) introduce the placement of the company
within the marketing activities in the light of technical and socio-cultural changes, influence
of econometrics and the competitors, as well as political or regulatory changes. Here the
customer is characterised as sensitive to current and future products, their price, availability
and information on them. The findings by Gupta et al. (2010, p. 518) show that binding the
subsequent buyer with a correlating bond within virtual world leads to higher sales. Weber
(2009, p. 25) maintains that the targeted brand development is possible only if the customers
are known and the appropriate channels of information can be controlled. The use of these
different approaches form the basis of marketing research which, according to Weis (1997,
pp. 9899), can be subdivided into market analysis and market forecast. The emphasis of
market research lies in the investigation of individual phases of the decision-making process
of a customer.
As concerns the online market, it is important for the market research to support the product
development to ensure that products and services are tailored to the customer needs. To assist
a person using an offer, thus helping future customers and making sure that products are
adapted to their needs, Usability Tests have established as a promising method for designing
products for a specific target audience. These tests are applied within product development in
order to determine, during quantitative tests, which functions, modes of representation and
types of support would be regarded as the most successful by the users. This takes place
against the background of the respective target group, user group or clientele (Krug, 2010, p.
19). In addition to personal awareness, the behaviour of customers is influenced by the
interpretation of mostly learned and conditioned emotions (Bossiazky, 1992, pp. 1820, 24,
150; Armstrong/Kotler, 2003, p. 193). These emotions can be activated in the context of
marketing (Bossiazky, 1992, p. 24). In order to comprehensibly research individuals and
groups, Bossiazky (1992, p. 150) considers that the influencing factors to be taken into
consideration in order to empirically define the market opportunities of a company are
segmentative positioning, the size of the market (revenue, market share), the distribution
structure, the competitors and media behaviour, changes in the demographic structure,
changes in the customer behaviour and the marketing strategy of the competitors.
Armstrong/Kotler (2003, p. 193) define similar factors which influence the customer
behaviour: Culture with particular subcultures or social classes, the personal environment
25
with ones own role, the family and its societal status, the person with appropriate age and life
cycle status, personality and economic possibilities and the psychology of motivation, study
skills, behaviours and intentions. Besides technical innovations, Brassington/Pettitt (2005, pp.
3539) take into consideration changes in regulation and the political environment, the socio-
cultural influences, as well as those by demography, culture, other customers and their
behaviour. Brassington/Pettitt (2005, p. 83) points out that purchasing decisions are
influenced by the group, which the person is a part of, and can be divided into essential and
non-essential purchases. When purchasing a product or service, a buyer pays attention to the
future development and reaction to his purchase. Brassington/Pettitt (2005, p. 89) sees
families or human personalities in different life cycles within a customers life which also
influence the purchase intention.
The various approaches reveal a general tendency of focusing on the society and the
customers. However, the analysis is always viewed in the context of its economic influence.
At this point, the use of independent models relating to social sciences should be introduced.
These models deal with a comprehensive ascertainment of the preference of a society. A
comprehensive basis for this is provided by the approach of social structure analysis with the
differentiation of a society into lifeworlds with distinctive milieus. This allows using
recurring groupings as a qualitative model for the analysis of a society. During the previous
century, the social structure analysis approach became established as a method for the
investigation of the society and political preferences, as well as for marketing and advertising
activities. As a very comprehensive approach, social structure analysis ensures that even
minute details are analysed and evaluated. As a very comprehensive approach, social structure
analysis ensures that even minute details are analysed and evaluated. As a result, it is possible
to select groups of people quickly and easily, and reduce the information overflow even in
times of increasing complexity. Another advantage for the selection of people and lifeworlds
lies in the possibility of a continuous and long-term adjustment of the selection to the current
changes in the society. In addition, the adjustments show general constants which can outlive
a lifeworld by generations. As a result, there is a flexibility not to be found in other types of
analysis. In addition, the lifeworld descriptions provide a basis for a diverse analysis of
societies, while preserving the same core characteristics.
This gives the models a flexibility of application and the possibility to be transferred. Over the
last few decades the flexibility of these models has been proven many times, which is partly
related to the renewing and adapting of the models to the political and economic environment
of the particular time period.

26
1.4. milieus and social structure analyses
Sociology provides a framework which helps better understand and predict the behaviour of
groups and communities. As a science, sociology clearly understands social action and
thereby aims to explain the cause and effects of its flow (Weber, 1984, p. 19). The science of
sociology defines the various general types of social action, its customs and observes the
social behaviour between people, focusing on regularities and fateful individual associations
(Weber, 1984, pp. 5154). The concepts communitisation and socialisation, which describe
social relationships and togetherness, are based on this approach (Weber, 1984, p. 69).
In addition to the behaviours observed sociologically, psychology, especially group
psychology, is of additional importance. In this context, Freud (1967, p. 7) introduces the herd
instinct and groupthinking. In this environment, ideas or actions, which may be caused by a
single source, transform into group behaviour and are conveyed and outwardly reflected
within the group and the community. In order to remain a part of the group, its members voice
the opinion of the group and its leadership. This is necessary not only to remain a part of the
group, but for the group to exist. In addition to the formation of groups and the leading of a
group by a leader, Freud (1967, pp. 3958) presents the formation of groups through
identification of individuals with existing or acceptable forms. In this context, there are also
forms of deep interaction which can cause aggression or, on the contrary, acceptance. As part
of the basis of behavioural or social biology, the following statement by Lorenz (1986, p. 59)
can be applied: any change that offers the organism a new way of coping with its new
environment means nothing more and nothing less than the mere fact that new information
about this environment has entered the organic system. In this connection, Lorenz (1986, pp.
6970) defines the conceptual thinking and verbal language as the bond which connects
individuals. Here, Lorenz intellectually agrees with the behaviours of the individual,
previously described by Freud. Furthermore, Lorenz (1986, p. 172) observes that this could be
a genetically programmed behavioural norm according to which one tries to surpass another
in an activity that one is good at. Analogous behavioural patterns are displayed even by higher
animals. These statements are supported by Hradil (1981, p. 9) who maintains that humans
have biological differences and peculiarities relating to individual circumstances,
backgrounds and the social environment and social indicators. This definition is a very
advanced description of the distinction between humans, which is also known as social
inequality. The basis for this is provided by Aristotle, Stoicism and Scholasticism, and Karl
Marx (Hradil, 1981, pp. 7074). This context allows introducing the concept by Durkheim
(1984, p. 93) who, at the end of the 19th century, investigated the approaches of milieus,
habitus and the changes associated with them. He suggested the idea that individuals come
27
together in groups to find an individual consciousness. This is achieved on the basis of the
common interest of the society for differentiation (Durkheim, 1984, p. 105) which
corresponds to a division of society into classes. An approach suggested by Karl Marx in his
work Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen konomie (Capital: Critique of Political Economy)
and established on the dominant nature of cooperation within the society, relates to the above
mentioned: a spontaneous cooperation which is established in pursuit of private purposes and
without a plan [..] a planned cooperation, the establishment of recognised purposes of public
interest (Durkheim, 1984, p. 120). Bottomore (1967, pp. 1718) suggests in this regard that
Karl Marx was not able to fully solve the issue of social classes, and his systematic
presentation of class theories was unsuccessful, as a complete representation of this
phenomenon does not exist. On the basis of the findings of Durkheim,(Geiger (1932, p. 12)
suggests that neither layers, nor classes are of calculable size and abstract nature. They are
usually detected and statistically evaluated on the basis of psychological traits and attitudes.
He was the first who devised a theoretical framework for the social structure of the German-
speaking world, which could be used for any country similar to Germany (Geiger, 1932, p.
24). He distinguishes in his crude outline the capitalistic, the middle and the proletarian
layers. In his deeper subdivision, he assigns the capitalists to the capitalistic layer. The middle
layer is comprised of the medium and small business, as well as wage and salary earners with
a higher qualification and the proletarian layer consists of the day workers and wage and
salary earners of inferior qualifications. The different lifeworlds of these groups or milieus
within the society are further defined by Geiger (1932, pp. 3072). Giddens (1984, pp. 246
251) uses a similar approach to describe the Great Britain of the 1950s. He shows the society
and the working class as influenced by capitalism, focused on skilled craft activities and
points to executive functions which can be present also in the technically oriented milieus. In
his study he confirms the removal of the class model and the diversification, especially within
the middle class, in connection with the decline of the petty bourgeoisie and the old classes
(Giddens, 1984, pp. 219221). The economic changes of industrialisation towards the
creation of industrial capitalism by a technical revolution (Geiler, 2006, pp. 2226) led to a
shift in the class society. At this point the author arrives at a combination of professional and
social affiliation with regard to social positioning, belonging and lifestyles. Henningsen
(1974, pp. 7678) shares his observation of the difference in the development of the USA and
Europe, since America has historically pushed away a contemporary and promising, but
constantly underdeveloped social field which also leads to heavy social discrimination, at the
same time suggesting opportunity.
28
The next step took place in the 1970s when the society of France was studied by Pierre
Bourdieu who established very extensive foundations for the field. According to Bourdieu
(1985, p. 11), the social field can be described as a multi-dimensional space of positions.
(Bourdieu, 1982, p. 143) shows that the characteristics of an individuals taste are
characterised first by the cultural capital and, second, by the capital inherited from the parents.
These characteristics are revealed in the individual representation of different milieus and the
respective occupational groups (Bourdieu, 1982, pp. 159210). Bourdieu (1982, p. 175) states
in this respect that [(habitus) * (capital) + field = praxis] defines different lifestyles which
(Bourdieu, 1982, pp. 176182) can be in a high correlation or abundance within a stratum of
the society. In researching a society, it is important to observe the later shown homology of
the various living environments (Bourdieu, 1982, pp. 277286) and the associated
differentiation by identification and establishing of preferences. In addition to the capital, the
concept of basic orientation should be mentioned. Basic orientation influences the actions and
habitus of individuals.
To represent the dependencies in the living space, Bourdieu uses the dependencies between
cultural and economic capital which can be marked as positive or negative for an individual
(Bourdieu, 1982, p. 414). The author puts them, in the context of existing vocational classes
(Bourdieu, 1982, p. 708). In this respect Bourdieu (1990, p. 185) introduces the cultural
capital with its internalised, incorporated character, in an objectified or institutionalised state.
He goes on to explain the social capital (Bourdieu, 1980, p. 205; Bourdieu, 1982, pp. 190
195) and the level of capital transformation in the society (Bourdieu, 1982, pp. 195198)
where (Bourdieu, 1982, pp. 195209) the different lifeworlds show which of them can be
trained and developed by the habitus of a person. In this regard, Wei (2004, p. 211) points
out that the considered types and forms of capital arose in 1970s France. Nevertheless,
Bourdieu sets the foundation which, in its base form, was used by Dudenhffer/Meyen (2011,
pp. 1719) to define such new milieus, in the context of Internet use, as the surfer, networker,
fan, outsider, pragmatist, guest or worker which differs in their social and cultural capital and
for which the Internet has a different meaning. The focus of the present study is on pure
Internet use without considering social networks separately. More specifically, Internet users
are viewed as special type of people. A data collection or a survey of specific features has not
been performed. A study which tends to follow this direction is the attempt to transfer
Bourdieus method to players, which is seen as a secondary approach (Haferkamp/Herbes,
2012, pp. 208212). The possibility of using real money in the game sets the user apart from
others (Haferkamp/Herbes, 2012, pp. 210212), thus increasing his status. Fundamentally, the
players have not been considered holistically or differentiated into lifeworlds. The previous
29
studies suggest that structural analysis should allow (randomly) obtaining a general
population of social network users. Afterwards, the obtained general population can be used
to select and analyse lifeworlds. The analysis is performed on the basis of the existing
lifeworld model. Over the recent decades, the social situation of the described position has
been taken into consideration. In this case, the respective capital and basic orientation
requirements are considered over time. This is done so to be able to obtain preferences from
the qualitative descriptions more consistently.
The approach of social position developed as part of the discussion about Bourdieu. This
approach allows inferring the milieus of the individual. Wei (2004, pp. 214219) focuses on
the significance of the social position of a person which acts at a distance from social classes
and allows a higher permeability. This also allows the fine demarcations which Bourdieu
describes by his axis model; admittedly, he views the whole system as not very rigid. These
different approaches offer to observe and differentiate the social structure of a system. A
population can be examined using various approaches. The term population comprises the
people who have inhabited a particular area for a long period of time (Hradil, 2006, p. 37).
Geiler (2006, p. 41) defines this in more detail, in that he includes under the term population
the number of residents inhabiting a politically demarcated territory. They are one of the
fundamental elements of any society and their structure and development are closely
interrelated with other parts of the social structure. These various approaches act as a basis for
social structure analysis which conceptually permits social groups in other countries, such as
the USA (Armstrong/Kotler, 2003, pp. 196214) or Great Britain (Giddens, 1984, pp. 219
221, pp. 246251; Lichy, 2011, pp. 470475).
Subsequently, Hradil (1987, p. 14), who focuses on social layers, social inequality and social
milieus, developed a social structure analysis in Germany. According to Hradil (1987, p. 14),
Social structure concepts generally refer to societal structures. This distinguishes the social
structure from social structures. The social structure analysis corresponds to a sociological
survey of the society. Ltsch/Meyer (1993, p. 272) state in this respect that the social
structure is not only a vehicle of intensification, but the basic processes of its development are
influenced by the consistent transition from extensive to intensive advancement strategies and
developments. In essential points, these include also the stabilisation of social structures in the
quantitative proportions formed previously. Schfers (1995, pp. 12) has arrived at the
following definition of the social structure: the basic elements of the social structure are: the
entirety of the social relationship patterns and regulatory system in the central areas of action
for the society, as well as the systems and the investigation of the distribution of the socially
important resources, the arising class and layer stratification. The social structure analysis
30
dissects the society in its relevant elements and subareas and investigates the interrelation
and interdependence (Geiler, 2006, p. 13). In the social structure, the belonging to certain
classes, as well as the rank of that class primarily depend on economic factors: on the rank in
the production process, the property and income. The primary, economically determined class
position significantly influences the life chances of the people (Geiler, 2006, p. 24). Geiler
(2006, pp. 9394) splits the definitions of classes and layer concepts into three ideas. He
distinguishes the notion of class or social position, which can be characterised by one or more
defining features, from the position of the production means, property or the income level or
occupation and qualification.
The foundations are analysed in the context of social stratification and group formation within
a society. In this context, analyses can be focused on a sub-area of the society. For example, ,
p. 41) shows that a higher education in this case inevitably leads to a more important role in
the society. In this case, the children in a family usually obtain the educational level of the
parents. Giddens (1984, pp. 222223) shows a similar tendency. Bertram (1990, pp. 638641)
indicates an improvement in the level of education which contributes to an equality of
opportunity within the society. In addition, specific aspects can be considered to investigate
certain layers or groupings of the society. Hradil (1981, pp. 1524) describes particular types
of stratification, focusing on the preservation of power where wealth and possession (Hradil,
1981, pp. 2530) play a fundamental role. In principle, the author also restores the importance
of a milieu or a layer of society for the respective prestige or status and their preferences
(Hradil, 1981, pp. 5759), which may become evident in the characteristics (Hradil, 1981, pp.
5961). As a result, four criteria (Hradil, 1981, p. 11) are important for the position in a
society. First, the degree of freedom of action of a human being and the associated social
power. Second, the material wealth. Third, the knowledge and the formation of a person and
four, the reputation of the member of the society. Hradil (1987, p. 128) also shows an
orientation of values through life goals, material values, post-material values and notions of
happiness. Everyday awareness through work and leisure motives, attitudes to the family and
relationships, life styles and visions of the future. As well as the social status determined by
education, occupation and income. These characteristics are combined by Hradil (1987, pp.
158160) in milieus, the objective groups within social layers which have the same
opportunities to act, living conditions and life goals. The results also show that the social
position is easier to determine, as they can be described more variably. In general, however,
one always has to consider an objective representation, and that the boundaries cannot always
be distinguished objectively. Hradil (1990, p. 109) has further investigated different forms of
socialisation, e.g. in comparison with persons of a lower class, middle class, in the context of
31
such determinants as value retention, family structure, parenting style, parenting technique,
style of speech, environmental relationships or the childs personality for the society. The
basis of ones personality and mentality is formed by the respective habitus which is formed
by the society (Vester et al., 1993, p. 190).
According to Bourdieu (1980, p. 183), the society consists of accumulations which can only
be represented by short-lived and mechanical states of equilibrium. The concepts used have to
be adequate in describing the states. Schulze (1992, pp. 176197) supports this approach of
stipulating and choosing relationships on the basis of the character and shape, identification in
connection with the necessary evidence and significance, against the background of the
mobile habitus in order to take part in a milieu in the context of continuous change within the
society. The term social milieus is used to structure groups within a society and the social
structure. The term social milieu (Becker et al., 1992, p. 80) combines groups of people who
are similar in terms of their outlook on life and life style. Consequently, the group has the
same lifeworld (Hradil, 2006, pp. 87125). Becker et al. (1992, p. 79) indicate in this regard
that people with similar fundamental beliefs and life styles build groups and can be described
in a standardised way. The term social milieu (Hradil, 2006, pp. 278284) denotes a
grouping of people who have a similar mentality and often a common factual context (i.e.
region, district or professional life). Therefore, their values, goals, life purposes, principles of
living and relations to fellow human beings are largely consistent. Those who belong to the
same social milieu, interpret and shape their environment in a similar way and, thus, differing
from those who belong to different social milieus.
In the course of time, different ways of describing lifeworlds, milieus and social positions
have established. To a certain degree, the structure of social milieus depends on the layer
structure of the country which is analysed, with specific milieus for different layers. Schulze
(1992, p. 158) has defined his own, everyday aesthetic scheme with which the population can
be defined according to three dimensions: the high culture scheme, the commonplace schema
(i.e. schema emphasising beauty in the commonplace) and the excitement schema (Schulze,
1992, p. 163). The schemes allow more preferences and objectives, which permit conclusions
about motivating factors (Schulze, 1992, p. 165). Schulze (1992, pp. 237239) specifies the
existential points of view in normal existential problem definitions with the prevailing efforts
of a person and the primary perspective from which the efforts should be considered.
Furthermore, in the light of a survey, Schulze (1992, pp. 332333) derives his milieu
definitions with characteristics of the study variables which show a focus or neglect of certain
indicators. Geiler (1992, p. 61) places classes and social positions in the foreground. A
population can be divided into different groups which are situated in different social positions
32
or social circumstances. Social positions and layers may be identified by one or more of the
following particulars: the position of the means of production, by similar property or income
levels, by similar professions or qualifications. Here he focuses on the concept of social
inequality. Vester et al. (1993, p. 36) point out that certain milieus in Germany first developed
in the modern times and lifeworlds have constantly evolved and adjusted to the zeitgeist
(spirit of the times). In defining the milieus, Vester et al. (1993, p. 72) refer to community
formation, defined as the basisc feature of milieus by Durkheim, that can take the form of
kinship, friendship, neighbourship, association, parish or even a far-reaching sociality.
According to Vester et al. (1993, pp. 7478), persons define themselves in social ranks and
life chances and thus show the mentality and attitude that a person may possess. In this
respect, milieus are formed through struggle and demarcation. The social structure can be
derived from the milieu and the mentality. This leads to differences (Vester et al., 1993, p.
135) in the area of the habitus, the social movement milieus (Bewegungsmilieu) and the
milieu biographies. Groups should, however, still be divided into modernised, partly
modernised or the traditionally operating groups (Vester et al., 1993, p. 204). Vester et al.
(1993, pp. 211213) add that the manifestations in a difficult/distinctive, aspiring/pretentious
or necessary/modest stratification and differentiation in self-realising/idealistic,
balanced/idealistic or restrictive/conventionalist is possible given the area of mentalities in the
social movement milieus. Everyday aesthetic schemes can become distinct after the
experience-orientation of a milieu (Flaig et al., 1994, p. 47). Flaig et al. (1994, pp. 109; 124)
show similar characteristics of the descriptions of lifeworlds, in the context of the living
motives as those described by Bourdieu. In addition, Geiler (2006, p. 113) shows the AGIS
milieu which acts to differentiate authoritarian, hierarchically-bound, independent and avant-
garde behaviour and distinguish between the habitus of cachet, achieving success, aspiration
and necessity.
1.4.1. lifeworld development
Aspects relating to lifeworlds are defined on the basis of social structure analysis and milieu
differentiation. Geiler (2006, pp. 106108) defines lifeworld as a stable, regular, recurring
pattern of everyday life with an emphasis on leisure and consumption. The lifeworld can have
an impact on family life, tastes, as well as work and cultural interests. The definition formed
by Geiler at that time was based on research findings calculated using cluster analysis
(n=2,000). In addition to self-representation and the relationship to family and culture, the
belonging to a certain milieu is related to age and status (Geiler, 2006, pp. 109112).
The most common form of defining the strata and the social environment of a society (Flaig et
al., 1994, p. 55) is the SINUS representation. Since its introduction, the SINUS representation
33
and the use of lifeworlds have become standard in sociological research carried out in
Germany. As the results of subsequently performed studies take the form of freely accessible
scientific models, this representation is also known as SIGMA milieus which contain similar
or identical lifeworlds and lifeworld descriptions. Hereafter only sources containing
information on SINUS milieus will be used. A secondary comparison with the SIGMA
milieus has been performed. Due to the comprehensive data available for the SINUS milieus,
an additional comparison has not been performed even in the light of an updated version of
SINUS milieus.

Figure 6 Milieus in Germany 1987 (Source: Hradil, 1987, p. 131)
The basis for the frequently used SINUS-milieus (Schulze, 1992, p. 391) was set by Hradil
(1987, p. 131). It contains and broadens the approach by Bourdieu (Vester et al., 1993, pp.
4041). In these milieus, the approach by Hradil (1987, pp. 158160) is also considered. It
states that the social position is better suited for determination, as it can be described more
variably. The basics by Hradil (1987, pp. 128131), which form the fundamentals for the
subsequent SINUS milieus, are available without charge. The graphical representation of the
milieus which is still used today was introduced by Hradil (1987, pp. 131) as well. Vester et
al. (1993, p. 195) point out that the SINUS milieu (Flaig et al., 1994, p. 59) is not defined by
socio-economic characteristics, but by criteria relating to life style and value orientation.
Hradil (1987, p. 129) describes the Upper Conservative Milieu which is characterised by a
pronounced ethos for privacy and family. This milieu is characterised by an emphasis on
social engagement, humanism, faith, commitment, social responsibility and an aspiration for
Upper class


Upper
middle
class

Mid-level
middle
class


Lower
middle
class

Capital
Fundamental
orientation Traditional orientation Post-materialist
New orientation
Materialism + anomie
Materialism, to
have
Consumer
hedonism
Upper Conservative
Mileu 9%
Petite Bourgeois Milieu
26%
Social Climber Milieu
24%
Traditional Working-
class Milieu 9%
Traditionless Working-
class Milieu 10%
Technocratic Liberal Milieu 10%
Alternative
Milieu 3%
Hedonistic
Milieu 9%
34
harmony. Characterised by ethical self-understanding, it stands for self-realisation in a
persons profession and focuses on success and prestige. Regarding everyday life, this milieu
expresses complaints about moral decay, detachment, value loss and attaches importance to
an orderly family life, service and individuality. A persons social status is determined by a
high income, material success and a high level of education. Hradil (1987, p. 129) introduces
the Petite Bourgeois Milieu, which is subordinate to the Upper Conservative Milieu. The
Petite Bourgeois Milieu is characterised by conventionalism and harmony in the family. It
attempts to reach material security and the status associated with it; it is done in order to
achieve and maintain prestige. This milieu comprises the traditional values of
authoritarianism: reverence, order and cleanliness, as well as frugality and determination. The
everyday consciousness of this milieu is marked by the sense of purpose in a persons life.
The people forming this milieu belong to the low-to-middle income group. The Petite
Bourgeois Milieu is followed by the Traditional Working-class Milieu (Hradil, 1987, p. 129)
which is characterised by an emphasis on values. The aims of this milieu, namely, security in
old age, as well as in the workplace, are achieved in the light of a pragmatically resigned
acceptance of a persons social position, the pursuit of justice and human dignity in the
workplace. The Traditional Working-class Milieu is characterised by solidarity, sociability,
mutual aid, realistic thinking, frugality and industry. Situated between the Traditional
Working-class Milieu and the Hedonistic Milieu lies theTraditionless Working-class Milieu
(Hradil, 1987, p. 130), which is characterised by a sense of the futility of power, norms and
meaning. The sense of deracination is associated with the breakup of norms and values, as
well as the loss of the traditional working-class culture. The everyday consciousness of this
milieu involves a lack of cohesion, a continuous dissatisfaction and an emphasis on
consumption, money and materialism. The interaction is characterised by openness and
directness, as well as a dominance of physical activities during work and leisure time. The
social status of the Traditionless Working-class Milieu is rather low and it consistslargly of
the unemployed. At a similar or usually higher income level and a stronger basic orientation
lies the Hedonistic Milieu (Hradil, 1987, pp. 130131). This milieu is marked by a
disorientation of values and mind, it focuses on humanity and values criticising the
civilisation. The values of self-realisation, the pursuit of freedom, independence, creativity, as
well as a tendency towards consumption, luxury and prestige can be observed. Work is seen
as a necessary evil and there is a legitimate suffering in the workplace and about work in
general. As concerns the social status of the individuals constituting this milieu, young people
with small to medium income prevail. From the point of view of the capital, the Alternative
Milieu, focusing on intangible values, self-expression and creativity (Hradil, 1987, p. 131), is
35
superior to the Hedonistic Milieu. The Alternative Milieu is characterised by simplicity and
genuineness, as well as acceptance of the criticism of civilisation, and the pursuit of freedom
and justice. Political and social engagement are self-evident. The everyday consciousness of
the Alternative Milieuinvolves a leftist political persuasion. As regards the social status of this
milieu, the level of education is high, the milieu includes many pupils and students, and there
is an equal number of people with a high and low income levels. This milieu is juxtaposed to
the Technocratic Liberal Milieu (Hradil, 1987, p. 130), which is determined by the orientation
of values towards professional performance, success and self-realization, tolerance,
liberalism, objectivity, reason, progressive thought and new humanity. The everyday
consciousness of this milieu is achievement-oriented, with a focus on optimism about the
future, a functioning family life and the pursuit of social prestige. As concerns the social
status, most of the people constituting this milieu are employees, civil servants and self-
employed. This milieu is subordinate to the Social Climber Milieu (Hradil, 1987, p. 131) with
a value orientation towards material security, advancement, prestige, success, social
adaptation and professional performance. The everyday consciousness of this milieu is based
on an intact family, or the appearance of such, matching status symbols, a versatile
consciousness and a conventional, but not necessarily conservative approach to life. As
regards the social status, the people belonging to this milieu are skilled workers and
employees usually with a secondary school certificate or a higher educational qualification.
Most of the women in this milieu are employed.
This fundamental definition has been used to develop the SINUS Milieu, which has
maintained a qualitative description of milieus. The milieus are periodically adjusted and
updated to match the current society. A similar division of the society can be observed in the
SINUS milieus of 2000, based on the eastern and western German Federal States (Geiler,
2002, pp. 130133). In this version, the field distributions have been adjusted, and the names
of the milieus have been adapted to the time period. The differentiation follows the theoretical
approach; however, four new key areas of milieu differentiation are provided (Geiler, 2002,
p. 131). First of all, there is a section of Social Leading Milieus. One of the milieus belonging
to this section is the Established Milieu which, it is assumed, originates from the Conservative
Technocratic Milieu. The Established Milieu comprises a success-oriented consumer elite
with distinct requirements for exclusivity. The associated Intellectual Milieu supports the
enlightened post-material and avant-garde values characteristic for the society of the time.
This section includes also the Post-modern Milieu, which is juxtaposed to the individual,
multi-optional avant-garde lifestyle. In addition to this section, the traditional mainstream has
established itself with the Traditional Bourgeois Milieu, which formerly corresponded to the
36
Petty Bourgeois Milieu, and a security and status-oriented generation that adheres to
traditional values.

Figure 7 SINUS-Milieus in Western Germany 2000 (Source: Geiler, 2002, p. 131)
In addition, the Traditional Working-class Milieu is incorporated with one of the working-
class cultures oriented towards the necessities of life with local pubs, small breeders and
shooting clubs. In addition, the modern mainstream, which contains the Adaptive, the Status-
oriented and the Modern Bourgeois Milieus, is defined. The Adaptive Milieu comprises the
well-trained, mobile and pragmatic mainstream of the modern and young middle class. The
Status-oriented Milieu includes professionally and socially distinguished people of the lower
middle class, while the Modern Bourgeois Milieu comprises the conventional newmiddle
classwho yearn for secure, harmonious and sheltered conditions. Finally, the modern lower
class is introduced with its Consumer-materialist Milieu and the Hedonistic Milieu which
keeps to materialistic values and the wish to have fun. As concerns the hedonistic views, a
denial of a meritocratic society can be observed. The version of 2002 with altered milieu sizes
(Hohn, 2008, pp. 103104) was followed by a further development of SINUS milieu in 2005
(Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, p. 11; Joas, 2007, pp. 252253; Andrews/Eitmann, 2008, p. 275).
(Geiler, 2006, pp. 109112) describes the division of the society in leading milieus with the
Social Leading Milieu of the Established, the Modern Performer or the Post-modern Society,
as well as the conservative, tradition-entrenched, GDR-nostalgic leading milieu of the
traditional mainstream. As the third, the Mainstream Leading Milieu is defined with its
Bourgeois Middle Class and Consumer-materialist layer. Finally, the Hedonistic Milieu with
Social layer
Upper class

Upper
middle class

Middle class


Lower
middle class


Lower class
Conservative
-to keep-
Basic
orientation Status/possessi
on-to have-
Consumption
-to use-
Hedonism
-to indulge-
Post-material -
to be-
Post-material -
to experience-
Traditional Working-
class Milieu 4%
Traditional
Bourgeois
Milieu 14%
Status-oriented
Milieu 18%
Consumer-
materialist
Milieu 11%
The Established
Milieu 10%
Intellectual Milieu 10%
Modern
Bourgeois
Milieu 8%
Adaptive Milieu
8%
Post-modern
Milieu 6%
Hedonistic
Milieu 11%
37
experimental or hedonistic characteristics is introduced. In this case, the definition of 2005
follows the approach of 2000.

Figure 8 SINUS-Milieus 2005 (Source: Hradil, 2006, p. 279; Geiler, 2006, p. 111)
The Conservative Milieu represents the old German educated classes (Hradil, 2006, p 280;
Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, pp. 1419). In addition to the already mentioned information, this
milieu emphasises the boundaries and acts as an opposite to technological progress. An
interest in politics, society and the economy can be observed. The importance of intangible
values, reflected in the interest in art, culture, such as museums, theatre and opera
performances, is also stressed. Many of the representatives of this milieu are over 60, have
one academic degree and greater assets and live in a 2-person household. The Established
Milieu consists of educated, well-off and self-confident people requiring exclusivity and
professional success (Hradil, 2006, p. 280; Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, pp. 2025). The people
belonging to this milieu are characterised by flexibility, interest in art, culture, travelling, are
mostly married live in 3 to 5-person households and are middle-aged. Discussions among the
representatives of this milieu are aimed at politics, as well as the economy; the level of
education is above average. As regards the occupational status, this milieu consists of
employees, civil servants, entrepreneurs or freelancers. Almost next to this milieu, the Post-
material Milieu consisting of highly-educated, cosmopolitan and tolerant people was formed
(Hradil, 2006, p. 280; Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, pp. 2632). The people belonging to it are
critical about technology and globalisation, they are interested in art, literature and culture.
Upper class /
Upper middle
class


Mid-level
middle class



Lower middle
class/lower
class
Social layer
Basic
orientation
Traditional values
Performing duties, Order
New orientation
Multi-optionality,
eagerness to
experiment, living in
paradoxes

Modernising
Individualisation, self-fulfilment,
enjoyment
Responsibility-driven Individuals
10%
Consumer-materialists 10%
Hedonists 11%
Traditionalists 14%
Post-material Skeptics
10%
Experimentalists 8%
Conser
vative
5%
The
GDR-
nostalg
ic 6%
Mod
ern
Perf
orm
ers
9%
The Middle Class 16%
38
There is a high level of environmental and health awareness, as well as an interest in creative
and intellectual experiences. All age groups and households are represented in this study
(Hradil, 2006, p. 280; Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, pp. 2632). More than half of the representatives
have higher or the highest education, as well as a high level of income. Managerial or other
highly qualified positions are often regular. There are also pupils, students and freelancers.
Situated next to this group, with a strong fundamental orientation towards openness lies the
Milieu of the Modern Performer. The milieu of the Modern Performer consists of young
success-oriented, highly educated people who act against conventions, live an intense life,
strive for independence and a multiculti type of life (Hradil, 2006, p. 281; Allgayer/Kalka,
2007, pp. 3339). New technologies, sports and activities outside ones home are enjoyed
extensively and passionately. The milieu comprises mostly pupils, students, freelancers and
the self-employed from well-off families. The newly emerging Milieu of Nostalgic GDR
Citizens, which, based on a separate survey, comprises 2000 people (Geiler, 2002, p. 133)
who see the reunification of the Republic of Germany as negative (Hradil, 2006, p. 281;
Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, pp. 6167). It is characterised by a support towards socialism and the
resulting pursuit of justice and solidarity. The purpose in life is marked by an interest in local
politics, working in associations, renovation and DIY (do it yourself). Money is provided by
governmental subsidies for the bare essentials. More than half of the people are over 50, have
simple occupations, secondary education and an above-average income level. A milieu
situated next to this one is that of the Middle Class (Hradil, 2006, p. 281; Allgayer/Kalka,
2007, pp. 7581). It pursues the aim to live in harmony and security, and to spend time with
like-minded people. Professional success, secure circumstances and a position in the society
are important factors in light of the fear of social exclusion. The members of this milieu
usually live in a household with three or more persons, are middle-aged and tend to be
flexible and realistic. Both the income and the educational qualifications are at a medium
level. As regards the occupations, there is a predominance of employees, officers and skilled
workers. Subordinate to the Milieu of the Middle Class lies the Milieu of the Traditionalists
consisting mostly of people aged 65 and above, who enjoy order and safety (Hradil, 2006, p.
282; Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, pp. 5460). Such values as discipline and morale are highly
regarded. There is a clear predominance of women. This milieu largely consists of primary
school children, pensioners, the retired and young workers. The level of income is low. The
fundamental orientation corresponds to that of the Consumer-materialist Milieu (Hradil, 2006,
p. 282; Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, pp. 6874). Life is viewed from the present moment.
Insufficient opportunities are usually attributed to a lack of education. A significant
proportion of the representatives of this milieu are unemployed or have a low income. The
39
behaviour, as well as the pursuit of entertainment and fun are important in this milieu. This is
quite similar to the Hedonistic Milieu. As concerns the hedonists, they are characterised by a
love for fun and entertainment of the lower and middle layer (Hradil, 2006, pp. 282283;
Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, pp. 4753). Members of this milieu do not want to develop philistine
attitudes. Future planning is taboo, and the media, as well as events and goods are used
constantly. The people belonging to this milieu are mostly below 45 and have simple and
average educational qualifications. Many of the people belonging to this milieu have no
income or finished vocational training. Workers, students and trainees dominate the milieu. A
milieu considered superior to this one is the Milieu of the Experimentalists (Hradil, 2006, p.
281; Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, pp. 4046). The members of this milieu are characterised by a
love of life, other cultures and scenes. There are no constraints in life which leads to
patchwork biographies. An intensive use of the new media and an above-average interest in
music, art, culture, films and books can be observed. The larger part of the mostly young
singles has a job or is self-employed. Income is provided by wealthy parents.
In a detailed description of the Social Leading Milieus it becomes evident that the intellectual
milieu of 2000 (Geiler, 2002, p. 131) and the Post-material Milieu of 2005 (Hradil, 2006, p.
280; Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, pp. 2632) are similar. The same can be said about the Post-
modern Milieu and the Milieu of the Modern Performer. The Conservative Milieu shows
similarities with the Conservative Milieu of 1987 (Hradil, 1987, p. 129). The Traditionalist
Milieu corresponds to the description of the Traditional, Bourgeois and Traditional Working-
class Milieu of 2000 (Geiler, 2002, p. 131) or the Petite Bourgeois Milieu and the
Traditional Milieu of 1987 (Hradil, 1987, p. 129). The Bourgeois Milieu corresponds in a
detailed description to the modern bourgeois milieu of 2000 (Geiler, 2002, p. 131) which is
similar in its pursuit of safety and establishment to the Social Climber Milieu of 1987 (Hradil,
1987, p. 131). The description of the consumer-materialists corresponds to that of 2000
(Geiler, 2002, p. 131), which also applies for the hedonistic views. To sum up, the described
milieus of 19872005 demonstrate a relative conclusiveness in the description of the milieus,
which differ in size and subtle nuances. In addition, these developments are also evident in the
versions of 2006 (Fritz/Oelsnitz, 2006, pp. 7577), 2007 (Stolpmann, 2007, p. 167; Walczak,
2008, pp. 610; Willems, 2008, pp. 313317; Golonka, 2009, S. 54) and 2008 (Emrich, 2009,
p. 78) which differ only in the size of the smaller milieus. Geiler (2006, p. 106) also shows
the lifestyle and the sociocultural differentiation approaches of the social stratification
analysis. In this context, the concept of modernisation means the further development of
certain characteristics of a society, which starts from a further advancement (Hradil, 2006, p.
17). One approach, which has been studied, among others, by Lichy (2011, pp. 470475) in
40
Great Britain and which can be found online, shows differences in the online communication
behaviour.
1.4.2. lifeworlds of internet users
The next biggest study was carried out in 2011 and 2012, and the use of the Internet was
studied for the first time with regard to security and confidence on the Internet. Social
networks and Internet services were not researched. An emphasis on the previous definitions
can be observed in the short descriptions of the most recent milieu differentiation of the
SINUS Institute.














Figure 9 SINUS-Milieus 2011 (Source: Geiler, 2012, p. 23)
This research also contains the DIVSI Internet milieus, defined on the basis of the SINUS
milieus. The Internet milieus divide Internet users into the primary segments of digital
outsiders, immigrants or natives, as well as illustrate the new leading milieus. The participants
of the survey who use the Internet come almost from all types of milieus. Nevertheless, some
of the milieus have been poorly represented. The survey covered 2,000 people (DIVSI, 2012,
p. 16) 29% of whom are active social network users (DIVSI, 2012, p. 53). 87% (12.1 million
people) of the offliners in the research are occasional users of the Internet, 5% are carefree
hedonists, 4% are order-demanding amateurs and 3% are post-material sceptics. The
description of the milieus focuses on the active users of the Internet, therefore the milieus
which do not concern people active on the internet are described only briefly. Digital
outsiders (DIVSI, 2012, p. 16) constitute 39% of the participants from (DIVSI, 2012, p. 34)
and consist of two milieus. On the one hand they are occasional users of the Internet who can
Upper class /
Upper middle
class


Mid-level
middle class



Lower middle
class /
lowerclass
Social layer
Basic
orientation
Retaining | Preserving
Tradition
Doing & experience | exceeding limits
New orientation

Having & enjoying| being & changing
Modernising/individualising

Conservative Individuals
Liberal
Intellectuals
Performers
Movers and
Shakers
Traditionalists
The
middleclass
Precarious
Hedonists
Social Ecologists
Adaptive
Pragmatics
41
be distinguished by excessive offliner, self-sufficiency, morality and decency related
characteristics, and on the other hand, they are order-demanding Internet amateurs who live a
bourgeois mainstream life with the desire for order and reliability.














Figure 10 DIVSI-Internet-Milieus of trust and security on the Internet (Source: DIVSI, 2012, p. 33)
Digital immigrants constitute 20% of the participants and is made up of responsible, well-
established, post-materialist sceptics (DIVSI, 2012, p. 34). The Responsibility-driven
Individuals advocate the educated establishment with an awareness of leadership. They use
the Internet selectively and cherish a responsible attitude towards digital advancement
(DIVSI, 2012, pp. 113117). They are mostly 30 to 50 years old, but the total age range lies
between 20 and 70. Most of the people belonging to this milieu are married and live in
households with 2 to 4 people. There is full employment with middle to high income. 34% of
the individuals have a gross income of 2,500 a month. Most of them have medium or
advanced educational degrees. The Internet is used as a means to an end, it is used to handle
tasks online. It is also believed that a person has to try everything at least once. As regards the
Internet users, they place a high value on their reputation and therefore actively attempt to
ensure privacy and data security. This leads to criticism of the Internet and insecurity in using
it (DIVSI, 2012, p. 121). The people belonging to this milieu follow performance ethics, live
in diversity and support the concept of e-learning (DIVSI, 2012, p. 122). As regards furniture,
there is a preference for art and culture, as well as high-class, modern, elegant or traditional
brands combined with an emphasis on quality. The furniture can be antique and the interior
design lavish (DIVSI, 2012, pp. 124125). In addition to the responsible social class of the
Digital
Outsiders
Digital Immigrants Digital Natives
Upper class /
Upper middle
class


Mid-level
middle class



Lower middle
class / lower
class
Social layer
Basic
orientation
The Internet-
Wary 27%
Carefree Hedonists
12%

Responsibility-driven
Individuals 10%

Post-material
Skeptics 10%

Digital
Vanguard 15%

Efficiency-
oriented
Performers
14%
Order-seeking
Internet Laypeople
12%
Retaining | Preserving
Tradition
Doing & experience | exceeding limits
New orientation

Having & enjoying| being & changing
Modernising/individualising

42
established, the post-material sceptics have emerged (DIVSI, 2012, p. 34). These are goal-
oriented Internet users with a critical attitude towards commercial structures and a blind
fascination with technologies (DIVSI, 2012, p. 98). The age range of this milieu is from
20 to 60. The size of the households varies; businessmen and civil servants are scarcely
represented. The indicated net household income ranges from 1,7502,500, and the people
belonging to this milieu are usually employed as qualified professionals without necessary
studies. The members of this milieu are unsure about privacy on the Internet and pay attention
to it only when they understand its purpose. Using the Internet as a pastime or for
entertainment purposes is avoided. Such activities as reading the news and communicating
opinions are popular. In addition, the diversity of opinion on the Internet is praised. This
milieu is also characterised by a regular use of portals and a high consumption of analogue
media, such as newspapers and magazines (DIVSI, 2012, pp. 99103). The apartment
furnishing of the lifeworld reveals a preference for art and culture, which can occur in a mix
of colours. The furnishing is anti-conventional; it is characterised by a mixture of active living
and enjoying. The furnishing provides space to promote communication between people
(DIVSI, 2012, pp. 110111).
In addition to the digital immigrants, a group of digital natives has formed. The digital natives
account for 41% of the research group. This range also includes the milieus of the carefree
hedonists, efficiency-oriented performers and the Digital Vanguard (DIVSI, 2012, p. 34). The
carefree hedonists are fun-loving Internet users looking for entertainment and adventure. This
group uses the Internet in an unconventional way, and the users themselves are unaware of the
risks. There is an equal distribution of men and women. As concerns the level of education,
secondary school certificate prevails with 46%. The household usually consists of 23
persons. The proportion of those living alone is low. Full employment prevails even in cases
for which part-time employment is usual. The net household income lies between 750 and a
maximum of 3,000. The people belonging to this milieu have not been active users of the
Internet for more than 10 years (DIVSI, 2012, pp. 8589). There is a high tendency to use
second screen applications and to discuss TV content. As regards social networks, there is an
extensive use of location-based applications and functions which support living in the
moment (DIVSI, 2012, p. 94). The living environments are brightly coloured, experimental or
messy and chaotic. It is common practice to use gifted furniture (DIVSI, 2012, pp. 9697).
The Milieu of the Efficiency-oriented Performers includes performance-oriented Internet
professionals with a strong emphasis on convenience and benefit. The guiding principle is
professionalism. The proportion of male members is 63%, and the educational qualification is
usually medium or high. The gross income for 45% of the members is 2,500 or above. Most
43
of the members are married or in a relationship. Most of the households in this milieu include
34 persons, since most members have children as well (DIVSI, 2012, pp. 7175). The
Internet is used for convenience and time saving purposes. The people mostly read news,
purchase consumer goods online and search for information about people. In addition, online
banking is often used. The Internet users can be distinguished by the use of business
networks, and the fact that the Internet has been used for more than 3 years. This lifeworld
can also be characterised by an extensive use of such Internet services as games, films,
podcasts and music. The everyday life is defined by a pursuit for the quality of life, an
extensive network and living in the global village where the Internet users are flexible and
success-oriented (DIVSI, 2012, p. 80). As regards fitments, it is functional and specifically
selected. It is often bought at high prices and has the potential to become a classic in the
future. The interior is spacious, bright, clear and structured (DIVSI, 2012, pp. 8283). The
milieu of the Digital Vanguard, also known as the digital avant-garde, has a strong
individualistic attitude characterised by the search for independence in thought and action
(DIVSI, 2012, pp. 5761). The participants are young: the average age is 35. The proportion
of men reaches 68%, The milieu has a high proportion of single or unmarried people in steady
relationships. As regards the educational qualification, approximately 20% of the
representatives of this milieu have reached the university level. The income level is mostly
superior; 41% of the people in this milieu have a net household income of 30,000. Only 3%
of the members of this milieu have been using the Internet for less than 3 years. The Internet
use is characterised by a very high sovereignty. The Internet, also mobile Internet, is used
constantly and daily. Laptops, tablets or smartphones are often chosen as the medium. Posting
comments, sharing of content, as well as using blogs and forums are of course popular
activities. This lifeworld is characterised by an emphasis on fun and entertainment, as well as
a strong desire for autonomy and elitist conduct (DIVSI, 2012, p. 66). The living area is
comfortable, tasteful, modern and tidy, which creates a warm atmosphere. DIVSI (2012, p.
68) reveals a high number of items from IKEA which are probably preferred due to their
elegance and design, as well as their usability in the home.
As concerns the unresolved issues regarding social media and social networks, it is
obvious that the foundations of the social structure analysis lie in the market segmentation of
Internet and social network users. An image of the number of users of a population can be
obtained from the approach of social structure analysis. The population can be analysed in
terms of certain forms or market segments. Hence, more detailed properties of the
development of social networks, web applications, social media activities or customer group
analyses can be deduced.
44
1.5. methods of multivariate analysis
In addition to the measure of central tendency with the mode, median and arithmetic mean,
the measure of variation with variance (Hackl/Katzenbeisser, 1994, pp. 1925) and standard
deviation, (Hackl/Katzenbeisser, 1994, pp. 173174) are used. Methods of multivariate
analysis have been used for evaluating subsequent hypotheses, as well as during the
preliminary research phase. In specific cases, correlation analysis by Pearson and Spearman,
as well as factor analysis are used.
A correlation analysis (Backhaus et al., 2011, p. 339) shows the relations between variables in
their results. The result is termed correlation coefficient (Hackl/Katzenbeisser, 1994, p. 48).
The analysis does not show whether variables are mutually dependent or whether the
realisation of the correlation values is determined by one or more factors behind the related
variables. It is necessary to pay attention to spurious correlations (Mayer, 1989, p. 92) and
interpret the results using analytic expertise. Hackl/Katzenbeisser (1994, p. 54) note that
connections must always be logically explained, not only empirically verifiable.
There are different approaches to the calculation of correlation coefficients, based on the scale
used. Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient (SRCC) (Schira, 2005, p. 95) is used for
ordinal-scaled data.
r
s
=
R(x

)R(y

) n R(x) R(y)
n
=1
_[ R(x

)` n R(x)`
n
=1
[ R(y

)` n R(y)`
n
=1


J

= R(x

) R(y

)
p = r
s
= 1
6 J

2 n
=1
n(n
2
1)

Figure 11 Formula: Spearmans Rank Correlation Coefficient (Source: Hartung, 1989, p. 80)
Pearsons Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient (PCC) (Schira, 2005, p. 94) and Bravais-
Pearson (Mayer, 1989, p. 93) is used for metrically scaled data.
p = r
x
=
(x

x)(y

y)
n
=1
_ (x

x)`
n
=1
_ (y

y)`
n
=1
=
1
n
(x

x)(y

y)
n
=1
_
1
n
(x

x)`
n
=1
_
1
n
(y

y)`
n
=1
=
s
x
s
x
s


Figure 12 Formula: Pearsons Product-moment Correlation Coefficient (Source: Mayer, 1992, p. 92)
The results of a correlation analysis show a similar pattern (Cohen et al., 2000, pp. 170174;
Reinboth, 2007, p. 85; Mayer, 1989, p. 93), where 0 represents no monotonic relationship
between X and Y. If > 0, then there is an equally monotonic relationship, which means, if X
increases, Y increases as well. In case < 0, there is a mutually monotonic relationship; X
remains stationary and Y is decreasing, or vice versa. Thus, the value may not exceed 1 or
45
decrease below 0 (0<||<1). In this case, there is an inverted proportion between the variables
(Hackl/Katzenbeisser, 1994, p. 50). According to Cohen (1988, p. 82) correlations at = .10
are regarded as insignificant, from = .30 as medium and from = .50 as large.
Bhner/Zielger (2009, pp. 613614) refer also to the effect size, according to Cohen (1988, p.
82) and Eid et al. (2011, p. 508). This confirms the approach by Cohen, mainly regarding
psychological tests, where a large population and community is researched. In contrast, there
are statements on correlations which are calculated in conjunction with physical or medical
tests (Mller/Poguntke, 2010, p. 53). The correlations which fall within the range of 00.2 are
regarded as very weak, from 0.20.4 as weak, from 0.40.6 as medium, from 0.60.8 as
strong, and from 0.81.0 as very strong. In sociology, however, lower correlation coefficient
values have established, meaning that a lower value, depending on the measured environment,
can show a strong relationship. Eid et al. (2011, p. 548) give recommendations regarding the
optimal sample size for a correlation analysis with different combinations of error
probabilities in a two-tailed test of significance.
Alpha = 1% Alpha = 5% Alpha = 10%
= 1% = 0.10 2,390 1,828 1,569
= 0.30 254 195 167
= 0.50 83 64 55
= 5% = 0.10 1,772 1,293 1,077
= 0.30 189 138 115
= 0.50 62 46 38
= 10% = 0.10 1,481 1,046 853
= 0.30 158 112 92
= 0.50 52 37 31
Table 5 Power of a statistical test and significance (Source: Eid et al., 2011, p. 548)
Overall, it can be said that accurate results can be obtained by studying a large sample (a large
community). The results of the correlation analysis form the basis of the factor analysis.
Factor analysis is derived from the beginnings of correlation analysis in the field of
psychology (Pawlik, 1971, p. 21). The first factor model was developed by Spearman (1904,
pp. 256278) whose name is used as an eponym and a description of an evaluation method.
The currently used methods are the principal component model (Pawlik, 1971, p. 58), which
was introduced Harold Hotelling in 1933, and the major axis model, also developed by
Hotelling. These methods are also based on prior calculations of correlation analysis (Pearson,
1901, pp. 559572).
Factor analysis refers to a multi-dimensional model which allows analysing quantitative traits
in functionally simpler basic variable factors (Pawlik, 1971, p. 17), thus distinguishing
between exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (Bhner,
2011, p. 296). Exploratory factor analysis attempts (Backhaus et al. 2011, p. 330) to structure
46
relationship networks in large sets of variables, in which variables correlating with one
another are identified (Backhaus et al. 2011, p. 330). Confirmatory factor analysis allows
examining factor structures. Various methods are used for the calculation of the EFA (Bhner,
2011, p. 298). In addition to the Principal Axis Factoring (PAF) and Maximum Likelihood
Factor Analysis (ML), the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used. Bhner (2011, p.
318) has compared PAF, ML and PCA and concluded that, first of all, PCA always gives an
outcome, and that the results of ML and PAF are very similar. Bhner also recommends, after
testing with different data sets, using ML for CFA and the approach of PAF for an EFA, as it
is superior to PCA if the number of items is high. He was unable to detect a significant
difference for a small number of items. Backhaus et al. (2011, p. 356) explain that PAF
assumes that the variance of a variable is always divided into communality and residual
variance. PCA assumes that the variance of an output variable can be fully explained by
means of factor extraction. There is no residual variance of a variable.
As regards factor analysis, Khler (2004, p. 99) indicates the parameter that the sample size
should be 5 times larger than the number of variables in the survey. Bhner (2011, pp. 325
326) recommends using at least 500 data sets, and at least 1000 for a likelihood ratio test. This
is necessary so that the results of the factor analysis, the factors with individual factor values
and their factor loadings would be significant and convincing. The separate value of a factor
has a strong influence and importance for the factor. The importance is showed by the factor
loadings. Various recommendations are made for the loading of various factors. Backhaus et
al. (2011, p. 362) suggest that a high loading starts from 0.5. Bagozzi/Baumgartner (1994, p.
402), regard the factor loading of 0.4 as a threshold starting from which they can be taken
into consideration. Thus, factor loadings depend on the sample; as concerns samples with an
N under 70, only the factor loadings 0.65 should be considered. If the n value is high, only
factor loadings 0.6 should be considered (Anderson et al., 2010, p. 117). Khler (2004, p.
98) considers 0.3 as the limit of the factor loading and points out that the significance at this
level is only 10%. Based on his literature review Schuhmacher (2006, p. 98) states that a
factor loading of 0.30.4 means minimum statistical significance, a range from 0.40.5 is low
significance and from 0.51 strong statistical significance. According to Bhner (2011, p.
371), factor loadings starting from 0.30 or 0.20 are significant practically. The factor loading
(Bhner, 2011, p. 300) represents a semi-partial and standardised regression weight. It
specifies by what degree standard deviations on average change the characteristic of an item,
given that the characteristic of a factor on average changes by one standard deviation. In
addition, the significance of loadings, whether strong or low, depends on the sample size.
Bhner (2011, pp. 370371) states that at n=400 the 0,129, at n=600 the 0.105, at
47
n=800 the 0.091 and at n=1.000 the is significant by 0.081. This may also influence
the choice and number of the factors. Reinboth (2007, p. 37) states that there are no rules as to
the correct definition of the number of factors. There are no generally binding rules for
determining the number of factors; principally, the user needs to be experienced in applying
EFA. The factors with a low significance should be removed within the model and at this
point the experience of the user is of importance. In addition, it is important to take into
consideration that the unrotated solutions are, as a rule, not open to interpretation. Kopp/Lois
(2009, pp. 1517). In order to improve the interpretability of the factor solution and maximise
the factor loadings, a rotation of the coordinate system in its origin needs to be performed. If
no correlation between the factors is detected, an orthogonal rotation using the Varimax
approach can be performed. If the factors correlate significantly, it is possible to perform an
oblique rotation using the Oblimin or Promax approach. The rotation does not influence the
correlation matrix. Although it affects factor loadings, there is no influence upon the
commonalities, i.e. the proportion of variance of a variable explained by factors
(Laatz/Janssen, 2010, pp. 567568).
Kopp/Lois (2009, p. 26) distinguish two quality criteria regarding factor analysis: the
communality and the intrinsic value. The intrinsic value is the basis for the most common
criterion used to determine the number of factors to be extracted. In this case, either the
Kaiser criterion or the Scree test with the investigation of the elbow or the intrinsic value
loss is used (Khler, 2004, p. 95). The examined literature suggests that both approaches lead
to similar results. The communality is the proportion of the variance for each variable which it
has in common with another variable from the factor (Bhner, 2011, p. 345). The reliability
also depends on the sample size. A larger sample size ensures that even low commonalities
can be considered as significant and valid.
High commonality
(0.600.80)
Medium commonality
(0.400.60)
Low commonality
(0.200.40)
Criteria Items per
Factor
Size of
sample
Items per
Factor
Size of
sample
Items per
Factor
Size of
sample
Excellent 4 500 4 900 4 1400
6 250 6 200 6 260
8 100 8 130 8 130
Good 5 130 5 140 5 200
7 55 7 60 7 80
Table 6 Reliability of the commonality (Source: Bhner, 2011, p. 345)
In addition to the loading and the rotation, it is necessary to consider the Cronbachs Alpha
that measures the internal consistency of the survey. The value obtained can be interpreted as
follows: 0.9 as very good, 0.8 as good, 0.7 as acceptable, 0.6 as questionable, 0.5 as
bad and 0.5 < as unacceptable (Laatz/Janssen, 2010, p. 587). In addition, the Anti-Image
48
Matrix (AIM) analysis needs to be considered. The AIM provides measurements that cannot
be explained using correlation analysis. 75% of the AIM elements ned to be lower than 0.09
so that the survey could be regarded as valid and applicable for conducting factor analysis
(Backhaus et. al, 2011, pp. 341342; Bhner, 2011, p. 356).
In addition, it is necessary to investigate the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Criteria (KMO) and the
measure of sampling adequacy (MSA) that indicate whether variables can be explained by
factors, (Backhaus et al., 2011, p. 343; Bhner, 2011, p. 347). The MSA should exceed 0.8.
As concerns the KMO, a value of 0.9 is regarded as marvellous, 0.8 as meritorious, 0.7
as middling, 0.6 as mediocre, 0.5 as miserable and <0.5 as unacceptable. It is also
important to observe the significance. A significant correlation in this case bears no relation to
the significance level of the correlation coeefficient, denoted as 1-tailed or 2-tailed. The
significance level indicates the error probability of rejection (Backhaus et al., 2011, p. 340).
Finally, a Bartletts test of sphericity is conducted. This test examines whether all variables of
the investigated sample population are mutually uncorrelated. If this is confirmed, a data
record would be not suitable for a factor analysis. This would imply that there is no
connection between the individual values and such can arise resulting from a random effect
(Reinboth, 2006, pp. 125126; Backhaus et al., 2011, pp. 341342).
For the analysis of the individual hypotheses, as well as for general use, these steps should be
taken and adapted, and it must be considered in each case if the necessary software is
available.


49
2. PRELIMINARY STUDIES INTO HYPOTHESES FORMULATION
When looking at systems, it is important to be aware of the empirical methods and data
collection approaches that are used (Kromrey, 2009, p. 12). Regarding the parameters of
empirical statements, Kromrey (2009, p. 29) argues that First, only concepts referring to the
experienced reality can be used in statements on empirical science. Second, the formulated
sentences or statements on empirical science provide a description of facts and circumstances
that are fundamentally tangible. Third, sentences and statements have to be formulated so that
they can theoretically be refuted. These statements are used to form hypotheses to be tested
and possibly refuted during the research process. Theory on social sciences suggests that a
hypothesis refers to a conjecture about a relationship between at least two facts (Kromrey,
2009, p. 42). As regards methods for the testing of theories and hypotheses, action research
has become established as a method used to achieve results quickly. Action research (Heinze,
2011, pp. 7982) is partly based on the interactionist-oriented US Human Relations
movement of the 1940s and 50s, as well as the second critical line of dispute between a
dispute between critical rationalism (Popper, Albert) and critical theory (Adorno, Habermas).
In response to a practical lack of critical theories, action research advanced with the aim of
merging practical relevance and critical intention, as well as designing empirical research as
the prevailing practice. Thus, action research aims to eliminate the strict separation between
researchers and practitioners in the relevant field in order to enable a direct interaction of the
research field and the field of action. This procedure is applied so that pre-existing
guidelines would be challenged and revised even in the field of research. As a result, it is
attempted to change the practice so that it would be better accepted by practitioners. Action
research differs from the traditional types of social research (Heinze, 2011, p. 294) in that it
lacks the ban of action and communication characteristic of traditional social research and
demands a practical relevance. As a result, research is seen as an open and mutual learning
process. Action research is regarded as a cognitive process within a manufacturing process; it
supports the flexibility in the use of research methods. The pure empirical research, which
operates using qualitative and quantitative methods, is used as a detailed alternative to the
action research. The system of qualitative analysis consists (Heinze, 2011, pp. 117119), of
the logging of interviews, discussions, open-ended questions and the final interpretation of the
results. The quantitative analysis consists of counting or multivariate methods. The interview
is the basic technique for obtaining qualitative information. Bossiazky (1992, pp. 8796)
distinguishes between the following interview situations: face-to-face interviews, phone
interviews, computer-assisted interviews and written interviews. As concerns the interview
forms, two kinds are distinguished, namely, guideline-based interviews and in-depth-
50
interviews which are arranged by processing guidelines and implemented using non-directive,
semi-directive or direct techniques. Open interviews can be used alongside guideline-based
interviews. In addition to guideline-based interviews, open interviews can be used to discuss
previously planned questions. These questions are asked without further interaction with the
interviewed person. The exploratory interview is seen as an extension, as may include
additional support and interview instructions. Both of these types are incorporated in the
structured interview which is characterized by closed questions and answers and, if necessary,
may contain support. The qualitative interview (Heinze, 2011, pp. 152154) is based on a
paper by sociologist Dieter Baacke and established on the following theoretical and
methodological considerations: Research is understood as a communicative process with the
aim of determining the everyday reality of the so called addressees by eliciting narratives
(stories); generally, this is done on multiple levels. As regards interviews, Heinze (2011, pp.
154156) goes on to state that they need to have a maximum range. This means that: the
respondents need to have the option of reporting as much as possible [..] Finally, the
individual, social (we add societal here) context has to be taken into account, as it is the first
that attributes explanations and reactions to their place. In addition, it is indicated in this
regard how crucial the acquisition of the essential rules of interpretation and explanation is in
order to capture and interact with the complexity of the condition. It is to be noted that
researchers often are not able to substitute their professional role during the interviews
(Heinze, 2011, p. 158). Action research can help in this case to strengthen the practical control
of a study. In addition to individual interviews, the group interview and group discussion
approach (Bossiazky, 1992, pp. 7071) has become established as a qualitative research
method. As concerns group discussions, such parameters as 810 participants, a guideline-
based discussion process and moderation by a discussion leader are commonly defined. The
discussion can be recorded on video so that it could be replicated. An alternative ensuring that
no information is lost is using transcripts. Recommendations and findings can be determined
on the basis of results obtained and documented. Group workshop has become established as
a supplementary research method for conducting research with groups (Bossiazky, 1992, p.
82). According to Heinze (2011, pp. 160161), problems and difficulties in the interpretation
of interview protocols can occur in view of the fact that the applied interpretation methods
should be compared with the daily used communicative understanding and it is important to
adopt the perspective of the particular interaction partner in order to develop relationships
during the interpretation process. It should be noted here that interviews differ significantly
from everyday communication which is more chaotic, diffuse and at the same time more
51
restrictive than the interview communication which is cleansed from spontaneity. Additional
qualitative description of the research context should be provided (Heinze, 2011, p. 284).
A number of research questions and evaluations have been implemented prior to the main
study in order to make practical use of the theoretical fundamentals of empirical research,
along with action research, and increase the accuracy of the present study. Thus, the quality of
the mentioned measuring tools should be significantly improved. The aim of the research
questions and evaluations is to create content necessary for the subsequent online survey and
bring the existing concept of lifeworld modelling up to date. This also includes modifying the
existing approaches in order to create a branch which would focus on social networks
explicitly. This was done in order to refine the subsequent questionnaire and gain a better
understanding of the online community and its participants, designers and managers, and
receive information on the perception of information and use of applications. The following is
a description of the way how requirements were investigated in online surveys in order to
increase the success rate in the later survey. Afterwards, interviews were conducted during the
largest German Internet conference in order to test the initial version of the subsequent
questionnaire, based on the survey by Pierre Bourdieu. Subsequently, social network
perception and awareness were analysed. This allowed gaining empirical knowledge from an
association analysis, which was used to revise the particulars of the questionnaire. In addition
to associations, further methods were used to arrive at the survey in its current form which
allows a modelling of lifeworlds. Finally, the decisions made concerning the final version of
the questionnaire have been discussed.
The use of the described preliminary research allowed developing the measuring tool for the
subsequent questionnaire so that it could be used to confirm the hypotheses and show valid
results.
2.1. evaluation of online surveys
It is intended to conduct the questionnaire necessary for the determination of market
differentiation in social networks as an online survey. The decision to use an online survey
was made in order to achieve the range necessary for investigating societal contexts more
quickly. A shortcoming for online surveys is that a direct contact with the respondents is
impossible, except over the survey itself. Therefore, factors influencing the readiness to
disclose data on the Internet were investigated. In this context, Brassington/Pettitt (2005, p.
154) realise that conducting a questionnaire in the form of and online survey may have both
benefits and limitations.

52
Type of online research
Quantitative Qualitative
Benefits Inexpensive compared with traditional
research methodologies
Fast turnaround
Automated data collection
No interviewer bias in data
Data quality (logic checks and in-depth
open-ended answers)
Slightly faster and cheaper than
traditional focus groups
Avoids dominance by loud
personalities
More client control
Easier to recruit respondents
Limitation Respondent universe
Sampling issues: narrow target
audience; difficult to identify;
understanding the sample
Often self-completion based, therefore
potentially self-selecting
Technical problems
Lose non-verbal elements of
traditional focus groups
Less useful for emotive issues
Online moderation requires new
skills
Technical problems
Sampling issues: narrow target
audience can be tricky to identify;
Table 7 Benefits and Limitations of Internet research (Source: Brassington/Pettitt, 2005, p. 154)
A separate study, entitled Honesty on the Internet was performed in order to examine the
communication and influencing factors separately. The basis was formed by a workshop (A
2.1; A3.1) and an expert interview (A2.2; A3.2) in order to be able to define and narrow
the influencing factors in this field. This was done in order to reduce the participants
influence on the survey to a minimum and to implement the closed questions of the survey as
successfully as possible. The discussion took place in the form of an open interview in the
light of the experiences from the group interview. The results showed that it is important
when the process of communicating something takes place and which institution
communicates the message. In addition, it became clear that the environment in which the
communication takes place is important. It must be clear what exactly is expressed and why
the data is communicated; how serious the environment is and whether the person
participating is expected to receive an added value. In this context, added value is defined as
the form of reward, a chance to gain a profit or change. It is also defined in this regard that, in
the situation of a test or if one wishes to remain anonymous, he or she does not indicate real
data. It is strongly stressed that, once the participant does something for the service, such as a
payment, he indicates his real data. During the conversation, it became distinctly clear that
attention should be paid to whether the person who communicates data is in a relationship
with the person or organisation that wishes to obtain the data. In addition, it is important if
something can be influenced or changed, if one discovers their intentions or purposes, if
security measures are considered and the person who processes the data, as well as what the
data are used for.
The information reflected by the group interviews and in-depth interviews was used to create
a questionnaire (A1.1; A3.3). This questionnaire was distributed to 64 people between the
53
ages of 18 and 54 under the name Honesty on the Internet. The average age of the
respondents is 23, the median is 21 years and the mode is 21 years. The upgraded results can
be viewed in the form of a general overview (A4.2) and a correlation matrix (A4.3). The
gender distribution was 24 female and 40 male participants. Fundamentally, the size of the
survey was too small to make universally valid statements. Most of the respondents were
students; more specifically, there is a predominance of young participants. The people were
randomly selected from those present in a university. The selected people mostly
corresponded to the respondents expected to take part in the subsequent survey of social
network users. The survey was also carried out in order to gain a practical understanding of
correlation analysis. Factor analysis was deemed unnecessary, since the aim was only to
achieve general correlations in the context of preliminary research. The results partly revealed
very strong characteristics as described below.
The lowest approval to communicate real data appeared when a user wished to test the offer
(Q: A1). It was determined that the test groups united refuse to indicate real data, as they see
no need for it. This contrasts with a higher willingness to communicate real data if it is clear
for the user that he will make long-term use of the product (Q: A2) in advance and that he
makes a conscious decision. Users readiness to communicate real data is influenced if his
friends or acquaintances are using the network already (Q: A3). It is observed that correct data
are entered in case the offer concerns the participants professional life (Q: A4). This reflects
the strongest approval of the questionnaire. Users readiness to communicate real data is
slightly lower if he wishes to make private use of the offer (Q: A5). In this regard, it becomes
evident that in a circle of acquaintances, pseudonyms can be handled similarly as real names;
this is, however, more common in the private sector. Results of the first section of the
interview in detail are as follows:
Median Mode
A1 Wish to test the offer 2 1
A2 Wish to use the offer for a long time 6 6
A3 My friends and acquaintances spend time there 6 6
A4 Wish to use the offer for work purposes 7 7
A5 Wish to use the offer for private purposes 5 6
n=64; =PCC
Table 8 Comparison: Results Honesty on the Internet A1A5 (Source: authors research)
In addition, the correlation analysis of questions A1A5 shows that, upon displaying the
weightings, a connection between A2 and A3 can be assumed on the basis of the highly
significant correlation of 0.647
**
. A1 and A3, as well as A2 and A3 exhibit a moderate

n=64
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
54
correlation with the responses to A4 and A5. Overall, these correlations show that a
connection between the answers and patterns of behaviour associated with them can be
observed. The most conspicuous characteristic is exhibited by questions C2C5. In addition,
the factors influencing the honesty of answering were investigated. In this case, a certain
effect is revealed if the person receives a direct and valuable equivalent, for example, in the
form of value of goods (Q: B1). A positive characteristic appeared in this case, as the given
answers were honest. A slightly smaller, but still a positive effect appeared when the
participants received an added value in the form of a long-term influence of an opinion or
situation (Q: B2). In this context, ones personal relationship to the question comes into
importance which can contribute to a positive answer if the subscriber is able to identity with
the content of the question (Q: B3). In contrast to these positive effects, it becomes apparent
that, if a survey is carried out as part of a pure lottery, providing honest data is rather
detrimental (Q: B4). As a result, the data collected in this case became invalid. In detail, the
analysis of the question about providing honest data on the Internet is as follows:
Median Mode
B1 You expect some added value, e.g. in the form of points or a prize 5 6
B2 You expect or receive some added value in the form of a change (e.g.
in politics)
5 5
B3 The survey concerns you personally 5 5
B4 The survey involves a contest 3 2
n=64; =PCC
Table 9 Comparison: Results Honesty on the Internet B1B4 (Source: authors research)
As regards correlation analysis, it becomes apparent that question B2, which indirectly asks
about the respondents personal situation or ones personal improvement, shows a strong
correlation of 0.567
**
with question B3. In addition, B3 shows a surpassingly strong
correlation with question B7 of 0.564
**
which takes into account the respectability of the
enquirer. Question B3, besides B2 with a lower or middle correlation, also shows a strong and
highly significant correlation in the range from 0.540
**
to 0.598
**
for questions C2C5 and a
correlation of 0.483
**
for question C1. This trend is supported also later for the correlation of
question B7 with questions C2C5.
The approach of B1B4 is observed also in the question sector B5B8. Question B5 shows
that a relationship between the respondent and the questioner has a positive effect. In this
context, it is unclear how long the relationship has already existed. The safe execution of a
survey, as can be seen in B6, also depends on active and honest participation, but the value in
this case displays a certain margin of fluctuations. The question about the influence of the
seriousness of the questioner, however, with a low range clearly shows the influence that this
factor exhibits on the response. Respectability is, of course, a broad concept and can be
55
interpreted individually by each participant. Due to this reason, questions C1C5 are further
concerned with it in detail. Finally, this section states with the values for B8 that empty fields
should be avoided, since they cause no emotion (no correct or incorrect data) for the user.
Median Mode
B5 You know the questioner personally 6 7
B6 The survey is encrypted (HTTPS) 5 6
B7 The questioner is serious 6 6
B8 You are required to fill an empty box 4 4
n=64; =PCC
Table 10 Comparison: Results Honesty on the Internet B5B8 (Source: authors research)
The correlation analysis shows that there is an above-average interplay for questions B5 and
B6 in connection with B7. Both seem to have an impact on the respectability. At this point, it
should be mentioned that there are above-average correlations between B7 and C3C5, which
exceed the average correlations among the C questions. Although B5 and B6 in conjunction
with C1C5 show correlations, the correlation coefficient does not go beyond the range of
0.353
**
and 0.478
**
. Thus, the relationship is not very reliable due to the small sample size,
nevertheless exhibiting a certain tendency.
As described in B7, it was necessary to define and explore the concept of respectability more
precisely. Due to this reason, the participants were explicitly asked what in their opinion
makes a survey respectable. In this case, all question values from C1C5 showed a conscious
influence on the answering of questions and an equally constant characteristic in the field of
median and mode. The correlation between the questions in this sector is constantly above
average, the correlation between the scientific and objective questions are the highest with a
value of 0.858
**
. Even taking the small sample size into consideration, the characteristics of
the correlation coefficients represent a highly significant connection.

Median Mode
C1 The Internet address of the survey 6 6
C2 Design (no ads, sleek presentation) 6 6
C3 Scientific questions 6 6
C4 Objective questions 5 6
C5 Choice of language 6 6
n=64; =PCC
Table 11 Comparison: Results Honesty on the Internet C1C5 (Source: authors research)
In order to additionally investigate when a person responds positively in a survey and how the
person is influenced by definite factors, the respondents were afterwards interviewed. It can
be seen that a possibility of winning something (D1) can have an influence on a positive
response or participation, which is reflected in the high mode of 6 where 22 people showed a
low and bellow-average influence. Question D1 shows an above-average correlation with

n=64
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
56
question D2 with a correlation coefficient of 0.619
**
, which points to a highly significant
relationship. This may be due to the fact that the information can be brought in conjunction
with the participant in both cases. An above-average correlation of 0.451
**
is revealed also in
the connection between D2 and D3. In both cases the connection between the data and the
participant can be seen as the underlying basis. Question D2 shows a highly significant
correlation of 0.524
**
with question D4, which later will be discussed in detail. A similar
characteristic, as well as a correlation, shows also that relation facilitates a positive answer
(D3) The question whether an ID or a PIN on the website has an influence upon the answer,
which is similar to question D2 in content and served as a control question, was evaluated by
the participants as neutral. In this case, however, on the basis of the aforementioned
correlation, which would have to be higher in this context, it is important whether the
question as such was understood by the respondents and if an ID or PIN was able to assign
importance to it.
Median Mode
D1 You can win something 4 6
D2 The answer may be associated with you 5 5
D3 You know the questioner personally 5 5
D4 The website of the survey contains an ID or a PIN number 4 4
n=64; =PCC
Table 12 Comparison: Results Honesty on the Internet D1D4 (Source: authors research)
In order to further view the content and results of the questionnaire analysis, additional expert
interviews (A2.3; A3.4) were conducted over the telephone. These interviews showed that
trust is an important basis for the communication between customers, and companies can
promote this proactively by providing advance payment as a vote of confidence. In addition, it
was noted that there might be different ways of communicating personal information and
different probabilities of success have to be expected from use case to use case in the
collection of customer data, and this must be considered, depending on the situation and the
motivation of the user. Another aspect is that it may not be always clear for the user whether
he communicates and uses data relating to his private of professional life. It is noteworthy that
the participants have stated that they indicate false data due to the wish to remain anonymous.
At this point, the notion of testing should be considered in context.
This gives rise to the requirements for the later surveys which also partly apply to the issues
raised by Brassington/Pettitt (2005, p. 154) who support participation in surveys and
answering honestly. The domain name of the survey is another point which should be
considered, as well as its design, and the way of formulating and communicating questions.

n=64
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
57
The purpose of the survey must be understood explicitly and formulated clearly. This should
also be done with the approach of creating a relationship also in the sense of social media
which can also be used for future studies. The communication of the results can help in
continuing the research. The creator of the survey also must be communicated. The option of
changing and, if necessary, deleting ones data should exist for data protection reasons.
In addition, the following factors can influence honest answers in online surveys. Text fields
should also be avoided, as there is a barrier that can cause people to answer incorrectly or not
to answer at all. It should be stated clearly whether the survey concerns professional
information (relating to ones business) in order to provide the participants with a basis for
making a decision and to reduce the complexity of the survey. In addition, a connection
should be established with the respondents, which affects them also personally, for example,
if the author of the survey himself helps the respondents follow it. It should also be possible to
share the survey with friends and acquaintances and find out if they have already participated
in it without viewing the results or other data.
2.2. assessment of the understanding of networks
The questionnaire itself, which will be presented later, is based on the one created by Pierre
Bourdieu in year 1979 (A1.2). It has been used to study the personal history and social
environment of people in over 26 areas, thus becoming the most comprehensive questionnaire
available in literature. As it was designed for the analysis of the social structure in France and
implemented in the 1970s, assessment of its content is necessary in order to evaluate the
approach of milieu differentiation in the modern times and to assess the changed location
practically. The questionnaire by Bourdieu, as well as the questionnaire forms themselves, are
most often used as a basis for the foundations of the social structure in Germany
(Schulze 1992, p. 594); however, in this instance the questionnaire forms are not freely
available.
The evaluation of the questionnaire began with interviews which were held on 1415 August
2010 during the Re:Publica X convention in Berlin. The Re:Publica X conference features
over 2,500 visitors representing the blogosphere and the Internet-based users (Triler, 2011),
and offers a high probability of an audience consisting of trade professionals. The participants
of the questionnaire were randomly asked if they are participants of the event and if they wish
to participate in a scientific survey. The method of interview was chosen as it offers the
highest transparency (Flaig et al., 1994, p. 51) and indicates if the questionnaire is generally
usable. The interview guidelines used can be found under A1.3. Overall, nine people (A3.5)
were interviewed in order to get the feel for the questions and the types of possible answers.
58
As concerns the parents, none of the parents had studied with the exception of one person.
The results showed, however, that the man had taken the leading role in the family, also
financially. In seven of nine cases the participants had been active on the Internet for more
than eight years and had, as the survey focused on Twitter, between 1,200 and 3,000
followers; they also saw the Internet as a chance to generate income. Most of them also
indicated that they had at least one degree or were currently in the process of obtaining it.
Termination of studies was mostly reasoned by claiming that there had been better career
opportunities, all of which were in the field of the media, which had made studying
unnecessary. In addition, it was observed that the people had a lot of motivation for the job
and the medium associated with it. The persons whose activity on the Internet was under eight
years and who indicated a low number of Twitter followers showed a strong focus on the
private use of blogs as a communication tool. The participants who are active users of Twitter
state that the exchange of new content, the discussion associated with it exchanging opinions
about politics are the reasons for using the Internet, as these needs cannot be satisfied in their
regular environment. The reason for this may be that the respondents lack appropriate partners
or friends. In this respect, the living situation and environment were also discussed; moreover,
it yielded a very complex picture and should, therefore, be considered for segmentation, thus
confirming the approach of Bourdieu. Questions concerning beverages showed great
problems primarily in differentiating the response according to the place, time and the
environment of the participants, which is the reason why this question should not be
considered further. The question about fitments, however, provides a good basis for
differentiation, where IKEA was named as the most common supplier. In response to the
question about a personal car, two peculiarities emerged: 6 of 9 respondents stated that they
did not own a car and 8 of 9 respondents indicated that they usually use public transportation.
In addition, the answers show that there are various motivations concerning the choice of the
network in which information is shared and the reasons why users interact with friends or
followers online. In this regard, the participants named interaction with friends, clients or
multipliers, as well as receiving attention and acknowledgement. A distinction between
business and private communication is also named in this context. An significant statement
made by the participants is that the content to be shared is specifically chosen even if the
topics do not belong to the interests of the participant. One of the conclusions concerning the
survey is that the participants were able to answer the selected questions with assistance,
however, they partly needed some additional information. In addition, it became apparent,
based on the counter questions or answers, that the participants distinguish between the
mobile us of IT, the chosen network and the associated communicative and motivational
59
behaviour. It was found that the exchange of information on a particular subject is a direct
motivation for interaction which has made a fast feedback necessary. This is consistent with
the experiences from the survey, how honesty on the Internet can be supported and
participation increased. Concerning direct references, given by some participants of the
survey, it was brought up that the area of GPS and the networks connected with it is a trend
which the participants were enthusiastic about. In addition, the sharing of personal data and
privacy was listed as an important basis for users of the Internet. Both points are further
considered during the formation of hypotheses.
Based on this test and the fact that similarities concerning the participants of the conference
were observed already during the Re:Publica X, an expert interview with CEOs of social
networks were conducted during the CeBIT Global Conference 2011 (A2.4; A3.6). The aim
was to gather more information concerning the business perspective of networks, their
coverage and customers. The discussion initiated by open questions shows that all three
represented networks first put their product on the market and found customers only later.
Thus, the actual customer group is not the one which was initially intended to be reached by
the product. Once an adaptive customer group is found, the network very quickly acquires
users and is able to grow. The process itself is dynamic and cannot be easily controlled. It was
important to reach the correct multipliers, which can be understood as a term for trendsetters
and persons of influence. As usual for Web 2.0, the users themselves contribute to the
development of systems and provide business cases and transactions in the network which
had not been planned beforehand. When characterising the networks, the participants showed
that they are well aware of the demographic factors influencing them; however, this does not
reflect on advertising or product enhancements. The joint future prediction is that the next
barrier for the business is enabling mobile use of the product, and that the user interaction has
to be studied, since the regular interaction process is no longer valid. In addition, in this
framework, the way of interaction and the associated duration of use is changing, which can
exert an influence upon the particular business model.
Since the group interviews, as well as the previous individual interviews, showed the
tendency for social networks to be perceived and used differently than their creators had
intended, for example, they can be perceived individually, it was also examined, in the form
of additional material, how social network personalities are perceived. The basis in this
respect is provided by the Five Factor Model (Borkenau/Ostendorf, 1989, pp. 239251;
Digman, 1990, pp. 417440; Bargby et al., 2005, pp. 307311) used to perform personality
assessment. According to the FFM, personality refers to the human personality and psyche
(Boeree, 2007). It is generally regarded that the fundamentals of the FFM have been
60
developed by Christal/Tupes (1961, pp. 510) who examined various factors relating to the
description of personality (Christal/Tupes, 1961, pp. 510) which were later used to create a
model (Christal/Tupes, 1961, p. 13). Due to the fact that the research results were published
within the U.S. Army, the information was not accessible for a wide range of trade
professionals. In the 1970s, the Five Factor Model (FFM) approach gained importance within
the field of psychology and personality research; it manifested itself in the 1980s
(Barrick/Mount, 1991, pp 25). As concerns approaches in the field of marketing, the
approach of FFM regarding the perception of brands is transferred by Aaker (1997, pp. 347
356) as Brand Personality Scale (BPS) or Brand Personality Dimensions. Using associations
and comparisons, the model by Aaker (1997, p. 351) was transferred to the perception of
brands whereby different sub-characteristics came into effect (Aaker, 1997, p. 352) which
were created and tested on brands in conjunction with the FFM. In this regard factors, each
with its own characteristics, emerged in the form of aggregated items. This approach was
taken as a model in order to learn more about social network personalities and their individual
characteristics, that is, how they are perceived by the users. In order to implement the research
on personality characteristics of networks and their perception, the guideline-based interview
was chosen. Interviews with 30 registered users of Xing (A3.7), aged 17 to 48, were
conducted between 2631 May 2011. 60% of them are males. In the survey carried out over
the telephone, the participants were informed that this questionnaire concerns the use of the
Twitter community. The questions were designed to obtain as many characteristics describing
social networks as possible without letting the participants feel influenced by the purpose of
the study. The telephone was selected as a medium in order to ensure a certain distance and
anonymity between the interviewer and interviewee. Another advantage was the possibility to
conduct the survey quickly, since the target audience consisted users who were not supposed
to have any further particular characteristics. In this case, questionnaire A2.5 was used. The
participants responses were stored in a databaseand an analysis was performed based on the
nature of the responses and the word frequency. In this case, the manual text analysis came
into use. The used words are brought into connection and evaluated, and also treated as
practice for the later association survey. The analysis allows concluding that the participants
use networks mainly to share their own information. The information is mostly of personal
nature, it is adapted to the particular network and the respective requirements. It was
determined in this regard that Facebook is used for recreational purposes, alternatively, the
participants used Facebook as a basis for showing differences from other networks. As
concerns the network Xing, the concepts of professional activity and security were frequently
mentioned, which allows concluding that there must be some problems regarding security on
61
social networks. Xing is mentioned in this regard as a network which can be trusted and used
to share information relating to ones professional life. In contrast, Facebook would be
characterised as a network which is not trustworthy due to its data policy, however, the
communication on the network is of innocuous nature. This was also evident in the strict
separation of business communication and private communication, as well as personal
development goals which are named as strong motivating factors for using businesses
networks. As a result, the interaction on the social network Facebook, presumably also on
similar types of networks, is more open and probably also more direct. This was supported by
the statements that personal feelings or opinions are not communicated via the Xing network.
It should be noted that it is difficult for users to have fun using business networks. This was
cited by the users as an additional factor which distinguishes it from other networks. Having
fun in a serious environment is cited as difficult. This tendency is also supported by the
answer, shared by the participants, that on a network like Xing the focus is purely on making
contacts, without performing direct communication or sharing information. The seriousness of
the environment is named as the reason for avoiding the sharing of information. The users do
not wish to make any mistakes or to share content which can cause issues in the workplace.
Intensive use of corporate networks becomes apparent when it comes to receiving information
on future workers or applicants. Using Facebook has been deemed secondary for this type of
information gathering. In this case, it is noteworthy that the term stalking has also been
mentioned, even in a humorous context, as well as the statement that gathering information
about a person is unnecessary, since one would receive it directly in the near future.
Facebook is in this context referred to as fascinating, chic, modern or thrilling. The network
Xing was described as puristic and strict, also when speaking about its design which is
characterised as very technically-driven. Nationality and internationality are further
differences named to exist between Xing and LinkedIn, based on innovation, functionality
and the target audience. Users can see networks as leaders in conjunction with an
international, national or a niche market. If the user is familiar with LinkedIn, it is
immediately named as the leading alternative to Xing, which, in turn, is referred to as a
nationally and linguistically fixed network. In addition, the participants of the survey
differentiate between networks that are aimed at adults, teenagers or that do not have such a
classification. It is also important how topical the network is at the moment and whether it can
satisfy the curiosity of the users.
In combination with previous experience in with the FFM and BPS, the following perceptual
factors regarding social networks can be defined:

62
Seriousness
Confidence Strict Local
Beneficial Confidential Commercial
Attraction
Activities Topicality Positivity
Boldness Lively Youthful
Competence
Success Competence Niche
Network Harmless Relaxed
Subtlety
Solemnity Feelings Puristic
Stylish Fun Ideas
Reliability
Personal information Safety Openness
Communication Tension Tension
Table 13 Perceptual factors regarding social networks (Source: authors research)
This definition is of a more tentative character and should be reviewed for further use. This
study provides a good opportunity to better understand the general perception towards social
networks and to incorporate them in the subsequent research. A larger basis must be created
for a renewed application in order to attach even more weight to the statements. The review of
the questionnaire by Pierre Bourdieu on a small scale demonstrated the need to adapt to the
particular environment. In addition, on the basis of the previous findings, the questionnaire
should be expanded to include a section which is limited to the online market and its use. In
this context, the focus would be on the interaction between people, since the research does not
focus on the perception of networks, but on the group formation and the associated personal
preferences. The perception of networks can be reflected in ones personality and his
subsequent user identity. Bourdieu (1982, p. 803) offers a basis by asking people to
characterise individuals with whom a person gladly stays in touch. This approach should also
be used in the survey, since the users can develop preferences for personality traits, using
which they contact one another within networks.
In conclusion, a differentiated basis for the perception of social networks can be developed in
this context. It becomes apparent that networks are perceived and used differently.
In addition to the results, which were directly related to social network perception and
considered in the context of the FFM, noteworthy clusters appeared, which were related to the
use of this type of networks and which could be easily quantified. The answers to the question
asking the participants to indicate if they actively use other networks as well suggest that there
is a niche for business networks. A negative answer to this question was given by 3 people
(10%) and a positive, by 27 respondents (90%). The existence of niches is confirmed by the
statement, made by 30% of the participants (9 respondents), that other networks are used
privately. A noteworthy statement was made by 3 respondents (10%) who stated that it is not
63
possible to chat using Xing. The possibility to search for jobs is the main reason why the
respondents have registered on Xing. Such factors as job search, receiving job offers and
being addressed by headhunters have been mentioned by 26.7% of the respondents (8 people).
43.3% (13 people) have express the wish to maintain contact with former or current
colleagues. This fits into the context of questions about the Xing functions preferred by the
participants. 14 respondents (46.7%) have indicated Xing as a means of establishing and
obtaining contacts. 33.3% (10 respondents) have pointed out that they use Xing to search for
people and do research on them. The use of groups, more specifically, the indication of group
membership with 7 entries (23.3%) during the interviews is of not. It was determined that the
users believe the network to have been created specifically for the users. Twenty respondents
(67%) stated that they would consider using Xing, while only 23% denied such a possibility.
The situation with the Xing target audience is very differentiated. Only 2 respondents (6.7%)
believe that Xing is intended for academics, businessmen, students or that the network is used
for maintaining business relationships. 3 people (10%) indicated that Xing is intended for
employees and 13.3% (4 people) believe it is mostly suited for working professionals. As
concerns future development, 26.7% believe that Xing will evolve into a business version of
Facebook, with 7 people (23.3%) seeing LinkedIn as the potential candidate. 4 respondents
(13.3%) have indicated job search sites and job placements as a perspective. The strong
position of Facebook is also evident in the 10 entries (33.3%) of Facebook in the question
asking how the interviewee would explain the purpose of Xing to a friend. This empirical
knowledge revealed that this aspect of social networks needs to be considered when reshaping
the survey to map the social network society.
An interesting conclusion regarding the Xing network proves that the networks Facebook and
Xing are perceived differently. It is noteworthy in this context that most of the participants
had been promised something for using Xing, or rather, they speculated or envisioned an
added value in their professional sphere. In addition to staying in touch or establishing new
contacts, in this context, many have named the prospect of new professional opportunities.
These properties or intentions should be considered during the subsequent hypothesis
formation.
2.3. assessment of the conception of a current social structure analysis
The interviews carried out during the Re:Publica X convention showed that a revision of the
questionnaire by Bourdieu is useful and necessary. It pertains to the revision that, in addition
to meeting the technical requirements of an online survey, its content is adjusted in a way that
the research project is guaranteed with the highest possible success. The first aspects relating
64
to the adjustment of the survey so that it could fully grasp user behaviour patterns, thus
allowing lifeworld modelling, became evident during group and telephone interviews.
Fundamentally, the initial version of the questionnaire already served to reveal useful
information and questions to be studied further.
The qualitative methodology of the open questionnaire was used to give a wider range of
answer options and to make the questions more up-to-date. It was attempted to introduce
several possible answers in A1.4, based on the questions from the questionnaire A1.2.
Theactual question was formulated so that the participants would have to provide a free-text
response, thus, they could word their answers freely, meaning, they were allowed listing
concepts which they associate with the question. Closed questions were not used. As concerns
the demographic question category in the unnumbered questionnaire by Pierre Bourdieu (A
1.2), the last question, which asks about the possessions of the respondent, was used as the
basis for the questions 1, 2 and 3 in A1.4. Question 1 from A1.4 asks about the most
important electronic devices in possession of the test person, which are important for his
status or self-realisation. Question 2 in A1.4 is similar, but it is aimed at non-electronic
devices. Question 3 in A1.4 is aimed at identifying the products and services which meet the
standard of living of the participant and which he would like to buy. As concerns multiple
choice questions, Bourdieu had indented to introduce numbering. The question 1 from A1.2
was incorporated in A1.4 as question 4 and reformulated so that it was asked about the way
the respondent had obtained furniture. Question 2 and 4 of A1.2 were incorporated in A1.4
as question 5. Since so far the question included very few answer options from the 1970s
version, it was reshaped so that the respondent was asked to name features which characterise
his apartment. The obtained data corpus should later allow a better and more individual
differentiation. As the question about the leisure activities showed a certain possibility that the
answers might not be up-to-date, question 6 from A1.2 was adopted as question 6 in A1.4.
Question 7 from A1.2 was included in A1.4 as question 7 and formulated in the same
manner except for the answer options. Question13 from A1.2, which asked about the use of
books, was included in A1.4 as question 8 in order to adjust this question to the
contemporary consumer. Question 9 from A1.2 was adopted as question 9 in A1.4 to refer
to clothing. In addition it was asked in this respect in question 10 about the preferred clothing
brands in order to possibly obtain even more information on the topic. The type of clothing
was not taken into consideration, as question 11 (A1.4) already asks the respondent to
characterise his clothing style. Question 18 from A1.2, which focuses on TV content, was
adopted as question 12 in A1.4 The same goes for question 14 from A1.2 which asks to
name three of ones favourite film genres as question 13 in A1.4. In addition, question 14,
65
which is based on question 15 from A1.2, asks about the films which are most well known in
the circle of acquaintances of the respondent. Question 15 in A1.4 is new and it is concerned
with three social media which the respondent uses most often on the Internet. Question 10
from A1.2 asks about the type of foods that the respondent prefers to serve. As this
behaviour seems not to belong to that of the younger generation, the question was not adopted
in this form and was replaced by questions 16, 17 and 18. These questions ask about the types
of food the respondent usually prefers at a restaurant or at home. Question 20 from A1.2 was
transferred as questions 19 and 21 in A1.4 which ask about classical music and the
respondents personal level of awareness, as well as about contemporary compositions and the
level of awareness in the personal environment. It was decided to do without a question about
composers or musicians in order not to place the degree of difficulty too high. It was
determined regarding question 23 in A1.2 about ones favourite painters that the painters
were not known to all the respondents in advance. For that reason, the question was adopted
in the form of question 20 in A1.4. Finally, question 22 asks the participants to indicate the
ways of obtaining music. This question and question 15 should lay the foundations for the
category of Internet questions in the later survey.
It became apparent that it was not possible to use all the questions from A1-2. As concerns
the initial questionnaire, the questions 3, 5, 11, 12, 16, 17, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25 and 26 were not
considered. Question 3 deals with the preferences concerning the style of fitments which one
would chose in case of freedom of choice. As the answer options were identical to those for
question 2 from A1.2, the question was not investigated further. The same goes for question
5 which is similar to question 4. Question 11 was not adopted, as it should be followed by a
separate study of the later section of online questions. For this reason, question 12 was also
not necessary. Question 16 was not adapted, as it contains free answers and it was impossible
to transform it as a closed question. Question 17 which is aimed at the use of the radio was
not adopted, as the survey focuses more on the use of the Internet. The use of the radio in
Germany, within the later target group, lies at a little under two hundert minutes a day which
is rather high and only slightly lower as the use of TV; nevertheless, the use of the Internet is
increasing rapidly (Kroeker, 2012). For this reason, it was decided to do without inquiries
concerning the radio in order to ensure that the survey is not too long. Question 19 focuses on
the understanding of serious music. The mere notion of serious music would make it
difficult for the participant to form an opinion, as this term would be out-of-date within the
language of young people. Question 21 from A1.2 was not considered, as it involves a
negation of the answers in question 20 (A1.2) which, in turn, was redesigned as an
association question. Question 22 was not adopted, as it was deemed unsuitable for the target
66
audience. Questions 24 and 25 focused on the attitude towards art which was adapted in the
investigation by means of the modified question 23. Question 26 was aimed at the perception
and evaluation of pictures. Subjectively, this provides a very good mechanism for evaluating
the behaviour of people who are already present. However, no description of this method of
analysis was to be found in literature, and as a result, no information regarding the choice of
the pictures and answers was found.
The participants of the survey were asked to provide at least three answers in order to obtain
as many different answer options as possible and to be able to individually encompass
different social circles. Altogether, the questionnaire (A3.8) was filled in by 70 people in the
ages 18 to 61. The amount of persons older than 32 was 8.6%. The proportion of male and
female participants was distributed slightly in favour of male participants. An exact
distribution is unclear, since all the participants had not filled in the appropriate field. The
basis of the survey consists of students, since the telephone interviews and other analyses
indicated that they would most likely constitute the target group of social networks. The
gender distribution in these groups is known; it consists of 27 male and 14 female students. In
addition, another group was studied in which the female participants constituted the majority.
Based on this information, a distribution of 60% males and 40% females can be assumed. The
respective answers were individually entered into a database for evaluation and then summed
to obtain a frequency distribution. Hereinafter such results were considered for possible
misspellings or comparabilitys. In this context, the concepts which were entered in the
singular or plural were equalised. A comparability was achieved also by adjusting the data of
the mentioned names. If a person had indicated the artist as Andy Warhol or Warhol, the
entries were combined in order to achieve a high comparability. The total of 4,017 words
were reduced to 1,969 with the help of grouping. A further grouping consisting only of terms
that occur at least twice resulted in 517 grouped entries named 2 to 54 times. 370 of the 517
entries occur only 2 to 4 times; as a result, these entries were generally not used during for the
subsequent survey. Overall, some items showed a high expression, as can be seen in the
following table. The expression which was named 54 times was Facebook as a social
network.
Frequency Number
of
mentions
Mentions in
relation to the
participants
Frequency Number
of
mentions
Mentions in
relation to the
participants
1 54 77.14% 1 42 60.00%
1 36 51.43% 2 32 45.71%
1 31 44.29% 1 30 42.86%
1 28 40.00% 1 26 37.14%
1 23 32.86% 3 22 31.43%
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Frequency Number
of
mentions
Mentions in
relation to the
participants
Frequency Number
of
mentions
Mentions in
relation to the
participants
4 20 28.57% 4 19 27.14%
1 18 25.71% 5 17 24.29%
5 16 22.86% 3 15 21.43%
4 14 20.00%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 14 Distribution: Mentions in the field of associations (Source: authors research)
In the following passages, the individual questions, which can be viewed in detail under A
1.4, are described. In addition, it is described how the results have influenced the creating of
the final questionnaire. The results with the exact number of occurrences and the frequency
distribution of the terms is presented in the appendix (A4.4.1-A4.4.22). During the
discussion of each question, it is referred to the relevant appendix number. The first question
(A4.4.1), which was edited during the process of preparation, is the question about three
electronic devices which are in the possession of the participant and which are most important
for his status and self-realisation. This question was formed in order to clarify if differences in
consumption can already be observed or there are only general preferences. The answers
showed a very strong focus on mobile phones (51.4%); the participants also distinguished
between smartphones (11.4%) and the iPhone (10.0%). Overall, it was revealed that a portable
phone had the strongest effect on the participants. They were followed by names of phones
and portable computers. Mobile goods, such as cars, or daily needs, such as a washing
machine or a stove, play a secondary role in the entries and were listed primarily by people
who were clearly older than the average age of the of the respondents. The answers to this
question were used in the new questionnaire in order to inquire about the main possessions of
the participant. As concerns non-electric goods or properties which are the most important for
the participant (A4.4.2), it was found that clothing (28.6%), books (20.0%), cars (14.3%) or
watches (11.4%) were named most often. Other answers demonstrated much individuality, as
the focus is on the bed (10.0%) or objects which are used individually. As concerns the
properties, the entries were very different, and this option was most often used in case no
objects occurred to the participants or they were against commerce as such. Some of the
responses were also used for the new questionnaire in order to support and expand the answer
options concerning ones possessions and consumption intentions. When asked about the
products that the respondent would like to purchase and that correspond to his standard of
living (A4.4.3), primarily a focus on technical products and products by the company Apple
was revealed. In addition, general consumption goods, such as cars, clothing or trips/holidays
were in demand. Direct answers already showed a differentiation of the mentioned products;
therefore, this question is considered in the later questionnaire as well. When asked about the
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shopping for furniture (A4.4.4), IKEA (60.0%) was named very often, followed by other
furniture shops which are differentiated according to participants local situation. In addition,
some major categories were named, as well as different names for the same source or the
same basis, such as relatives and friends, borrowed and bought privately or online, eBay and
the Internet. This was aggregated in the context of preparation in order to provide
classification criteria. The question concerning the description of the respondents apartment
(A4.4.5) on the one hand showed a strong differentiation, nonetheless, with a large number
of entries which stem from a similar root word or were named only by one or two persons.
Overall, the number of responses in this category fall in the form that the answers by
Bourdieu can be redesigned and adapted.
A similarly complex picture (A4.4.6) is revealed concerning the leisure activities with many
of the same answers which led to surprises, as the Internet was only occasionally mentioned
as a recreational activity and traditional activities, such as friends (27.1%), reading (21.4%)
and sports (18.6%) were mentioned most often. As concerns sports, in part, the type of sport
was named explicitly; due to this reason it is differentiated in the later study between
practising a certain type of sports doing sports in general. The contents are, as such, integrated
in the questionnaire in combination with (Bourdieu, 1982, pp. 800808) and ARD (2011).
The question about the participants favourite singers produced a much differentiated result
(A4.4.7), since the most frequently named musicians (music groups) were named by 7.1% of
the participants. Thus, this question is not suitable, since differentiation is extremely specific,
and mapping it is hardly possible. A question regarding a particular group was, therefore, not
included. The question about books or magazines (A4.4.8) showed a very broad
differentiation in the preferred genres and types of literature. As concerns the entries, the
different characteristics were also often referred to in relation to other questions which points
to a high validity of the entries. The participants mentioned, alongside some dedicated brands,
a wide range of genres and forms of novels, as well as examples from the area of newspapers
and magazines. Thus, it was possible to derive a very suitable basis for the subsequent survey.
As concerns the question regarding the way of obtaining clothing (A4.4.9), a strong focus on
speciality stores and individual brands was revealed. In particular, this question showed very
different answer options for the same online sources, as well as various kinds of clothing that
reflect a normal environment, consciously distinguish between gentlemens outfitters instead
of a speciality shop. The answers to this question were used as the basis for the questions in
the later questionnaire. In this context, however, the question about clothing brands (A
4.4.10), which contributes to identification, showed a much differentiated picture, which is
not as pronounced as in the question about favourite musicians, but which had many brand
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name mentions done only by 1-2 people. As concerns often named brands, there were
characteristics which can be illustrated and differentiated by means of the previous question
and the purchasing options associated with it can be illustrated and differentiated. Question
which asks to describe ones clothing (A4.4.11) showed a strong differentiation of responses,
wherein the pairs of words as such are similar. A focus within the answers, on characteristics
like sporty (31.4%) and modern (27.1%) was observed, which can be attributable to the
student environment in which the survey was conducted. In addition, a large number of terms
which can extensively describe clothing was observed. As a strong differentiation can be seen
already, were clustering is possible, the provided answers lay the foundations for the question
about the participants style of clothing. In this context, the question by Bourdieu could be
revised and brought up to the current status, and even the language. The question (A4.4.12)
about the kinds of TV programmes which are preferred shows a very useful result and a
strong characteristics in the entertainment field, although it must be noted that the interest in
documentation is also very pronounced. It is also noteworthy in this context that particular
names of consumed content relating to TV series have been mentioned. These series mostly
fit under the cover term comedy (27,1%). The mentioned characteristics, for example, the
genres, could be used as a basis for the later questionnaire and provide a very appropriate and
comprehensive basis.
As concerns the mentioning of preferred film genres (A4.4.13) showed that the preferences
are pronounced similarly to the TV consumption, however, the action films (44.3%) are the
most commonly named genre, which is not very characteristic of TV preferences. The number
of detective stories (18.6%), funny movies (42.9%) or separately mentioned us-comedy
(11.4%) comes close to the situation regarding films. Overall, the answers formed a good
basis for the answer options in this category and the questions were well prepared for later
use. Good responses were also obtained in question (A4.4.14) about the films which are
most popular in the respondents circle of acquaintances where the most often named films
did not correspond to the genres which the respondents had named as their favourite.
Unfortunately only few participants have indicated their age and gender, meaning that the
answers cannot be evaluated on the basis of age which would be interesting in light of such
entries as Harry Potter (25.7%), The Lord of the Rings (14.3%), Twilight (12.9%), Titanic
(10.0%) and Hangover (8.6% + 2.9% for Hangover 1&2 as set). In this case, specific clusters
could have been formed and confirmed by existing production models from the film industry.
The question about the social media (A4.4.15) used most often by the participants on the
Internet reveals interesting results, since in this context alongside Facebook, which was listed
by 77.1% of the participants, e-mail is the second (28.6%) most often named service and ICQ
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(27.1%) the third. This is interesting, as these two types of communication do not belong to
the traditional social networks are rather closer to the realm of pure communication. The fact
that ICQ (27.1%), Skype (11.4%) and WhatsApp (4.3%) are very far forward in the overview
indicates that chat programmes, which can also be used on ones mobile phone, are
extensively perceived on the market. The results also clearly show that networks which have a
wide coverage in Germany are named rather at the end. This may be due to the participants of
the survey who may not represent all ranges of normal life. An essential lesson is that
different networks from the communications area must be considered in the later survey. In
addition, the different types of using the Internet must also be considered.
Based on the questionnaire by Bourdieu, the food preferences of the participants were
explored in order to find out if there are similarities or differences. In general, the
respondents personal answers and remarks allowed concluding that the following three
questions proved confusing, that is, it was difficult to answer them. This was revealed also by
the answers. The question about the three most preferred types of food (A4.4.16) showed a
strong focus on Italian foods and, overall, very universal answers. The answers themselves
provided no direct similarities. Entries emphasising that the participant is vegan of vegetarian
were relatively few. Due to the low validity, this question was later omitted. The question
about the types of food preferred at home (A4.4.17) also showed a strong focus on Italian
foods, and a strong differentiation in the descriptions. In general, however, the mentioned
foods feature a small number of national cuisines. Due to this reason, the question later was
not considered. The third question from the category of questions about food (A4.4.18) is
aimed at obtaining information about the consumer behaviour while eating out. The results
generally show a strong focus on three regional cuisines, as well as dishes which can be
assigned to these cuisines. Therefore, only a small significance can be expected in this
context. The questions concerning the area of food were not considered or included in the
further analysis.
As it was asked in the questionnaire by P. Bourdieu about classical music and its composers
(A4.4.19), it seemed appropriate to adapt this question to the German public, as French
compositions and composers are not widely known in Germany. This question belonged to
those with one of the lowest return rates and the largest number of errors which had to be
corrected from a spelling standpoint. The answers themselves showed that the option Fr
Elise (24.3%) was the leading answer, as well as answers of a more general character, as
simply Symphony No. 9 (11.4%) or Beethovens 5
th
(4.3%) or Beethovens 9
th
(4.3%).
Fundamentally, these answers are always correct, as composers compose symphonies and
usually number them. Names of symphonies were mentioned rarely. This question was not
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included in the final questionnaire, since it is not friendly to the intended participants and
there would probably be only a few who could indicate the required associations. As regards
the question about musical compositions, the question 4.4.20 was also adjusted for musicians
and artists who are enjoyed by the participants. There are some common responses in this
area, however, the total number of entries is low. Therefore, it was decided not to use this
question further. The question with the lowest number of usable answers is that about the
compositions most popular in ones circle of acquaintances (A4.4.21). The number of people
who indicated more than one person in this question reached only 7. The answers were
consistent with those to the question about the favourite singers and were always based on
music. It is noteworthy that the national anthem has been mentioned in the list three times
(4.3%). As regards the final version of the questionnaire, it was decided not to use a similar
question asking to name films. The question about the way in which the participants obtained
their last compositions (A4.4.22) unfortunately gave no usable results. Nevertheless, the
answers as such were interesting, as there were a large number of responses; however,
primarily analogue information channels were named. The naming of the social network
YouTube (12.9%) was a positive aspect; however, it was decided not to include a similar
question.
In addition to the possibility of evaluating previous questionnaires, the test carried out during
the Re:Publica X revealed that differentiation may be conditioned not only by demographic
data and consumption preferences, but also by a mere behaviour within the online
environment. In order to develop an adequate foundation, a workshop was conducted with a
group of students to determine the basic factors influencing a person's behaviour on the
Internet (A2.6; A3.9). The students had worked on this issue already in advance, thus
becoming familiar with the topic. This group was also chosen, as it engages in web
application development, thus ensuring a strong affinity for web applications and their use.
This workshop showed that besides Facebook, students also use the networks Google+, Xing,
LinkedIn, Stayfriends, VZ Netzwerke, 4SQ, MySpace and Twitter. A small group (3 persons)
of students joined as well in order to actively work with messenger services, such as ICQ,
WhatsApp or iMessage. It became apparent during a discussion that the students that they
would like to view these applications as social networks, since interaction takes place there.
An interesting statement associated with this is that these applications are primarily used on
mobile devices. The following question, which focused on the place from where the person
goes online, showed that the students hardly still face the problem of Internet access, as they
are constantly online using mobile devices. In addition to the university, home, restaurant,
coffee shops or fast food restaurants, there was an obvious portion of mentioning friends and
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family, as well as private use of the Internet at work. This is in contrast to a subsequent
conclusion from a test of the questionnaire within other group of the same age which does not
consist of students and belong to the working class, which showed that it was not self-evident
that an Internet connection is available. The next question which was investigated concerns
the reason why a person goes online. In addition to the mere use of the Internet as a
communication medium in the form of e-mail, such points as distraction, enquiry, deepening
of knowledge and amusement received the strongest verbal approval. Conscious
communication is done in this context with friends, during work or shopping. As concerns
distraction and amusement, the stated aim was to stay up to date even in the field of
interesting and amusing content and thus getting to know other people. As concerns the
content which serves for amusement, films, streaming, music and online shows, as well as
online TV have been mentioned. In addition, the point of planning the future was named,
which refers to travelling, shopping and route planning. Financial planning, stocks and
stalking are named as further reasons for use. The last of the named points is file sharing, but
mainly in the context of information exchange and not in the form of sharing music or similar
content which falls under the copyright law. As regards the question about the used functions,
the discussion showed that, in addition to such standard functions as sharing of status
information, giving comments, linking, uploading and downloading of images and videos,
using applications and games, as well as writing and reading messages or private
communications, the benefit of account linking is often mentioned as well. This type of use
allows using the account of a social network to sign in to another network. Thus, signing in
separately is avoided and users are able to access their account information from another
social network. In this case, the data transfer takes place automatically. In addition, the
answers, free answers and the discussion showed that participants make active use of
localisation options, such as Facebook Places or 4SQ, as well as on proximity searches for
local services, cash dispensers, vehicle speed-monitoring devices the or weather; on the basis
of the received GPS signal, the users go in the direction of the Internet of Things (SRI, 2012,
pp. F1-F3). These are not mentioned among the most often used services, but rather as an
additional option which are occasionally used. In addition, the fact that the mobile use of IT
has greatly increased and that the participants describe it as a way of obtaining information,
such as tickets, airline tickets and even watching television, which can serve as a basis for
interaction in real life initiated an open discussion. The QR codes were also mentioned in this
regard. Despite the fact that all of the participants were familiar with them, none claimed to
actually use them. The final question which was asked during the workshop concerns the
motivational reasons for the sharing of information. This was cited as the main reason for a
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person to keep contact or make an exchange even with people he does not see every day.
Similar to A2.1 and A2.2, it was additionally determined that competitions, promotional
contests and an added value may constitute motivation to share information on the Internet. It
should be noted that the question was not explicitly aimed at the sharing of personal data, but
rather at communicating information on social networks. The participants pointed out that
social networks allow participating in contests by a simple click of the mouse, since the
personal data are transmitted automatically. In addition, two main reasons to share
information on social networks became apparent. First, an area developed the underlying
terms of which are attention, feedback, recognition and affirmation. Another area which
became apparent has the characteristic of communicating content which contains direct
information which, in turn, does not come from the person who shares that information. This
is web content that the person has found while browsing the Internet. It has sparked his
interest and he wishes to communicate it because he assumes that this content might be
interesting or amusing for other people. The content might be text, discussions, videos, music
or pictures. This information can be used to lay the basis of the Internet questions which could
be further evaluated within the specific social structure analyse.
The discussions revealed the necessity to revise the demographic data to adapt it to the current
standard. These changes will be implemented and documented separately on a scientific base
in the context of the social structure analysis.
2.4. alignment of the social structure analysis in social networks
Based on the preliminary research, this chapter contains a description of the questions which
have been implemented in the subsequent survey. The final version of the questionnaire
focuses on three categories. The first category contains demographic data. The second handles
with personal preferences of the respondent regarding general consumption and media use.
The third category focuses on the Internet and social network usage and the environment in
which the Internet is used.
In addition, it has been described how particular questions were developed and how the
answer options were defined. In order to eliminate possible issues in understanding the
questions, the survey was tested in small groups of people consisting of 3-4 persons, as well
as by conducting individual interviews. In this case, a deliberate selection of people of
different occupations, income and education levels and both genders was performed. As
regards the age, there was an emphasis on a slightly younger target audience, as it was
expected that it would later represent most of the participants. As a result, more social
networks were added and slight adjustments were made to the wording of the questions. The
74
following is a description of the questions found in the final version of the questionnaire (A
1.5). The questions have been classified into three categories: Demographic data (A),
Preferences (B) and Internet use (C). Question category A is later primarily used for the
modelling of the available capital. Data from question category B, focusing on preferences,
and the results of question category C, which deals with Internet use, were later used as
selection criteria for the basic orientation to obtain even more information about the basic
orientation. This should allow selecting participants and eventually provide conclusions
regarding the possible transfer of the SINUS lifeworld model to the studying of social
network users. In addition, the differentiation between lifeworlds should provide conclusions
regarding the basic principles of media consumption.
Questions A1A15 in the category of demographics are aimed at enabling a differentiation of
the respondents. In addition to Bourdieu, the approach of demographic differentiation is also
pursued by McCarthy (1978, p. 147) Hradil (1987, p. 131), Schulze (1992, p. 391), Vester et
al. (1993, pp. 40410), Flaig et al. (1994, p. 47, p. 55, p. 109, p. 124), Armstrong/Kotler
(2003, p. 193), Brassington/Pettitt (2005, pp. 3539) and Geiler (2006, pp. 9394, p. 113).
The differentiation begins with the question A1 about the gender (male/female). In order to
ensure a better data protection and limit the information on birth cohorts, the question A2 asks
only to indicate the year of birth, not the date. As the survey is intended for the inhabitants of
the Federal Republic of Germany, the question A3 asks about a place of residence in
Germany. Persons whose place of residency is outside of Germany were not considered in the
later analysis. In order to obtain more specific information regarding the place of residence,
the respondent is asked in question A4 to indicate the cluster in which the number of
inhabitants in his place of residence falls. The gradation with classification of inhabitants with
less than 2,000; 2,000 to 20,000; 20,000 to 50,000; 50,000 to 100,000; 100,000 to 200,000;
200,000 to 500,000; more than 500,000 inhabitants is based on Statista (2009); DeStatis
(2010); Landesamt BW (2012). The question about the name of the place of residence, as well
as about the time spent living in the present and previous place of residence was deleted due
to data safety reasons. After the classification of the living environment, the respondents are
asked in question A5 if they have access to the Internet. This question proved useful after a
test run of the questionnaire where two copies were filled in with nothing indicated in the C
category. These persons belong to the target group, but have no Internet connection and do
not use the Internet regularly. It was indicated during a personal conversation that the reason
for no Internet access was its costs. One person indicated that she uses Internet only on
occasion by mobile access. However, a focus on social networks was not indicated. After the
question about general use of the Internet, the respondent is asked in A6 and A7 to indicate
75
when he or she started using Internet and mobile Internet. The question regarding the
respondents marital status was taken over as A8 and expanded with the answer options: in a
relationship, in a registered relationship, in an open relationship, separated, other and not
specified. This extension has been carried out in order to be able to reflect the changes in the
society. The new question A9 is aimed at the living situation of the respondent and provides
the options: flatshare, rented flat, tenement, owner-occupied flat and house. A10 extends this
information by asking to indicate the number of persons living in the respondents household.
The question from A1.2 about the secondary or higher education is used in A11 where it is
asked to indicate the current educational qualification. Secondary modern school diploma,
Secondary school certificate, Vocational BA diploma, Higher education entrance
qualification, Certificate, Vocational training, Terminated studies, BA, MA, University
Diploma, PhD and Not specified are indicated as answer options. The question about the
exercised profession is incorporated in the survey as question A12 with the possible answers:
worker, employee, civil servant, student, unemployed, self-employed, self-employed with
employees, entrepreneur, student, voluntary social year, soldier, other and not specified. In
question A13 the respondent is further asked about his family status. The answers are based
on the options of question A8 with the possibility to indicate that the respondent is in a new
relationship. Within the questionnaire A1.2 Pierre Bourdieu asked to indicate the secondary
or higher education degrees of the father and the grandfather. Due to emancipation and the
associated changes in the role of women within the society and, based on the Internet as the
chosen medium, participants of younger age were expected, and this question was adapted as
question A14 about the secondary or higher education and occupation of the parents. As
concerns the grandparents, only the professional and academic, as well as school background
of the grandfather is recorded. The choices correspond to the answer options of the questions
A11 and A12. The question concerning the annual income of the family was adapted as
question A15 which asks to indicate the range of the annual income of the household (gross:
all persons together). The test run showed a problem for one person to understand the
question, if it is only asked to indicate the annual income of the household. The gradation of
the income was converted from francs, the currency in the original source, into euros and split
into segments of less than 10,000, 1014,999, 1519,999, 2024,999, 2534,999, 35
44,999, 4554,999, 5569,999 or 70,000 and more. The question about the number and
age of children was not asked during the survey; it was replaced with a question about the
number of persons living in the respondents household.
The assessment of the property, provided by Pierre Bourdieu in the category of demographics,
such as a record player, car, video camera, audio tape or TV, has been transferred to the B
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category of the survey which focuses on the identifying features and personal preferences.
This category consists of questions B1-B13. This category also serves the other differentiation
approaches, introduced in the theoretical part, which delve into the individual consumption of
a person, his culture or subculture (McCarthy, 1978, p. 147).
The question B1 asks the respondent to indicate the goods which are in his possession. The
choices are based on the results of the questionnaire A1.4 with evaluations A4.4.1, A4.4.2,
A4.4.3, as well as on the results of the interviews from A1.3. Adding the option of
dishwasher is based on the authors personal experience regarding his friends who own a
dishwasher and who do not. In detail, the question includes a possibility to indicate if the
respondent possess an Apple product, a car, railcard (BahnCard 50 or higher), Blu-Ray player,
owner-occupied flat, bicycle, flat-screen TV, garage, a plot of land, flat-rate mobile phone
plan, house, an IKEA product, brand watch, motorcycle, musical instrument, netbook,
notebook, horse, record player, scooter, smartphone, dish washer, tablet computer or landline
telephone. In this question the participant is allowed choosing an unlimited number of goods.
It can be expected to receive false information in this question. The question B2, with the
same content as B1, asks which five products the respondent would like to buy. The purpose
of this question is to classify the consumption goals of the participants. In order to be able to
study the participants not only according to pure possessions, but also according to the use of
financial resources, in question B3 the respondents are asked to indicate the financial products
they use. The answer option include shares, building societies, occupational disability,
occupational pension, Eichel pension, time deposit, investment funds, life, insurance, private
pension insurance, Riester pension, Rrup pension, savings plan, call money account
(Tagesgeld), a different financial product and a different savings scheme (VL-Produkt). The
classification principles of this question are based on the range of services provided by a
regular financial service provider in Germany. If necessary, the differentiation between
various VL Products and pension types can later be used to represent different preferences, as
well as to verify a hypothesis. Question 1 of the selection queries of A1.2 was edited over
A1.4 and the evaluation A4.4.4 and incorporated in the questionnaire as question B4. The
question is not, as is the case with A1.2, provided without a time limit, rather the participants
are asked to answer how they obtained furniture in the last five years. The answer options
include antiquities trade, construction market discounter, flea market, inherited, as a gift,
made by a carpenter, ordered from a catalogue, department store, classified advertising,
furniture shop, online auction house, online shop, speciality market and auction. The question
about the way of obtaining furniture is followed by the question B5 in which the respondents
are asked to indicate their lifestyles. Thus, the question is similar to question 4 in A1.2
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where the respondents are requested to characterise the fitments that they would like. The
answer options were in this case adjusted on the basis of A1.4 and the results of A4.4.5.
Thus, the answer options are tidy, chaotic, colourful, comfortable, spacious, elegant,
convenient, light, small, modern, open, neat, practical, calm, clean, modest, pretty, messy,
warm, flatshare and cosy. The answer options are similar to those provided by Bourdieu, only
expanded taking into consideration the recent developments. The question asking to negate
concepts describing ones apartment was not adapted. Afterwards, in question B6, the
respondents are asked to name 5 words which best characterise their style of clothing. This
question with the answer options adequate, comfortable, casual, fancy, simple, elegant,
functional, daring, individual, youthful, classical, conservative, correct, nonchalant, sales-
oriented, modern, practical, modest, serious, sporty and inconspicuous replaces, based on A
4.4.11, the existing answers of question 8 of A1.2. In addition, the question B7 about the
way the respondent has obtained clothes in the last five years was added. The approach is the
same as for the question about obtaining furniture. The time was delib-erately chosen shorter,
as the period of using clothes should be shorter as that of furniture. 2nd hand shop, retail shop,
speciality shop, as a gift, ordered from a catalogue, department store, brand shop, online
auction, online shop, outlet, self-made and supermarket were defined as the answer options
for this question through A4.4.9 and by interpreting the intention of question 9 from A1.2.
The five types of content are indicated in question B8 in order to determine what the
participants read most often. The answer options adventure, anime, comic, drama, specialist
books, trade magazines, fantasy, regional novels (Heimat), history, horror, comedy, detective
stories, short stories, poetry, magazines, mystery, romance, non-fiction literature, science
fiction, thriller, tragedy, scientific literature, journals and newspapers are based on the results
from A4.4.8 and the answers to question 14 from A1.2 which were adjusted to the genre
types provided by book-sellers. The same approach, based on the results of A4.4.13 and the
answers to question 14 from A12 was used for the question about the most often watched
film genres were the genres adventure, action, anime, documentary, drama, fantasy, regional
films (Heimat), history, horror, comedy, war films, crime films, mystery, nature, romance,
science fiction, thriller and animation were expanded and matched with the categorisation of
online retailers. As part of the interim conclusions and the association survey, a trend emerged
concerning certain respondents who chose to watch films in the original language or preferred
a version of the film in the original language. The question B10 asks if the participant prefers
to watch films in the original language. It is implemented as a yes/no question. In the
following question B11 it is asked to indicate the most often watched TV stations. The
question was found to be useful, as some TV channels specialise on a certain type of content
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and there might be associations. The TV stations were changed several times prior to
conducting the survey. It became apparent that all the respondents did not realise that dritte
programme (lit. third programmes) is a collective term denoting state regional TV/radio
stations. For this reason, the television stations which have both, a range of at least 0.5%
(Quotenmeter, 2012) and are seen as standard in the German TV scene (Wirtz, 2011, pp. 366-
372) were chosen. As a result, there is a choice between the following TV channels: 3Sat,
ARD, Arte, BR, CNN, Comedy Central, Das Vierte, DMAX, Eins Plus, Eurosport, HR,
HSE24, Kabel 1, Kika, MDR, MTV, N24, NDR, N-TV, Phoenix, Pro Sieben, RBB, RTL,
RTL 2, SAT. 1, SIXX, Sky, Sport 1, SR, Super RTL, SWR, Tele 5, Viva, VOX, WDR, ZDF,
ZDF Info, ZDF Kultur und ZDF Neo. In addition, the answer options of additional private
regional stations, other German stations and other foreign language stations were offered. As
part of the subsequent analysis, stations can be combined in groups of stations, groups of
operators and thus also adjusted for the target groups. Question B12 is aimed, as already
stated, at the forms of TV content which are consumed by the participant of the survey. The
answer options call-in shows, comedy, documentary, TV films, TV shows, cooking shows,
music channels, news, quiz shows, reality shows, soup operas, TV series, feature films,
sports, talk shows, us series, scientific literature and animation were offered. Here the
respondent is again asked to select five types of the content preferred. The answer options are
based on the results of the analysis of question A1.4 from A1.4, question 18 from A1.2
and the sector profiles by Wirtz (2011 p. 369) and Mikos (2008, p. 263). The question B13
asks about the intensity of the use of leisure time. Contrary to the previous multiple choice
questions, a Likert scale of 1 to 5 is used, and participants are asked to indicate the intensity
of use on a scale of 1 (never) to 5 (very frequent use). The choice of items in this case is based
on A4.4.6 and question 6 from A1.2 and includes family, celebrations, watching TV,
further education, photography, friends, hobbies, internet, art, reading, listening to music,
playing music, travelling, writing, shopping, other activities, watching sports and doing
sports.
Based on the preceding evaluations, all of the questions from the questionnaire by Pierre
Bourdieu were not incorporated. The questions 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23,
24, 25, 26 from A1.2 were, as already described, not further considered. In addition, omitting
of the previous questions was not applied, which eliminated question 3, 5 and 12. The
question about the respondents three favourite singers (question 7 from A1.2) was not
adopted, as the analysis of A4.4.7 showed no real preferences. Question 10, which was
targeted at the food that guests are served, was not taken over. Unfortunately, the attempt to
adapt this question to the consumption of food in general (A4.4.16), at home (A4.4.17) or
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in the restaurant (A4.4.18) showed no usable results. Use of question 11 was moved to the
category of Interaction on the Internet as question C7 to match the category of human
interaction. Since the answers from the association questionnaire A1.4 (A4.4.14) to
question 15 from A1.2 exhibited a very strong and broad diversity and at the same time a
low frequency, this question was not adopted. Due to the omitting of question 15, question 16
from A1.2 was unsuitable for a direct transfer. Question B10 from A1.5 presents in this
context a similar differentiation question and can be considered as a substitute. The field of
the radio, explored in question 17 (A1.2), was not considered in this study. Unfortunately,
the answers to A4.4.19 showed that the music preferences do not reveal large differences in
the total number of responses, at the same time showing a frequent mentioning of classical
music. A transfer in the modern times, such as the one attempted by A4.4.21, can render the
direct question about compositions unusable. On that basis the questions 19, 20 and 21 were
not considered. Since the results of the association questionnaire showed a very low level of
acceptance concerning art (A4.4.20), questions 22 25 were not taken over. Question 26
was not adopted, as questions of this form were not evaluated and the use of pictures was
considered problematic by the author of this doctoral thesis due to copyright reasons.
The third category focuses on studying the habits of the participants relating to the use of the
Internet and contains questions C1-C7. The questions C1 and C2 are aimed at clarifying the
number of hours a participant spends on the Internet from a stationary computer or a mobile
device during the week and at the weekend. In question C3 the respondent is asked to specify
if the listed networks are known or unknown to him, if he is a registered user and if he uses
them weekly or daily. The networks Facebook, Flickr, FourSquare, Google+, hi5, ICQ,
Instagram, Jappy, Kwick, LastFM, LinkedIn, MSN Live, MySpace, Pinterest, Spotify,
StayFriends, Twitter, VZ Netzwerk, Wer kennt wen, WhatsApp, Xing und YouTube were
chosen as the possible answers. This selection is based, firstly, on the results from A3.9, A
4.4.15, A4.4.22 and the current range of social networks in Germany (Comscore, 2012;
Alexa1, 2012). In order to be able to evaluate and classify the interaction within social
networks, the question C4 asks to indicate the intensity of the respondents use of functions in
social networks on a scale of 1 (never) to 5 (very strong intensity). The respondent was asked
to indicate the intensity of use of the following functions: actively post status messages, use
apps, upload images, link friends to pictures, link friends in status messages, receiving
information about events, share content with specific persons only, share content publicly,
write comments, maintain personal information, customise security settings, play games, parts
of web-sites in a social network, plan events, upload my own videos, share videos from
YouTube or similar sites and click the I like button. In connection with the use of the
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functions, the question concerning the motivation for social network use is inevitably raised.
Therefore, question C5 asks to indicate the strength of motivation on a scale of 1 (no
motivation) to 5 (very strong motivation) of the following interaction scenarios: chatting,
discharging emotions, discussing events, looking for friends, birthday reminders and
congratulations, looking for business partners and customers, receiving information, looking
for information on people, making comments, creating content, sharing content, job search,
establishing contacts, exchanging opinions, staying in touch with acquaintances, staying in
touch with friends, discussing politics, sharing your location, discussing daily events and
discussing TV content. The content of the question blocks C4 and C5 is based on the
qualitative surveys A3.5, A3.6, A3.7, A3.9 and the approaches suggested by Craig
(2007, pp. 154155), Ewing (2008, p. 577), Joinson (2008, pp. 45), Emerald (2009, p. 21;
Ernst, 2010, pp. 9091), Weinberg (2010, p. 5) and Zhou (2010, pp. 134140), introduced in
the chapter focusing on the theoretical fundamentals. The point of discussion of TV content
and the events of the day is, against the background of Microsoft (2010 pp. 24) of increasing
importance and could also by confirmed by means of discussion during the Cebit Global
conference (incl. Webciety) of 2012. In this regard, the point of consumption of media content
is considered during the formation of hypotheses. As regards the question block C6, the
participant is asked to indicate the frequency with which he uses the listed Internet services on
a scale from 1 (never use) to 5 (use very often). The intensity of use has to be indicated for
banking operations, blogs, chat, data exchange, dating, shopping, e-mail, forums, information
portals, dictionaries and encyclopaedias, listening to music, social networks, search engines,
Internet telephone services, TV and watching videos. The different areas could be created
from personal experience of the data by Craig (2007, pp. 154155), Gillin (2009, pp. 1017)
and Weinberg (2010, p. 96). Finally, the question category regarding Internet use, with the
incorporation of question 11 from A1.2, was adapted to the interaction within social
networks. In his question the participant is asked to indicate which of the listed properties
characterise the people with whom he most often stays in contact using social networks. The
participant is asked to use a scale of importance to indicate importance how important the
characteristics outgoing, even-tempered, vibrant, sophisticated, seeking relish, sociable,
conscientious, artistic, optimistic, cheerful, funny, open for new experiences, refined,
cultivated and well-behaved are for him. The respondent can evaluate the characteristics on a
scale of 1 (not unimportant) to 5 (very important). It was determined during various
evaluations, especially with the help of the Five Factor Model, that people may have different
types of motivation for coming into contact with one another. In order to ensure that a firm
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basis is selected regarding the social structure analysis, the foundations created by Bourdieu
were used.
It has been attempted to incorporate as many forms of research as possible; as Ltsch/Meyer
(1993, p. 259) have already shown, a matrix of 400 items per interviewed person may be
necessary for an examination of an exemplary differentiation of the Federal Republic of
Germany. The variety of social conditions, however, can lead to problems in the analysis,
since each constellation of characteristics type can occupy a separate area. Therefore, a
reduction of the items in the survey was not intended as a reduction of its scope, as a
reduction of the scope can also take place during the analysis, and it should be more
promising in this context. Besides proving the hypotheses which could made on the basis of
the previous research, additional information should be collected by means of the survey and,
where applicable, illustrated exploratively.
2.5. establishing of the hypotheses
The main hypotheses should serve to promote a comprehensive analysis and help with the
examining of the principal hypothesis: analysing convenience samples of Internet users
through lifeworlds produces more significant results than analysing the same sample without
considering lifeworlds. The survey developed during the research process supports the
principal hypothesis in that questions belonging to category A collect demographic data
which can be used to determine the income level and partly the background of the person.
Question category B supports the subsequent differentiation regarding the normal and
analogue life with the associated consumption and traditional recreational activities. Question
category C focuses on pure Internet use. The hypotheses intended for testing within the
context of the sample have been formed so as to allow transferring and analysing them in the
context of different target groups and populations. The target groups examined in this study
represent the previously introduced SINUS milieus, which should be generally valid for the
society of the Federal Republic of Germany and require no particular restrictions concerning
the subsequent data collection. In addition to a personal Internet connection and residence in
Germany, the members of the intended target audience of the present study should be active
social network users, meaning that they have had the opportunity to participate in the survey.
In order to reach the widest possible audience, very close attention has been paid to the survey
distribution process.
Hypotheses in the form of operational correlation hypotheses and difference hypotheses are
developed on the basis of the research hypothesis (Tpfer, 2009, pp. 168172). Where
possible, these are supported by sub-hypotheses in the form of point hypotheses
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(Laatz/Janssen, 2010, p. 330) which provide targeted and specific orientation (Bortz/Dring,
2002, p. 495). In order to confirm the hypotheses based on correlations, additional hypotheses
have been created for the factors. This is advisable, since factor analysis attempts to group
variables that have a strong correlation (Stier, 1999, pp. 282283). These groups are
dominated by strongly correlated variables. Variables with low correlations can occur in
different groups and have different loadings. Therefore, factor analysis offers additional
confirmation for the correlations.
The hypotheses that have resulted from the current theoretical knowledge and preliminary
research are listed below. The subsequent analysis involves examining the obtained data for
further irregularities in the context of the involved variables.
The theoretical fundamentals and findings of preliminary research suggest the following
research hypotheses which are the main hypotheses of the present study:
H: Analysing convenience samples of Internet users through lifeworlds produces more
significant results than analysing the same sample without considering lifeworlds.
Ha: It is possible to detect consumption preferences typical for the selected lifeworlds.
Hb: It is possible to detect patterns of Internet use typical for the respective lifeworlds.
Hc: A direct comparison of Digital Vanguard and Responsibility-driven Individuals with the
general population reveals significant changes in the results of SH1SH10.
The aim of these hypotheses is to support that the fundamentals of milieu research or social
structure analysis can be used to distinguish users of social networks. This means that, rather
than constituting a special group of the society, Internet users are a normal part of the society
with specific online behavioural patterns. The main hypotheses, outlined above, form the core
of the model which has been developed to support the principal hypothesis. In order to
support the main hypotheses, several sub-hypotheses have been developed. It should be
possible to confirm the sub-hypotheses within the ground population, obtained during the data
collection phase of the study. The general population of the present study consists of German
social network users. As regards their age, the preliminary research suggests that mostly
young people of both genders have been reached. It should be possible to achieve a dispersion
in the demographic data which exhausts the available answer options.
In general, it should be noted that further sub-hypotheses are intended to support the main
hypotheses. This is confirmed by Ha and Hb which deal with an exploratory data analysis and
compare the values collected from the obtained population with those of both milieus. In the
case of Hc, this comparison focuses on quantifiable data. The sub-hypotheses have been
developed for the AC question categories of the research with a dedicated overlap with the
preliminary research. It is assumed that further investigation points supporting the HAHc
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can be identified for the subsequent analysis. A sub-hypothesis might not have been created
for each of the areas of the survey.
As concerns the evaluation of the questionnaire within the context of the mentioned test
group, it was determined that household income has an influence on Internet use. More
specifically, a direct observation of the test results showed that income levels have a direct
influence on the living environment of the participant. This leads to the defining of SH1.
SH1: A higher household income has a positive and significant impact on the living
environment of the participant.
The first sub-hypothesis deals with the influence of the availability of capital on the use of the
Internet. It is assumed that the availability of the Internet has a positive influence on a
persons life. In its early days, access to the Internet was expensive and the cost was
determined per minute. A breakthrough in the range of coverage of the Internet was possible,
first of all, due to affordable flatrate offers. Therefore, it can be assumed that the household
income has an impact on an earlier access to the Internet.
SH1a: There is a significant correlation of at least -0.3 between the household income
and the first time of installing an Internet connection in the household.
As concerns the living situation of the participants, the interviews of the Re:Publica X
revealed a very diverse situation. Unfortunately, at that time the respondents were not asked
about their level of income, but it is assumed that the household income can have a positive
influence on ones living environment. It is, therefore, believed that a higher household
income leads to a better living environment.
SH1b: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the household income
and its residential environment.
A higher household income needs to have a reason. In principle, it is stated in the theory that,
from a monetary point of view, it is profitable to obtain education, and a higher level of
education leads to a higher household income. Since this view can be verified according to the
collected data, the statement will be reviewed. It serves as proof that the gathered sample can
have a thoroughly representative character.
SH1c: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the household income of
the participant and his educational qualification.
It is noted in the theory that gender and the associated characteristics may cause differences in
the individuals life. The association questionnaires show an accumulation of certain sub-
genres of films, all of which could be placed under the cover term of romantic films (A
4.4.13). Sports and action are widely represented as well. The number of entries provided in
advance allows considering the later occurrences as significant. It is assumed that the
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clustering of responses can be assigned to particular genders. In this regard, such
characteristics are of interest for the subsequent comparison of milieus. As concerns use of the
media, a relation between gender and content is expected.
SH2: There is a significant and positive correlation between particular media content and
gender.
In particular, it will be possible to transfer these correlations on the genders separately. This
leads to the following sub-hypotheses between the genders.
SH2a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the female participants
and consumption of romantic films.
SH2b: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the male participants
and consumption of action films.
SH2c: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the male participants
and consumption of TV content relating to sports.
In addition, it can be assumed that in the area of literature, where romance can be chosen, this
option will be related to the gender of the participants. A significant correlation could be
assumed; however, there is a lack of theoretical fundamentals confirming that this occurrence
is significant.
SH2d: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the female participants
and consumption of romantic literature.
In addition to the question about traditional media, the Internet use patterns of the participants
are investigated. The first point of interest is the time period of how long the Internet is used.
It is assumed that a person uses the Internet for a consistently long period of time. This was
observed within the various group activities. In this discussion, the participants named
examples explaining why they spend a lot of time or little time on the Internet. It is evident
that there are different interpretations of using mobile Internet. This includes statements
saying that mobile Internet can be used for a short period of time, or as a permanent substitute
for broadband Internet. In principle, the participants mentioned various approaches differing
in the fact that there are people who use the Internet with a very strong focus on
communication and participation. This leads to different types of the intensity with which a
medium is used, but a similar pattern is observed in the amount of usage during the week and
at the weekend. This results in sub-hypothesis SH3.
SH3: There is a significant correlation between the duration of Internet use during the week
and at the weekend.
It is assumed that both types of Internet use -mobile and broadband- have a very strong
correlation. This leads to sub-hypotheses SH3ASH3c.
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SH3a: There is a highly significant correlation of at least +0.5 between the duration of
using broadband Internet during the week and at the weekend.
SH3b: There is a highly significant correlation of at least +0.5 between the duration of
using mobile Internet during the week and at the weekend.
This correlation could also indicate that the patterns of using mobile and broadband Internet
are the same. In this case it is assumed, however, that both values are unrelated. The time of
using mobile Internet does not depend on that spent using broadband Internet.
SH3c: There is no correlation of at least +0.3 between the duration of using mobile or
broadband Internet.
It can be expected from the results of the brainstorming workshop that certain functions will
be associated with mobile Internet. This case concerns the functions which can initially be
accessed using the Internet on a mobile device and the associated real-time use of Internet
applications. This means that, generally the use of applications on a mobile phone depends on
the use of mobile Internet, as well as on the uploading of pictures, since smartphones usually
have a photo camera and offer the option of processing images. This is consistent with
statements from the said workshop. The set of these functions leads to the fact that tagging
people in pictures and the corresponding text messages makes sense, first of all, when used on
a mobile device. In addition, in this context the location function gains significance.
SH4: There is a positive and significant correlation between the duration of using the Internet
on a mobile device and the use of certain functions within social networks.
In detail, this correlation hypothesis is supported by the following point hypotheses:
SH4a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the time spent online
from a mobile device and the intensity of uploading pictures.
SH4b: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the time spent online
from a mobile device and the intensity of tagging friends in pictures.
SH4c: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the time spent online
from a mobile device and the intensity of tagging friends in messages.
SH4d: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the time spent online
from a mobile device and the intensity of using the location function.
It should be possible to use these hypotheses as the basis to calculate a factor for these
functions using factor analysis. In view of this, the last sub-hypothesis can be formulated.
SH4e: A significant factor can be defined for the functions of SH4ASH4d.
In the group discussions, association questionnaires, as well as the interviews conducted
during the Re:Publica X conference, a very strong prevalence of Facebook can be observed. It
can therefore be expected that Facebook will prevail within the analysis. Facebook is likely to
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take a similar position in the use of social networks, as Google holds for the search function
on the Internet. In addition, it will be interesting to see whether the prevalence differs,
depending on the lifeworld. Furthermore, the survey showed a very complex picture regarding
the use of social networks. Even if there seems to be a predominant network, the niche
networks mentioned by the participants of the survey partially overlap. This process became
evident in small research groups during the interviews for Xing, as well as during the
Re:Publica X and CeBIT conventions and the group workshops. In view of this, two general
correlation hypotheses can be created. The first of these is aimed solely at Facebook.
SH5: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using Facebook and the
intensity of using functions in social networks.
It should be possible to prove the predominance of Facebook in the context of correlations, as
well as with a factor.
SH5a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the core functions of
social networks and Facebook.
SH5b: The functions of social networks allow defining a significant factor for Facebook.
The second sub-hypothesis suggests that social networks can be grouped, thus representing
specific market segments.
SH6: There is a significant correlation between social networks and the intensity of their use.
There should be significant correlations between social networks on the basis of their users. In
view of the subsequent consideration of lifeworlds, there should be shifts in these results.
SH6a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between social networks.
The findings of the preliminary research suggest that a differentiated and complex result
should be assumed for sub-hypothesis SH6a. It may, however, be assumed that social
networking groups can be detected and it can be expressed with different factors.
SH6b: Significant factors consisting of social networks can be defined.
Meaningful results were achieved when studying the perception of the Xing network within
preliminary research. Qualitatively, business networks were described as serious, fun free and
useful for career advancement. This suggests that the characteristics of the use of these
networks could be significant.
SH7: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using business networks,
specific users and the factors motivating them to use business networks.
As concerns motivating factors, the answer options suggest that there should be a correlation
between the intensity of using the networks for searching business partners, establishing
contacts and job search. These motivating factors correspond to the reasons mentioned in the
survey, regarding the character perception of social networks.
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SH7a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the intensity of using
business networks and the motivation to find business partners and customers.
SH7b: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the intensity of using
business networks and the motivation to search for jobs using social networks.
SH7c: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the motivation to find
business partners and customers and to search for jobs using social networks.
SH7d: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the motivation to find
business partners and customers and to establish contacts within social networks.
Since this concerns interrelated functions, and a strong connection of these concepts and
business networks has been detected during the preliminary research phase, factor analysis
should combine the functions in a single factor.
SH7e: A significant factor can be defined for the functions of SH7ASH7d.
If this hypothesis is confirmed, a similarity of the customer base of such a network type can
be assumed. In addition, a survey of the users of Xing revealed that these are mainly students
and the network serves mostly to store contacts relating to ones professional life. The
colleagues are usually people representing the area of management. A correlation suggesting
that an increasing level of an individuals educational qualification and the intensity of using
career networks positively influence each other is therefore assumed.
SH7f: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the intensity of using
business networks and the educational qualification of the user.
Two social networks which fall within the scope of corporate networks were studied in depth.
These are the previously introduced market leaders Xing and LinkedIn. If both networks
operate on the same or very similar markets, a similar intensity of use can be assumed within
the collected sample.
SH7g: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between Xing and LinkedIn.
In conclusion, sub-hypotheses SH7ASH7g should support hypothesis SH7, as well as
provide a definition of the differences between users of social networks.
The experience from the study of honesty on the Internet and the related discussions, as well
as personal experience, suggest the following sub-hypothesis relating to the intensity of using
features in social networks:
SH8: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the use of security settings
and protection of personal data.
If this proves true, it will provide confirmation that the people with a strong correlation in this
area adjust their security settings and provide more actual data. Enhancing data security could
increase the quality of the data.
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As regards the motivation for using the Internet, it is assumed that politically-minded people
favour the online environment. This refers, for example to Internet parties or the influence of
the new media on politics. Therefore, a sub-hypothesis for political discussions is created.
SH9: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using the Internet for political
discussions and the intensity of using communication functions.
The intensity of the political discussion or even the will to be politically active, has also, in
confirming this hypothesis, established online, since it can be proved as significant. Politically
active people are also active online, and mostly in the real world as well. Political discussions
will be held on the Internet in a similar fashion as they are organised in the real world.
SH9a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the motivation to hold
discussions relating to politics and the intensity to leave comments.
In general, the exchange of political opinions should be understood by the participants so that
there should be a similarly strong motivation to exchange opinions. This requires a further
sub-hypothesis.
SH9b: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the motivation to hold
political discussions and to exchange opinions.
As part of the discussions during the Re:Publica X conference and the survey on safety on the
Internet, discussions were also held with very politically oriented people. It was indicated
during the discussions that specific content is shared in order to please the followers and to
receive assistance or even acknowledgement. In view of this, the penultimate partial
hypothesis of the sub-hypothesis SH9 is formed.
SH9c: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the motivation to hold
discussions relating to politics and to share web-sites within social networks.
As with other sub-hypotheses, it can be assumed in this case that a factor analysis may help
with the calculation of a corroborative result.
SH9d: A significant factor can be defined for the functions of SH9ASH7c.
As concerns media consumption, there is a concluding assumption saying that people can
exercise a hobby online as well. It can be assumed that it is easiest to practice a hobby online
using special offers.
SH10: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the users degree of
interest in listening to music as a leisure activity and the intensity of using online services
which offer music.
In addition to the above mentioned hypotheses, it can be assumed that the data evaluation will
show additional information supporting the usefulness of lifeworlds within Internet use and
social structure analysis.
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3. SOCIAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS WITHIN SOCIAL NETWORKS
The aim of this investigation is to obtain a convenience sample consisting of social network
users. Since the principal hypothesis of the present thesis states that analysing convenience
samples of Internet users through lifeworlds produces more significant results than analysing
the same sample without considering lifeworlds a comprehensive and random analysis of
social network users is necessary. To this end, an invitation to particpiate in the survey was
sent only to social network users, meaning that information regarding the survey was
communicated within social networks. It has been attempted to perform fundamental research
into the behaviour of social network users to review the applicability of, first of all,
performing a social structure analysis among social network users and, second of all, the
hypotheses developed during the preliminary research phase.
According to the data of May 2012, the population of social network users in Germany
constitutes 29.6 million people (StatistA1, 2012). Due to its large size, it is impossible to
conduct a study of the entire population; therefore, a convenience sample is selected and a
partial survey is carried out instead. The purpose of a partial survey is to reach a subset of all
the objects of the targeted population (Mller, 2007, p. 6). This corresponds to the standard
approach of conducting research involving social structure analysis. In this regard,
Bourdieu (1980, p. 22) indicates that it was necessary for him to analyse 1,500 questionnaires.
Becker et al. (1992, p. 7) note that a segmentation can be reached and illustrated if the number
of participants is 4,000. This corresponds to the theoretical fundamentals of statistics where a
similar size is recommended in order to obtain significant results. According to Rumsey
(2010, p. 62), a sample of such a size would allow obtaining significant data for the
hypotheses. As concerns the distribution within social networks, special attention must be
paid to ensuring that the sample corresponds to the target population (Rumsey, 2010, p. 268).
In addition, a challenge regarding online surveys is that they always carry bias, since they are
usually initiated by a single person (Rumsey, 2010, p. 269). After the survey, the obtained
convenience samples were tested for representativeness, since the resulting hypotheses serve
as a basis for the research and comparison of milieus. The results of the hypotheses have been
calculated on the basis of the sample and two selected milieus. Defined according to the
demographical data and information regarding the participants property, these milieus can be
selected from the obtained sample.
Finally, the study provides a basis for further attempts to expand the social structure model, as
well as implement development and marketing activities in the light of the obtained
information.
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3.1. implementation of the survey as part of iss2012
In order to confirm the hypotheses, it is planned to obtain a convenience sample consisting of
social network users. The convenience sample was realized under the name ISS2012 with no
particular emphasis on an age or gender group. This was done in order to collect enough data
for a subsequent comparison of the sample and the selected lifeworlds. In this context, the
sample of online social network users should resemble the Internet users of the Republic of
Germany, while presenting enough data to view the differences in the selected approaches to
the lifeworlds.
In addition to anonymity, which can lead to false statements, online surveys have the problem
that they are usually run from a central location or by a single person. This can cause a
problem if subsets of the different objects of the sample population are to be achieved, and
there are implications for the construct validity and reliability of the data collected. During the
data collection process, the implementing objectivity must also be considered, so that the
survey is not carried out only from one direction (Mller, 2007, pp. 23). Since further
samples have to be drawn from the collected data, it is decided not to use quota parameters or
attempt a careful selection within the layer. This approach aims to cover the population as
well as possible, and to achieve a matching cluster sample (Stier, 1999, p. 145) in view of the
stratified random sample (Hudec/Neumann, 2012, pp. 1113)
Social networks Facebook, Xing, Twitter, Google+ and VZNetzwerken were chosen to
publish and distribute the questionnaire, since they have the highest user coverage in Germany
(Comscore, 2012). It was decided to dispense with small networks, such as Wer-kennt-wen.de
or Jappy, since a strong decline in the user activity of these networks can be observed in the
last months, and there possibility of meeting active users on these networks was too low. It
was decided not to publish the survey on the international network LinkedIn, since it is
designed for Internet users of the Federal Republic of Germany. Invitations and information
on the launch and availability of the survey were distributed over the period of 1 September
2012 to 18 September 2012. As concerns the dissemination of the information, it was
intended to publish the invitations only within social networks and among their users.
An invitation to participate in the survey was sent to 2,550 users of the social network VZ
Netzwerke, and a response was received from one user. The 2,550 users belong to the friend
list of the initiator; however, the initiator does not know most of them personally. The account
used contains various groups, randomly added friends, and forums. Participants were not
selected from the personal or professional environment. In addition to the survey invitations,
status messages were used to encourage people to participate as well. This function had not
been used from this account previously, so that the message would not be hidden by anyone.
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An invitation to participate was posted in 20 major groups within the network. There was no
notable feedback in the groups; moreover, after two weeks the survey was found only on 2 of
5 forums. Owing to the dwindling activity in VZ Netzwerke, the there are hardly any views of
the messages themselves (Alexa2, 2012). As regards the business network Xing, the
invitation was shared with 482 people using messages and posting an invitation as a status
update. An invitation was also shared on 70 of the largest groups of the network. These
invitations were mostly deleted within 24 hours by the moderator of each group, since there
was no connection between the theme of the group and the survey. At the end, the invitations
were found only on 12 of the forums. A twitter account was used to send the invitation to 229
followers several times. Thus, the invitation was retweeted by 5 people and forwarded by
additional 8 users. In addition, two more accounts were used to publish the survey. The first is
an account of a politically-minded Internet user with 36 followers, and the second is of a
sports enthusiast with 633 followers. There was no response to these posts. The survey was
shared on Google+ several times, but there was no response from the 854 followers, meaning
that the invitation was not forwarded. The last network in which the survey was published is
Facebook. The survey itself was added by 136 people on Facebook, meaning that their friends
were informed about it. On Facebook, the initiator of the survey and his acquaintances
promoted participation in the survey using status messages several times. In addition, a
number of people used the status message function to share the invitation to participate in the
survey. In addition, an event was organised with 837 invited people. This event was also
shared by several people on Facebook. In addition, invitations to take part in the survey were
published on 268 Facebook groups. As regards selection of the groups, it was performed
using the names of cities. The basis for the searched cities offered an overview of the top 100
largest cities in the Federal Republic of Germany, based on their population. A search for
groups on Facebook was carried with an emphasis on the city names, and the 23 largest
groups of the respective state were chosen. Besides the cities, the groups focusing on political
or religious views were chosen in order to reach these marginalised groups as well.
Unfortunately, all groups did not agree to participate, resulting in the inviting of 268 groups to
take part in the survey. In part, the post was quickly deleted from the groups. In this case, the
same behaviour pattern as in Xing was observed. However, each post within a group in
Facebook resulted in a direct increase of the number of views for the survey. In addition, there
were groups in which a discussion about the survey was took place with 38 participants and
2025 participants left a post regarding the survey. Finally, an invitation to the survey was
published on the top 20 German forums, as well as in other forums belonging to political
parties. Forums were also selected, since some hypotheses concern forums, and they also
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belong to social networks. Using forums also allowed contacting people who do not belong to
the circle of acquaintances of the initiator of the survey. At the end, the invitations to take part
in the survey were available on 9 of the forums.
As part of the survey, the participants were able to sign up for a newsletter. 59 people used
this opportunity. 117 people added a special Facebook fan page of the survey to their profile,
which was provided the latest news about the survey. The inclusion of the page can be seen
by other Facebook users and may provide more visitors.
3.2. analysis of iss2012
The mentioned invitations and announcements ensured that 6,986 people visited the website
of the ISS2012 survey. 2,409 of them began to fill in the survey. 1,820 of the 2,409 surveys
were filled in completely. 103 were excluded from the analysis, since the respondents had
indicated no access to the Internet. Additional 72 were excluded, since Germany was not
indicated as the place of residence. A further 38 of the remaining 1,645 questionnaires were
not included in the analysis, since the level of income was not indicated. In total, 1,607
questionnaires remained available for the analysis.
There is a gender distribution in the collected data of 892 female and 715 male respondents
with a birth year average of 1983 (median: 1987, mode: 1991). As regards Internet access,
most respondents indicated having access to the Internet since 2000 (median: 2001). As
concerns mobile Internet, it was determined that 431 of the 1,607 participants did not have
access to the Internet from the mobile phone. Most of the participants had started using
mobile internet in 2011 (median: 2010). As concerns the place of residence of the
participants, most (mode) of them indicated cities (A4.5.1).
Family status Frequency Percentage Cumulative percentage
Single 601 37.4 37.4
In a relationship 632 39.3 76.7
Married 288 17.9 94.6
Widowed 3 0.2 94.8
Divorced 27 1.7 96.5
Registered partnership 4 0.2 96.8
Open relationship 22 1.4 98.1
Separated 15 0.9 99.1
Other 15 0.9 100.0
Total 1,607 100.0
n=1,607
Table 15 Distribution: Participants/family status (Source: authors research)
The situation in other areas is almost uniformly distributed. As regards marital status, the
analysis reveals that most of the participants are single or in a relationship (mode). The low
numbers of widowed or divorced participants are conspicuous. As regards the types of
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residence, a clear trend can be observed, since most people live in rental dwellings. The often
mentioned flatshare is rather conspicuous. This was evident already in advance, namely, in
the tests of the finished surveys, since this type of residence provides a way for young
workers to live in a separate apartment (A4.5.2). In part, this type of residential environment
is justified by the custom of using it during the study period. The data in this respect, as well
as regarding the family status, matches the number of persons living in a household. The
average number of persons per household is 2.62, with a median/mode of 2 people. More
nuanced, in contrast, is the educational qualification of the participants.
Educational qualification Frequency Percentage Cumulative percentage
No qualification 13 0.8 0.8
Secondary modern schooldiploma 43 2.7 3.5
Secondary school certificate 154 9.6 13.1
Vocational BA diploma 112 7.0 20.1
Higher education entrance qualification 610 38.0 58.1
Certificate 5 0.3 58.4
Vocational training 208 12.9 71.3
Terminated studies 54 3.4 74.7
Bachelor 152 9.5 84.2
Master 74 4.6 88.8
University Diploma 162 10.0 98.8
PhD 20 1.2 100.0
Total 1,607 100.0
n=1,607
Table 16 Distribution: Participants/educational qualification (Source: authors research)
In this regard, some participants revealed during group discussions and forums, that they had
entered their desired educational qualification. Fundamentally, however, higher education
entrance qualification is mentioned most often.
Employment status Frequency Percentage Cumulative percentage
Worker 70 4.4 4.4
Unemployed 61 3.8 8.2
Employee 543 33.8 41.9
Civil Servant 38 2.4 44.3
Pupil 81 5.0 49.3
Student 615 38.3 87.6
Self-employed 62 3.9 91.5
Self-employed with employees 22 1.4 92.8
Entrepreneur 15 0.9 93.8
Voluntary social year 9 0.6 94.3
Soldier 4 0.2 94.6
Other 87 5.4 100.0
Total 1,607 100.0
n=1,607
Table 17 Distribution: Participants/employment status (Source: authors research)
The educational qualification also has an influence upon the current employment status of the
participants. The number of times higher education entrance qualification is mentioned is
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almost the same as the number of entries containing the status of student. The low number of
unemployed participants is also striking, since it falls below the average level (Eurostat,
2012). As part of the survey, trainees were added to the number of employees because of their
employment relationship.
The situation with the income levels is, however, more diverse. The income group of under
10,000 is indicated as the mode which can be associated with the high number of students
and pupils. The median shows the exact average income level of 35,00044,999.
Frequency Percentage Cumulative percentage
under 10,000 286 17.8 17.8
10,00014,999 171 10.6 28.4
15,00019,999 110 6.8 35.3
20,00024,999 131 8.2 43.4
25,00034,999 196 12.2 55.6
35,00044,999 188 11.7 67.3
45,00054,999 160 10.0 77.3
55,00069,999 162 10.1 87.4
more than 70,000 203 12.6 100.0
Total 1607 100.0
n=1,607
Table 18 Distribution: Participants/income (Source: authors research)
There was no mandatory requirement to enter information on the parents and grandparents. In
this regard, the completed questionnaires show a very interesting tendency of mostly
mentioning the profession of the mother (1,520), followed by her educational qualification
1,508. The occupation of the father (1,498) and his educational qualification (1,480) were
mentioned less often. Data on the grandfather was indicated in significantly fewer cases.
1,201 respondents were able to name the profession and 1,085 (67.5%) indicated the
educational qualification of the grandfather.
The questions which were analysed according to demographic data were presented as
dichotomous variables. This feature allows a direct calculation of a bare majority for an
answer option. A bare majority means that 50 or more per cent of the participants have chosen
a particular answer option.
As concerns the possessions of the participants, the majority indicated having a personal car
(63.0%), a bicycle (81.8%), a flat-screen TV (65.6%), a flat-rate mobile phone plan (67.5%),
an IKEA product (79.2%), a notebook (76.1%), a smartphone (73.6%), as well as a
dishwasher (60.0%) and a landline telephone (86.6%). However, neither the wish to purchase,
nor financial products show characteristics that represent a bare majority. As concerns ways
of obtaining fitments, furniture shop again shows a bare majority with a share of 82.5%.
Otherwise, the answers, as well as most concerning the living environment, clothing,
literature and films, do not show any majority. As concerns the living environment, the wish
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to have a comfortable place of residence prevails with 58.2%. 57.1% of respondents described
their clothes as comfortable. As concerns the type of obtaining clothing, three bare majorities
can be observed. In addition to retail sale, represented by 66.3%, online shops (56.8%) and
department stores (52.6%) are popular among the participants as well. As regards literature,
only the answer option of newspaper indicates a bare majority of 50.7%.
The answers regarding favourite film genres reveal a highly varied selection. Documentaries
(51.0%) and comedies (66.3%) are the only genres showing a bare majority. The question
about the preference to watch films in the original language shows that this option is preferred
by 27% of the participants. In light of the fact that German cinemas usually do not show films
in the original language, this number can be considered as significant. This might indicate that
the sample group has its own peculiarities which have to be examined in order to determine
the validity of the results.
As regards TV stations, only Pro Sieben shows a bare majority of 66.4%. ZDF is the only
public TV station which has attained a bare majority and only if it is added to the special-
interest stations. ZDF itself receives 29.4%, ZDF Info 6.1% ZDF Kultur 4.7% and the strong
ZDF Neo 14.2%. TV stations HSE24 and SR are not mentioned in any of the questionnaires.
As a result, these TV stations were excluded from further analysis, since the absence of an
indication across all the data sets can lead to problems in the application of correlation and
factor analyses. As concerns the TV content, there is a preference for documentaries (56.4%)
and feature films (60.0%), which are the only genres indicating a bare majority. The other
genres, except for call-in shows, were chosen within a range of 6.5% and 47.8%. Only one of
the respondents indicated call-in shows as the preferred TV genre.
Mode Median Mode Median Mode Median
Family 3 4 Celebrations 3 3 Watching
TV
3 3
Further
education
3 3 Photography 1 2 Friends 4 4
Hobbies 4 4 Internet 5 4 Art 1 2
Reading 3 3 Listening to
music
5 4 Playing
music
1 1
Travelling 2 2 Writing 1 2 Shopping 2 2
Other 3 3 Watching
sports
1 2 Doing
sports
3 3
n=1,607
Table 19 Occurrences: Leisure activities of the participants (Source: authors research)
Following the inquiry about the consumption and media preferences, recreational activities of
the participants were investigated. The participants were asked to indicate the intensity of use
of leisure activities on a 5-point Likert scale. The recreational activities of the sample group
show standard deviation values ranging from 0.93 to 1.35. Each of the answer options uses
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the entire spectrum of the scale. It is interesting that the preference for artistic content, such as
art, music and photography falls below the average of the rest of the results. It is also
interesting that the respondents do sports more regularly than watch TV programmes relating
to sports.
After the evaluation of the demographic data and the leisure time activity preferences,
information on the use of the Internet was gathered.
Mean Median Mode Standard deviation
Use of broadband Internet during the
week
18.13 14 10 14.66
Use of mobile Internet during the week 6.13 2 0 11.34
Use of broadband Internet at the weekend 8.82 7 10 7.479
Use of mobile Internet at the weekend 3.05 1 0 5.449
Only mobile Internet users (n=1.177)
Use of mobile Internet during the week 8.26 4 1 12.54
Use of mobile Internet at the weekend 4.11 2 1 6.00
n=1,607
Table 20 Occurrences: Internet use of the participants (Source: authors research)
At first, the time spent online was determined. In this case, a complete use of the range of
answers for questions C1 and C2 can be observed. Overall, there is a very broad diversity
concerning the time spent online, based on the mean, median or mode and in light of the
standard deviation. Below the participants are, at first, viewed together. These are followed by
the participants who indicated that they use mobile Internet in advance. The values increase,
but do not reach those of the participants using broadband Internet. It should be noted in this
regard that some of the participants reported spending time on the mobile Internet even
though they do not have access to mobile Internet themselves. When evaluating the time spent
online, it was striking that a very low percentage of respondents had indicated not using the
broadband Internet during the week (1.1%) and at the weekend (3.4%).
As concerns the use of social networks, it is striking that none of the 1,607 participants make
daily use of MySpace or Kwick. Only one respondent indicated using MySpace and Hi5
several times a week. MySpace is better recognised in this respect, since it is used several
times a week by 80.5% of the respondents. Only one respondent indicated using Stayfriends
daily. Likewise, the standard deviations in the field of social networks are very slight, ranging
from 0.34 to 1.01. Individual observation point to Facebook as the most often used social
network. As concerns the degree of familiarity with social networks, Facebook is the most
well known to the respondents with 99.8%, followed by Twitter with 99.3%, Youtube with
98.1%, ICQ with 89.8% and Google+ with 88.1%. The least well-known networks are Hi5
which was recognised by 10.4% and Kwick, known to 15.2%. The degree of familiarity with
WhatsApp was mentionable. As concerns its usage, an almost uniform bimodal distribution is
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evident. WhatsApp is unknown to 437 participants, known to 487, additional 58 are registered
users, 116 use it weekly and 509 make daily use of the network. This also explains the mode
of 5 and median of 2.
Mode Median Mode Median Mode Median
Facebook 5 5 Flickr 2 2 4SQ 1 1
Google+ 2 2 Hi5 1 1 ICQ 2 2
Instagram 1 2 Jappy 1 1 Kwick 1 1
LastFM 1 1 LinkedIn 1 1 MSN Live 2 2
MySpace 2 2 Pinterest 1 1 Spotify 1 2
Stayfriends 2 2 Twitter 2 2 VZ 2 2
WKW 2 2 WhatsApp 5 2 Xing 2 2
YouTube 4 4
n=1,607
Table 21 Occurrences: Social network use (Source: authors research)
The next section is related to the use of functions by the participants. The results are
characterised by much passivity.
Table 22 Occurrences: Functions used by the participants (Source: authors research)
The options of expressing approval and focusing on the customisation of security settings are
conspicuous in this section. A detailed examination of security settings shows that almost all
of the answer options are mentioned equally often. This also resulted in a standard deviation
of 1.26.
There is quite a nuanced situation regarding the factors motivating the gathered sample group
to use social networks. Overall, it can be observed that there is an emphasis on preserving
contacts. It is interesting that many of the items are hardly mentioned; moreover, they might
represent specific market segments, as a full range of answers was used for all the items. The
items with a mode of <1 generally show a standard deviation of <1.00. If the mode is 1, the
standard deviation is usually 1.00.


Mode Median Mode Median
Applications 1 2 Customise security settings 5 3
Express approval 4 4 Maintain personal information 2 2
Plan events 1 2 Playing games 1 1
Posting comments 3 3 Share content publicly 1 2
Share content with a
dedicated audience
2 3 Share videos 1 2
Share websites 1 2 Status messages 2 3
Tag friends in
messages
1 2 Tag friends in pictures 1 2
Taking part in an
event
3 3 Uploading images 2 2
Upload videos 1 1
n=1,607
98
Table 23 Occurrences: Motivational factors of the participants (Source: authors research)
The next point to be examined concerns Internet content participants used by the participants.
The entire range of answers is used in all areas. Highly nuanced results can be observed in all
areas, most notably in the use of banking or chatting services and listening to music. The use
of banking services also has the highest standard deviation within the section of Internet use.
Table 24 Occurrences: Use of Internet content (Source: authors research)
It should be noted that the three basic and most widely used Internet functions, namely, e-
mail, social networks and search engines are also the most often mentioned options in the
survey. The use of the other types of content, in contrast, seems to be very individual, also
regarding the range of answers used. The last range of questions concerns the preference of
maintaining contacts on the Internet. Until the options other and artistic, all the points have a
median and mode of 3 or 4. Other was selected with a median of 1 and mode of 1. Artistic has
a consistent value of 2. The highest standard deviation for both the items is 1.12 for artistic
and 1.46 for other. A complete range of answers has been used for all the items.
The free-text fields, which were offered to the participants in two cases and intended to
provide more opportunities for the option of other, were hardly used. Regarding the possible
uses for the Internet, text responses show, first of all, repeated answers from the previous
sections and second of all, specific causes, such as personal approaches of organising and
Mode Median Mode Median
Birthday reminders 3 3 Chatting 4 3
Creating content 2 2 Discus politics 1 1
Discuss daily events 2 2 Discuss TV content 1 1
Discussing events 1 2 Establish contacts 3 3
Exchanging opinions 3 3 Job search 1 1
Looking for business
partners
1 1 Looking for friends 1 2
Making comments 3 3 Receiving information 4 4
Release emotions 1 2 Searching for information 3 3
Share your location 1 1 Sharing content 1 2
Stay in touch with
acquaintances
5 4 Staying in touch with
friends
5 4
Other 1 1
n=1,607
Mode Median Mode Median
Banking operations 1 3 Blogs 1 1
Chat 5 3 Data exchange 3 3
Dating 1 1 Shopping 3 3
E-mail 5 5 Forums 2 3
Online portals 3 3 Encyclopaedias 3 3
Listening to music 5 3 Social networks 5 5
Search engines 5 5 Phone 1 2
TV programmes 1 2 Videos 3 3
n=1,607
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using ones leisure time. However, none of the answers occur more than once among the 68
entries. There were more obvious entries in the second text-field where participants were able
to indicate preferred characteristics of individuals with whom they come in contact on the
Internet. Honest has the largest number of entries with 12, tolerant and loyal have 5 each,
reliable and spontaneous have 4 each, and creative, intelligent, educated, friendly and
trustworthy have 3 entries each.
3.2.1. validity of the obtained convenience sample
The analysed interviews of ISS2012 confirm that the respondents are private Internet users
with a personal Internet connection and a place of residence in the Federal Republic of
Germany. In this regard, the data collection requirements have been met. A comprehensive
and random convenience sample for the general population has been obtained. Despite the
randomness of the sample, appropriate limitations and a planned communication allowed
achieving the desired target population of social network users.
The goal of the study was not to present a general and representative data collection; however,
it may be considered whether a certain subset can be detected. Thus, the obtained data have
been adjusted to the quota parameters of other studies in order to perform a quota parameter
analysis. If this approach is successful, it should be possible to provide concluding general
statements in the form of recommendations regarding the results of the present thesis.
As regards use of the Internet, a recent study suggests that 75.6% of German households used
the Internet in 2012 (D21, 2012, p. 4).
Age group Frequency Percentage Cumulative percentage
70 0 0.0% 0.0%
6069 21 1.3% 1.3%
5059 62 3.9% 5.2%
4049 160 10.0% 15.1%
3039 320 19.9% 35.0%
2029 924 57.5% 92.5%
1419 120 7.5% 100.0%
13 0 0.0% 100.0%
1607 100.0%
n=1,607
Table 25 Age segments of ISS2012 according to D21 age segments (Source: authors research)
As concerns the population of Germany, the Internet is used by 97.7% of the people aged
between 1419, 96.9% aged 2029, 94.1% aged 3039, 87.9% aged 4049, 60.4% aged 50
59, 57.4% aged 6069 and 28.2% aged over 70 (D21, 2012, p. 5). The information is not
segmented according to the number of people active in social networks. The collected data of
the convenience sample group reveal in this case an age distribution which, unfortunately,
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does not correspond to the above mentioned study. There is a strong predominance in of
participants aged 2029 in the convenience sample. Few participants belong to the age range
of adolescents. The convenience sample differs, however, from the above-mentioned study,
since it only focuses on individuals who are active users of social networks and not on people
who are active on the Internet in general.
According to DeStatis1 (2012), 53% of Internet users are active in social networks. This
corresponds to 91% of individuals aged 1624, 57% of people aged 2544, 33% aged 4564
and 28% of the people over 65. The age segmentation of the data collected for this study does
not meet the above-mentioned conditions.
Age group Frequency Percentage Cumulative percentage
65 6
0.4% 0.4%
4564 138
8.6% 9.0%
2544 746
46.4% 55.4%
1624 707
44.0% 99.4%
15 10
0.6% 100.0%

1607
100.0%
n=1,607
Table 26 Age segments of ISS2012 according to DeStatis age segments (Source: authors research)
This reveals a problem of the D21 and DeStatis samples. A similar age distribution is not
available for both surveys; consequently, a meaningful comparison cannot be made. The data
collected within the ISS2012 shows a preponderance of people aged under 30. In addition, the
samples from D21 and DeStatis are not divided by gender. The ISS2012 sample indicates a
general proportion of 55.5% women and 44.5% men, or a direct male/female ration of 0.80.
Thus, the overall proportion of women in the sample group is higher than in the society.
According to CIA (2013), there is a ratio of 0.97 male/female members in the society, and the
proportion of women steadily increases, as the population ages. The data of Statista (2013), in
contrast, indicates a male/female ratio of 0.93. There is a predominance of female participants
in the sample, which could reflect the situation in the real world if only active social network
users are considered. In this respect, various studies suggest a predominance of female users.
Bitkom (2012, p. 9) points to a male/female active social network user proportion of 0.86 and
stresses that women spend more time on social networks than men (Bitkom, 2012, p. 11).
This predominance is also reflected in Twitter and Facebook (Ludermann, 2012), since
Facebook has a male/female ratio of 0.75 and Twitter a male/female ratio of 0.72 (Hauser,
2012). All of the mentioned points could justify the higher proportion of women among the
participants of the survey, thus corresponding to the real and active user layer better than a
distribution that matched the social base. The sources suggest, however, that the share of users
shifts in favour of men when it comes to business networks. Without the age division, the
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information of (DeStatis1, 2012) indicates that 9% of the users are active in business
networks. 11% of the men and 7% of the women are active in these networks. There is no
indication of the name of the business networks used by the mentioned 9% of the users, or an
indication that these are active users of business networks or simply a part of the total number
of users. 579 people (36.0%) of the present data collection are active users of LinkedIn and
1,136 people (70.7%) actively use Xing. A high intensity of using Xing can be observed
among the participants (mean: 2.15, median: 2, mode: 2), which exceeds the intensity of
LinkedIn use (mean: 1.47, median: 1, mode: 1). This indicates a deviation which begs the
question whether it was caused by the active promotion of the survey on the Xing network or
this is a general exponentiation due to the fact that the study does not focus on Internet users
in general. As concerns gender-specific use of business networks, the tendency of a
prevalence of active male users can be confirmed. The generally low proportions of gender-
specific use, however, cannot be confirmed. 27.6% of the women have a LinkedIn account or
are active users of the network; as concerns Xing, 65.6% of the women use the network. As
regards the median and mode, both genders are equal with a median and mode of 1 for
LinkedIn and 2 for Xing.
As concerns the use of mobile devices, Accenture (2012, pp. 45) reveals that 50% of the
German population use mobile Internet, and that it is used equally by both genders. 1,176
people (73.2%) of the present sample actively use mobile Internet. An additional statement is
made regarding the population investigated by Accenture, saying that 68% of the users
perform social media activities, 60% use messaging and 17% make use of blogging and
tweets (Accenture, 2012, p. 10). This shows a contradiction with the previous source of
(DeStatis1, 2012) which suggests that 53% of the users are active on social networks. There
is also a discrepancy with the results of the sample group analysed in this investigation. As
concerns demographic data, there is a prevalence of women over men in the sample of
ISS2012, which does not match that of the population. Another aspect to be taken into
consideration in this respect is that data quality can be increased by resorting to the approach
of lifeworlds.
In addition to the comparison with other sample groups, there is a comparison of further data
with the population of survey respondents. According to Statistics Portal (2012), the average
German household size in 2011 was 2.02 persons. In this regard, as well as in the context of
the information on the marital status, the data matches the number of persons living in a
household. The average here is 2.62 people or a median/mode of 2 people. The mean as such
is above the real value; the median and the mode approach to the real value. The deviation
could be explained by the overall size of households and their distribution. These differ from
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the population. According to DeStatis2 (2012) there were 40,439 households in Germany in
2011. 40.4% of these are single households, 34.3% are 2-person households, 12.6% are 3-
person households, 9.4% 4-person households and 5 or more people live in 3.4% of the
households. In the obtained sample, 21.9% are single households, 31.6% are 2-person
households, 22.8% are 3-person households, 15.2% 4-person households and 5 or more
people live in 8.5% of the households. As concerns 2-person households, a distribution
similar to that of the population can be achieved. The obtained population has a very small
number of one-person households, compared to a strong participation of bigger households
whose number was exceeded in relation to the planned basic population. This can have two
main reasons. First, young peoplepupils or studentsmay live with their parents. This
increases the number of people living in a household. It was also revealed in advance that
many people use shared apartments. The marital status can also be referred to in this context,
since most of the participants indicated being single or in a relationship. The number of
singles does not match the number of single-person households. This supports the assumption
concerning the shared flats and living with the parents.
In addition to the living situation, the living environment and the gross household income can
be analysed. According to StatistA-2 (2012), almost 74% of the German population lives in
cities. The number of inhabitants constituting a city is, unfortunately, not specified. The
collected data show that 72.4% of the participants live in settlements with a population larger
than 19,999 people. The distribution of the remaining participants is, as already shown, very
balanced. According to DeStatis (2011, p. 132) the average gross household income in 2008
was 3,707 with a division of 3,899 for West Germany 2,867 for the new federal states of
Germany. A detailed consideration of the federal states of Germany (RWI, 2009, p. 7) reveals
fluctuations of approximately 10% in the gross household income of Western Germany, and
up to 25% between the federal states of East and West Germany. DeStatis3 (2012, pp. 13
14) indicate a gross average wage of 2,469 per person and a disposable income of 1,630 in
the year 2011. DeStatis (2011, p. 133) also illustrates a distribution of gross household
income for families. It should be noted, in the context of a subsequent filtering, that gross
income increases for people living on their own (2,193), single parents (2,327), couples
without children (4230), to 5,441 for couples with children. There is also a pronounced
distinction of the gross household income between households with employed persons
(4,500) and jobless households (2,250) (RWI, 2009, p. 13). A detailed breakdown (RWI,
2009, p. 20) reveals the biggest household income increase for couples with one child, which
declines as the number of children increases. The gross household income also depends on the
occupation of the person who contributes most to the income of the household (DeStatis,
103
2011, p. 134). According to RWI (2009, p. 23), the pure gross income per person is the
highest for civil servants and the self-employed with 5,000, an average 4,800 for
employees, 4,000 for workers, 1,800 for the unemployed, 4,500 for the retired (people
who have worked as a civil servants), 2,200 for pensioners (people who have worked in
private companies), and 1,200 for students. In addition, RWI (2009, p. 7) suggests that the
salary received by owners of apartments or houses is 23% larger, therefore, a capital
commitment takes place. In the present example, the already explained salary distribution is
evident. Without considering the lifeworlds, to be discussed later in detail, a comparison of
the average of this data with the above-mentioned indicates a below-average income. An
aggregation of the average income in the context of the present profession confirms the basic
assumption that people with a regular job earn more than those without one. RWI (2009, pp.
911) suggests that, without taking the net-net factor into consideration, students and pupils
have less money than families without children or people who are in a relationship.
DeStatis (2011, p. 145) indicates, in addition to the salary and income information, also the
distribution of land-line telephone connections of 89.7% in 2008. This penetration rate
exceeds the 86.6% of the present survey. The data indicates that the curves depicting the
possession of mobile and fixed telephone lines intersect at the age of 47. Up to this point, the
person rather has a mobile phone than a landline telephone connection. The trend towards
landline telephones is evident in the age of 35, which has a substantial increase. The values of
ISS2012 acknowledge in this case the tendency towards a young frame group. In addition,
there is a significantly lower number of car owners (63%) among the ISS2012 participants
than the expected 77.1% (DeStatis, 2011, p. 147). The higher proportion of younger
participants, namely, students and pupils, may possibly explain this difference. The use of
lifeworlds and their expansion on the Internet is expected to provide more reliable results.
The analysis shows that in some cases the collected data do not match with that of other
studies or the total population of the Federal Republic of Germany. It appears that the data
selection in other studies does not correspond to a specific target group or the total population
of the Federal Republic of Germany. It is safe to assert that a convenience sample has been
obtained, thus ensuring a certain significance regarding the social network users. Thus, a solid
sample has been achieved.
As regards data collection, the analysis reveals that the number of items could have been
increased significantly, e.g. to study political and social attitudes in detail. This would also
allow a broadening of the perception of the society and the roles of its members. However,
this could also be viewed in the context of the already collected items that presented quite an
effort for the test subjects. There would also be a risk of losing the focus on Internet use. In
104
addition, it becomes apparent that it is always difficult to receive a random sample by means
of an online survey. Because of this, the conducting of an online survey requires detailed
planning and the use of different information channels. In principle, each participant should
have an equal chance to take part in the survey using social networks. Unfortunately, it was
not possible to obtain the number of the total population, since that would require support for
the survey from the network, and there would be a question about constraint concerning a
voluntary survey. In order to support the voluntary method, a group approach was chosen for
Facebook, to at least ensure a local distribution of the survey. There was a limitation for the
survey on individual networks caused by varying degrees of participation. StudiVZ showed
an especially low activity. Overall, there has been a major problem for the survey to achieve a
range of participants outside Facebook. Due to the fact that there are hardly any active social
networks besides Facebook, other networks were not used even if it was asked about them in
the survey. There were active accounts in the respective networks, but the tests showed that it
was not possible to find any contacts in these networks, and no contact groups were present
either. In addition, the networks were sometimes so inactive that no real activity could simply
be detected any more. In this case, the users of the network consist of small core groups, as
well as visitors who log in only infrequently. At this point, the information begs the question
whether the data collected is representative and whether it can be used.
It is positive that the first analysis largely reveals a selection of appropriate scales, such as
nominal, ordinal and interval scales (Stier, 1999, pp. 4345) which ensure the validity of the
evaluation. The aspects measured are those described in the preliminary research
(Stier, 1999, pp. 5662). The various networks are, however, not achieved to the same extent.
It can also be expected that, due to a normal lack of omniscience, it was not enquired about all
the points which should have been used. Stier (1999, p. 114) refers in this regard to a target
population and frame population. The target population is the one which the statements of
research will be applied to, while the frame population is the one which is actually obtained.
The latter can, however, be examined as well. It must also be considered what features
characterise a sample if certain sets of features are not available, or there is the question of
representativeness: This question to which there is no answer reveals that it is essentially
meaningless to speak about a representative sample. Variations of the sample distribution
are not an exception, but rather the rule (Stier, 1999, p. 159). Thus, deviations can be
expected, but a random sample allows statistical inference. It must also be taken into
consideration that statements of representative surveys or representative samples have no
precisely defined quality criteria (Esser et al., 1992, pp. 314315).
105
The previously obtained information on the population allows stating that the frame
population consists mainly of students or young employees. One of the reasons for this might
be that the survey was started and spread using the circle of acquaintances of the initiator.
Various channels without any connection to the initiator were also used. The analysis
indicates a wide range for each of the values, meaning that the subsequent analysis in view of
the lifeworlds can lead to more nuanced results. The personal contact with the participants
may have had a positive impact on the conversion rate. As a result, more people from the
circle of acquaintances of the researcher completed the survey fully. This might also be true
for the people who forwarded the survey. Under certain circumstances, this can result in a
strengthening of the starting basis. In case of a new implementation of the survey, the use of a
tracking code can be considered.
The average processing time of the survey, indicated by people with whom the survey was
discussed, were 2025 minutes. The duration of a survey can sometimes have an impact on
the processing, and cause the people without any association with it not to finish completing
the survey. In this case, the option of taking a break could be offered during the survey.
However, such a pause could also affect the rest of the answers in the survey. It can be
assumed that a sample of this size should provide significant results. The results should
generally apply to workers, employees and students in the age range of 1635 years. The
subsequent comparison with other lifeworlds would help in determining the quality of the
sample. It would also reveal the extent to which the use of lifeworlds would change the results
and how valid they are for Internet users.
In general, it can be stated that a complete sample group consisting mostly of young and
active Internet users has been successfully obtained. The data have been obtained on the basis
of a convenience sample, thus differing from a purposefully collected sample, and a degree of
overlap with other studies can be observed. Other sectors of the society have been reached
and covered as well. Therefore, the sample is ideal for demonstrating the possibilities of
analysing the lifeworlds of the Internet users as well. An examination of the sub-hypotheses
should provide new and significant information on the general behaviour of social network
users, as well as confirm existing assumptions. Through the use of lifeworlds, the frame group
should validate these statements concerning the target groups in detail. This requires a basis,
created by verification of the sub-hypotheses.
3.2.2. analysis of sub-hypotheses
Based on the collected data, the following section contains an examination of sub-hypotheses
SH1SH10. The sub-hypotheses are analysed in order to determine their validity. They are
106
used to further examine different lifeworlds with the aim of supporting the main hypotheses.
The analysis is performed on the basis of the outlined theoretical fundamentals. Based on the
particular scale type, the methods used for correlation analysis are Pearsons Product-Moment
Correlation Coefficient (PCC) by Pearson and Spearmans Rank Correlation Coefficient
(SRCC). As concerns factor analysis, it was carried out with a rotation where the varimax
rotation was used (Kaiser, 1958, pp. 187200). The anti-images were taken into consideration.
In addition, principal axis factoring was used as a basis for the factor analysis. The KMO of
the respective area of analysis is indicated for each EFA. The sub-hypotheses with the
respective additional sub-hypotheses are studied in an ascending order. A closing statement as
to whether the sub-hypothesis can be regarded as confirmed is provided.
SH1: A higher household income has a positive and significant impact on the living
environment of the participant.
SH1a: There is a significant correlation of at least -0.3 between the household income
and the first time of installing an Internet connection in the household.
The SRCC shows a value of -.290
**
between the variables of household income and the
beginning of Internet use. This means that the higher the gross income of a household, the
sooner it started using the Internet. SH1a can be considered as not confirmed.
SH1b: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the household income
and its residential environment.
An SRCC of +.407
**
exists between the variables of household income and the residential
environment. This means that the size and independence of the living environment increase
with household income. SH1b can be considered as confirmed.
SH1c: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the household income of
the participant and his educational qualification.
The SRCC shows a value of +.270
**
between the variables of household income and the
educational qualification. It can be assumed that a higher educational qualification leads to a
higher household income, and a higher household income allows achieving a higher
educational qualification. SH1c cannot be considered as confirmed.
As regards the level of education, the educational qualification of the parents and
grandparents of the participants are of additional interest. In this case, only the participants
who entered information regarding the parents and grandparents were evaluated. There is an
SRCC of +.204
**
between the educational qualification of the participant and his mother, a
value of +.254
**
between his educational qualification and that of the father, and a value of

n=1,607
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
107
+.142
**
between his and his grandfathers educational qualification. The SRCC between the
occupations of the parents and the grandfather is minor, but the SRCCs between their
educational qualifications are higher. There is an SRCC of +.668
**
between the educational
qualification of the mother and the father, +.545
**
between that of the mother and the
grandfather and a value of +.590
**
between the educational qualification of the father and the
grandfather. It is evident in this context that the place of residence of a person can have an
impact on his education. A significant SRCC value of +.351
**
can be observed between
household income and car ownership, while a negative SRCC value of -.110
**
exists between
household income and the wish to own a car. There is also an SRCC of +.316
**
between
household income and owning of a dishwasher. Although SH1 is regarded as unconfirmed, it
indicates a clear tendency (A4.5.3). It is noteworthy in this context that the relationship
between the educational qualification and the family environment can be proven. In addition,
there is an SRCC of +.147
**
is between the household income and gender. In this case it
means that an increasing household income correlates with the male gender with a value of
+.147
**
.
SH2: There is a significant and positive correlation between particular media content and
gender.
For this purpose, dichotomously stored variables have been compared. As regards SH2a that
the variables romantic films and gender are not related, rather that the opposite correlation can
be observed. In this case, 0 stands for female and 1 for male; 0 stands for no consumption and
1 for consumption of romance films. For this reason, the values of SPSS are negative for the
female gender. To improve readability, the values were changed into positive ones!
SH2a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the female participants
and consumption of romantic films.
A PCC/SRCC of +.458
**
can be observed between the gender of the participant and the
preference for romance films. The calculated value indicates a correlation of +.458
**
between
the female gender and romance films. Although the level of +.5 was not reached, this
correlation is very high. SH2a can be considered as confirmed.
SH2b: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the male participants
and consumption of action films.
A PCC/SRCC of +.342
**
can be detected between participants of the male gender and the
preference for action films. The sub-hypothesis can be considered as confirmed. In addition, it
is worth mentioning in this context that the male gender and the preference for war films,

n=1,607
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
108
which tend to contain action, correlate with a value of +.223
**
(PCC/SRCC). SH2b can be
considered as confirmed.
SH2c: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the male participants
and consumption of TV content relating to sports.
There is a PCC/SRCC of +.331
**
between the male participants and the preference for TV
content relating to sports. It is additionally revealed that there is a PCC/SRCC +.255
**

between the broadcaster Sport1, which focuses on sports, and the male gender. This
correlation is the highest between the male gender and a certain TV station, which supports
the assumption that sports is watched more by men. SH2c can be considered as confirmed.
SH2d: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the female participants
and consumption of romantic literature.
There is a PCC/SRCC of +.387
**
between the female participants and the preference for
romance literature. This confirms the assumptions that romance literature, as well as romance
films, are usually enjoyed by women. SH2d can be considered as confirmed.
The various sub-hypotheses of SH2 indicate that certain types of content show a tendency
towards a specific gender, regardless of the medium. The differentiation between the genders
is shown also by other types of content. As concerns female participants, there is a
PCC/SRCC of +.191
**
with drama films and +.212
**
with literature belonging to the drama
genre. The situation is similar with detective stories which have a correlation of +.189
**
with
female participants. As regards TV content, there is a PCC/SRCC of +.172
**
between the
female participants and cooking shows, +.187
**
with soap operas and +.190
**
with TV films.
As concerns literature, higher correlations can be observed for the male gender. There is a
correlation of +.173
**
between male participants and comic books, +.181
**
with science
fiction, +.208
**
with scientific journals and +.247
**
with trade magazines. By definition, trade
magazines do not have to be scientific. These can also be specialised magazines about a
hobbiy, such as cars, business and crafts. As concerns films, science fiction has a correlation
of +.261
**
with the male gender.
Regarding other demographic data, none of the variables of the residence, marital status, level
of education, household income, or family status have a more significant impact on the media
consumption as gender. None of the mentioned variables has a correlation exceeding +/-.1.
SH2 can be considered as confirmed.
SH3: There is a significant correlation between the duration of Internet use during the week
and at the weekend.

n=1,607
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
109
In the following, the values refer first to a population of n=1,607, including all the
participants, and a population of n=1,177, including the participants who indicated the
availability of mobile Internet in advance.
SH3a: There is a highly significant correlation of at least +0.5 between the duration of
using the broadbandInternet during the week and at the weekend.
There is a highly significance SRCC value of -.724
**
/-.745
**
between using broadband
Internet during the week and at the weekend. SH3a can be considered as confirmed.
SH3b: There is a highly significant correlation of at least +0.5 between the duration of
using mobile Internet during the week and at the weekend.
There is an SRCC of +.864
**
/+.776
**
between using mobile Internet during the week and at
the weekend. SH3b can be considered as confirmed.
SH3c: There is no correlation of at least +0.3 between the duration of using broadband
or mobile Internet.
There is an SRCC of -.051
*
/+.045 between using broadband Internet during the week and
mobile Internet during the week. There is an SRCC of -.068
**
/-.001 between using broadband
Internet during the week and mobile Internet at the weekend. There is an SRCC of -
.061
*
/+.011 between using broadband Internet at the weekend and using mobile Internet
during the week. There is an SRCC of -.030/+.139
**
between using broadband Internet at the
weekend and mobile Internet at the weekend. In addition, there is no significance of the
measurements, or a significance of the level of 0.01. Sub-hypothesis SH3c canbe considered
as confirmed, since the correlation is quite low in proportion to other values. SH3 can be
considered as confirmed.
SH4: There is a positive and significant correlation between the time spent using mobile
Internet and the use of certain functions within social networks.
SH4a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the time spent online
from a mobile device and the intensity of uploading pictures.
There is an SRCC of +.280
**
between uploading of pictures and using the Internet on a
mobile device during the week. There is an SRCC of +.256
**
between tagging friends in
messages and using the Internet on a mobile device at the weekend. SH4a can be considered
as unconfirmed.
SH4b: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the time spent online
from a mobile device and the intensity of tagging friends in pictures.

n=1,607 / mobile only users n=1,177
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
110
There is an SRCC of +.232
**
between tagging friends in pictures and using mobile Internet
during the week. There is an SRCC of +.211
**
between tagging friends in messages and using
mobile Internet at the weekend. Therefore, SH4b can be considered as unconfirmed.
SH4c: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the time spent online
from a mobile device and the intensity of tagging friends in messages.
There is an SRCC of +.262
**
between tagging friends in messages and using mobile Internet
during the week. There is an SRCC of +.241
**
between tagging friends in messages and using
mobile Internet at the weekend. Therefore, SH4b can be considered as unconfirmed.
SH4d: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the time spent online
from a mobile device and the intensity of using the location function.
There is an SRCC of +.347
**
between the use of the location function and using the Internet
during the week. There is an SRCC of +.346
**
between using the location function and using
the Internet at the weekend. SH4d can be considered as confirmed.
SH4e: A significant factor can be defined for the functions of SH4aSH4d.
The factor analysis (KMO .910; Barlett, .000) shows a factor 4, which is composed of the
mentioned functions with the appropriate loading. In detail, the factor consists of the
functions: tagging friends in pictures with a loading of +.692, tagging friends in messages
with a loading of +.684, sharing ones location with a loading of +.430 and uploading images
with a loading of +.508. These are followed, by posting status messages with +.329 and,
among others, the social network WhatsApp with +.234. The network WhatsApp fits in this
overview as a network which has no correlationwith broadband Internet. This connection is
also supported by the factor 5 of the analysis. Due to this factor, SH4d can be considered as
confirmed.
It was possible to confirm only two of the five sub-hypotheses. It can therefore be debated
about whether there is a connection between the mobile Internet and the usage of certain
functions, which is why SH4 is considered as unconfirmed. In this case, further research
would be necessary, since the connection can be different even when viewing certain target
groups. It should be added to SH4 that correlations between the intensities of using broadband
Internet fall in the range of +.010 and +0.95
**
. Moreover, a significance in the correlation is
achieved only in four of eight cases. Only two of these four had a significant level of 0.01.
Correlation between the mentioned functions and mobile Internet is much more significant
than that between the functions and broadband Internet. There are significant correlations
between the functions themselves suggesting that the use of certain functions depends on the

n=1,607
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
111
use of others. This is also evident in SH4e which generated a matching factor; however, due
to the different scaling in the factor analysis, the time spent online has not been evaluated.
Such a close connection suggests that these functions are usually used together. As already
described, these functions have similar use cases; in theory, mainly for mobile applications.
SH4 was rejected due to rather low correlations for SH4aSH4c. It is, however, recommended
to investigate the field of mobile Internet usage further. Under the circumstances, the analysis
with lifeworlds can show improved results.
SH5: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using Facebook and the
intensity of using functions in social networks.
SH5a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the core functions of
social networks and Facebook.
As with the creation of the hypotheses, a special position is dedicated for Facebook in the
evaluation as well. Facebook has managed to successfully position itself in almost all
functions of social networks as the network with the highest correlation between the intensity
of use of the network and the intensity of the use of its functions. In order to provide an
overview, only those functions were listed in the evaluation which have reached or exceeded
the significant PCC of +.3.
Function Function
Express approval +.491
**
Staying in touch with friends +.459
**

Stay in touch with acquaintances +.392
**
Comment on posts +.364
**

Leave comments in general +.320
**
Status messages +.317
**

Chatting +.311
**
Upload images +.310
**

Receive birthday reminders +.305
**

n=1,607; =PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 27 Correlation overview: Facebook and functions of social networks (Source: authors research)
This shows that Facebook has reached an influencing position in the market and no other
network has managed to attain a similar level concerning the core elements of social
networks. Thus, SH5a can be considered as confirmed.
SH5b: Significant factors can be defined for Facebook, based on the functions of social
networks.
As concerns factor analysis, (KMO .915; Barlett .000) provides a factor 3, which places
Facebook quite high in the list, as well as displays a high loading. This factor consists of the
factors of keeping in touch with friends, with +.791, staying in contact with friends, with
+.724, and Facebook as such with +.517. Furthermore, this factor contains such network
functions as birthday reminders with +.409, expressing agreement with +.382, chatting with
+.393 and leaving comments with +307. SH5b can be considered as confirmed.
112
Significant proof can be provided for the dominance of Facebook among the sample group of
participants. SH5 can be considered as confirmed.
SH6: There is a significant correlation between social networks and the intensity of their use.
SH6a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between social networks with the
same user layers.
The examination of the correlations showed an insignificant value of +0.3 for the networks
G+, HI5, ICQ Jappy, Kwick, Stay Friends, Wer-kennt-Wenn, WhatsApp and YouTube. These
are mostly networks, which, either, have been fighting with a constant loss of users in 2011
and 2012, or fulfil simple chat service function, thus operating on a sub-area of social
networks, or as part of the Google network.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
Flickr (1) 1 +.385
**
+.406
**
+.420
**
+.372
**
+.353
**
+.282
**
+.363
**

4SQ (2) +.385
**
1 +.408
**
+.276
**
+.419
**
+.400
**
+.267
**
+.431
**

Instagram (3) +,406
**
+.408
**
1 +.314
**
+.245
**
+.361
**
+.329
**
+.373
**

LastFM (4) +.420
**
+.276
**
+.314
**
1 +.247
**
+.295
**
+.355
**
+.280
**

LinkedIn (5) +.372
**
+.419
**
+.245
**
+.247
**
1 +.390
**
+.208
**
+.338
**

Pinterest (6) +.353
**
+.400
**
+.361
**
+.295
**
+.390
**
1 +.317
**
+.297
**

Spotify (7) +.282
**
+.267
**
+.329
**
+.355
**
+.208 +.317
**
1 +.232
**

Twitter (8) +.363
**
+.431
**
+.373
**
+.280
**
+.338
**
+.297
**
+.232
**
1
n=1,607; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 28 Correlation matrix: Intensity of social network use (Source: authors research)
As concerns other networks, there is a PCC of +.338
**
between MySpace and MSN Live: two
networks which have suffered a substantial loss of users in the past. It is conspicuous in this
context that there is also a correlation of +.330
**
between the intensity of use of the VZ
Netzwerke and that of MySpace. There is a PCC of +.559
**
between the social networks Xing
and LinkedIn, which will be discussed in detail later. Xing also correlates with Flickr
(+.318
**
) and 4SQ (+.318
**
). Apart from that, there are significant connections between the
networks. This evaluation gives a very different result; there is a strong connection between
particular networks of the English-speaking world, which have different target audiences.
Regardless, SH6a can be considered as confirmed.
SH6b: Significant factors consisting of social networks can be defined.
The factor analysis shows three factors consisting of social networks. Factor 2 includes niche
networks, which have specialised in particular applications and originate from the USA.
Factor 7 contains chatting, entertainment and niche networks. Except for YouTube, these
networks have been continually losing range in 2012. The positive range of factor 12 includes

n=1,607
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
113
German networks that suffered a vast loss in range in 2012. Entertainment networks in this
factor have negative loadings.
Factor 2 Factor 7 Factor 12
Item Load Item Load Item Load
4SQ +.625 MSN Live +.535 Stayfriends +.497
Instagram +.597 ICQ +.470 Wer-kennt-wen +.312
Flickr +.572 MySpace +.467 VZ Netzwerken. +.307
Pinterest +.557 Jappy +.441 WhatsApp -.112
LinkedIn +.541 VZ Netzwerken +.406 Spotify -.140
LastFM +.477 Kwick +.325 Chatting -.190
Twitter +.474 YouTube +.306 YouTube -.225
Spotify +.428
Games -.137
n=1,607; KMO .915; Bartlett .000
Table 29 Overview: factor analysis GP social networks (shortened item list) (Source: authors research)
SH6b can be considered as confirmed. Both SH6 sub-hypotheses can be considered as
confirmed. Therefore, SH6 can be considered as confirmed.
SH7: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using business networks,
specific users and the factors motivating them to use business networks.
SH7a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the intensity of using
business networks and the motivation to find business partners and customers.
Both networks (Xing and LinkedIn) have a PCC which exceeds +.3. There is a PCC of
+.372
**
between LinkedIn and the motivation to search for customers and business partners.
There is a high PCC of +.434
**
between Xing and the motivation to search for customers and
business partners. Therefore, SH7a can be considered as confirmed.
SH7b: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the intensity of using
business networks and the motivation to search for jobs using social networks.
Both networks have a positive PCC for the searching of jobs of under +.3. In general,
however, job search is associated with the intensity of using the two networks (LinkedIn and
Xing). There is a correlation of +.268
**
between LinkedIn and job search, and +.305
**

between Xing and job search. Due to the fact that both networks are very similar and no such
correlations can be seen for other networks, it is assumed that career change is a motivational
factor for using Xing and LinkedIn. SH7b is formally regarded as unconfirmed. Nevertheless,
a notable correlation exist, especially Xing exceeds the significant limit of +0.3.
SH7c: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the motivation to find
business partners and customers and to search for jobs using social networks.
There is a PCC of +.470
**
between both motivations. SH7c can be considered as confirmed.

n=1,607
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
114
SH7d: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the motivation to find
business partners and customers and to establish contacts within social networks.
There is a PCC of +.368
**
between both motivations. Establishing contacts in social networks
has a PCC of +.199
**
for LinkedIn and +.220
**
for Xing. Therefore, SH7d can be considered
as confirmed.
SH7e: A significant factor can be defined for the functions of SH7aSH7d.
Factor analysis (KMO .915; Barlett .000) shows a factor 5, led by the search for business
partners with a loading of +.668, followed by the use of networks for job search with +.608,
the intensity of using of Xing with +.537, LinkedIn with +.454, and the intention to establish
contacts with +.412. Therefore, SH7e can be considered as confirmed.
SH7f: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the intensity of using
business networks and the educational qualification of the user.
There is an SRCC of +.324
**
between LinkedIn and the educational qualification of the
participant. There is an SRCC of +.409
**
between Xing and the educational qualification of
the participant. SH7f can be considered as confirmed.
SH7g: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between Xing and LinkedIn.
There is a highly significant PCC of +.559
**
between the intensity of the use of both business
networks Xing and LinkedIn. SH7g can be considered as confirmed.
SH7aSH7g indicates a very specific situation regarding the users of business networks. As
already determined during the interviews, business networks are used in order to make career
changes and create new opportunities. In addition, it is confirmed that the level of education is
of importance when speaking about the use of these networks. SH7b was not confirmed, but it
reveals a clear trend. This raises the question of how similar the significance of LinkedIn and
Xing is. The rest of the sub-hypotheses are confirmed. On the basis of the intensity of such
LinkedIn/Xing variables as establishing contacts, household income, job search and search for
business partners, a regression analysis (Stier, 1999, pp. 248250) shows an adjusted R
2
of
.452 (standard error .803; Sig. .000) for the calculation of Xing and .350 (standard error .600;
Sig. .000) for the calculation of LinkedIn. This also strengthens the link between these
variables and points to certain characteristics of the user layer of business networks.
Therefore, SH7 can be considered as unconfirmed.
SH8: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the use of security settings
and protection of personal data.

n=1,607
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
115
The analysis reveals a PCC of +.430
**
between the use of security settings and the protection
of personal data. As regards social networks, there is a correlation of +.233
**
between
Facebook and the use of security settings. This is extraordinary, since the next closest
correlation of +.120
**
is with WhatsApp, and all the following correlations with other
networks are mostly considerably lower as +.100. Concerning the functions, the highest PCC
of +.225
**
exists between the use of security settings and the intensity of expressing approval,
+.224
**
for sharing content with others and +.206
**
for uploading of pictures.
Factor analysis (KMO .915; Barlett .000) shows the importance of maintaining personal data
also in factor 11, lead by the function of adjusting security settings with a loading of +.660,
the protection of personal data with a loading of +.404 and sharing content with a dedicated
audience with +.261. As concerns the range of negative values, the use of social networks for
the communication of emotions has the strongest loading. It has a negative value of -.146. In
addition, the use of ICQ has a highly negative value of -.132. This information leads to the
conclusion that people who concern themselves with security settings are also very careful
about any other type of freely accessible information. SH8 can be considered as confirmed.
SH9: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using the Internet for political
discussions and the intensity of using communication functions.
SH9a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the motivation to hold
discussions relating to politics and the intensity to leave comments.
There are positive PCC values between the motivation to discuss political issues and posting
comments. However, the correlation for the commenting of content has only a PCC of +.294
**

and making comments in general has the value of +.238
**
. In addition, discussing events
shows a PCC of +.249
**
. None of the points has a correlation value of +0.300. Consequently,
SH9a is regarded as unconfirmed. A general tendency appears nonetheless, that the intensity
of holding political discussions is related to openness and intensity of making comments in
general.
SH9b: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the motivation to hold
political discussions and to exchange opinions.
There is a PCC of +.442
**
for the intensity of the motivation to hold political discussions and
exchange opinions. In addition, the motivation to discuss political issues correlates with the
intensity of discussing daily events with +.617
**
and discussing TV content with +.329
**
.
SH9b can be considered as confirmed.

n=1,607
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
116
SH9c: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the motivation to hold
discussions relating to politics and to share web-sites within social networks.
There is a PCC of +.315
**
between the motivation to discuss political content and the intensity
to share websites on social networks. Therefore, SH9c can be considered as confirmed. In
addition, further noteworthy PCCs have appeared. The motivation to discuss content relating
to politics correlates with the intensity to share content among people with a value of +.259
**
,
with the intensity of sharing videos in social networks with a value of +.258
**
, and with using
social networks to exchange content with a value of +.314
**
. It also seemed striking during
the investigation that the motivation to discuss content relating to politics correlates
significantly with the intensity of creating content with a value of +.327
**
. Furthermore, there
is a PCC of +.239
**
with the intensity of using blogs, which is the highest correlation value
for blogs, as well as the strongest correlation between the Internet services.
SH9d: A significant factor can be defined for the functions of SH9aSH9c.
Factor analysis (KMO .914; Barlett .000) indicates a factor, lead by the motivation to discus
the daily events with a loading of +.688, and followed by discussing politics with a loading of
+.632, discussing TV content with +.457 and exchanging opinions with +.386. SH9d can be
considered as confirmed.
Formally, SH9 cannot be considered as confirmed, since SH9a was not confirmed. SH9
reveals that politically active people, who share content related to politics, are generally of
communicative nature and share other types of content as well
SH10: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the users degree of
interest in listening to music as a leisure activity and the intensity of using online services
which offer music.
As concerns leisure activities, listening to music and listening to music on the Internet has a
PCC of +.486
**
. In addition, leisure activities correlate with watching videos on the Internet
with a value of +.294
**
. There is a highly significant correlation of +.509
**
between listening
to music on the Internet and watching videos on the Internet. The strong correlation might
have the explanation that people consume music in the form of music videos. In addition,
there is a correlation of +.300
**
between listening to music on the Internet and consuming TV
content on the Internet. There is no such connection between leisure activities and watching
television. It is interesting that the above points of leisure activities and the use of Internet
functions have a negative correlation with spending time with the family as a leisure activity.

n=1,607
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
117
SH10 indicates that a persons hobbies can be transferred to the Internet. Therefore, SH10 can
be considered as confirmed.
3.3. results of the sub-hypotheses
The results of the sub-hypotheses show a positive trend. In general, the analysis shows that
the findings presented in the chapter on preliminary research and theoretical fundamentals can
be proved. The results must be viewed, however, against the validity of the convenience
sample. The results also made it possible to gather a large number of online and offline
behaviours, and to make specific assertions concerning the examined user layer.
In particular, the sub-hypotheses reveal quite a homogeneous trend. SH1 partly demonstrates
the influence of the salary on the quality of life SH1b has been confirmed; SH1a and SH1c
indicate a certain tendency. In addition, a correlation between the capital and possible cross-
generational development opportunities, as well as gender-specific characteristics has been
detected. This was also evident in the verification of SH2 along with SH2a, SH2b, SH2c and
SH2d which were confirmed. As regards demographic data, there is a question of whether
these fundamental statements also prove a layer overlap, so that it can be used as a
confirmation of the main hypotheses. The SH3, along with SH3a, SH3b and SH3c, was
confirmed completely. It also raises the question of how the intensity changes in different
lifeworlds. As concerns SH4, SH4a, SH4b and SH4b, these were not confirmed to the
required extent; however, the factor established in SH4e contains components which
previously did not exceed the threshold value. The only element of hypothesis 4 which was
proved is SH4d, which is also the most useful for mobile devices. This raises the question of
whether the intensities are more reflected in particular layers. The slightly better substantiated
sub-hypotheses SH5 and SH6 were both confirmed holistically. Facebook repeatedly proved
its superior position, and SH6a and SH6b provide an interesting representation of the
differentiated market of niche networks. It needs to be further investigated if there are groups
of people who are usually present, more specifically, how the user structure would differ
under specific circumstances. This includes the obtained factors which partly show interesting
negative loadings and give a significant summary of dying networks. SH7, which is mostly
based on the preliminary research, can be seen as partly confirmed. The sub-hypotheses
SH7a, SH7b, SH7c and SH7d show am interesting situation. SH7b does not reach the value of
+0.3 for LinkedIn, which begs the question if this could be regarded as a satisfactory level.
The validity of the hypotheses and the determined connections can also be confirmed by a
factor in SH7e, which has also demonstrated a connection of SH7f. As regards SH7, it would
be interesting, in general, to see if the values shift in a different age or lifeworld setting, or the
118
data on the users is universal. SH8 also confirms the preliminary research, and the security
needs of the Internet users are explained further and confirmed in detail. It is also interesting
to see if the dependence on other influencing factors would change or even increase. SH9 was
confirmed, except for SH9a, as part of SH9b, SH9c and SH9d. It would have to be
investigated separately if people who mainly communicate online would rather discuss
politics, or people who discuss politics mainly communicate online. This begs the question
about the type of interaction this illustrates. Such an investigation is not, however, the focus
of this paper and is not a supporting factor for the main hypotheses. The confirmed SH10 also
shows an example that it is possible to transfer certain types of leisure activities to the
Internet. The example with the consumption of music suggests that primarily passive hobbies
can undergo such a transfer. This could be investigated in a separate elaboration.
To sum up, the sub-hypotheses show that it was possible to provide meaningful substantiation
for the experiences, assumptions, and observations discussed in preliminary research. The
analysis showed, however, that it was not possible to confirm some of the sub-hypotheses to
the desired extent.
SH1 unconfirmed (1/3) SH1a broadband unconfirmed SH1a mobile unconfirmed
SH1b confirmed SH1c unconfirmed
SH2 confirmed SH2a confirmed SH2b confirmed
SH2c confirmed SH2d confirmed
SH3 confirmed SH3a a confirmed SH3a mobile confirmed
SH3b all confirmed SH3b mobile confirmed
SH3c
SH4 unconfirmed (2/5) SH4a Week unconfirmed SH4a WE unconfirmed
SH4b Week unconfirmed SH4b WE unconfirmed
SH4c Week unconfirmed SH4c WE unconfirmed
SH4d Week confirmed SH4d WE confirmed
SH4e confirmed
SH5 confirmed SH5a confirmed SH5b confirmed
SH6 confirmed SH6a confirmed SH6b confirmed
SH7 unconfirmed (7/8) SH7a LinkedIn confirmed SH7a Xing confirmed
SH7b LinkedIn unconfirmed SH7b Xing confirmed
SH7c confirmed SH7d confirmed
SH7e confirmed SH7f LinkedIn confirmed
SH7f Xing confirmed SH7g confirmed
SH8 confirmed
SH9 unconfirmed (3/4) SH9a unconfirmed SH9b confirmed
SH9c confirmed SH9d confirmed
SH10 confirmed
Table 30 Comparison: SH1-SH10 results group population (Source: authors research)
This was the case, for example, for SH9a. It must be investigated, as part of the continuing
verification of the main hypotheses, if they showed more significant values, based on the
obtained sample, if the different lifeworlds were taken into account. The investigation itself
119
has a very strong emphasis on young participants. This raises the question if the hypotheses
would exist in differentiated lifeworlds. Likewise, it has to be asked during the evaluation if
any significant and important results have been found. The factor analyses carried out
showed, inter alia, further factors. This must also be ensured in the context of evaluation
objectivity (Mller, 2007, p. 4). The mentioned points must also be examined to determine
whether this content can also form the basis for providing significant evidence for the main
hypotheses. There might possibly be other principles which could better define Internet users
and lifeworlds in media and Internet use.
3.4. results of the extended data analysis
As described, Ha and Hb have been analysed exploratively and presented descriptively to
examine the mentioned hypotheses using a confirmatory approach. These analyses are aimed
at consumer behaviour, as well as online behaviour and the behaviour within social networks.
The analyses have been performed for both subsequently selected milieus and the general
population. This analysis refers to particularly noticeable correlations or factors with high
item loadings. The following analysis serves also for the defining of further points which can
be researched during lifeworld analysis. The extended data analysis is interesting, since it
productively supports the subsequent recommendations for applying it in practice. In addition,
the results of the research provide a further insight into the life of Internet users and allow
drawing conclusions regarding the behaviour of Internet users.
As concerns research methods, correlation and factor analyses have been used. Necessary
rotations have also been taken into account, and appropriate correlations by Pearson or
Spearman have been applied. The results concern the total sample size of 1,607 people.
As concerns the demographic data, more noteworthy SRCC results have been obtained. There
is a correlation of -.285
**
between the number of people living in a household and the number
of inhabitants in the place of residence of the participant. This suggests that the number of
singles increases with the size of the place of residence. The number of inhabitants in the
place of residence is also related to the type of residence with a correlation value of -.388
**
.
Thus, the participants in major cities do not have owner-occupied houses and use flatshare
instead. In addition, there is a correlation of +.300
**
between the number of people living in a
household and the respective residential environment of a person. As concerns the use of
finance products, there is a pattern in the form of dichotomous variables. There is a significant
PCC/SRCC between the finance products of occupational disability insurance, life insurance,
Riester pension and private pension.

n=1,607
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
120
Occupational
disability
Life
insurance
Riester
pension
Private pension
insurance
Occupational disability 1 +.325
**
+.303
**
+.345
**

Life insurance +.325
**
1 +.233
**
+.296
**

Riester pension +.303
**
+.233
**
1 +.192
**

Private pension insurance +.345
**
+.296
**
+.192
**
1
n=1,607; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 31 Correlation matrix: finance products (Source: authors research)
It can be assumed that these products constitute a product portfolio and appeal to a certain
target audience. The finance products mostly cover hedging against a risk, which suggests that
it could be considered as a characteristic of the customer group. This should be studied
separately. Although unrelated to the above mentioned items, there is a correlation of +.321
**

between the finance products relating to shares and those concerning investment funds.
As concerns obtaining clothing and characterising the clothing style, there are hardly any
meaningful correlations except a value of +.297
**
between people preferring brand clothes
and shopping in brand shops. There is, however, a correlation of +.310
**
between the
obtaining of clothing and furniture if they are to be given as presents. A PCC/SRCC of -.253
**

between a participants income and the receiving of furniture as a present is also conspicuous.
As regards furniture, there is a PCC/SRCC of +.300
**
between people who have bought
furniture at a flea market and those who buy clothing at 2nd-hand shops. As regards the
characterisation of ones apartment, there is a significant correlation of -.300
**
between
participants who have described their apartment as chaotic and people who claim to have a
tidy apartment. It is also important that chaotic correlates with messy with a value of +.300
**
.
The rest of the correlations are low. A correlation of +.282
**
can be observed between a
modern furniture and modern clothing. There are mostly negative correlations between the
wish to wear modern clothing and, e.g. simple (-.263
**
), functional (-.246
**
) and practical (-
.226
**
). The PCC/SRCC value between comfortable and chick is -.263
**
and the correlation
between comfortable and serious is -.215
**
. As already determined in the regular investigation
(ISS2012), content can be consumed across different types of media. The same can be said
about drama, detective stories and science fiction. Furthermore, there is also a significant
PCC/SRCC value of +.328
**
between people who prefer animated content in the cinema and
those who prefer it on TV. Thus, it can be stated that people who prefer animated content
consume it across media boundaries. There are also interesting PCC/SRCC values concerning
particular TV stations. As concerns people who watch Super RTL, a preference for animated
content is proved by the correlation value of +.291
**
. As regards people who watch Pro

n=1,607
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
121
Sieben, a preference for US TV series is proved by the correlation value of +.286
**
. This also
applies for the main types of content of the respective TV stations whose target groups and
market niches are used by the TV station. There is a PCC/SRCC of -.391
**
between gender
and the TV station VOX indicating a preference of the female viewers. In a non-
representative discussion with female students, content related to animals, soap operas and
cooking have been mentioned as the reasons for this. As regards the young-audience oriented
TV station Pro Sieben, an SRCC of +.343
**
can be observed for the year of birth. Regarding
additional TV stations, there is a PCC/SRCC of -.253
**
between Arte and RTL and a value of
-.218
**
between 3Sat and RTL. There is also a correlation of +.432
**
between Arte and 3Sat.
This suggests that viewers of Arte and 3Sat do not watch RTL. RTL, however, has a
PCC/SRCC of +.369
**
with Sat1 which could be connected with the fact that these are the
leading private German TV stations and that they have been founded at approximately the
same time. As concerns a comparison of private and public TV stations, the SRCC between
the participants educational qualification and RTL 2 (-.153
**
) and ARD (+.184
**
) is
conspicuous. As can be expected, there is a significant PCC/SRCC of +.322
**
between both
news channels NTV and N24. As concerns ones leisure activities, there is a striking
correlation of -.319
**
between gender and the shopping; this intensity increases when it comes
to female test subjects. Striking results can also be observed between the leisure activities
connected with an interest in art. As regards people who are interested in art as a type of
recreational activity, a significant PCC for the hobbies of photography (+.328
**
), playing
music (+.304
**
) and writing (+.354
**
) can be observed. A factor analysis of recreational
activities, including question category C in addition to B13, reveals results containing factors
for recreational activities:
Factor 1 Factor 4 Factor 7
Item Load Item Load Item Load
Art +.745 Listening to music (Internet) +.661 Celebrating +.574
Artistically-
minded people
+.615 Listening to music (Hobby) +.617 Use events +.566
Writing +.400 Watching videos Planning events +.529
Photography +.366 YouTube +.386 Friends (Hobby) +.455
Playing music +.364 Sharing videos +.323 Discuss events +.429
Internet (Hobby) +.305
n=1,607; KMO .873; Bartlett .000
Table 32 Factor analysis: Recreational activitiy and Internet use factors (Source: authors research)
The final range of conspicuous results is concerned solely with the use of the Internet. There
is an SRCC of +.314
**
between using broadband Internet and watching videos on the Internet
during the week, and at the weekend (+.288
**
). This suggests that watching videos is related

n=1,607
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
122
to an increase in the time spent online. As regards usingsocial network content, a PCC of
+.429
**
can be observed between using applications and playing games. This correlation is
also confirmed by factor 18, provided by factor analysis. This factor consists of using
applications with a loading of +.665 and playing games with +.634. These results mean, first
of all, that people who add games on social networks also use applications; at least it can be
expected. The same can be said about application users who can be expected to play games in
this way as well. This means that an increase in the intensity of use of one of the options can
have an influence upon the other category as well. The correlation between the motivation to
stay in contact with friends and to stay in contact with acquaintances is interesting. The PCC
in this case is +.734
**
. This can mean that the participants do not distinguish between friends
and contacts on social networks. Another interpretation of this correlation value could be that
the intensity of searching for contact with both friends and acquaintances increases similarly.
As regards usage intensity, another interesting correlation is that between the consumption of
TV, music and video-related content. The PCC between TV content and video services
reaches +.499
**
, between TV content and music services it amounts to +.300
**
and the value
between video services and music services reaches +.509
**
. Thus, the correlations are similar,
as factor 4, which takes into account the consumption of music on the Internet; this partial
correlation contains also the integration of TV content (factor 24). Another significant PCC
can be observed between data exchange and the motivation to use the Internet to obtain or
share information. A positive correlation between the motivation to obtain information and
share it exists in both cases.
Data
exchange
Receiving
information
Searching for
information
Sharing
content
Creating
content
Data exchange 1 +.285
**
+.309
**
+.324
**
+.259
**

Receiving information +.285
**
1 +.556
**
+.367
**
+.316
**

Searching for
information
+.309
**
+.556
**
1 +.337
**
+.351
**

Sharing content +.324
**
+.367
**
+.337
**
1 +.735
**

Creating content +.259
**
+.316
**
+.351
**
+.735
**
1
n=1,607; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 33 Correlation matrix: information exchange (Source: authors research)
As regards the intensity of use, it is also conspicuous that there is a significant PCC of +.499
**

between using Internet portals and forums. A reason for this may be that these services are
either consumed together, meaning that forums offer also landing sites and additional content,
or forums have been integrated in portals as secondary services in order to keep the user on
the website for a longer period of time. As regards the use of the Internet, there is an

n=1,607
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
123
additional significant correlation between search engines and the use of the e-mail function,
online encyclopaedias and social networks.
Search engines E-mail Dictionaries and
encyclopaedias
Social networks
Search engines 1 +.362
**
+.309
**
+.366
**

E-mail +.362
**
1 +.244
**
+.179
**

Dictionaries and
encyclopaedias
+.309
**
+.244
**
1 +.091
**

Social networks +.366
**
+.179
**
+.091
**
1
n=1,607; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 34 Correlation matrix: Internet functions (Source: authors research)
It has to be considered in this case whether this correlation can be viewed differently. The
connection between search engines and e-mail can result from the basic pattern of web
portals. In the beginning, these include a search engine, which is later expanded by special
services, mostly e-mail before the launch of content channels. The connection between search
engines and online encyclopaedias is interesting, since both options concern the acquisition of
knowledge. The interest to search for information on the Internet is closely connected with the
use of encyclopaedias and the associated knowledge acquisition. Perhaps it can be assumed
that people who gladly use online encyclopaedias have more experience with knowledge
acquisition, and thus with the operation of search engines. The correlation between search
engines and social networks can also suggest that the time spent and the number of views on
the search engines and social networks have become very similar in recent years. It might also
be possible that social network use stimulates the intensity of using search engines, since the
user might encounter new impulses motivating him to look for additional information using
search engines. A cluster analysis was carried out for hedging purposes. The calculation
method of hierarchical cluster analysis (Stier, 1999, pp. 322331; Reinboth, 2006, pp. 151
155), based on the Euclidean distance (Stier, 1999, pp. 103105) was used to arrive at
different clusters. The results (A4.5.4) show that the acquired sample population is very
homogeneous and the clusters remaining at the end are very small and can be characterised as
outliers. This tends to saying that predefined lifeworlds contribute to better results than a pure
explorative analysis, which further underscores the principal hypotheses of this study.

124
4. APPLICATION OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS ON THE
INTERNET
This chapter is aimed at confirming the main hypotheses using the results of the analysis of
the selected milieus and comparing the milieus with the basic population. This is intended as
the basis for further approaches to research, application development and marketing purposes
relating to the economy, as well as recommendations concerning politics.
The lifeworlds introduced in the theoretical part provide a basis for parametric conditions
which serve to prove the principal hypotheses. The applicability of the data is determined by
comparing the layers with the the SINUS Milieus, more specifically, the DIVSI Milieus. It
must be noted that the milieu size proportions cannot be stated precisely, since the general
population, as opposed to these examples, was not obtained holistically. The findings of the
general population analysis reveal a strong proportion of pupils and students against the
background of a somewhat higher education. As regards the age, this corresponds to the
general definition of the Digital Natives (Prensky, 2001, pp. 16). In this regard, the focus on
social networks suggests that the participants primarily originate from this layer, defined on
the basis of the DIVSI Milieus. From these, the Digital Vanguard (DV) are characterised by
the most extensive Internet use and adaptive Internet behaviour. Therefore, this group is
selected first. The lifeworld of the Digital Immigrants was selected next in order to serve as a
further leading milieu and strengthen the examination of the main hypotheses.

Figure 13 Selected DIVSI Internet Milieus (Source: DIVSI, 2012, p. 33)
Due to its digital affinity, orientation towards education and the interest in science, the Milieu
of the Responsibility-driven Individuals has been selected from the Digital Immigrants. It can
be assumed that the Responsibility-driven Individuals are present in the sample, since the
differentiation may be difficult due to similar capital levels, which is also the reason why the
intermediate section of the Efficiency-oriented Performers was not considered. However, this
has the advantage that the envisaged differentiation from the general population (GP) can be
Digital
Outsiders
Upper
class/Upper
middle class


Middle class

Social layer
Basic
orientation
Retaining | preserving
tradition
Doing & experiencing | exceeding limits
New orientation
having & enjoying | being & changing
Modernising/individualising
Responsibility-driven
Individuals 10%
Digital
Vanguard
15%
Digitale Immigrants Digitale Natives
125
achieved only if there are similarities between the DV and RI. It is not intended to carry out
an analysis of the lower classes, as well as the hedonistic user layer, since the proportion of
people with the educational qualifications characteristic of these layers is lower than that of
the other milieus. In principle, the analysis should be possible provided that the differentiation
from the GP is achieved.
Finally, a summary of the results of the analysis is created in order to provide a basis for the
envisaged further approaches and the conclusions. The conclusions may also contain previous
findings provided in order to deliver a more holistic picture.
4.1. analysis of the digital vanguard
The milieu of the Digital Vanguard (DV) consists of the Alternative Milieu (Hradil, 1987, p.
129), the Post-modern Milieu, Intellectual Milieu and Adaptive Milieu (Geiler, 2002, p. 131),
the Modern Performer Milieu and Experimentalist Milieu (Hradil, 2006, pp. 279280; Geiler,
2006, p. 111; Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, p. 11; 2632), as well as the Movers and Shakers Milieu,
Performance-oriented Milieu, Hedonistic Milieu and Adaptive Pragmatist Milieu (DIVSI,
2012, p. 23). Some of these milieus form only a small portion of the Digital Vanguard.
Among the selected milieus, the group of the DV has the highest media literacy, and most
pronounced basic orientation, which should be reflected in their media use patterns. There
should be differences in the intensity of Internet use. In addition, the normal consumer
behaviour of the DV should differ from that of the subsequently analysed RI.
The mentioned sources have been used to select 152 people (9.46% of the participants). The
selected participants originate from a residential environment consisting of more than 20,000
inhabitants. The participants were filtered according to the gross income so that participants
with a household income of less than 25,000 a year were excluded, with the exception of
students, those on a voluntary social year or the unemployed. As regards educational
attainment, a minimum of Vocational BA diploma was sent; workers, civil servants and
soldiers were excluded. As concerns Internet use, it was required to have broadband Internet
available before 2011, and the use of Internet for at least three hours during the week and one
hour at the weekend. It was required that mobile Internet is available and used for two hours
during the week and one hour at the weekend. In addition, the participants were required to
own a laptop (a notebook or netbook), tablet or smartphone, as well as a flat-screen TV, Blu-
Ray player or a product by Apple. Furthermore, the participants were required to have
obtained clothing in a 2nd hand shop, as a gift, in an outlet, over an online auction, online
shop or made it himself. As regards hobbies, it was required to have the intensity of at least 3
for Internet use. The participants were required to have used the Internet to discuss politics,
126
television content or daily events at least once, indicated with an intensity of at least two. As
concerns the characteristics of people with whom the participants prefer to stay in contact
using the Internet, the value of two was required for at least one of the following
characteristics: outgoing, vibrant, optimistic, cheerful and open for new experiences.
As concerns the filtering itself, the combined filters reveal mostly minor incisions in the
original population, so that their significance has a more supportive nature. In comparison to
the original sample population, the new sample has a more pronounced female proportion
with 60%. The age of the participants has fallen to 1992 in the mode and 1987.5 in the
median. As regards the size of residence, the median has shifted from 50,00099,999 to
200,000499,999 inhabitants. The time of initial Internet access, the family status, life style,
number of persons in the household and occupational status have not deviated from the
average value of the original population by more than 15%. The median and the mode remain
constant for all of the items. The gross household income of over 70,000 is exceeded only in
the mode, which indicates the capital base of the target group (their class affiliation); although
the former mode of under 10,000 is also possible for particular target groups. As regards the
indicated educational qualifications of the parents or the grandfather, there is a conspicuous
shift in the mode concerning the educational qualification of the father from a secondary
modern school diploma to a University Diploma. As regards the possessions, it is revealed,
except for the dominance of the selected objects, that a rail card is owned by 18.4% of the
participants, in comparison to the 10.6% of the original population, and 90.1% of the
participants own a broadband Internet connection, in comparison to 86.6% of the original
population. This can be viewed as an indication towards the capital structure of this milieu.
As concerns the products the participants would like to own, the only significant upward
deviation in comparison with the original population concerns tablets: from 21.8% to 30.9%.
As regards the finance products, shares are used more, while Riester pension and life
insurance are less common than in the original population. With regard to obtaining home
fitments, the elements which were not filtered reveal a significant increase for construction
market from 25.8% to 39.5%, which could prove as a sign of individuality in the context of
the build-on-your-own approach. As concerns fitment descriptions, there is a rise from 20.8%
to 27.6% for elegant; from 28.8% to 44.1% for modern; from 12.2% to 16.4% for open,
resulting in a change by more than 25%. A similar situation exist for the clothing style.
Style GP DV Style GP DV Style GP DV
Casual 31.9% 39.5% Daring 5.0% 9.2% Fancy 18.1% 25.0%
Elegant 15.7% 22.4% Inconspicuous 13.4% 4.6% Modern 31.9% 41.4%
Pratical 25.8% 19.7%
GP n=1,607; DV n=152
Table 35 Comparison: Distribution Clothing style GP and DV (Source: authors research)
127
The preferred ways of obtaining clothing are similar to those of the basic population. As
regards literature, a strong deviation can be observed only for thriller and scientific literature.
As regards film genres, fantasy is the only one with a noticeable change from 25.6% to
19.1%. The share of persons who prefer to watch films in the original language has risen from
27.4% to 37.5%. Concerning TV stations, Eins Plus has increased from 2.7% to 7.2%, VOX
from 32.5% to 42.1% and ZDF Kultur from 4.7% to 6.6%. In relative values, Super RTL has
fallen the most: from 4.1% to 1.3%. Two types of TV content have risen significantly.
Cooking shows have risen from 15.1% to 19.1%, and scientific programmes from 22.6% to
27.0%. As there is a correlation between women and cooking shows, the rise can partly be
explained by the high proportion of women among the surveyed. In contrast, the TV genres
relating to music and animation have fallen; music decreases from 8.8% to 4.6% and
animation from 10.8% to 5.3%. Television is not as much represented in the recreational
activities as in the general population, which is reflected in a mode of 2, in comparison with 3
in the general population. Stronger values can be observed for travelling, shopping, doing
sports, evident by an increase in the mode to 3. As regards social networks, Instagram,
Google+ and Spotify are more popular, reflected by a mode of 2 instead of 1. The median has
increased from 2 to 3 for Google+, from 2 to 3 for ICQ, from 1 to 2 for LastFM and from 1 to
2 for LinkedIn. This indicates that the Interent is used more often by the selected group.
WhatsApp is particularly conspicuous, since the median shifts from 2 to 5. This might be
explained by the fact that the new population should generally have access to mobile Internet.
It is striking that the old networks are known in this milieu, but are not used at all. This may
be related to the younger audience, since the changes concerning social networks relate only
to the their range, not the median or mode. As regards the social network functions which are
listed in the section C4, the mode of almost all functions has increased by one position
towards a positive value. The median has shifted in favour of a greater use of such functions
as uploading images, events, leaving comments, maintaining personal data, sharing websites
and videos. More conspicuous jumps can be observed for customisation of security settings,
the mode of which has increased from 3 to 5 and the expressing approval from 2 to 4. These
points reveal a stronger and more conscious use of the Internet than in the general population
Increases in the mode and median can also be observed for factors motivating the participants
to use social networks; rises have occurred for discussing events, searching for information,
making comments and the pre-selected discussion topics. Sharing content has the strongest
increase: from 2 to 3 in the median and even from 1 to 3 in the mode. The median for the
intensity of the motivation to chat has increased from 3 to 4. If compared to the original
population, changes can be observed for some of the Internet services used. The use of
128
banking operations seems conspicuous if the previous median of 3 and mode of 1 is compared
with the present median and mode of 4. The intensity of blog use in the filtered sample group
is much stronger, illustrated by a median of 2; the same goes for online shopping which is
increased from 3 to 4. The mode and median for online encyclopaedias, however, has fallen
from 4 to 3. The median and mode for the consumption of TV content and online videos is
increased by one point to 4 or 3. As regards personality characteristics, outgoing, which
previously was segmented, has a mode of 4 instead of 3. The mode has risen from 2 to 3 for
artistic and from 4 to 5 for funny. In contrast, the preference for conscientious and well-
behaved has declined from 4 to 3. This supports the understanding of openness in this milieu.
It needs to be examined how these values develop for the other milieu which has a similar
level of capital.
The results of the free research show that the selection process has ensured the people with a
high income and more online time than for those in the basic population have been selected.
The results relating to media use confirm the previous assumption concerning individual
consumption, as well as the increase of the public channels and preference for the original
language. The in comparison significantly increased values regarding the use of the Internet
reveal that the participants are Internet-minded and actively use the Internet and the functions
of social networks. The decline in the use of encyclopaedias is interesting; the sharing of
content has to be taken into consideration. In this way it is possible to gather information so
that, where necessary, details about a person are recorded and it is not necessary to look for
them.
As with the original population, the selected participants have been examined with relation to
SH1SH10. As regards SH1a, there is an SRCC of -.196
**
between the household income and
the start of using broadband Internet, and -.213
**
between the household income and the start
of using mobile Internet. There is a tendency for a low household income to lead to a later
start of using the Internet, and the necessary threshold level is not reached indicating that
SH1a is regarded as unconfirmed. As concerns SH1b, there is an SRC of +.369
**
between the
household income and the living environment; thus, it, along with SH1c with an SRCC of
+.354
**
, can be considered as confirmed. SH1 cannot be considered as confirmed, since the
values for SH1a are significantly lower than -.3 in this milieu; however, the general tendency
of SH1 is supported (A4.5.5). SH2a can be considered as confirmed due to an SRCC of
+.381
**
between female participants and romance films. SH2b can be regarded as confirmed
due to the SRCC of +.336
**
between male participants and the preference for action films.

n=152
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
129
There is and SRCC of +.239
**
between sports and the male gender. Thus, SH2c cannot be
regarded as confirmed, as the threshold value is not reached. SH2b can be considered as
confirmed due to the SRCC of +.345
**
between female participants and the preference for
romantic literature. Thus, SH2 can be considered as confirmed for the female gender. From
the point of view of its construction, SH2 is regarded as unconfirmed. There is a tendency for
male participants to prefer certain types of content. Since the population has mobile Internet,
it is not necessary to consider SH3a and SH3b, as in the analysis of the general population and
the subsequent examination of the Responsibility-driven Individuals. As concerns SH3a, the
analysis shows an SRCC of +.693
**
between the use of broadband Internet during the week
and at the weekend, and SH4b reveals a value of +.756
**
between the use of mobile Internet
during the week and at the weekend. SH3c can be considered as confirmed, since none of the
SRCCs, even those nearing the +.3 mark, reach it and remain significantly below this
threshold value. Overall, SH3 can be regarded as confirmed. As regards SH4a, there is a PCC
of +.275
**
between the time spent online from a mobile device and the uploading of pictures
during the week. There is a PCC of +.186
*
between the time spent online from a mobile
device and the uploading of pictures at the weekend. As a result, SH4a can be considered as
unconfirmed. As regards SH4b, there is a PCC of +.150 between the time spent online from a
mobile device and the intensity of tagging friends in pictures during the week, the correlation
has no significance. There is a PCC of +.194
*
between the time spent online from a mobile
device at the weekend and the intensity of tagging friends in pictures. Therefore, SH4b can be
considered as unconfirmed. As regards SH4c, there is a PCC of +.254
**
between the time
spent online from a mobile device and the intensity of tagging friends in messages during the
week, and at the weekend +.237
**
. Therefore, SH4c can be considered as unconfirmed.
Regarding SH4d, there is an SRCC of +.249
**
between mobile online time and the intensity of
using the location function during the week, and +.220
**
at the weekend. Therefore, SH4d can
be considered as unconfirmed. SH4e, however, is confirmed. The functions appear in a factor
(KMO .586; Bartlett .000) with high loadings. The factor consists at tagging friends in
messages (+.821), tagging friends in pictures (+.740), maintaining of personal data (+.392)
and sharing ones location (+.338). It is striking that the factor is not as consistent as in the
general population, and that tagging is in the foreground of the factor analysis. SH4 cannot be
regarded as confirmed, since SH4aSH4d are unconfirmed. There is a similar situation
concerning SH5. The testing of SH5a showed no significant correlation of at least +0.3
between the core functions of social networks and Facebook. A PCC of only +.394
**
appears

n=152
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
130
between Facebook and the expressing of approval using social networks. All other
correlations are partially below +.3. As a result, SH5a can be regarded as unconfirmed. As
regards SH5b, factor analysis (KMO .586; Bartlett .000) reveals the very distinct factor 12
which consists of Facebook (+.637), the use of social networks for birthday reminders (+.460)
for chatting (+.387) and the use of Spotify (+.289). This demonstrates an interesting use of
Facebook as a reminder for birthdays and wireless communication using the chat functions.
Spotify is suitable in this case, since the discussion focuses on music networks. Moreover,
Facebook has taken part in Spotify and advertised it widely. SH5b can be considered as
confirmed, and the values of the factor should be viewed as weak. Overall, SH5 can be
regarded as unconfirmed for the milieu of the Digital Vanguard. By contrast, SH6 is
considered as confirmed. As concerns SH6a, there are several significant correlations of at
least +0.3 between social networks. In addition to strong correlations between such
smaller networks as Hi5, Kwick and Jappy, there is a correlation between VZ Netzwerken and
MySpace.
Network (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
Flickr (1) 1 +.408
**
+.442
**
+.494
**
+.370
**
+.423
**
+.250
**
+.371
**

4SQ (2) +.408
**
1 +.484
**
+.346
**
+.439
**
+.491
**
+.359
**
+.563
**

Instagram (3) +.442
**
+.484
**
1 +.427
**
+.249
**
+.294
**
+.331
**
+.452
**

LastFM (4) +.494
**
+.346
**
+.427
**
1 +.179
*
+.232
**
+.256
**
+.236
**

LinkedIn (5) +.370
**
+.439
**
+.249
**
+.179
*
1 +.453
**
+.113 +.321
**

Pinterest (6) +.423
**
+.491
**
+.294
**
+.232
**
+.453
**
1 +.334
**
+.332
**

Spotify (7) +.250
**
+.359
**
+.331
**
+.256
**
+.113 +.334
**
1 +.260
**

Twitter (8) +.371
**
+.563
**
+.452
**
+.236
**
+.321
**
+.332
**
+.260
**
1
n=152; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 36 Correlation matrix: PCC intensities of social network use of the DV (Source: authors research)
These connections can be explained by the generally low use rates of these networks. This
contrasts with the significant correlations between Google+, Twitter and 4SQ. If the networks
are compared with the strongest mutual correlations, a distribution similar to that of the
general population becomes evident. In comparison with the general population, 4SQ,
Pinterest and Twitter have gained a strong predominance. LastFM and Instagram, however,
have lost. Both belong to Web 2.0 networks whose coverage suffered a loss towards the end
of 2012. No significant correlation has been found between LastFM and the networks Spotify
and Twitter. The same can be said about LastFM and 4SQ. SH6a can be considered as
confirmed. SH6b can also be considered as confirmed and factor analysis gives 4 factors. A
rather low loading can be observed for the last factor (factor 18) consisting of networks Hi5,
LastFM, Flickr, Kwick, Instagram and Wer-Kennt-wen.

n=152
131
Factor 1 Factor 10 Factor 13
Item Load Item Load Item Load
4SQ +.761 Kwick +.615 Myspace +.587
Twitter +.602 Jappy +.581 VZ Netzwerken +.584
Instagram +.579 MSNLive +.508 Stayfriends +.433
Spotify +.572
Pinterest +.526
LinkedIn +.457
Flickr +.409
Public sharing +.357
n=152; KMO .586; Bartlett .000
Table 37 Factor analysis: SH6b DV (Source: authors research)
SH6b is seen as confirmed in the light of factor 4. The confirmed sub-hypotheses SH6a and
SH6b result in a confirmed SH6. SH7a reveals for the following SH7 a PCC of +.287
**

between LinkedIn and the motivation to look for business partners and customers, and a PCC
of +.397
**
between Xing and the motivation to look for business partners and customers.
Therefore, SH7a can be considered as unconfirmed. As regards SH7b, there is a PCC of
+.291
**
between the motivation to look for jobs on social networks and the intensity of using
Linked and +.268
**
for Xing. Therefore, SH7b can be considered as unconfirmed. As regards
SH7c, there is a PCC of +.517
**
between the use of social networks to look for business
partners or customers and search for employment possibilities. As a result, this hypothesis can
be considered as confirmed. As concerns SH7d, there is a PCC of at least +.389
**
between
the motivation to find business partners and customers and to establish contacts using social
networks. Therefore, SH7d can be considered as confirmed. SH7e assumes a factor of the
previous functions and correlations which were found as factor 2 in the factor analysis (KMO
.586; Bartlett .000). This factor contains job search (+.650), Xing (+.605), LinkedIn (+.600),
search for business partners (+.569) and the motivation to establish contacts (+.422).
Therefore, SH7e is considered as confirmed. As regards SH7f, there is a PCC of +.421
**

between the educational qualification and LinkedIn, and +.473
**
between the educational
qualification and Xing. The SH7f can be considered as confirmed. SH7g can be considered as
confirmed due to the SRCC of +.572
**
between Xing and LinkedIn. Although SH7 is
regarded as unconfirmed, a partial confirmation could be possible regarding the pure use of
German-language social networks. The evaluation of a regression analysis carried out for the
DV reveals a low value for Xing (adjusted R
2
of .442; standard error .889; Sig. .000) and an
almost the same value for LinkedIn (adjusted R
2
of .352; standard error .795; Sig. .000). An
increase of the standard error values can be seen in both cases. As regards SH8, there is a
PCC of +.297
**
between the use of security settings on social networks and the intensity of

n=152
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
132
maintaining personal data. Since the threshold value is not reached, SH8 is regarded as
unconfirmed.
SH1 unconfirmed (2/3) SH1a broadband unconfirmed SH1a mobile unconfirmed
SH1b confirmed SH1c confirmed
SH2 unconfirmed (3/4) SH2a confirmed SH2b confirmed
SH2c unconfirmed SH2d confirmed
SH3 confirmed SH3a all confirmed SH3a mobile confirmed
SH3b all confirmed SH3b mobile confirmed
SH3c confirmed
SH4 unconfirmed (1/5) SH4a Week unconfirmed SH4a WE unconfirmed
SH4b Week unconfirmed SH4b WE unconfirmed
SH4c Week unconfirmed SH4c WE unconfirmed
SH4d Week unconfirmed SH4d WE unconfirmed
SH4e confirmed
SH5 unconfirmed (1/2) SH5a unconfirmed SH5b confirmed
SH6 confirmed SH6a confirmed SH6b confirmed
SH7 unconfirmed (5/7) SH7a LinkedIn unconfirmed SH7a Xing confirmed
SH7b LinkedIn unconfirmed SH7b Xing unconfirmed
SH7c confirmed SH7d confirmed
SH7e confirmed SH7f LinkedIn confirmed
SH7f Xing confirmed SH7g confirmed
SH8 unconfirmed
SH9 unconfirmed (0/4) SH9a unconfirmed SH9b unconfirmed
SH9c unconfirmed SH9d unconfirmed
SH10 confirmed
Table 38 Comparison: SH1SH10 results DV (Source: authors research)
SH9a is considered as unconfirmed due to a PCC of +.185
*
between the motivation to discuss
political topics and the intensity to leave comments. SH9b is considered as unconfirmed due
to a PCC of +.281
**
between the motivation to discuss political topics and the intensity to
exchange opinions. SH9c is considered as unconfirmed due to a PCC of +.264
**
between the
motivation to discuss political topics and the intensity to share websites in social networks.
The low PCC values are also confirmed by factor analysis (KMO .586; Bartlett .000)
indicating that SH9d remains unconfirmed. Therefore, SH9 can be considered as
unconfirmed. SH10 shows a PCC of +.442
**
between listening to music as a recreational
activity and using online services which offer music. Therefore, SH10 can be considered as
confirmed.A further analysis of the data showed several irregularities or differences in
comparison with the general population. A conspicuous feature of the data is the SRCC of -
.381
**
between gender and the beginning of using mobile Internet which indicates that female
participants have started to use mobile Internet later than males. Significant correlations can
be observed between the educational qualification of the parents and the grandfather as well

n=152
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
133
(A4.5.6). Interestingly, there is also a negative correlation of -.314
**
between the use of ICQ
and the household income. Otherwise, there are no significant results concerning demographic
data which have not been mentioned already. There are few conspicuous values concerning
the possessions and wishes. As concerns possessions, there is an SRCC of +.372
**
between
the ownership of a roller and use of clothing from discount shops. As concerns the wishes, the
only significant correlation occurs between a notebook and a landline telephone connection.
More striking results can be observed in the range of financial services. Riester pension has a
significant SRCC of -.302
**
with the persons age and -.346
**
the employment status, which
indicates that most young people, as well as those who are as of yet employed, do not use the
Riester pension scheme. This might be related to and influenced by the subsidisation
necessary for the tax situation. In addition to the significant SRCC of +.304
**
between a call
money account (Tagesgeld) and Riester pension, there is a strong correlation between shares
and occupational disability, investment funds and private pension insurance (A.45.7). In
addition, there is an SRC of +.347
**
between the use of investment funds and owner-occupied
flats. As concerns the methods of obtaining fitments, there is an SRCC of +.346
**
between
antiquities trade and having a carpenter make the object. As regards chosing fitments for the
housing environment, there is a significant SRCC with a negative value.
Item set Item set
Tidy and clean +.369
**
Messy and youthful +.313
**

Serious and elegant +.302
**

Modern and convenient -.319
**
Nonchalant and serious -.318
**

Modern and practical -.317
**
Comfortable and elegant -.316
**

n=152; = PCC
Table 39 Comparison: Correlation description housing environment DV (Source: authors research)
In addition, there are significant correlations between the properties of clothing and the types
of obtaining them. Fancy has an SRCC of +.335
**
in relation to obtaining clothing in
speciality shops. In contrast, a comfortable clothing style has an SRCC of -.309
**
with brand
shops. As regards types of obtaining clothing, there are three individual correlations: brand
shops and outlets (+.310
**
), supermarkets and received as a gift (+.309
**
), self-made and 2nd-
hand shops (+.402
**
). The individual types have no meaningful correlation with the household
income. These could be individual purchasing preferences. As regards the literature genres,
there is a negative SRCC of -.309
**
between newspapers and fantasy literature. In contrast,
there are two positive SRCCs between thriller and detective stories (+.336
**
), as well as
between fantasy and science fiction (+.332
**
). As regards television stations, there are direct
SRCC values +.3 between Comedy Central, Viva and Tele5, 3Sat, ARD, Arte; ZDF, Eins
Live, ZDF Kultur and ZDF Neo, RTL; Sat.1, NTV, N24 and Phoenix; as well as Eurosport

n=152
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
134
and Sport 1 respectively. The correlations could correspond to particular forms of consumer
preferences, or partly correspond to broadcaster groups and niche content. As regards TV
stations, further meaningful SRCCs can be observed within the group of the Digital
Vanguard. Some TV stations have SRCCs with particular attributes. Pro Sieben has a target-
group adequate SRCC of +.325
**
with participants of a younger age. There is an SRCC of
+.344
**
between the channel Sport 1 and content relating to sports, Arte has an SRCC of
+.303
**
with documentaries and Sat.1 has a negative SRCC of -.314
**
for documentaries.
These tendencies conform with the TV content of the respective TV stations; the target
audience is reached within this milieu. There are also significant SRCCs between female test
subjects and RTL (+.336
**
), SIXX (+.319
**
) and VOX (+.426
**
). It is interesting that there is
an SRCC of +.308
**
between RTL and the preference of romantic films. As regards the male
participants, RTL correlates with science fiction (+.303
**
) and action (+.336
**
). As concerns
leisure activities, there are further significant correlations. Family as a leisure activity
correlates with the intensity of using Spotify (-.352
**
) and Twitter (-.345
**
). This suggests
that, instead of spending time with the family, people are active on this particular network and
use it to interact with others, as well as to listen to music on the Internet. With regard to
gender differentiation, there is a PCC of +.302
**
between the male gender and the passive
consumption of sports. As regards the female gender, there is a PCC of +.302
**
for shopping
as a hobby. Most of the significant correlations can be observed for the hobby of celebrations.
Firstly, there is a PCC of +.428
**
for friends as a leisure activity, +.338
**
for scheduling
events using social networks, +.327
**
for the intensity of using social networks and +.429
**

for the characteristic of outgoing. Using broadband Internet during the week correlates with
the use of YouTube (+.430
**
) and blogs (+.301
**
). As concerns weekends, there is an SRCC
of +.368
**
for YouTube. The intensity of using YouTube and the use of the Internet for
watching videos is in significant correlation with a value of +.477
**
. As regards weekends,
there is an SRCC of +.305
**
for using the Internet for dating services. There are further
significant PCCs between the intensity of using blogs and various networks
Network Network Network
4SQ +.404
**
Flickr +.337
**
Instagram +.360
**

LastFM +.370
**
LinkedIn +.336
**
Twitter +.343
**

n=152; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 40 Comparison: Correlation intensity blog usage and social networks DV (Source: authors research)
There is a great number of PCCs of .3 between the functions of social networks. These
correlations are similar to those of the general population. Using the Internet for data

n=152
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
135
exchange is conspicuous. There is a large number of meaningful PCCs between social
network functions and the intensity of the use of social networks.
Item Item
Intensity Blog usage +.378
**
Discuss daily events +.320
**

Exchange opinions +.309
**
Obtaining information +.354
**

Searching for information +.327
**
Sharing ones location +.315
**

n=152; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 41 Comparison: Correlation social network functions and social network use
(Source: authors research)
The intensity of using social networks as Internet application reveals further significant PCCs
for the use of the Internet for chatting (+.403
**
), listening to music (+.415
**
) and watching
videos (+.303
**
). The question arises whether the target groups differentiate between chatting
applications and chatting on social networks. In addition, there are meaningful PCCs between
listening to music, sharing videos, watching videos, chatting and discussing events. In this
case, there is a strong emphasis on the correlation between the intensities of use concerning
recreational activities and media consumption. A PCC of +.464
**
can be observed between
the intensity of using web portals and forums. Furthermore, search engines have a PCC of
+.302
**
with the use of e-mail and and +.354
**
with the use of social networks. In addition, it
is evident that increasing age points to a decline in the use of online videos, television, music
and chatting. As regards the characteristics of people with whom the respondent prefers to
communicate using social networks, relish seeking, sociable, cheerful, funny and open
together have a meaningful PCC of +.3, and the characteristics sophisticated, relish seeking,
refined and cultivated have a PCC of +.3. As concerns individual characteristics, the
intensity of using social networks has a PCC of +.424
**
for sociable and +.335
**
for funny.
4.2. analysis of the responsibility-driven individuals
The Responsibility-driven Individuals (RI) consist of the Upper Conservative Milieu and
Technocratic Liberal Milieu (Hradil, 1987, pp. 128131), Milieu of the Established, (Geiler,
2002, pp. 130133), the Conservative Established Milieu and the Post-modern Milieu (Hradil,
2006, p. 279; Geiler, 2006, p. 111; Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, p. 11), as well as the Upper
Conservative Milieu, Liberal Intellectual Milieu and Socio-ecological Milieu (DIVSI, 2012, p.
23, 113117, 121).
According to the basic orientation, the RI are very conservative and value-oriented. The level
of flexibility is rather low, and the basic orientation is traditional. Importance is attached to
family values, the degree of accomplishment, as well as the goals achieved. There is a direct
connection with increasing age of the participants and changes in their behaviour.

n=152
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
136
The mentioned sources have been used to select 128 people (7.97% of the participants). The
participants were required to have Internet access before 2010. It was not required to have
access to mobile Internet. Households with 25 people have been included; people using
flatshare (WG) were not considered. As regards educational attainment, people with an
education level starting from a vocational BA diploma have been included.
As concerns the occupational status, workers, employees, the self-employed, self-employed
with employees, entrepreneurs and soldiers were accepted. The option of other was also
accepted, since it comprises pensioners and those of independent means; students and pupils
were accepted if their living environment meets the milieu criteria. The parents of the
participants were required to be married, separated, divorced or widowed. As regards gross
household income, participants with 45,000 or more were selected.
As concerns the possessions, a landline telephone is viewed as a prerequisite. In addition, the
use of at least one of the following finance products was required: shares, occupational
disability, investment funds, life insurance, private pension insurance or Riester pension. As
regards ways of obtaining furniture, one of the following was required: antiquities trade, made
by a carpenter, furniture shop, speciality market, department store or auction. Online sources
have been excluded explicitly, since a differentiation from the active Internet users is
intended. As concerns ways of obtaining clothing, speciality shop, ordered from a catalogue,
as a gift, brand shop or department store is required. As regards leisure activities, two points
were required for at least one of the following activities: further education, photography, art,
reading, playing music or writing.With regard to Internet use, the value of at least two was
required for the customisation of security settings. As concerns properties characterising
people with whom the participants prefer to stay in contact, a minimum value of three was
required for two of the following options: refined, cultivated or well-behaved.
With 45%, the proportion of male participants in the selected Milieu of the Responsibility-
driven Individuals is higher than in the general population. In the mode, the year of birth
subsides to 1990, in the median it subsides to 1981 (previously 1987) and in the average value
to 1979.5 (previously 1983.2). The representatives of this milieu are older and there is a
greater proportion of males. As regards the number of inhabitants in the place of residence,
the mode, which stands for places of residence with less than 2,000 inhabitants, is 1. The
mode value for the general population is 6, which stands for places of residence with more
than 500,000 inhabitants. The median, with 20,00050,000 inhabitants, also reveals a shift
towards smaller towns. As regards access to mobile and broadband Internet, it has been
available early: since 2010 for mobile Internet and since 1998 for a broadband connection. As
concerns family status, the mode shifts from married to in a relationship. The type of living
137
reveals the greatest change, since the members of this milieu, as opposed to the general
population, do not rent their residences, but, as shown by the mode and the median, live in
private houses. As concerns household income, which was reduced to three options, a mode
of an income of over 70,000 and a median of 55,00069,999 can be observed. This was
already expected, since it was chosen most often from the three options also before the
selection. With regard to the family status of the parents, a predominance of married parents is
evident. Concerning the characteristics of the parents, no conspicuous results can be observed,
except for the shift from a secondary modern school diploma to a secondary school certificate
in the mode. With regard to possessions, significant variations can be observed in this milieu
due to the higher capital levels in the selection and the increased age. It is conspicuous that
the number of simple majorities concerning possessions have increased sharply and a 25%
increase can be observed for almost all objects. As concerns wishes, an increase is evident
only for the wish to own a brand watch. In comparison with the general population, the
percentage of people who wish to own a brand watch has increased from 13.5% to 20.3%. A
considerable decline can be partly observed for the remaining wishes, since they have already
been fulfilled. The situation regarding the finance products is similar to that of the
possessions, or even more radical. In this case the proportions of the products have increased
at least by 50%, doubled in some cases, and simple majorities of 55.5% for building societies
and 50.0% for life insurance can be observed for the first time. Overall, a very high level of
participation in financial provision is evident. The manner of obtaining furnishings, where the
use of carpenter services increases significantly from 7.6% to 22.7%, while the receiving of
furnishings in the form of a gift decreases from 34.3% to 18.8% and flea market decreases
from 13.7% to 7.8% suggests that this milieu has a higher financial coverage and strives for
exclusivity. By contrast, it is interesting that online shops rise from 20.2% to 24.2%, since the
definition of this milieu suggests a lower online activity. Highly significant changes can be
observed in the description of the living environment in comparison with the general
population.
Environment GP RI Environment GP RI
Chaotic 23.0% 10.2% Colourful 14,4% 7,8%
Convenient 19,4% 2,3% Elegant 20.8% 36.7%
Light 34.7% 51.6% Messy 12.3% 4.7%
Modern 28.8% 38.2% Modest 23.6% 16.4%
Open 12.2% 20.3% Small 13.1% 2.3%
Spacious 13.5% 23.4% Warm 24.4% 32.0%
GP n=1,607; RI n=128
Table 42 Comparison: Distribution living environment GP and RI (Source: authors research)
A similar situation emerges in the description of clothing. Significant decreases can be
observed here as well.
138
Style GP RI Style GP RI Style GP RI
Brand oriented 13.2% 23.4% Chic 18.1% 28.1% Classical 15.2% 24.2%
Comfortable 57.2% 39.1% Conservative 4.8% 10.9% Elegant 15.7% 25.0%
Nonchalant 35.1% 24.2% Simple 24.1% 11.7% Youthful 20.4% 10.2%
GP n=1,607; RI n=128
Table 43 Comparison: Distribution clothing style GP and RI (Source: authors research)
The ways of obtaining clothing are subject to significant changes. Receiving clothing as a gift
decreases from 30.2% to 22.7%, and supermarket decreases from 10.0% to 6.3%. On the
other hand, speciality shop rises from 44.3% to 57.8%, brand shop from 41.3% to 63.3% and
outlet from 35.5% to 47.7%. This suggests a targeted consumption in light of the available
capital and the communication related to it. There are hardly any significant changes relating
to literature which suggests a traditional lifestyle. Specific results relating to literature and
film preferences can be observed.
Content GP RI Content GP RI Content GP RI
Detective stories 27.3% 38.3% Fantasy 26.4% 17.2% Journals 42.1% 51.6%
Magazines 22.0% 14.8% Newspapers 50.7% 60.2% Short
stories
8.2% 3.1%
GP n=1,607; RI n=128
Table 44 Comparison: Literature preferences GP and RI (Source: authors research)
Style GP RI Content GP RI Content GP RI
Animation 17.6% 10.9% Crime 31.3% 39.8% Documentaries 51.0% 61.7%
Fantasy 25.6% 18.0% Horror 20.7% 12.5% War 9.6% 6.3%
GP n=1,607; RI n=128
Table 45 Comparison: Movie preferences GP and RI (Source: authors research)
The preference for films in the original language has suffered a loss from 27.4% to 22.7%.
Positive changes regarding the preference for public broadcasters, and disfavour towards
private stations can be observed; the paid TV channel Sky can be regarded as an exception. In
addition, a general increase can be seen in the preference for regional broadcasters under state
control.
Station GP RI Station GP RI Station GP RI
ARD 38.7% 50.0% Comedy Central 6.8% 2.3% Eins Plus 2.7% 4.7%
Sky 8.5% 14.1% RTL 2 15.8% 10.2% Sport 1 8.2% 5.5%
VOX 32.5% 25.0% ZDF Info 6.1% 10.2%
GP n=1,607; RI n=128
Table 46 Comparison: TV station preferences GP and RI (Source: authors research)
As regards TV stations, positive changes can be observed for public broadcasters and negative
changes for private broadcasters except the pay-TV channel Sky. Overall, a general increase
regarding regional TV stations under state control can be observed.
Style GP RI Content GP RI Content GP RI
Music 8.8% 5.5% Animation 10.8% 6.3% Documentaries 56.4% 68.8%
News 47.8% 57.0% US Series 46.5% 30.5% Soap Opreas 3.1% 7.2%
GP n=1,607; RI n=128
Table 47 Comparison: TV content preferences GP and RI (Source: authors research)
This might suggest a pursuit of content rather than amusement in this milieu. As regards
recreational activities, it is evident that celebrations and listening to music have lost intensity.
139
As concerns the total time spent on the Internet, it is clear that the use of broadband Internet
during the week is significantly lower, which contrasts with the general population. The mode
decreases from 10 to 5 and the median from 14 to 10. Despite the fact that no emphasis was
put on it in the selection, the mobile use of internet during the week rises from 0 to 2 in the
mode and from 2 to 4 in the median. Use of broadband Internet at the weekend slightly
decreases in comparison with the general public, while that of the mobile Internet increases to
a small degree. It seems that there is a shift in patterns of Internet use, most notably
concerning the time spent on the Internet during the week. As regards the intensity of the use
of social networks, no deviations in median or mode can be observed except for one case. The
only network with a deviation is WhatsApp the mode of which decreases from 5 to 1. Another
striking aspect is the fact that the full range of answer options has not been used for six
instead of only one network. With regard to the intensity of using social network functions,
there are no changes in comparison with the general population, with one exception; the
median for the protection of personal data rises from 2 to 3 which is particularly interesting,
since it clashes with the previous statement regarding this milieu. The change in the mode for
the adjustment of security settings from 5 to 3 matches this new situation. Previously, a higher
value was expected, taking the selection into consideration as well. With regard to the
motivation to use social networks, the mode for chatting has decreased from 4 to 3, which
matches the decrease of WhatsApp. An increase in the mode for friend search from 1 to 2 is
evident. The mode for staying in contact with acquaintances, however, decreases from 5 to 4.
This suggests a differentiation that contradicts the positive correlation between friends and
acquaintances within the general population. The median for discussing politics rises from 1
to 2 which corresponds to the description of this milieu. The use of Internet for shopping also
reveals an increase of the median and mode from 3 to 4. The use of discussion forums rises in
the mode from 2 to 3 which might suggest a comprehensive discussion culture. As concerns
Internet applications, an increase of the median for banking services from 3 to 4 and mode
from 1 to 5 can be observed. Blogs have also increased in median from 1 to 2 which suggests
a more detailed interest. The use of chatting applications reveals the only negative trend in the
decrease from 3 to 2.5 in the median and from 3 to 2 in the mode. As concerns the intensity of
using social networks the median has decreased from 5 to 4, which is associated with the
change of range, described previously, according to which the higher intensities have
decreased. Listening to music decreases in mode from 5 to 3, which confirms the leisure
behaviour. As regards characteristics of people with whom the participants prefer to stay in
contact using the Internet, it is interesting that the median and mode values for outgoing have
increased from 3 to 4, while the traditional characteristic conscientious decreases from 4 to 3.
140
The descriptions in this selection reveal a strong differentiation regarding possessions, wishes
and consumption in the private sector, as well as slight differences regarding Internet use. It
raises the question of how the sub-hypotheses behave in this milieu. As regards SH1a, there is
an SRCC of .000 (PCC +.016). There is a correlation between the start of using broadband
Internet and the household income of the selected target group. This might be due to the
limited period of time, or the fact that there is sufficient capital and, if necessary, an Internet
connection was obtained. This trend can also be confirmed by the rather low SRC of -.114
between the start of mobile Internet use and the income. Therefore, SH1a can be considered
for this milieu, which has a high income, as unconfirmed. As regards SH1b, there is an SRCC
of +.230
**
between household income and the living environment. Therefore, SH1b can be
considered as confirmed. With regard to SH1c, an SRCC of +.212
*
can be observed between
the household income and the educational qualification. Therefore, SH1c can be considered as
unconfirmed. SH1 can be seen as unconfirmed for this target group. In detail, the non-
confirmation can be regarded as a supporting and confirming factor of SH1 for the general
population, which will later be explained in detail (A4.5.8). As concerns SH2a, there is an
SRCC of +.549
**
between female participants and romantic films, whereby this sub-
hypothesis can be seen as significantly confirmed. SH2b can be considered as confirmed due
to the SRCC of +.313
**
between male participants and the preference for action films; thus,
SH2b can be regarded as confirmed as concerns SH2c, there is and SRCC of +.246
**
between
the consumption of sports and the male gender. Thus, SH2c cannot be considered as
unconfirmed, as the threshold value is not reached. As regards SH2d there is an SRCC of
+.452
**
between female participants and the preference for romantic literature; thus, the sub-
hypothesis can be considered as confirmed. Thus, SH2 cannot be considered as confirmed for
the female gender. From the point of view of its elements, SH2 is regarded as unconfirmed for
this marginal area. There is a tendency for male participants to prefer certain types of content.
As concerns SH3a, the analysis of all selected participants shows an SRCC of +.748
**

between the use of broadband Internet during the week and at the weekend, and regarding
SH3b, a value of +.805
**
between the use of mobile Internet during the week and at the
weekend. As concerns SH3a, the analysis of the participants who use mobile Internet shows
an SRCC of +.782
**
between the use of broadband Internet during the week and at the
weekend, and regarding SH3b, a value of +.735
**
between the use of mobile Internet during
the week and at the weekend. Therefore, SH3a and SH3b can be considered as confirmed.
SH3c can be considered as confirmed, since none of the SRCCs, even those nearing it, reach a

n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
141
+.3 value. Therefore, SH3 can be considered as confirmed. As regards SH4a, there is a PCC
of +.120 between the time spent online from a mobile device and the uploading of pictures
during the week. There is a PCC of +.173 between the time spent online from a mobile device
and the uploading of pictures at the weekend. Therefore, SH4a can be considered as
unconfirmed. As regards SH4b, there is a PCC of +.102 between the time spent online from a
mobile device and the intensity of tagging friends in pictures during the week. There is a PCC
of +.130 between the time spent online from a mobile device at the weekend and the intensity
of tagging friends in pictures. Therefore, SH4b can be considered as unconfirmed. As regards
SH4c, there is a PCC of +.129 between the time spent online from a mobile device and the
intensity of tagging friends in messages during the week, and +.163 for at the weekend. Both
correlations have no significance. Therefore, SH4c can be considered as unconfirmed. With
regard to SH4d, the time spent online from a mobile device correlates with the intensity of
using the location function during the week (+.211
*
) and at the weekend (+.307
**
). Therefore,
SH4d can be regarded as unconfirmed. SH4e reveals that no factor is available (KMO .745;
Bartlett 0.000) and the SH cannot be regarded as confirmed. Therefore, SH4 as a whole can
be considered as unconfirmed. By contrast, SH5 is considered as unconfirmed.
Function Function
Express approval +.608
**
Keeping in touch with friends +.484
**

Posting comments +.447
**
Uploading images +.416
**

Chatting +.393
**
Keeping in touch with
acquaintances
+.386
**

Making comments +.360
**
Status messages +.337
**

Sharing content with people +.331
**
Tag friends in messages +.331
**

n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 48 Correlation overview: PCC intensities of social network functions use for RI
(Source: authors research)
As regards SH5a, there is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the core
functions of social networks and Facebook. Therefore, SH5a can be considered as confirmed.
Factor analysis (KMO .745; Bartlett 0.000) reveals factor 1 for the confirming of SH5b,
which consists of 26 functions of social networks and Facebook. The loadings of this function
lies above +.450. This shows the dominance of Facebook in this milieu and the understanding
of social network which is heavily focused on Facebook. In addition, there is factor 7, led by
Facebook (+.683), which contains the expressing approval (+.648), staying in touch with
friends (+.501), posting comments (+.371), chatting (+.356) and staying in touch with

n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05
142
acquaintances (+.349). SH5b can be regarded as confirmed. The confirming of hypotheses
SH5a and SH5b leads to the confirming of SH5.
SH6 is also considered as unconfirmed. SH6a can be considered as confirmed due to several
significant correlations of at least +0.3 between social networks. Thus, among others,
significant correlations can be observed between ICQ and MSN (+.303
**
) and VZ (+.320
**
),
as well as Jappy with Kwick (+.475
**
) and MSN (+.372
**
). It is conspicuous that in addition
to a correlation with LinkedIn (+654
**
), Xing stands in meaningful correlation with Flickr
(+.309
**
) and Pinterest (+.390
**
). This correlation is not present for the general population and
the Digital Vanguard. In addition, Spotify stands in a meaningful correlation with Instagram
(+.316
**
) and LastFM (+.371
**
).
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
Flickr (1) 1 +.449
**
+.377
**
+.396
**
+.321
**
+.424
**
+.303
**
+.382
**

4SQ (2) +.449
**
1 +.290
**
+.373
**
+.382
**
+.514
**
+.364
**
+.557
**

Instagram (3) +.377
**
+.290
**
1 +.356
**
+.255
**
+.363
**
+.261
**
+.390
**

LastFM (4) +.396
**
+.373
**
+.356
**
1 +.359
**
+.231
**
+.341
**
+.292
**

LinkedIn (5) +.321
**
+.382
**
+.255
**
+.359
**
1 +.553
**
+.358
**
+.402
**

Pinterest (6) +.424
**
+.514
**
+.363
**
+.231
**
+.553
**
1 +.319
**
+.458
**

MySpace (7) +.303
**
+.364
**
+.261
**
+.341
**
+.358
**
+.319
**
1 +.319
**

Twitter (8) +.382
**
+.557
**
+.390
**
+.292
**
+.402
**
+.458
**
+.319
**
1
n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 49 Correlation matrix: PCC intensities of social networks use of the RI (Source: authors research)
YouTube has a meaningful correlation with LastFM (+.366
**
) and Spotify (+.329
**
), and
these networks have significant correlations with listening to music, but only concerning the
online environment. Google+ has a PCC of +.347
**
with 4SQ, which is very interesting, since
such a significant correlation is observed for the first time, and there is no direct link between
both networks, since the networks occupy a different market sector. As concerns the densest
correlations, a change in comparison to the original population and the Digital Vanguard can
be observed. Spotify is no longer represented; MySpace appears instead. As regards leisure
networks, the intensity of the correlations is lower than for the Digital Vanguard while the
correlations relating to business networks are generally higher. In addition to SH6a, SH6b is
regarded as confirmed as well. 7 factors consisting of social networks can be defined.
Factor 3 Factor 9 Factor 8
Item Load Item Load Item Load
LastFM +.618 4SQ +.622 Jappy +.609
Spotify +.560 Twitter +.553 MSNLive +.551
MySpace +.523 Public sharing +.371 Kwick +.455
YouTube +.457 Pinterest +.330 Security settings +.452
Factor 3 Factor 9 Factor 8

n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
143
Flickr +.403 Google+ +.321
Instagram +.387 Websites sharing +.276
Factor 11 Factor 12 Factor 13
Item Load Item Load Item Load
Hi5 +.809 Stayfriends +.654 ICQ +.668
Kwick +.471 Wer-kennt-wen +.427 VZ Netzwerken +.501
Factor 11
Item Load
Instagram +.560
WhatsApp +.537
Applications in social networks +.489
n=128; KMO .745; Bartlett .000
Table 50 Factor analysis: SH6b RI (Source: authors research)
As regards SH7a there is a PCC of +.499
**
for LinkedIn and the motivation to look for
business partners and customers, and a PCC of +.602
**
for Xing and the motivation to look
for business partners and customers. Therefore, SH7a can be considered as unconfirmed. With
regard to SH7b, the motivation to use social networks for job search correlates with the
intensity of using LinkedIn (+.489
**
) and Xing (+.428
**
). Therefore, SH7b can be considered
as unconfirmed. As regards SH7c, there is a PCC of +.557
**
between looking for business
partners and customers using social networks and searching for employment possibilities
using social networks; therefore, this hypothesis can be considered as confirmed. As concerns
SH7d, there is a PCC of at least +.340
**
between the motivation to find business partners and
customers and to establish contacts using social networks. Therefore, these can be considered
as confirmed. SH7e can be considered as confirmed, since a factor (KMO .745; Bartlett
0.000) containing Xing (+.780), LinkedIn (+.746), search for business partners (+.717), use of
social networks for job search (+.664) and establishing contacts (+.319) can be formed.
Therefore, SH7e is seen as confirmed. As regards SH7f, there is a PCC of +.376
**
between
the educational qualification and LinkedIn, and +.419
**
between the educational qualification
and Xing. The SH7f can be considered as confirmed. There is a PCC of +.654
**
between Xing
and LinkedIn; as a result, SH7g is regarded as confirmed. All of the sub-hypotheses of SH7
can be considered as confirmed; as a result, SH7 is also confirmed. The evaluation of a
regression analysis carried out for the RI also reveals a higher value for Xing (adjusted R
2
of
.556; standard error .866; Sig. .000) and LinkedIn (adjusted R
2
of .472; standard error .709;
Sig. .000). An increase of the standard error values can be seen in both cases as well. As
regards SH8, there is a PCC of +.422
**
between the use of security settings on social networks
and the intensity of maintaining personal data. Therefore, SH8 can be considered as
confirmed.

n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
144
SH1 unconfirmed (0/3) SH1a broadband unconfirmed SH1a mobil unconfirmed
SH1b unconfirmed SH1c unconfirmed
SH2 unconfirmed (3/4) SH2a confirmed SH2b confirmed
SH2c unconfirmed SH2d confirmed
SH3 confirmed SH3a all confirmed SH3a mobil confirmed
SH3b all confirmed SH3b mobil confirmed
SH3c confirmed
SH4 unconfirmed (0/5) SH4a Week unconfirmed SH4a WE unconfirmed
SH4b Week unconfirmed SH4b WE unconfirmed
SH4c Week unconfirmed SH4c WE unconfirmed
SH4d Week confirmed SH4d WE confirmed
SH4e confirmed
SH5 confirmed SH5a confirmed SH5b confirmed
SH6 confirmed SH6a confirmed SH6b confirmed
SH7 confirmed SH7a LinkedIn confirmed SH7a Xing confirmed
SH7b LinkedIn confirmed SH7b Xing confirmed
SH7c confirmed SH7d confirmed
SH7e confirmed SH7f LinkedIn confirmed
SH7f Xing confirmed SH7g confirmed
SH8 confirmed
SH9 unconfirmed (3/4) SH9a confirmed SH9b confirmed
SH9c confirmed SH9d unconfirmed
SH10 confirmed
Table 51 Comparison: SH1SH10 results Responsibility-driven Individuals (Source: authors research)
SH9a is considered as confirmed due to a PCC of +.309
**
between the motivation to discuss
political topics and the intensity of leaving comments. SH9b is considered as confirmed due
to a PCC of +.445
**
between the motivation to discuss political topics and the intensity of
exchanging opinions. SH9c is considered as confirmed due to a PCC of +.462
**
between the
motivation to discuss political topics and the intensity of sharing websites in social networks.
Despite these findings, SH9d cannot be considered as confirmed, since factor analysis did not
give any factor containing these functions. Therefore, SH9 can be considered as unconfirmed.
SH10 shows a PCC of +.422
**
between listening to music as a recreational activity and using
online services which offer music. Therefore, SH10 can be considered as confirmed.
A further examination of the data revealed several significant correlations, several of which
have not been included, as they are related to the high age range which is a distinguishing
factor for this group of test subjects. As regards demographic data, there is a conspicuous
SRCC of -.304
**
between the start of mobile Internet use and gender, which means that
women have started using mobile Internet later than men. In addition, there is a meaningful
SRC of +.387
**
between the start of broadband Internet use and start of mobile Internet use.
Significant correlations can be observed between the educational qualification of the parents
and the grandfather as well (A4.5.9). With regard to possessions, an SRCC of +.326
**
can be

n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
145
observed between Apple products and those IKEA. With regard to the wishes, a significant
SRCC of +.338
**
can be observed between a tablet computer and a Blu-Ray player, as well
between the wish for a house and a new car (+.331
**
) or a brand watch (+.307
**
). As concerns
finance products, further SRCCs can be observed in addition to the value of +.331
**
between
building societies and investment funds (A4.5.10). Another striking feature is the meaningful
SRC for owning life insurance. Correlations involving life insurance increase with the
participants family status (+.473
**
) and increasing age (+.457
**
). In addition, owning a life
insurance is more likely with increasing education (+.307
**
). As concerns ways of obtaining
furniture, a highly significant SRCC of +.537
**
is evident between classified advertising and
online auction houses, which can correspond to the maintaining of a rule of behaviour or
preference for 2nd-hand purchase. An increasing educational qualification corresponds to
inherited (+.3) objects rather than received as gifts.
Item set Item set
convenient and small +.317
**
fancy and modern +.378
**

modest and elegant -.318
**

n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 52 Comparison: Correlation description housing environment RI (Source: authors research)
There is an overarching trend for people with a modern clothing style to describe their
apartment furnishing as modern as well (+.311
**
).
Item set Item set
modest and simple +.363
**
modest and self-made +.346
**

elegant and serious +.302
**
inconspicuous and conservative +.358
**

modern and functional -.387
**
elegant and comfortable -.351
**

modern and modest -.340
**

n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 53 Comparison: Correlation description closing style RI (Source: authors research)
As concerns properties mentioned when characterising the clothing, fancy is the only attribute
which relates to a way of obtaining clothing. There is an SRCC of +.335
**
between people
who describe their clothing as fancy and purchasing in speciality shops. Additional SRCCs
can be observed regarding ways how clothing is obtained: +.323
**
between purchasing in
supermarkets and receiving it as a gift, +.342
**
between online auctions and 2nd-hand shops,
+.402
**
between self-made and 2nd-hand shops and +.310
**
between brand shops and outlets.
In addition, there is a significant correlation between people who prefer youthful clothing and
characterise their living environment as messy. As regards literary genres, there are positive
correlations between detective stories and thrillers (+.336
**
), mystery and fantasy (+.389
**
),
science fiction and comics (+.394
**
), as well as negative values between scientific literature

n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
146
and comedy (-.314
**
), as well as newspapers and fantasy (-.348
**
). Male participants correlate
with trade magazines (+.362
**
) and scientific magazines (+.332
**
). There is an SRCC of
+.372
**
between females and reading comedy. Another SRCC concerning females and
recreational activities is the +.410
**
for the hobby of reading. There is an SRCC of +.384
**

between the people in this selection who enjoy horror films and those who describe their
apartment as colourful. In addition, a correlation of +.440
**
is evident between using self-
made clothing and anime. As regards films, younger people watch comedies (+.306
**
), while
elder participants prefer nature (+.349
**
). There are also significant SRCCs between female
test subjects and the TV station SIXX (+.336
**
), and VOX (+.372
**
). With regard to romantic
films, meaningful SRCCs can be observed with RTL 2 (+.301
**
), Sat.1 (+.310
**
), and VOX
(+.380
**
). A positive SRCC of +.309 is evident between NTV and documentaries. Significant
SRCCs can also be observed between the persons age and TV stations. There is a correlation
between young people and Pro Sieben (+.527
**
) and RTL 2 (+.339
**
), as well as between
elder members and ZDF (-.327
**
) and Arte (-.367
**
). Moreover, there is a negative SRCC
between Pro Sieben and the persons level of education (-.372
**
), family status (+.405
**
) and
comedy as TV content (+.300
**
). ARD (+.333
**
) and Arte (+.301
**
), however, reveals a
positive SRCC with the level of education. As regards the Responsibility-driven Individuals,
further negative SRCCs can be observed, e.g. between TV stations ARD and DMAX (-.307
**
)
and Pro Sieben (-.361
**
), or between ZDF and Pro Sieben (-.329
**
). Similarly, positive
SRCCs can be observed for Sat.1 and RTL (+.466
**
), as well as RTL 2 (+.374
**
); between the
news channel N24 and NTV (+.336
**
) and by various public broadcasters, such as 3Sat and
Arte (+.459
**
), ARD and ZDF (+.539
**
), ZDF Info and ZDF Neo (+.302
**
). A significant
SRCC for special TV content can be observed only for VOX. The SRCC for content relating
to cooking amounts to +.311
**
. With regard to male test subjects, there is an SRCC of +.313
**

for content relating to action on television, and younger participants correlate with comedy
(+.389
**
) and US series (+.346
**
). The content itself correlates significantly with science
programmes (+.398
**
) and documentaries (+.343
**
). Scientific programmes are in a negative
correlation with comedies (-.403
**
) and romantic films (-.304
**
). The age of the participants in
this sample has a great impact on the hobbies and their intensities. This suggests that the
preferences change with increasing age. Thus, increasing age has a negative correlation with
friends as a recreational activity (-.377
**
), listening to music (-.328
**
), shopping (-.335
**
) and
Internet access (-.304
**
). The meaningful SRCC of +.466
**
between the female gender and
shopping as a hobby should be pointed out at this point, as well as the connection between

n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
147
this hobby and the level of education (-.372
**
). This means that a lower level of education
suggests a stronger intensity of shopping. Pairings are evident between between different
hobbies, such as celebrations and friends (+.501
**
), television and Internet (+.315
**
) or
shopping (+.303
**
), as well as photography and art (+.395
**
). The use of fixed Internet during
the week correlates with the intensity of using YouTube (+.473
**
), blogs (+.307
**
) and
watching videos on the Internet (+.466
**
). There is also an SRCC of +.372
**
for using
broadband Internet at the weekend and YouTube, and +.429
**
for watching videos on the
Internet. To some extent, this allows to arrive at a conclusion concerning the types of Internet
use are related to longer periods of time. Besides the known information from the sub-
hypotheses, a correlation of +.344
**
between the male gender and Flickr, LastFM (+.340
**
)
and LinkedIn (+.337
**
) can be observed within social networks. As regards younger
individuals, there are significant SRCCs with ICQ (+.455
**
) and VZ Netzwerke (+.315
**
);
older participants correlate with Stayfriends (+.525
**
). In addition, older individuals chat less,
and the intensity of chatting is influenced by the family status (-.365
**
) and the level of
education (-.298
**
). Meaningful PCCs are evident between the networks and their functions.
A particularly pattern is revealed by 4SQ, since it has significant correlations with network
functions and Internet usage:
Function Function Function
Blog usage +.366
**
Creating content +.367
**
Sharing of websites +.396
**

Status messages +.306
**
Uploading videos +.322
**

n=152; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 54 Comparison: Correlation description housing environment RI (Source: authors research)
In addition, there is a meaningful PCC of +.322
**
between YouTube and the posting of status
messages, as well as between the use of security settings and the female gender (+.3).
In this regard, factor analysis (KMO .740; Bartlett .000) shows factor 7. This factor contains
the use of events (+.601), discussing (+.589) and planning them (+.556), as well as the pure
intensity of using social networks (+.374) as an Internet application. With regard to the use of
online services concerning blogs, significant PCCs can be observed for using the Internet as a
means of data exchange (+.379
**
), listening to music (+.452
**
) and watching online videos
(+.529
**
). In addition, a PCC of +.340
**
can be observed between playing games on social
networks and releasing emotions. The preference to stay in contact with outgoing people
correlates with tagging friends in pictures (+.325
**
), chatting on social networks (+.336
**
),
searching for friends (+.337
**
) and searching for information (+.310
**
). Unusual correlations
occur between using applications on social networks and posting ones location (+.310
**
) and

n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
148
Internet shopping (+.304
**
). The intensity of making purchases online is in a significant PCC
with the exchanging of opinions (+.334) and staying in contact with friends (+310). Factor
analysis (KMO .740; Bartlett .000) reveals two small factors concerning Internet applications;
factor 8 contains the use of web portals (+.766) and forums (+.641); and factor 10 comprises
search engines (+.512), encyclopaedias (+.504) and e-mail (+.377). As regards the start of
Internet use for the Responsibility-driven Individuals, specific results can be observed; the
later the start of Internet use, the stronger the intensity of using social networks (+.328
**
), as
well as the preference to stay in contact with people who can be characterised as cheerful
(+.347
**
). The older the person the less important it is how cheerful the individual is (-.380
**
).
Factor analysis (KMO .740; Bartlett .000) reveals 3 factors regarding personality traits. Factor
5 includes cheerful (+.795), optimistic (+.669), seeking relish (+.501), sophisticated (+.407),
funny (+.391) and even-tempered (+.382), which are very similar. Factor 9 contains refined
and cultivated (+.799), well-behaved (+.683); and factor 13 comprises sociable (+.673),
outgoing (+.529) and open for new experiences (+.323). Overall, distinct peculiarities
regarding the Responsibility-driven Individuals can be described and detected by a further
analysis.
4.3. analysis of the main hypotheses
The analysis of the main sub-hypotheses is introduced by a comparison of the demographic
data of the various groups (GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128). The number of people in the
place of residence, family status, living environment, number of persons in the household,
household income and the family status of the parents correspond to the respective selections
based on the lifeworlds. Different values can be observed for the variables which were not
filtered. The proportion of males is 44.5% in the GP, 45% in the RI and 60% in the DS.
GP DV RI
Mean Median Mode Mean median Mode Mean Median Mode
Year of
birth
1983.2 1987 1991 1985.4 1987.5 1992 1979.5 1981 1990
Broadband 2001.7 2001 2000 2000.3 2000 2000 1999.4 1999 1998
Mobile 2009.7 2010 2011 2009.4 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 55 Comparison: Year of birth and start of Internet use GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)
As regards the initial access to mobile Internet and gender, conspicuous SRCCs can be
observed for the DV (-.381
**
) and RI (-.304
**
), meaning that males have started using mobile
Internet earlier than females. Men belonging to the DV are especially more active Internet
users. As regards the general population (GP), this value is lower (-.207
**
) tendency is evident

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
149
here as well. With regard to the educational qualification of the relatives, there is little
difference between the DS, RI/GP, except for a difference in the mode of the educational
qualification of the father. This difference can be explained by the insufficient sample size.
Overall, the detailed examination revealed marginal deviations in the selected milieus towards
a higher educational attainment in comparison with the GP. In general, no considerable
differences can be observed.
In addition to the demographic data, more differences can be observed outside the hypotheses.
As regards preferences relating to the fitments or the living environment, meaningful
differences can be observed.
Environment GP DV RI Environment GP DV RI
Chaotic 23.0% 21.2% 10.2% Colourful 14.4% 11.2% 7.8%
Convenient 19.4% 18.4% 2.3% Elegant 20.8% 27.6% 36.7%
Light 34.7% 36.8% 51.6% Small 13.1 16.4% 2.3%
Spacious 13.5% 14.5% 23.4% Pretty 24.9% 28.3% 34.4%
Messy 12.3% 10.5% 4.7% Warm 24.4% 22.4% 32.0%
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 56 Comparison: Distribution living environment GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)
The differences indicate that the milieus differ from each other both horizontally and
vertically. Both selected milieus tend to have a similar capital structure which does not allow
classifying them as a lower class. Differences between both groups, as well as common
tendencies against the GP can be observed. This can be seen by examining the description of
clothing and home fitments. The SRCCs of the description of fitments and clothing differ
between the selected milieus, and there are hardly any word pairs significant in both groups.
As concerns the RI, the characteristics comfortable, simple, youthful and nonchalant have
fallen, while chick, elegant, classical, conservative and brand-oriented have increased.
Differences can be observed for the hobbies (recreational activities) of the participants. There
is a correlation between the demographic data and a person's preferred free-time activities.
Demographic item Hobby GP DV RI
Gender (direction female) shopping -.319
**
-.313
**
-.313
**

Gender (direction female) Reading -.283
**
-.410
**
-.283
**

Gender (direction male) Watching sports +.305
**
+.292
**
+.161
*

Year of birth Friends +.245
**
+.172
*
+.377
**

Year of birth Listening to music +.204
**
+.197
*
+.328
**

Year of birth Shopping +.137
**
+.163
*
+.335
**

Education Shopping +.079
**
+.143 +.372
**

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = SRCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 57 Comparison: Correlation Demographics and recreational activities
(Source: authors research)
Despite the fact that only SRCC/PCC values reaching at least .3 should be taken into
account, the SRCC between the Internet as a recreational activity and the time of using mobile
Internet should be considered. It reaches an almost significant value for the RE, and
150
meaningful changes in comparison with the GP can be observed (GP: -.002; DV: +.106; RI:
+.291
**
). There are PCCs between the individual options of recreational activities which are
significant for all milieus, such as the correlation between friends and celebrations (GP:
+.465
**
; DV: +.428
**
; RI: +.499
**
); as well as photography and art (GP: +.328
**
; DV: +.419
**
;
RI: +.394
**
). The correlation between friends and celebrations was also indicated by a factor
analysis carried out for this specific purpose.
Factor 2 (GP) Factor 2 (DV) Factor 1 (RI)
Item Load Item Load Item Load
Friends +.730 Celebrations +.795 Celebrations +.634
Celebrations +.634 Friends +.500 Friends +.596
Travelling +.439 Playing music +.406
Shopping +.438 Listening to music +.348
Reading -.390
GP: n=1,607; KMO .655; Bartlett .000
DV: n=152; KMO .564; Bartlett: .000
RI: n=128; KMO .609; Bartlett .000
Table 58 Factor analysis: Recreational activitiy factors with a focus on celebrations (Source: authors research)
In addition, there are PCC values reaching significance only in two milieus, such as a hobby
and doing sports (GP: +.330
**
; DV: +.378
**
; RI: +.239
**
), as well as art and writing (GP:
+.215
**
; DV: +.320
**
; RI: +.388
**
). Those combinations can be find in the factor analyses, but
also only for GP and DV.
Factor 3 (GP) Factor 4 (DV) Factor 6 (GP) Factor 5 (DV)
Item Load Item Load Item Load Item Load
Art +.882 Writing +.681 Doing sports +.695 Hobby +.653
Photography +.457 Education +.483 Hobby +.406 Doing sports +.524
Writing +.419 Art +.481
GP: n=1,607; KMO .655; Bartlett .000
DV: n=152; KMO .564; Bartlett: .000
Table 59 Factor analysis: Recreational activitiy factors with a focus on culture (Source: authors research)
As regards the RE, such factors were not revealed. In addition, there are several relatively
close PCCs which indicate a certain trend, but differ in the level of significance.
Hobby Hobby GP DV RI
Art Playing music +.304
**
+.215
**
+.117
Art Education +.185
**
+.313
**
+.106
Education Writing +.215
**
+.333
**
+.189
*

Friends Shopping +.185
**
+.272
**
+.304
**

Friends Hobbies +.291
**
+.167
*
+.339
**

Internet Television +.220
**
+.172
*
+.329
**

Reading Writing +.289
**
+.190
*
+.317
**

Shopping Television +.151
**
+.083 +.300
**

Travelling Shopping +.260
**
+.213
**
+.372
**

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 60 Comparison: Recreational activity correlations GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
151
In addition to the positive PCCs, there are distinct negative contrasts. These values do not
reach the significance level of -.3, but show group-specific tendencies.
Hobby Hobby GP DV RI
Celebrations Reading -.138
**
-.148 -.259
**

Celebrations Writing -.047 -.063 -.228
**

Television Art -.163
**
-.222
**
-.163
**

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 61 Factor analysis: Sparetime factors with a focus on celebrations (Source: authors research)
Some of these correlations have been determined by factor analysis as well.
Factor 8 (GP) Factor 7 (DV) Factor 5 (RI)
Item Load Item Load Item Load
Watching sports +.635 Internet +.601 Television +.635
Television +.329 Television +.399 Internet +.505
Watching sports +.486
Shopping +.367
GP: n=1,607; KMO .655; Bartlett .000
DV: n=152; KMO .564; Bartlett: .000
RI: n=128; KMO .609; Bartlett .000
Table 62 Factor analysis: Sparetime factors with a focus on Television (Source: authors research)
It was not possible to find the following GP-specific factors for the other milieus, which can
indicates that they are not fulfilled within the other groups.
Factor 1 Factor 4 Factor 5
Item Load Item Load Item Load
Art +.682 Shopping +.639 Reading +.569
Writing +.548 Travelling +.350 Family +.240
Playing music +.438
Photography +.390
n=1,607; KMO .655; Bartlett .000
Table 63 Factor analysis: Sparetime factors GP (Source: authors research)
It is also noteworthy that most of the significant SRCC/PCC values relate to the RE, while the
majority of the factors are more important for the GP and the DI. This preliminary research
already shows that using lifeworlds helps define and select certain groups which differ in their
characteristics from others. Differences between both milieus (the DV and RI) and the GP,
suggesting that conclusions can be drawn on the basis of the selected capital layers, can be
observed.
4.3.1. analysis of the main hypothesis ha
The general analysis of the previous chapter, which already revealed differences between the
DV and RI, is followed by an analysis of Ha: it is possible to detect consumption preferences
typical for the selected lifeworlds (GP n=1,607; RI n=128; DV n=152). For this purpose,
attention is paid to those points of the analysis relating to the consumption of products and the
media.
152
As concerns the possessions which depend on the existing consumption, there is a simple
majority of 9 for the GP, 10 for the DV and 14 for the RI. This confirms the possessions
concerning the RI. Besides logical correlations concerning possessions, possibly arising from
owning a house and a plot of land, an interesting connection of +.326
**
between owning an
apple product and an IKEA product can be observed only for the RI. As concerns consumer
wishes, there are no simple majorities; however, noticeable results concerning wishes can be
observed.
GP DV RI GP DV RI
Brand clock 13.5% 15.8% 20.3% House 41.3% 47.4% 34.4%
Owner-occupied flat 25.5% 32.9% 22.7% Plot of land 27.9% 29.6% 18.8%
Railcard 10.6% 18.4% 11.7%
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 64 Comparison: Distribution wishes GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)
The partially low values of the RI are consistent with their possessions. In contrast, the mostly
increased levels, usually regarding electronics, correspond to the consumer orientation of the
DV. In addition, significant SRCC values can be observed for the wish to own a Blu-Ray
player and a tablet computer (+.338
**
), a house and a car (+.331
**
) or a brand watch (+.307
**
).
Different values can be seen for the DV where a correlation of +.302
**
exists between a
landline telephone and a notebook. There is no simple majority concerning finance products
and the GP and DV. As regards the RI, there are simple majorities for building society
savings and life insurance. In comparison with the GP, slight increases are evident for the DV
in the use of finance products. Here, constant growth, up to duplication, can be observed for
the RI. This suggests that the RI are concerned with safety. In addition, there is a difference
between conservative and risky types of investments. As regards the DV, there are
significances regarding finance products, employment status and low age. As concerns the RI,
significances can be seen for finance products in the context of family and increasing age. In
comparison with other financial services, occupational disability has the strongest SRCC
values for the GP, RI and DV. If examined in detail, different values can be observed for
these the finance products. As regards the DS, the closest SRCCs can be seen between shares,
occupational disability, investment funds and private pension insurance. As concerns the RI,
the strongest SRCC values are evident for occupational disability, occupational pension,
investment funds, life insurance and private pension insurance, while the GP prefer
occupational disability, life insurance, Riester pension and private pension insurance. With
regard to home fitments, the results are rather nuanced and point to the individualism of the
DV and a more traditional orientation of the RI. This statement is also confirmed for the RI by

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
153
the SRCC of +.346** between obtaining fitments, using antiquities trade and carpenter
services.
Obtaining method GP DV RI Obtaining method GP DV RI
Antiquities trade 5.2% 11.8% 7.8% Classified advertising 15.8% 32.2% 10.2%
Flea market 13.7% 22.4% 7.8% Hardware store 25.8% 39.5% 31.3%
Made by a carpenter 7.6% 7.9% 22.7% Online shop 20.2% 38.2% 24.2%
Received as a gift 34.3% 50.0% 18.8% Speciality market 8.2% 9.2% 17.2%
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 65 Comparison: Method of obtaining furniture GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)
A differentiation can be observed regarding the ways of obtaining clothing.
Obtaining method GP DV RI Obtaining method GP DV RI
2nd-hand shops 12.0% 19.7% 10.2% Received as a gift 30.2% 48.7% 22.7%
Brand shops 41.3% 59.9% 63.3% Online auction 12.9% 19.7% 12.5%
Online shop 56.8% 70.4% 64.8% Outlet 35.5% 53.3% 47.7%
Self-made 5.6% 6.6% 3.9%
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 66 Comparison: Method of obtaining clothing GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)
These values also indicate a differentiation between the milieus and the general population.
As regards the DV and consumption modes, three significant SRCC values can be seen. It is
conspicuous, regarding literature, that subscribed content predominates for the DV, while the
trend is significantly lower for the RI in comparison with the GG. As concerns specialist
literature, an opposite trend can be observed: it is preferred more by the RI than the GP or
DV. In addition, specific peculiarities, as well preferences of media use can be seen.
Genre GP DV RI Genre GP DV RI
Detective story 27.3% 28.9% 38.3% Journals 42.1% 48.0% 51.6%
Magazines 22.0% 22.4% 14.8% Newspapers 50.7% 49.3% 60.2%
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 67 Comparison: Prefered literature genres GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)
As regards reading preferences, results specific for the RI and DV can be observed, as
outlined in the respective detailed descriptions. Specific preferences regarding film contect
can be observed.
Genre GP DV RI Genre GP DV RI
Animation 17.6% 15.8% 10.9% Crime 31.3% 30.3% 39.8%
Horror 20.7% 24.3% 12.5% Mystery 10.8% 9.9% 6.3%
Science-Fiction 23.7% 26.3% 19.5% Original language 27.4% 37.5% 22.7%
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 68 Comparison: Prefered film genres GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)
In this case noteworthy is the preference of films in the original language, characteristic of the
DV. As regards the consumption of TV stations, the RI show a marked preference for state
TV channels, while the DV mostly prefer private broadcasters.
TV station GP DV RI TV station GP DV RI
ARD 38.7% 38.2% 50.0% WDR 7,7% 7,9% 14,8%
ZDF 29.6% 23.7% 38.3% ZDF Info 6,1% 6,6% 10,2%
ZDF Neo 14.2% 15.1% 18.8%
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 69 Comparison: Prefered public TV stations GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)
154
TV station GP DV RI TV station GP DV RI
N24 14.2% 14.5% 10.2% Pro Sieben 66.4% 69.1% 64.8%
RTL 46.2% 50.0% 42.2% RTL 2 15.8% 15.1% 10.2%
Sat.1 33.6% 30.9% 38.3% Sky 8.5% 9.2% 14.1%
VOX 32.5% 42.1% 25.0%
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 70 Comparison: Prefered private TV stations GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)
As regards private television broadcasters, the RI have demonstrated a meaningful preference
for Sat. 1 and the paid channel Sky. Overall, the distribution corresponds to the respective
target audience of the broadcaster. According to the detailed description, these TV
preferences are partly supported by SRCC values determined across the milieus, and can be
regarded as more detailed for the RI and DV than the GP. Significant negative SRCCs
between TV channels can be seen among the RI. In addition, the consumer behaviour reveals
gender-specific results. There is a significant SRCC between female participants and RTL
(GP: +.231
**
; DV: +.336
**
; RI: +.224
*
), SIXX (GP: +.287
**
; DV +.319
**
; RI: +.301
**
) and
VOX (GP: +.301
**
; DV: +.426
**
; RI: +.372
**
), despite the fact that only the latter can be
regarded as a purely women's channel. It is interesting that there is an SRCC of +.308
**

between RTL and the preference for romantic films of the DV. As concerns the RI, this type
of preference is evident for RTL 2 (+.301
**
), Sat.1 (+.310
**
) and VOX (+.380
**
) which
correlate not only with the female gender, but also with the topic of cooking (+.311
**
). Pro
Sieben also manages to reach an SRCC of +.343
**
between the DV and the year of birth. As
regards the male participants, there is an SRCC with science fiction (DV: +.303
**
) and action
(DV: +.336
**
; RI: +.313
**
). As regards younger members, Pro Sieben has an SRCC of +.325
**

for the DV, while for the RI Pro Sieben correlate with Comedy (+.389
**
) and US series
(+.346
**
). This aspect reveals a detailed differentiation in the consumer behaviour. Significant
differences can be observed regarding TV content as well:
Content GP DV RI Content GP DV RI
Documentaries 56.4% 55.3% 68.8% News 47.8% 46.7% 57.0%
Soap Operas 7.2% 9.2% 3.1% Talk shows 8.7% 10.5% 13.3%
US series 46.5% 50.0% 30.5%
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 71 Comparison: Prefered TV content GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)
Results which distinguish the milieu from the GP are found within a detailed examination of
the individual points of analysis. In addition, a differentiation exists between various areas of
consumption regarding the DV and RI, both of which stand out as independent lifeworlds. It
is also interesting that both milieus partly exhibit opposite tendencies with relation to the GP,
which points to the capital level, which exceeds that of the GP. Furthermore, it would be

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
155
interesting to analyse how groups with different and contrasting characteristics form. As a
result, Ha can be considered as confirmed.
4.3.2. analysis of the main hypothesis hb
While Ha focuses on traditional consumption and traditional media markets, Hb deals with
differentiation regarding Internet use and the new media markets. The following is an analysis
of sub-hypothesis Hb: It is possible to detect patterns of Internet use typical for the respective
lifeworlds (GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128).
A large number of significant PCC values concerning social network functions, motivating
reasons and Internet applications were determined for the GP, DV and RI. In order to ensure
clarity, factor analyses were carried out during the investigation. Factor analyses were
performed for the respective target group (GP, DV or RI) and for all the functions that fall
within the scope of Hb. In order to increase the KMO values to .6, personality characteristics
were not considered, as hardly any differences could be detected, resulting in KMO values
lower than .6 for the RI and DV. As regards the comprehensive factors, usable KMO levels
can be observed (GP: .908; DV: .629; RI: .646; Bartlett: .000). The comprehensive factor
analysis also reveals a varying number of factors (GP: 19; DV: 24; RI: 23), some of which are
similar while others distinctly different. The following is an analysis of individual questions
from question block C of the survey with appropriate factors and SRCC/PCC values
presented in order to show similarities or differences.
Broadband
during Week
Broadband
Weekend
Mobile
during Week
Mobile
Weekend
Ground
population
Mean 18.13 8.82 6.13 3.05
Median 14 7 2 1
Mode 10 7 0 0
Digital
Sovereigns
Mean 20.58 9.91 11.25 5.75
Median 15 8 7 3
Mode 10 10 2 2
Responsibility-
driven
Individuals
Mean 13.30 6.32 6.38 3.04
Median 10 4 4 2
Mode 5 2 2 1
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 72 Comparison: Mean, Median and Mode of Internet use GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)
In this case, the trend is more pronounced for the DV than the GP or RI, indicating the degree
to which the DV enjoy using the Internet. It is interesting that the RI use mobile Internet more
than the GP. As regards social network use, the median and mode values are similar for
Facebook, Flickr, 4SQ, Hi, Jappy, Kwick, MSN Live, MySpace, Pinterest, Stayfriends,
Twitter, VZ Netzwerke, Wer-kennt-Wen and YouTube. By contrast, differentiations can be
observed for the DV and American niche networks, which generally have a low user retention
rate.
156
GP DV RI
Median Mode Median Mode Median Mode
Google+ 2 2 3 2 2 2
ICQ 2 2 3 2 2 2
Instagram 2 1 2 2 2 1
LastFM 1 1 1 2 1 1
LinkedIn 1 1 2 1 1 1
Spotify 2 1 2 2 2 1
WhatsApp 2 5 5 5 2 1
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 73 Comparison: Median and Mode of social network use GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)
There is a bimodal distribution of answers to questions concerning WhatsApp within the GP
and RI. A less pronounced trend is evident within the DV. As concerns the data regarding
networks, the results within the RI and GP are mostly similar. The median and mode are more
pronounced for the DV, indicating a more extensive use. Noticeably low values can be
observed between the RI and WhatsApp.
Demographic Item Network GP DV RI
Gender (male) Flickr +.217
**
+.218
**
+.344
**

Gender (male) LastFM +.232
**
+.269
**
+.340
**

Gender (male) LinkedIn +.199
**
+.111 +.337
**

Year of birth ICQ +.351
**
+.258
**
+.455
**

Year of birth Spotify +.228
**
+.313
**
+.148
Year of birth VZ Netzwerke +.142
**
+.094; +.315
**

Year of birth Tag friends in pictures +.213
**
+.225
**
+.309
**

Year of birth Tag friends in messages +.264
**
+.244
**
+.396
**

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = SRCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 74 Comparison: Correlation demographic items and social networks/function
(Source: authors research)
In addition, there are significant SRCC between the use of the Internet usage and networks.
Intensity Internet use Network or Function GP DV RI
Broadband usage week LastFM +.246
**
+.193
*
+.323
**

Broadband usage week YouTube +.285
**
+.430
**
+.473
**

Broadband usage weekend YouTube +.244
**
+.368
**
+.372
**

Mobile usage week Instagram +.272
**
+.119 +.301
**

Mobile usage week WhatsApp +.507
**
+.146 +.323
**

Mobile usage weekend WhatsApp +.471
**
+.189
*
+.318
**

Mobile usage week Social network applications +.332
**
+.163
*
+.372
**

Mobile usage weekend Social network applications +.319
**
+.127 +.315
**

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = SRCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 75 Comparison: Correlation Internet usage and social networks/function
(Source: authors research)
The results are discussed in detail in the context of SH6 where the differentiation is further
clarified. If viewed in detail, the previous points already reveal a successful distinction
between the milieus, as well as a capital-related demarcation. While the use of social network
functions is equally extensive within the GP and RI, a more pronounced trend has been
157
detected within the DV, reflected by a higher mode (A.4.5.11). Positive deviations can
occasionally be detected in the median as well. No noticeable results are evident within the
DV, apart from a more pronounced use of social network functions. A partly significant
correlation exists between the use of social network applications and that of the mobile
Internet during the week (GP: +.332
**
; DV: +.163
*
; RI: +.372
**
), and at the weekend (GP:
+.319
**
; DV: +.127; RI: +.315
**
), which reflects the usage behaviour of the participants. The
same can be observed between the year of birth and using social networks to tag friends in
pictures (GP: +.213
**
; DV: +.225
**
; RI: +.309
**
) or messages (GP: +.264
**
; DV: +.244
**
; RI:
+.396
**
). Factor analysis (KMO GP: .878; DV: .765; RI: .818; Bartlett: .000) reveals a
comprehensive factor containing the sharing of information, contents, as well as videos,
images and opinions. These values are evident in the first factor of the GP and RI and the
second and third factor of the DV. The first factor of the DV focuses on the interaction with
friends while the second factor deals with the communication of information, suggesting a
differentiation. Similarities can be seen for events, revealed by factor 4 of the GP and RI, as
well as factor 3 of the DV. These factors show an emphasis on the planning of and taking part
in events. Taking part in events is more pronounced for the DV than planning events. No such
factor was revealed for the RI; the same functions appear in factor 6 of the DV, and in factor
11 of the GP. A pronounced trend can be observed for the DV. The correlation between
security settings and protection of personal data, which belong to SH8, is shown as factor 3 of
the GP (+.623; +.551) and RI (+.670; +.585). This combination can be observed within factor
5 of the DV with a significant difference (+.782; +.330). As regards the comprehensive
factors, this correlation emerges as factor 16 of the RI and the GP. The correlation was not
detected within the DV. There is a factor consisting of applications and games (factor 5 of the
GP and factor 4 of the DV) with a significantly higher loading on the applications within the
DV (GP: +.669; DV: +.961). This connection can be seen as factor 16 for the DV and factor
15 for the GP. This factor was not detected for the RI. As regards the comprehensive factors,
factor 1 of the GP and RI, and factor 2 of the DV deals with social network functions and
motivating factors. Thus, all factors are based on a general interaction and communication and
a significant differentiation cannot be observed. It becomes evident when considering factors
motivating participants to use social networks that the values of the median and mode of the
DV exceed those of the RI and GP by 40% (A4.5.12). In contrast with the DV, values for the
RI and GP are mostly similar. A significant SRCC between the year of birth and using social

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
158
networks for chatting is common to all groups (GP: +.425
**
; DV: +.361
**
; RI: +.469
**
). In this
case, the intensity of using broadband Internet during the week influences that of chatting on
social networks (GP: +.211
**
; DV: +.217
**
; RI: +.300
**
). Here, factor analysis (KMO GP:
.882; DV .757; RI .836; Bartlett: .000) reveals several individual and comprehensive factors.
A factor focusing on discussions is of varied importance to the groups; it is factor 1 of the
DV, factor 3 of the GP and factor 4 of the RI. This indicates a tendency to focus on the
establishing of contacts. A factor consisting on the establishing of contacts and staying in
contact can be observed, with different intensities, for all groups: it is factor 1 of the GP,
factor 4 of the DV and factor 2 of the RI. The second factor of the GP combines creating,
exchanging and discussing of content. This combination can be observed as the very first
factor of the RI. Factor 3, determined for the DV, does not include all forms of discussion,
and is smaller than the previous factors. A correlation between the searching for and obtaining
of information was not detected for the GP. This correlation appears as factor 5 of the RI with
+.673 for the searching and +.613 for obtaining of information. As regards the DV, this
correlation can be seen as factor 5, where, as opposed to the RI, the obtaining of information
has a higher value (+.729). This might indicate a difference in the ways of obtaining
information characteristic for these groups. A detailed analysis of the GP reveals factor 1 with
maintaining contact, birthday reminders and chatting. This factor was not detected for the DV
and RI. This can be observed as factor 6 of the DV with chatting and releasing of emotions.
The factor was not determined for the GP or RI. A differentiation in the use of Internet
applications can be observed in the median and mode (A4.5.13). Performing banking
transactions over the Internet has received more pronounced results within the DV and RI. A
more extensive use of blogs and shopping can also be observed. Chatting, using social
networks and telephony services are less pronounced for the RI, if compared with the equally
high values of the GP and DV. Chatting, as well as other functions, is closely related to the
age of the participant.
Demographic Item Internet use GP DV RI
Year of birth Chatting +.380
**
+.360
**
+.354
**

Year of birth Listening to music +.330
**
+.360
**
+.457
**

Year of birth Watching videos +.341
**
+.400
**
+.399
**

Year of birth Using social networks +.238
**
+.240
*
+.315
**

Year of birth Watching Television +.257
**
+.352
**
+.173
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = SRCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 76 Comparison: Year of Birth and Internet use GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
159
Higher values for the encyclopaedia use, listening to music and using TV services can be
observed across the DV. The RI are more avid users of forums. It is interesting that constant
values arise for data exchange. The intensities of using such functions as dating, e-mail, web-
portals and search engines are similar. In addition to functions, differentiated tendencies
regarding the intensity of Internet application use can be observed across the analysed
milieus. Most of the correlations relating to the intensity of using social networks occur
between their functions (number of correlations GP: 9; DV: 7; RI: 12) and the factors
motivating people to use social networks (number of correlations GP: 10; DV: 6; RI: 12).
Furthermore, the intensity of Internet use has an overarching influence upon the intensity of
Internet application use:
Intensity of Internet use Internet use GP DV RI
Broadband usage week Blogs +.204
**
+.301
**
+.307
**

Broadband usage week Listening to music +.180
**
+.219
**
+.323
**

Broadband usage week Watching videos +.314
**
+.261
**
+.466
**

Broadband usage weekend Chatting +.226
**
+.185
*
+.310
**

Broadband usage weekend Listening to music +.193
**
+.344
**
+.284
**

Broadband usage weekend Watching videos +.288
**
+.278
**
+.429
**

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = SRCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 77 Comparison: Intensity Internet use and applications GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)
In this case, chatting seems to have established as a function which, provided that it is used
within the RI, suggests a more extensive use of media. As regards the applications, significant
correlations can be observed in cases between:
Internet use Internet use GP DV RI
Banking E-Mail +.303
**
+.302
**
+.242
**

Chatting Listening to music +.289
**
+.306
**
+.373
**

Chatting Using social Networks +.361
**
+.403
**
+.434
**

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 78 Comparison: Intensity application use GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)
In addition, there are applications which occupy a strong position within Internet use and
partly differentiate themselves between the groups. In particular, the use of the Internet for
data exchange reveals correlations with the intensity and motivation to use social networks.
Function GP DV RI Function GP DV RI
Obtaining
information
+.285
**
+.354
**
+.472
**
Searching for
information
+.309
**
+.327
**
+.343
**

Exchanging
content
+.324
**
+.354
**
+.428
**
Exchanging
opinions
+.217
**
+.309
**
+.364
**

Sharing of the
location
+.183
**
+.315
**
+.327
**
Discussing
daily events
+.193
**
+.320
**
+.359
**

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 79 Comparison: Correlation data exchange/network functions GP, DV and RI
(Source: authors research)
160
Four significant PCCs relating to other motivating factors exist for the RI. In comparison with
the general population, a differentiation for the financially equal DV and RI can be observed
for the intensity of shopping on the Internet and staying in contact with friends (GP: +.121
**
;
DV: +.309
**
; RI: +.310
**
). As concerns Internet applications, if is remarkable that only blogs
and data exchange (GP: +.241
**
; DV: +.309
**
; RI: +.311
**
) have significant PCCs.
Meaningful PCCs between the usage of blogs and social networks are of additional
significance. Different values can be observed between between the different groups (GP, RI
and DV) and their blog usage as
Network GP DV RI Network GP DV RI
4SQ +.273
**
+.404
**
+.366
**
Flickr +.349
**
+.337
**
+.252
**

Instagram +.298
**
+.360
**
+.271
**
LastFM +.304
**
+.370
**
+.390
**

LinkedIn +.267
**
+.336
**
+.209
*
Pinterest +.302
**
+.295
**
+.355
**

Twitter +.372
**
+.343
**
+.338
**
YouTube +.243
**
+.246
**
+.337
**

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 80 Comparison: Correlation use of blogs and social networks GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)
In this case the different values occur in the context of each respective group. The situation
with listening to music and watching videos on the Internet is similar to that of data exchange.
Intensity Intensity GP DV RI
Listening to music Planning events +.159
**
+.333
**
+.237
**

Listening to music Sharing videos +.323
**
+.348
**
+.384
**

Listening to music Discussing events +.237
**
+.311
**
+.414
**

Listening to music Watch videos +.509
**
+.456
**
+.481
**

Listening to music Watching TV broadcasts +.300
**
+.376
**
+.251
**

Watching TV broadcasts Watch videos +.499
**
+.411
**
+.545
**

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
Table 81 Comparison: Correlation usage Internet applications/social networks functions
(Source: authors research)
The Internet users consume videos, television and music which constitute a group of
entertainment media, used by the target groups with different intensities. A special factor
analysis (KMO GP: .767; DV: .633; RI: .677; Bartlett: .000) reveals a factor consisting of
media use (TV, music and video) for the GP, DV and RI. This factor is differentiated in detail,
since it consists of data exchange and telephony services for the GP and RI, and
encyclopaedias as well as social networks for the DV. This peculiarity is illustrated as factor
11 for the DV and factor 4 for the GP. There is no factor relating to the media use of the RI.
In contrast, the second factor of all groups consists of forums and web portals. As regards the
GP and DV, the leading position belongs to forums (+.758; +.751), followed by web portals
(+.633; +.619). The opposite is true for the RI where Internet portals lead with (+.846),
followed by forums (+.648). The use of blogs takes the third place within all three groups.

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
161
Another correlation can be observed between factor 5 of the GP and factor 4 of the RI,
consisting of banking services, e-mail and shopping. This differs from factor 3 of the DV with
shopping (+.556), social networks (+.541) and search engines (+.464). This might serve as an
indication to the participants' purchasing behaviour. Factor 4, consisting of applications used
for interaction, was determined for the RI. A factor of this kind cannot be detected for the DV.
As regards the GP, it can be found only as the sum of factors 3 and 4. Factor 5 of the RI,
consisting of search engines (+.589) and encyclopaedias (+.520) cannot be observed for the
DV and GP. Factor 5, which is particular to the DV and cannot be detected for the RI and GP,
consists of blogs (+.850) and data exchange (+.427). A separate factor 6, consisting of the use
of e-mail, banking services, search engines and shopping, was detected for the GP, but not for
either the DV or RI. This indicates a basic pattern of use. As regards the characteristics of
people with whom the participants prefer staying in contact, only slight differences in the
median or mode can be observed. While conscientious is mostly preferred by the GP, the DV
show stronger results for artistic, funny and open, and weaker for well-behaved and even-
tempered (A4.5.14). The situation regarding preferences of the GP is otherwise rather
balanced in comparison with the RI and DV. Factor analysis reveals a factor for the GP, DV
and RI each, dominated by the characteristics of cheerful and optimistic. A more detailed
analysis reveals that the RI prefers the more serious characteristics, while the GP and DV tend
to favour more loose and open character traits. This may be related to the age of the
participants, as there is a significant SRCC between the year of birth and the characteristic of
funny (GP: +.216
**
; DV: +.170
*
; VE: +.427
**
), which is most pronounced for the RI.
Patterns of Internet use have also been determined across the user groups. In addition, results
which indicate similarities between the DV and RI and thereby the distance between these
groups and the GP, have been obtained. This may be related to the similar capital structure of
the two groups. Furthermore, there are factors and SRCC/PCC values in the mode, median or
mean which apply only to the GP, DV or RI, thus emphasising their individuality. In general,
Hb can be considered as confirmed.
4.3.3. analysis of the main hypothesis hc
A similar situation can be observed for the final of the main hypotheses, Hc: A direct
comparison of Digital Vanguard and Responsibility-driven Individuals with the general
population reveals significant changes in the results of SH1SH10 (GP n=1,607; DV n=152;
RI n=128). The examined sub-hypotheses reveal different values for the GP, DV and RI, as

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
162
well as peculiarities which are related to properties particular to each level of capital in the
milieus.
SH1, which states that a higher household income has a positive and significant impact on the
living environment of the participant, has not been confirmed for the GP, RI or DV. An
impact on the living environment of the participants has not been detected for the GP, RI or
DV. However, a pronounced tendency, revealed by the general values and especially by the
confirmed hypotheses of SH1, can be detected particularly for the GP or DV. The analysis
shows that the values of the DV exceed those of the RI. Although SH1a, which is intended to
reveal a significant correlation between the household income and the start of Internet use, has
not been proved for any of the groups, it indicates strong tendencies. The hypothesis is
unconfirmed for the DV with its high income level constraints. A tendency, however, can be
recognised and detected. As regards the RI, which consists of three highest income groups, an
SRCC of .000 can be seen. No correlation can be detected between the capital and the start of
Internet use. This allows assuming that an Internet connection is purchased by the members of
this milieu once the need for it arises. An increased capital volume shows that purchasing no
longer depends on the available capital. The start of mobile Internet use was also analysed.
None of the milieus reveal a significant value; however, the RI has the lowest and the GP the
highest values. With regard to the DV, which has different capital classes with regard to the
available occupations, a significantly higher value than for the RI is evident. Since the RI
consist only of participants with a high income, it can be concluded that commodities are
bought if the income is high and dispensed with if the income is low. A similar observation
has been observed regarding SH1c, which is intended to prove a significant correlation
between the household income and the educational qualification. The highest result of this
hypothesis can be observed for the DV with a PCC of +.354
**
. The hypothesis is considered
as almost confirmed for the GP, as the value of +.270
**
is very close to +.300. A very low
value can be seen for the RI, which could have resulted due to the previous selection. In
general, SH1 (A4.5.15) shows that the correlations between variables decrease with an
increasing average income. This leads to the opposite conclusion that remuneration influences
the quality of life, since the correlations increase along with a low income. Moreover, the
results of SH1a clearly show how an increasing income helps put the consumption and the
restrictions associated with it into perspective. SH2 (A4.5.16), which aims to prove a
significant and positive correlation between specific media content and gender, also tends to
be confirmed. SH2a and SH2d, which focus on female test persons and the preference for

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
163
romance-related content concerning films and literature, was significantly confirmed for each
of the test groups. The highest value can be seen for the RI where SH2a has a highly
significant SRCC of +.549
**
. As concerns the DV, a measurable gap can be seen between this
milieu and the GP. SH2b and SH2c, which focus on males and the preference for action films
and sports on television, was significantly confirmed for the consumption of action films by
members of the GP, DV and RI. The connection between men and sports on television was
not detected for any of the milieus. Overall, it is revealed that, in comparison with the GP,
gender-related tendencies are the lowest within the DV. At this point it could be asked if the
intensity of Internet use can have an impact on the perception of gender roles and lower
gender dependency. Pronounced gender-related tendencies concerning female participants
within the traditionally-oriented RI are conspicuous. SH3 (A4.5.17), which assumes a
significant correlation between the time spent on the Internet during the week and at the
weekend, has been confirmed for all three milieus. As regards SH3a, which focuses on
broadband Internet, significant results were obtained for the RI. Most meaningful results
concerning SH3b, which is aimed at mobile Internet, have been achieved for the GP. The
lowest results have been detected for the DV which suggests fluctuations in the consumption.
SH3c, which assumes that there is no significant correlation between broadband and mobile
Internet, was proved equally for all three groups. SH4 (A4.5.18), which presupposes a
positive and significant correlation between the time spent using mobile Internet and the use
of specific social network functions, was not proved for any of the test groups. The RI stands
out in the results. Only one of the eight measurements reach a 2-tailed significance level of
0.01. Another of the measurements reached a 2-tailed significance of 0.05. The lack of
significance can, among other things, be explained by the small sample size (128 individuals)
and the low results. Five 2-tailed significance values were reached within a similar sample
size of the DV (152 individuals). As regards the GP, all values reached a 2-tailed significance
of 0.01. SH4a, which attempts to prove a significant correlation between the time spent on
mobile Internet and the intensity of uploading pictures, reveals almost significant results for
the GP and DV during the week. There is a shift towards significantly lower values at the
weekend. The lowest results in all groups were achieved by SH4b and SH4c. By contrast,
interesting results were obtained for SH4d, which attempts to prove a significant correlation
between mobile online time and the intensity of using the location function. Here, increased
values have been reached for the RI which significantly exceed those of the DV at the
weekend. In addition, the intensity of use at the weekend decreases. The values for both types
of use, during the week and at the weekend, are of the same significance. As regards the RI, a
function (location function of SH4d) seems to have been found which is gladly used in the
164
free time when the time spent using mobile Internet increases. SH4e, which attempts to prove
that a factor can be defined for the various functions of SH4aSH4d, is proved for the GP and
DV. A factor including all the functions can be defined for the RI. There is a factor which
includes the function of status messages, instead of the location. In this case, a similar pattern
of use is assumed; further research would be necessary to obtain more accurate results. SH5
(A4.5.19) and the associated significant correlations between the intensity of using Facebook
and social network functions was proved for the GP and RI. As regards the DV and SH5a, a
significant correlation between the core functions of social networks and Facebook were not
detected; it was possible to discover only a correlation between birthday reminders and
Facebook. This might prove that a differentiation exists between intensely used networks, and
that people consciously use other networks. A similar result was achieved for SH5b which
was proved for all groups. Factors differing in the scope of functions that occupy a significant
portion of the factor were detected in all cases. As regards the DV, a factor, which contains
only two additional functions in addition to Facebook, is formed. A factor with six functions
was defined for the GP. As regards the RI, a factor with 26 functions was detected. This again
proves the significant difference between the three groups. A similar result is achieved for
SH6 (A4.5.20), assuming a significant correlation between social networks and different
intensities in their use, which was confirmed for all three test groups. SH6a and SH6b were
confirmed for all three test groups as well. Seven factors were defined for the RI which point
to a pronounced segmentation of the target group. Three factors were defined for the GP and
four for the DV. Also, a differentiation between the various target groups was revealed. SH7
(A4.5.21), which assumes a significant correlation between the intensity of using business
networks, specific participants and their motivation, is successful in the market segmentation
through the milieu approach. All points of SH7 were proved for the RI. It was not possible,
however, to prove the hypothesis for the GP and DV. One sub-hypothesis was not confirmed
for the GP and two were not proved for the DV. SH7 would have been confirmed for the GP
if the research focused on the German network Xing. This would not have been enough for
the DV. SH7a, which focuses on a significant correlation between the intensity of using
business networks and the motivation to search for business partners and customers, has been
confirmed for the RI with the highest value. An almost highly significant value is reached for
LinkedIn (+.499
**
), while the value for Xing is (+.602
**
). To some extent, the GP and DV are
significantly lower. These results partly shift in the confirming of SH7b, which attempts to
prove a significant correlation between the intensity of using business networks and the

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
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motivation to use social networks for the searching of employment opportunities.
Interestingly, a higher value for LinkedIn than for Xing, in contrast with the GP, was
observed in both test groups. This can be evident of the fact that both milieus, whose capital
level exceeds that of the GP, consciously decide in favour of LinkedIn. It is conspicuous that
the DV show higher values for Xing that the GP. It was possible to prove SH7c, which
assumes a significant correlation between the motivation to look for business partners and
customers using social networks, and to look for jobs on social networks, for all test groups.
A highly significant result exceeding +0.5 has been determined for the RI and DV. As
concerns SH7d, which assumes a significant correlation between the motivation to look for
business partners and customers and establishing contacts on social networks, significant
values can be observed for all test groups. The DV has the highest value, while the RI has the
lowest. This may be related to the fact that establishing of contacts using social networks for
the more conservative and traditional milieu of the RI has not become so deep-rooted as for
the DV who can be characterised by a more intuitive approach. SH7e was confirmed in all
cases, which should allow defining a significant factor for the functions of SH7aSH7d. A
similar result is achieved by SH7f, according to which a significant correlation for all test
groups can be proved between the intensity of using business networks and the educational
qualification. The results reveal an interesting trend, namely, that Xing, which is of German
origin, constantly has a higher value than the international LinkedIn. This seems to suggest
that factors besides the educational qualification are important for international networks, and
as indicated previously, motivation can be regarded as the reason of use. As concerns SH7g, a
correlation between the intensity of using Xing and Linked has been proved for all test groups
with a highly significant measurement with +0.5 values. The highest result is achieved by
the RI. Overall, the results show that the RI constantly use the researched functions and
networks. By comparison with the GP, it is revealed that the use within the DV is extensive,
less, however than for the RI. Since a high level of income and education is characteristic of
both selected milieus, these variables seem to have a certain influence on the use of social
networks and the associated functions. The RI show also the highest value in the regression
analyses (A4.5.21). SH8 (A4.5.22), which deals with a significant correlation between the
use of security settings and the protection of personal data, was proved for the RI and GP. A
significant value was not detected for the DV. As regards SH9 (A4.5.23), which attempts to
prove a significant correlation between the intensity of using the Internet for political
discourse and the intensity of using communication functions, was not confirmed for any of
the tree groups. Overall, SH9aSH9c was proved for the RI, while SH9bSH9d for the GP.
None of the sub-hypotheses was proved for the DV. SH9a, which assumes a significant
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correlation between the motivation to discuss content relating to politics and the intensity of
posting comments, was confirmed for the RI. The lowest value in this regard was detected for
the DV with only a 2-tailed significance of 0.05. The highest value can be observed also for
the RI and SH9b, which assumes a significant correlation between the motivation to discuss
content relating to politics and exchanging opinions. The analysis reveals that the milieu of
the DV does not reach a significant threshold value in this respect. The same can be observed
for SH9c, which focuses on a correlation between the motivation to discuss content relating to
politics and sharing websites within social networks. In this case, a pronounced difference of
+.109 can be observed between the RI and GP, and +.160 between the RI and DV. The RI are
in a leading position again. A factor for SH9d, which contains functions from SH9ASH9c
can be detected only for the GP. It was not possible to detect a factor for the RI, despite the
fact that this milieu has the highest correlation values. The RI seem to deviate in this case.
Overall, varied results can be observed for SH9, as a factor exists for the GP, despite the fact
the point hypotheses were not proved in all cases. In contrast, the point hypothesis was
confirmed for the RI, almost reaching a highly significant value, which suggests a correlation.
SH10 (A4.5.24), which aims to prove a significant correlation between the intensity how the
participants take an interest in listening to music as a leisure activity and the use of online
services offering music, was proved for all the test groups. A significant PCC between
+.422
**
and +.486
**
(almost reaching a highly significant value) was detected for all three
groups in this regard. This serves to prove that people prefer to pursue their hobbies on the
Internet and do not distinguish between online and offline.
In summary, the analysis of SH1SH10 has revealed the following results:
Sub-hypothesis
Reference group
Responsibility-driven
Individuals (RI)
General population
(GP)
Digital Vanguard
(DV)
SH1 unconfirmed (0/3) unconfirmed (1/3) unconfirmed (2/3)
SH2 unconfirmed (3/4) confirmed (4/4) unconfirmed (3/4)
SH3 confirmed (3/3) confirmed (3/3) confirmed (3/3)
SH4 unconfirmed (0/5) unconfirmed (2/5) unconfirmed (1/5)
SH5 confirmed (2/2) confirmed (2/2) unconfirmed (1/2)
SH6 confirmed (2/2) confirmed (2/2) confirmed (2/2)
SH7 confirmed (7/7) unconfirmed (6/7) unconfirmed (5/7)
SH8 confirmed confirmed unconfirmed
SH9 unconfirmed (3/4) unconfirmed (3/4) unconfirmed (0/4)
SH10 confirmed confirmed confirmed
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 82 Comparison: SH1SH10 GP, DV and RI (Source: authors research)

GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.

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6 of the sub-hypotheses were confirmed for the RI. In detail, 22 of the 32 sub-hypotheses of
SH1SH10 were confirmed. As regards the GP, 6 sub-hypotheses were confirmed; as a result,
25 sub-hypotheses of the SH1SH10 have been confirmed. It was possible to confirm only 3
hypotheses for the DV. Only 18 of the 32 sub-hypotheses of SH1SH10 have been confirmed.
On the basis of these findings, Hc is regarded as confirmed. The hypothesis involves also a
confirmation of Ha and Hb, which, in turn, leads to a confirmation of the principal hypothesis:
analysing convenience samples of Internet users through lifeworlds produces more significant
results than analysing the same sample without considering lifeworlds.
4.4. interpretation of the findings
The principal hypothesis, analysing convenience samples of Internet users through lifeworlds
produces more significant results than analysing the same sample without considering
lifeworlds, is regarded as confirmed on account of the confirmed hypotheses HaHc and the
analysis results. The following summary of the findings, which apply to all the participants
(GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128), has been developed on the basis of the analysis and the
confirmed hypotheses. The findings include statements which were proved for the GP, as well
as the selected groups of the DV and RI. In addition, unique features relating to the general
population (GP), the DV and RI have been outlined and similarities between the DV and RI
have been considered.
It needs to be noted that the conclusions apply only to Internet users with a permanent
residence in Germany. A separate analysis of HaHc reveals that the lifeworld model has
allowed detecting differences between the analysed user groups. This shows that the lifeworld
model has been transferred successfully and more significant results of the convenience
sample analysis have been obtained. In addition, it was determined the lifeworld model may
be reused by adjusting it to new conditions. The extension and transfer of the lifeworld model
to analyse the use of the Internet and especially social networks can also be considered as
successful. Planned on the basis of the theoretical fundamentals and adjusted during the
preliminary research phase, the study shows significant quantitative results. By
simultaneously applying to various groups analysed in this study, the results have acquired a
certain general representativeness.
The research beyond the hypotheses reveals a connection between social network users and
the level of education and type of employment of the grandfather, the parents and the
participants themselves. It was observed that children mostly achieve a similar educational
level and operate in the same working environment as their relatives, meaning that a person's
environment depends that of his relatives. The connection between the type of employment,
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level of education and the salary makes it difficult to break out of the respective social class or
milieu. Capital has a direct and detectable impact on the living environment of the participant
and, among other things, the start of Internet use. With enough capital (above 45.000), the
broadband Internet is regarded as a commodity that is consumed like any other. A correlation
is also evident between the household income, start of mobile Internet use, living environment
and the educational qualification (A4.5.25). The data analysis confirmed an accumulation of
possessions. This is demonstrated by the RI who have more possessions than the DV, and the
DV who have more possessions than the GP. Thus, the RI and DV are characterised by a
higher household income than the GP. As regards the items that the participants would like to
own, common dreams with individual deviations, considering also what the person can afford,
can be observed. As concerns financial services, occupational disability cover can be regarded
as the basic insurance of the participants.
For media use, a clear preference for romantic literature and films can be detected for the
female participants. The male participants show a distinct preference for action films. The
investigated gender-related tendencies are less pronounced among people who consume the
Internet more extensively and have a higher capital level than characteristic of the GP. Age is
not a significant influencing factor in this regard. As regards TV stations, the female
participants prefer the private broadcasters RTL, SIXX and VOX. Such a tendency was not
detected for the male gender. A meaningful correlation can be seen between males and action,
as well as science-fiction related TV content. Lower values were detected for the DV here as
well. It is interesting that no TV station is devoted solely to romance; thus, milieu-specific
preferences have formed. As regards Internet users, a general relationship (proportion)
between the time spent using broadband and mobile Internet can be observed.
The use of social networks and their functions is conditioned by age and gender. As regards
the male participants, an increasing intensity of using the networks Flickr, LastFM and
LinkedIn was detected. There are networks, such as ICQ and Spotify, which are used
predominantly by younger people. These preferences point to a significant correlation
between age and the use of chatting applications or chatting within social networks where a
significant connection between the intensity of use and low age can be observed. Generally
significant correlations can be observed between age and tagging people in pictures and
messages, as well as the consumption of music and videos on the Internet. This includes also
sharing videos within social networks. The correlation between the consumption and sharing
of music and videos on the Internet could be demonstrated as a comprehensive factor
influencing the use of media regardless of the person's age. In this context, it can be proved
that people who consume music offline do the same online to a similar extent. The intensity
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of using broadband Internet during the week is in a significant correlation with the use of
blogs. As regards the use of broadband Internet at the weekend, the connection shifts towards
blogs and chatting applications. Overall, an increasing Internet use means a greater
probability that videos and music will be consumed online. As regards the network 4SQ, an
increase in the intensity of its use generally allows assuming that other current and active
networks are also used more extensively. The same intensity of Internet use was observed for
all the analysed user groups. In addition, there is a correlation between adjusting security
settings relating to personal data and the care about personal data. This connection is not
equally pronounced within all the groups. There are correlations between the use of the
Internet for data exchange and the searching and obtaining of information, as well as the wish
to share opinions and content. The intensity blog use correlates significantly with data
exchange. As concerns the use of Internet applications, forums, web portals and blogs are
used equally often, as evidenced by comprehensive PCC values and factors grouping these
applications. In this case, the preference towards these applications seams to have developed
across the studied milieus. Forums and web portals themselves do not correlate with social
network functions. A unique feature can be observed for blogs, since a positive correlation is
evident between blog use and almost all social networks. Constant PCC values have been
observed between blogs and niche networks, meaning that people who use blogs can be
expected to use other social networks as well. The participants who use networks beyond
Facebook also tend to use blogs more. As regards establishing contacts on the Internet, there
is a general preference within all test groups for the characteristics cheerful and optimistic. A
more detailed analysis reveals groups of people where a connection can be observed between
seriousness and age.
In addition to the general statements already mentioned, more particular findings can be
outlined regarding the GP and its differentiation from the DV and RI. As concerns reading
preferences, it is evident that the GP strongly prefer magazines. Male participants of the GP
mostly enjoy content relating to sports. As regards Internet applications, it is striking that
social network applications are mostly used during the week. The intensity with which the
social network Facebook is used forms the core of the intensities of social network use. There
are fewer correlations between the use of social networks as applications and the described
functions and motivating factors within the RI than the GP; nevertheless the number of
correlations within the GP is greater than within the DV. In this case, the GP finds itself in the
middle. An extensive use of games as applications within social networks can be observed
within the GP. The creating, exchanging and discussing of content within social networks is
important. A factor or PCC for searching and obtaining of information was not detected
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within the GP; thus, the use of social networks and the Internet is not conditioned by a wish to
search for and obtain information. There is an emphasis on the preserving of existing contacts,
e.g. for birthday reminders. A significant correlation can also be observed between watching
videos on the Internet and using the Internet to view television broadcasts. The significance is
so high that watching videos on the Internet almost always means that the participant uses the
Internet to view television broadcasts and vice versa. As regards the use of social network
functions, the uploading of pictures correlates with the use of location functions within the
GP. This tendency can be constantly observed for the GP, but only during the week for the
DS. In addition, a factor relating to interaction and sharing thoughts on politically-related
content can be seen for the GP. In this case, the individual correlations can almost be regarded
as significant, which reveals great differences between the GP and DV where such a tendency
cannot be detected. Obtaining and searching for information reveals no general peculiarities;
and it can be assumed that the GP, provided that they have the skills to use search engines,
actively use online dictionaries in order to obtain knowledge.
A detailed profiling of the DV presents difficulties, as evidenced by the low number of
confirmed hypotheses. In contrast with the GP, a slightly more extensive use of financial
products, with a stronger preference for shares and investment funds, can be observed for the
DV. The ways of obtaining fitments are highly individualistic, revealed through the
preference for flea markets, classified advertising and online shops. In addition, significantly
more fitments and items of clothing are received in as gifts. Moreover, in comparison with the
RI and GP, a stronger preference for 2nd-hand shops can be seen within the DV. Besides self-
made clothing, the preferences of the DV are similar as those of the RI with brand shops,
mark shops and outlets. As concerns the preference for films, horror films, as well as films in
the original language are mostly preferred. With regard to TV stations, a clear preference for
private stations and a rejection of ZDF can be seen. As regards television content, an above-
average preference for U.S. series and soap operas can be seen. A significant correlation can
be seen between female participants and cooking shows. The use of both broadband and
mobile Internet during the week and at the weekend is far above average in this group. The
most extensive use in relation to the other groups occurs at the weekend. The DV are more
familiar with niche networks, which they use or have an account in. As regards the intensity
of the use of social networks, there is a considerable emphasis on the mobile applications of
WhatsApp and Facebook. Thus, Facebook no longer forms the core of the use of social
network functions. In this regard, a correlation can be observed only with birthday reminders.
The general use is significantly differentiated, suggested also by LinkedIn and extremely low
correlation values with the male gender. In addition, there is a differentiation between the
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interaction with friends and the sharing of information and opinions. Both activities can occur
separately. As regards network use, there is an emphasis on applications rather than games,
suggesting a more serious use of the Internet. Personal data are cared for; however, it does not
correlate significantly with adjusting security settings. A factor for this was also not detected.
A carefree attitude can be observed in this regard, supported by a general tendency to
establish contacts. An extensive commercialisation of contacts is not evident. Use of business
networks can be observed and there are correlations with specific motivating factors; the
connections are less pronounced than within the other groups. A consistent use, such as that
characteristic to the RI, was not detected. As regards Internet use in this milieu, it is
influenced more by the obtaining of information than only by searching for information.
Irrespective of this, generally a more extensive use of encyclopaedias and television services
is evident among younger people. There is a conspicuous correlation between online shopping
and social networks, as well as the use of search engines. This might indicate that people
communicate about purchases and use the Internet to compare prices before purchasing an
item. This should be studied separately. As regards events, it is evident that planning is less
popular than participating. The main focus in this case is on the use. Otherwise, no significant
correlations between the intensity of using social networks and the social network functions,
as well as factors motivating people to use social networks can be found. It is noticeable that
the intensity of data exchange correlates with the intensity of blog use. This is another feature
unique to blogs, as well as Internet applications. As regards the characteristic of people with
whom contact is established using social networks, such characteristics as funny and informal
are preferred. This contrasts with the preferences of the RI.
As regards the RI, the described dominance regarding possessions can be observed. It is
conspicuous that the members of this group have expressed the wish to own a brand watch;
there is also a more traditional connection between a new house and a new car. As concerns
more technical items, the wish for a Blu-Ray player correlates with that of a tablet PC. There
is also a more extensive use of financial products, similar to the distribution of possessions.
The majority of the members of this group have an occupational pension and use investment
funds. As regards the fitments, significant preferences for antiquities trade, speciality market
or a carpenter can be observed. As concerns the clothing, the basic preferences are brand
shops, online shops, outlets, which this group has in common with the DS. With regard to
literature, detective stories and newspapers are preferred. Magazines are less common. A
preference for criminal content is evident also with regard to films; a rather negative attitude
can be seen towards such genres as horror, mystery, science fiction and animation. As
concerns television, there is a general preference for public broadcasters. Sat.1 and Sky are
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leaders of the private sector of TV broadcasters, with the latter showing a significantly higher
value than among the members of the GP and DV. As concerns TV content, documentaries,
news and talk show assume leading positions. It can be added that the RI do prefer films in
the original language less as GP and DV. The use of broadband Internet per day is relatively
low during the week and rather high at the weekend. As regards the use of mobile Internet at
the weekend, it is conspicuous that it is consistently stronger than within the GP. However, a
low level of awareness concerning mobile social networks is evident. As regards Internet use,
the most often used social network is Facebook. While niche networks are know, they are not
used extensively. The further use of social networks is very differentiated. There are both
tendencies to use older networks, or a set of older networks, and sets of new niche networks.
A more extensive Internet use during the week leads to a more extensive use of social
network applications. There is, however, no correlation between applications and games. The
strongest measured correlation can be seen between the protection of personal data and
adjusting of security settings. A safe environment means a better protection of personal data
among the RI. The participants are motivated to use social networks by the possibility to
preserve existing contacts rather than establish new ones. As regards social network use, there
is an emphasis on creating, sharing and discussing of content, which does not have to be
associated with old or new contacts or the establishing of new contacts. The RI can be
characterised by a very selective use of business networks, with targeted establishing of
contacts, as well as employment and business opportunities in the foreground. In addition,
respective national and international networks are used for this purpose with almost
interrelated intensities. Furthermore, there is a strong correlation between the motivation to
discuss politics and appropriate communication functions. Although this is not proved by a
factor, there are significant correlations confirming the motivation. A connection between the
age of the participants and the intensity of the use of social networks can be seen in this
group. The intensity of social networks, as well as chatting and telephony services decreases
with increasing age. The use of forums, on the other hand, increases. The intensity of the use
of chatting applications and the media also correlates with the use and planning of events. As
regards the use of the events function of social networks, it is evident that planning of events
is more popular than participating in events. Pronounced differences between the RI and DV
are revealed through these points, as well as information search, performed more actively, and
the obtaining of information, which is secondary. As regards the search for information,
marked correlations with search engines and encyclopaedias are evident. Online shopping,
correlates with the the use of banking applications and e-mail. With regard to the types of
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people with whom the participants establish contacts using social networks, more serious
characteristics prevail.
The similar capital levels of the DV and RI reveal similarities between the two groups.
Overall it is interesting that the similarities are almost exclusively limited to traditional
consumption. A preference for investment funds is evident among the financial services. As
regards the consumption of clothing, brand shops, online shops and outlets are preferred.
Thus, a sensitivity towards brand and price is evident. As regards literary preferences,
journals are preferred instead of magazines. In comparison with the GP, a significantly more
extensive use of the Internet for banking services, shopping and reading of blogs can be seen
for both the RI and DS. In addition, there is a general correlation between the intensity of
using the Internet for shopping and staying in touch with friends. Communication about
purchases can be expected; contacts with friends are preserved or caused by purchases made
on the Internet. Furthermore, there is a general correlation between the intensity of data
exchange with social network functions and the sharing of location, as well as discussing of
daily events.
In order to improve the conclusions of the study, reflective discussions have been held with
different people (A.310) over the period of 2 April 2013 to 21 April 2013. The results have
been used to develop the following conclusions.

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CONCLUSIONS
The results of the present study show that it is possible and useful to make repeated use of the
statements by mile Durkheim and Pierre Bourdieu, as well as the milieu definitions derived
therefrom by Stefan Hradil, Michael Vester and Rainer Geiler, the SINUS Milieus, and the
current DIVSI subdivision.
The confirmation of the principal hypothesis: analysing convenience samples of Internet users
through lifeworlds produces more significant results than analysing the same sample without
considering lifeworlds allowed arriving at research results that were used to develop
conclusions relating to the fields of economy, politics and research.
The following conclusions regarding social media and product development have been drawn
for the field of economy:
1. The point in time when online advertising material is communicated should be taken into
account. Target audiences differ according to the time when the Internet is used, meaning
that it needs to be considered whether the particular target audience has time to use the
Internet at the moment. In addition, it has been observed across all the studied target
groups that more time is spent online at the weekend than during the week. In this regard,
the most significant increase in Internet use can be seen for the RI.
2. In order to reach younger target audiences, advertising material should be integrated into
chatting, video and music-related applications. These can be designed as interactive for
the DV. It should be noted that the RI are cautious about sharing data and communicating
on the Internet. This can be adopted as a general guideline when designing advertising
material for unknown target groups.
3. A correlation between the intensity of using chatting functions or chatting services and
age has been detected across all the analysed target audiences as well as the general
population. The intensity is more pronounced for younger participants and declines with
increasing age. Thus, companies wishing to reach younger audiences may use chatting
services as communication channels for their advertising content.
4. Information on data use, protection and customisation needs to be illustrated actively and
transparently. This applies to target groups consisting of the RI, or broader general
populations.
5. As regards the establishing of contacts when communicating on the Internet, it should be
noted that such characteristics as optimistic and positive are sought after. With increasing
age, this preference is replaced by seriousness and sincerity. This is further supported by
TV content preferences. The average age of the RI is higher, and this group prefers more
serious content, while the younger GP or DV seek for entertainment and amusement.
175
6. The differentiated use of social networks should be taken into account when designing
marketing activities. As concerns the DV, similar content should be distributed using
multichannel marketing in order to reach the target group. The same advertisement can be
perceived differently on different distribution channels, thus gaining a higher approval. In
order to reach normal, or rather average Internet users, networks with the highest range
should be chosen, as demonstrated in the analysis of the use of social network functions
in the context of Facebook.
7. The preferred method of obtaining information characteristic for the target group should
be considered when communicating product information. People may seek information
independently, receive it incidentally, or obtain it from their network. It was revealed that
the DV prefer receiving information rather than searching for it independently. This can
be useful when designing marketing activities, since the information is likely to be
forwarded. This is uncommon for the RI. The RI are used to searching for information
independently. This means that the DV are more likely to treat information with caution.
8. As regards television advertising, the advertisements should appear on the television
channels preferred by the particular target audience. Public broadcasters act as suitable
advertising media to promote goods and services intend for the consumption of the RI. A
strong preference for private broadcasters can be observed among younger people, as
well as the DV. The use of television stations unknown to the target audience should be
avoided. This can be the case, for example, the DV and ZDF.
9. The target group should be addressed using words and terms used by the particular group.
This is important, since certain target groups may associate their lifeworlds with a
particular type of language. Members of a milieu or lifeworld may find incorrect or
unfitting words irritating. Content should be created in the language spoken within the
particular milieu. Blogs and bloggers can act as a medium for such communication. The
results reveal comprehensive correlations between blogs and different networks. This
suggests that particular blogs and bloggers, whose content is used alongside regular
media and social networks, operate within certain fields. The appearance of products in
such an environment may have an impact on the image of the product, which should be
the subject of further market studies.
10. As regards mobile applications, it is evident that the strongest correlations within mobile
Internet use occur between the location function and the uploading of images. This
should be viewed in the context of the time spent using the Internet during the week by
the DV and at the weekend by the RI. When planning marketing activities, attention
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should be paid to the time when a message is communicated and whether the content is
requested by the receiver of the message.
11. The social network environment is subject to constant change and development.
Differentiation and niche formation can occur individually or within a user group. This
can lead to different types of use for a single network or to a preferred use of a network
by a niche customer group. In this regard, the influence of a network (very) is limited.
12. With the approach to implement offers into existing networks, the entry barrier can be
lowered. As a result of this, the application may not be seen as independent.
Nevertheless, this allows quickly reaching the necessary base potential and diminishing
the interaction obstacles.
The comparison of the milieus in conjunction with the general and comprehensive results
allows providing various recommendations for the field of politics and government work. The
main focus of the recommendations is on the promotion of broadband Internet access.
The analysis indicates a decline in the awareness of gender roles among people with higher
levels of education and capital, and a more pronounced Internet use. This suggests that
information exchanges leads to a lower awareness of gender roles. The anonymous nature of
the Internet serves to balance the relationships between gender roles.
1. This should be facilitated by a government policy aimed at improving media literacy
already in kindergarten or primary school and providing appropriate training
opportunities for teachers and pupils alike. Thus, people would be educated on the
independent information receiving, assessment and exchanging skills. In addition to
mobile services, broadband Internet use should be emphasised in order to promote a
focused and targeted work activity.
2. The analysis also shows that Internet use depends on the level of income. Income
correlates significantly with the educational attainment and the living environment. A
direct correlation can be assumed with the latter, and a state subsidy would be expensive
in this case. There might be a correlation with the educational attainment. In addition, a
correlation can be observed between the education of the parents and the grandfather, and
a closed cycle, as described in the theory, can be observed in this regard. Education might
serve as the key attribute for people aspiring to escape from this vicious circle. A policy
should be developed to promote this across classes and genders.
3. As the cost of Internet access is minor in relation to other cultural participation
opportunities and ways of acquiring content, receiving training or changing the living
environment, the government should consider a possible funding for the promotion of a
targeted Internet use. Socially disadvantaged individuals may not have access to
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broadband Internet, which correlates with games and social networks less significantly
than mobile Internet. As regards the possible funding, a grant for performance-oriented
further education might be considered. This further education could be adapted to the life
development or lifeworld of the person to prevent a general discrimination.
4. Intrinsic learning, cultural participation and the possibility of forming opinions speak in
favour of a possible funding for Internet access.
5. The motivation for intrinsic learning should be used and promoted additionally.
6. Use should be made of a pronounced use of online media, detected within the framework
of the present study, which could be used for teaching purposes and promoted by the
state. Although the present study does not investigate online media use for studying
purposes, it may be assumed that media content is used for self-education. Openness to
use other languages suggests that the participants of the analysed target groups are open
to acquiring knowledge using videos or other types of content pertaining to e-learning.
This could result in the use alternative teaching methods e.g., the flipped classroom (Lage
et al., 2000, pp. 3234) for particular groups of students, such as the DV. This should be
further researched and supported by government policies. In the long term, it might result
in a shift in the education paradigm towards Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)-
related approaches to teaching (Cormier et al., 2010, pp. 45; 1011).
7. The study reveals the conspicuous feature that an extensive Internet use leads to an
increased media consumption. It can be pointed out in this regard that a preference for
films in the original language is particularly marked for the DV. Promoting the linguistic
abilities of a society deserves particular support in view of globalisation and the
internationalisation of the society. An intrinsic motivation for learning or sharpening the
knowledge of a foreign language can be seen. Therefore, the government should consider
the possibility of introducing policies that provide discounts or other forms of social
support to ensure access to cultural participation and education.
8. As regards Internet use, there are pronounced, although not significant across for the
researched participants, correlations between discussion functions and the intensity of
discussing politics on the Internet. This allows concluding that the Internet is used to
form opinions. This possibility is denied for people without Internet access, thus
depriving them from developing a differentiated political opinion. Thus, the state should
promote Internet use, as well as media literacy. In addition, such promotions could help
temporarily unemployed people, as well as those looking for career change. The
promotion can be linked with performance outcome.
178
9. The results show a mixed picture regarding the use of the Internet for data exchange. As
regards the general data exchange and sharing network abatement, the policies should
determine which user groups have a propensity for criminal behaviour which can be
decreased by educating. Meanwhile, the exchanging of data for educational, training and
opinion forming purposes should be encouraged.
The following proposals for field of research in the form of additional research approaches for
a more accurate implementation of market and user differentiation have been suggested:
1. As lifeworld research originates from the field of political research, it should be studied
how political preferences appear on the Internet and within the milieus, and how opinions
are formed in this environment.
2. It should be investigated whether the Hedonistic Milieu forms an anti-image of the RI
and DV in terms of Internet use. In this regard, it should be possible to demonstrate the
capital differences according to the traditional class model with a low, medium and high
level of capital. It could also be examined in this context how the gender roles are
perceived in the lower areas and if a stronger identification exists, especially concerning
the males.
3. The fundamentals of milieu differentiation have been successfully transferred to analysed
the social structure of such countries as the USA, the UK (Imomus, 2008), Austria
(Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, p. 82), Switzerland (Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, p. 84) and Poland
(Golonka, 2009, p. 55). It should be possible to transfer the empirical knowledge gained
in researching milieus in Germany to other European countries. Thus, the research
findings should be useful in defining product development and marketing activities in the
form in which they have been outlined for the German-speaking world in these
conclusions.
In addition to the use of lifeworlds, the ways how the test subjects perceive the environment,
as well as individual descriptions of a lifeworld should be researched. This should be done
with the aim of defining personal realities. Personal realities become important when a person
makes a decision; e.g. an event occurs and is experienced (Riemann, 1983, p. 139). Perceived
by contrast, events can be stored and analysed in grids (Riemann, 1983, p. 140, 144148).
Test subjects are presented with a list of items with which associations are formed (Kruse,
2009). Such a differentiation is, among others, implemented by Nextpractice (2013) in order
to allow the defining of product or brand properties. This research approach could be
extended and refined using the milieu theory:
4. The information from such a study could be used to make fine adjustments to the milieus
and result in more significant and consistent content represented by the grids.
179
5. The created grids can be used to detect the mobile habitus in that the grids are
periodically created using the same test subjects. This also provides the option for similar
individuals to make statements about future decisions, based on the preferences of the test
subjects.
6. In advance of a grid study, the participants can fill in an online questionnaire. The
resulting customer groups should improve the quality of subsequent studies.
The integration of neuromarketing (Gaines, 2008, p. 390) in studies of human-machine
interaction (Bridger/Lewis, 2005, p. 36), as well as brand and product localisation
(Perrachione/Perrachione, 2008, p. 305) can be regarded as a step further. In addition to
QEEG (Bridger/Lewis, 2005, p. 37) and the related brain activity measurements (Krugman,
1971, pp. 57), magnetic resonance imaging (Gaines, 2008, pp. 391393; Kay et al., 1990, pp.
98699870) has become established as a means of documenting and proving cortical changes
(Ariely/Berns, 2010, p. 287; Cypert et al., 2004, pp. 385386; Kay et al., 1990, pp. 9870
9872; Perrachione/Perrachione 2008, p. 306.) This can be used to compare consumer products
(Cypert et al., 2004, pp. 380384) and distinguish between sensory perceptions (Nobel, 2012).
7. In conjunction with milieu analysis and grids, neuromarketing provides a basis for a more
precise study of customer group behaviour and allows demonstrating customer action
patterns. Thereby, the results should be more precise and authoritative from the point of
view of behavioural science.
8. Such a study may prove useful in tailoring marketing messages to the needs of the
customer. It can be studied which types of social network content or Internet services
cause irritation or satisfaction. Thus, application use can be expected to differentiate and
the situations and stimuli can be expected to differ depending on the target group.
During the analysis, additional experience was gained for the field of research, in particular,
concerning the use of online questionnaires. The following points and research results should
be taken into consideration when implementing online surveys.
9. Text fields should also be avoided, as there is a barrier that can cause people to answer
incorrectly or not to answer at all. It should be stated clearly whether the survey concerns
professional information in order to provide the participants with a basis for making a
decision, as well as to reduce the complexity of the survey.
10. In addition, a personal connection with the respondents should be established, e.g. if the
author of the survey personally helps the respondents follow it. It should also be possible
to share the survey with friends and acquaintances and find out if they have already
participated in it without viewing the results or other data.
180
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urtherAnn2&_o.s.Main_01=NFHH36&_o.t.Main_01=80&_o.d.
Main_02=true>, 08/07/2011.
Stenberg 2011 Daniel Stenberg: History of IRC (Internet Relay Chat),
Stockholm, 03/29/2011, <http://daniel.haxx.se/irchistory.html>,
01/15/2012.
StudiVz 1 2011 StudiVz: ber uns Daten und Fakten, VZ Netzwerke, Berlin,
July 2011, <http://www.studivz.net/l/about_us/1/>, 07/26/2011.
StudiVz 2 2011 StudiVz: VZgeschftlich Aktuelles aus den VZ Netzwerken,
VZ Netzwerke, Berlin, July 2011,
<http://www.studivz.net/geschaeftlich>, 07/26/2011.
StudiVZ 3 2011 StudiVz: Mediadaten VZ Netzwerke, VZ Netzwerke, Berlin,
June 2011,
<http://static.pe.studivz.net/media/de/sales/VZgeschaeftlich/med
iadaten_060611.pdf>, 01/15/2012.
Tomlinson 2011 Ray Tomlinson: The First Network Email, Massachusetts,
<http://openmap.bbn.com/~tomlinso/ray/firstemailframe.html>,
07/16/2011.
Triler 2011 Jan Triler. Re:Publica XI: Vorschau auf Highlights der
Internetkonferenz, t3n, Hannover, 04/08/2011,
203
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internetkonferenz-305002/>, 08/30/2011.
VKontakte 2012 VKontakte: About Us, Vkontakte, Moscow, January 2012,
<http://vkontakte.ru/help.php?page=about>, 01/15/2012.
Weigert 2009 Martin Weigert: RTL bernimmt "Volksnetzwerk" wer-kennt-
wen.de, Netzwertig, Zurich, 02/02/2009,
<http://netzwertig.com/2009/02/02/rtl-uebernimmt-
volksnetzwerk-wer-kennt-wende/>, 08/07/2011.
Wer kennt Wen 2007 Wer-Kennt-Wen Public Relations: Von null auf eine Million in
einem Jahr Social Network wer-kennt-wen.de auf Erfolgskurs,
Wer-kennt-Wen, Cologne, December 2007, <http://static.wer-
kennt-wen.de/presse/wkw_presseinfo_2007_12.pdf>,
08/07/2011.
Wer kennt Wen 2011 Wer-Kennt-Wen Public Relations: Facts and Figures,
<http://www.wer-kennt-wen.de/static/presse>, 08/07/2011.
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<http://corporate.xing.com/deutsch/investor-
relations/basisinformationen/fakten-und-zahlen/>, 05/16/2011.
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werbefernsehen.de/tarife/einschaltpreise-2011.html>,
08/17/2011.

IX
V. APPENDIX
A-1 QUESTIONNAIRE .................................................................................................. A-1
A-1.1 honesty on the internet - analogous surveys ............................................................. A-1
A-1.2 original survey created by pierre bourdieu in 1979 .................................................. A-3
A-1.3 re:publica x face to face interviews ..................................................................... A-10
A-1.4 association questionnaire - open questionnaire ...................................................... A-11
A-1.5 internet social structure questionnaire 2012 ........................................................... A-12
A-1.6 social structure survey 2012 recalculation overview ............................................. A-21
A-2 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS................................................................................... A-29
A-2.1 honesty on the internet workshop ........................................................................ A-29
A-2.2 honesty on the internet discussion ....................................................................... A-29
A-2.3 honesty on the internet telephone interview ........................................................ A-30
A-2.4 cebitglobal conference group interview .............................................................. A-30
A-2.5 network personalities telephone interview .......................................................... A-31
A-2.6 association questions on social networking workshop ........................................ A-31
A-3 EXPERT OVERVIEW........................................................................................... A-32
A-3.1 honesty on the internet group discussion ............................................................ A-32
A-3.2 honesty on the Internet interview ........................................................................ A-32
A-3.3 honesty on the internet analogous surveys .......................................................... A-32
A-3.4 honesty on the Internet telephone interview ........................................................ A-32
A-3.5 re:publica x face to face interviews ..................................................................... A-32
A-3.6 cebit global conference group interview ............................................................. A-32
A-3.7 network personalities telephone interview .......................................................... A-33
A-3.8 association questionnaire open questionnaire ..................................................... A-33
A-3.9 association discussion social networking-group discussion ................................... A-33
A-3.10 discussion of the results of individual and group discussions ................................ A-33
A-4 INTERMEDIATE DATA ...................................................................................... A-34
A-4.1 cpm comparison ..................................................................................................... A-34
A-4.2 honesty on the internet results questionnaire ...................................................... A-34
A-4.3 honesty in the internet correlation matrix questionnaire ..................................... A-35
A-4.4 results association questionnaire ............................................................................ A-38
A-4.5 results iss2012 ........................................................................................................ A-56
A-5 GLOSSARY ........................................................................................................... A-73

A1
A-1 QUESTIONNAIRE
A-1.1 honesty on the internet - analogous surveys
Honesty on the Internet
Gender: M / F
Age: ______________
Internet usage since (month/year): ______________

You indicate your real data if you: I disagree- neutral -I agree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
A1 Wish to test the offer:
A2 Wish to use the offer for a long time:
A3 My friends and acquaintances spend
time there:

A4 Wish to use the offer for work
purposes:

A5 Wish to use the offer for private
purposes:

I disagree - neutral - I agree
On the Internet you reply honestly if: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
B1 You expect some added value, e.g. in
the form of points or a prize:

B2 You expect or receive some added
value in the form of a change (e.g. in
politics)

B3 The survey concerns you personally:
A2
B4 The survey involves a contest:
B5 You know the questioner personally:
B6 The survey is encrypted (HTTPS):
B7 The questioner is serious:
B8 You are required to fill an empty box:
What makes a survey respectable in your
opinion:
I disagree - neutral - I agree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
C1 The Internet address of the survey:
C2 Design (no ads, sleek presentation):
C3 Scientific questions:
C4 Objective questions:
C5 Choice of language:
You give positive answers in a survey if: I disagree - neutral - I agree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
D1 You can win something:
D2 The answer may be associated with
you:

D3 You know the questioner personally:
D4 The website of the survey contains an
ID or a PIN number:




A3
A-1.2 original survey created by pierre bourdieu in 1979
*** Demographic Coverage ***
Gender:
Date of birth:
Marital status (single, married, widowed, divorced):
Age and number of children:
Residence:
Living in the present residence since (less than 5 years/5 -10 years/10 or more years):
Previous residence:
Secondary or higher education:
Profession:
Secondary or higher education and occupation of the father, as well as of the paternal
grandfathers (if applicable, the last exercised profession):
Degree Occupation
Father
Grandfather
Could you approximately indicate the range of the annual income of your family:
Less than F 10,000 F 2025,000 F 4050,000
F 1015,000 F 2530,000 F 5060,000
F 1520,000 F 3040,000 More than F 60,000
Indicate if you own:
A record player A Car A video camera
An audio tape (which brand) A telephone A photo camera
A TV

A4
*** Lifeworld questions ***
1 Where did you get your furniture?
- A department store (indicate the name)
- Antiquities trade
- A speciality shop (indicate the name)
- Made by a carpenter
- Flea Market
- Bought at an auction
- Inherited
- Rented
- Other
2. The style of your furniture: Modern/antique/rustic

3. If you had a choice, which style of furniture would you opt for:Modern/antique/rustic

4. How would prefer to furnish your apartment? Name three of the bellow listed
characteristics:
Clean, tidy Warm Neat
Comfortable Easy to clean Imaginative
Stylish Classic Practical, functional
Mundane, discreet Harmonious Intimate

5. Which three of the above mentioned characteristics you find most important?


A5
6. Which of the following activities do you perform often, rarely or never?
Often Rarely Never
Handicraft
Sports (which)
Camping
Hiking
Fine arts, painting, sculpture
Playing a music instrument (which)
Parlour games (which)
Watching TV

7. Which three of the following singers are your favourite?
Charles Aznavour dith Piaf Luis Mariano
Lo Ferr Jacques Brel Petula Clark
Johnny Hallyday Georges Gutary Jacques Douai
Georges Brassens Francoise Hardy Gilbert Bcaud


8. What style of clothing do you choose most often:
Classic and quality-conscious Daring and carefully chosen
Stylish suitable for your personality Comfortable
Inconspicuous and decent Fancy and classy
Other (specify)


A6
9. Is your clothing:
Everyday casual
Festive
Self-made by you or your family member
Made by a little-known tailor
Made by a well-known fashion house or fashion designer
Ready-made clothing
Ready-to-ware (Prt--porter)

10. What type of foods do you prefer to serve when entertaining guests:
Simile, but pretty Nutritious and rich
Fine and exquisite Original and exotic
Rich and good According to the golden French cuisine
Improvised Other (specify)

11. Which of the bellow listed properties characterise the people you admire?
Cheerful, seeking relish Sophisticated Funny
Even-tempered Sociable Outgoing
Artistic Optimistic Refined and cultivated
Dynamic Conscientious Well-behaved

12. Which three characteristics do you find least important?
13. Which five of the following genres do you read most often? Name three genres:
Detective stories Adventure books Poetry
Love stories Political books
Travelogues and Research papers Philosophical literature
Historical reports Literary classics
Scientific publications Books by contemporary authors
A7

14. What type of films do you prefer? Please name three genres:
Adventure Feature films
War films Musicals
Westerns Comedies
Crime films Educational films
Historical films Dramas
Films of the New Wave (nouvelle vague)
15. Which of the following films have you seen? Can you name the director and lead
character for each of the films?
The film you have seen Director Actors

16. What interests you the most in a film?
The actors The director The plot

17. What type of radio stations do you listen to most often:
Entertainment programmes Cultural programmes
News Classical music
News magazines Other (specify)

18. What do you watch on TV most often:
Plays News programmes
Scientific programmes Programmes devoted to history
Films Literary programmes
Entertainment programmes Programmes concerning topical issues
Other (please specify)


A8
19. Which of the following statements match your opinion the best?
- Classical music is difficult to understand
- Classical music is not for me
- I enjoy classical music, but I am not familiar with it
- I love classical music, e.g. the waltzes by Strauss.
20. Which pieces of music from the following list do you know? Can you name the
composer each time?
Piece known to you Composer
21. Which three of the bellow listen pieces of music are your favourite?
22. Which of the following statements reflect your opinion the best?
- I am not interested in painting
- I do not feel competent to judge the exhibits in museums
- Painting is beautiful, but difficult to understand. In order to speak about it one has
to be familiar with it.
- I thoroughly enjoy Impressionist paintings
- Abstract painting interests me the same way as classical painting.
23. Who are your three favourite artists from the list below?
24. Have you visited any of the following museums? (If yes, in which year and on what
occasion on a school trip, with parents, with friends, alone)
25. Please express your opinion on the following statements:
- Modern art is so simple that any child would be able to replicate it.
- The name and style of an artist is not important to me.
- I cannot judge painting, as I am not familiar with it.

A9
26. Which of the following subjects, in your opinion, would most likely create a beautiful,
interesting, bland, hideous photo?
Beautiful Interesting Bland Hideous
A Landscape
A Car accident
A little girl playing with a cat
A pregnant woman
Still life
A woman breastfeeding her baby
A steel frame
Quarrelling tramps
Cabbages
Sunset at the seaside
A weaver at the loom
A folk dance
The end of a rope
A butchers stand
The bark of a tree
A famous monument
A scrapyard
The First Communion
A wounded person
A snake
A painting done by a master

A10
A-1.3 re:publica x face to face interviews
During the interviews, it was always attempted to cover the following questions to the extent
that it allowed interacting with the interviewer with guidance.
Question: How old are you?
Question: What is your name?
Question: What do you in the Internet?
Question: What do you write about?
Question: What motivates you to share information in th Internet?
Question: What is your occupation (or how do you make a living)?
Question: What kind of training have you received?
Question: What is your marital status?
Question: What kind of car do you drive?
Question: What is your favourite drink?
Question: How would you characterise your apartment?
Question: How would you characterise your living situation?
Question: What do your parents do (or what did your parents do)?

The following questions were partly used.
Question: What is your highest educational qualification:
Question: Are you conservative, moderate or progressive:
Question: What are your political views?
Question: What are your hobbies:

A11
A-1.4 association questionnaire - open questionnaire
Age: Gender: M F Occupation: Relationship status:
Question 1: Which three of the electronic devices in your possession are most important for
your status/self-realisation:
Question 2: Which three items/properties (non-electronic) are most important for your
status/self-realisation:
Question 3: Which three goods or services that meet your standard of living would you like
to buy:
Question 4: Name three shopping opportunities which you have already used to buy
furniture:
Question 5: How would you characterise your apartment with maximum five words:
Question 6: Name three of your favourite leisure activities:
Question 7: Name three of your favourite singers/musicians:
Question 8: Which three types of books or newspapers do you prefer:
Question 9: Name three shopping facilities where you have bought clothing:
Question 10: Name three clothing brands with which you identify yourself.
Question 11: Characterise your clothing style in three words:
Question 12: Which three types of TV programmes do you prefer:
Question 13: Which three types (genres) of films do you prefer:
Question 14: Which three films are most well-known among your acquaintances.
Question 15: Which three Internet social media do you use most often:
Question 16: Name three of your favourite foods:
Question 17: Which tree types of food do you prefer to eat at home
Question 18: Which tree types of food do you prefer to eat at a restaurant/as a snack:
Question 19: Which three classical music pieces come to your mind first:
A12
Question 20: Name three artists/painters you like or who come to your mind first:
Question 21: Which three compositions are most well-known among your acquaintances.
Question 22: Please name three ways how you received:
A-1.5 internet social structure questionnaire 2012
*** Demographics ***
A1. Gender: Male or Female
A2. Year of birth (selection out of the years 1930-2002):
A3. Place of residence in Germany: Yes No
A4. Number of inhabitants in the place of residence (Less than 2,000; 2,000 to 20,000;
20,000 to 50,000; 50,000 to 100,000; 100,000 to 200,000; 200,000 to 500,000; more
than 500,000).
A5. Do you have access to the Internet at home: Yes No
A6. Access to broadband Internet since (selection out of the years between 1989-2012):
A7. Access to mobile Internet since (selection out of the years between 1998-2012):
A8. Marital status (Single, In a relationship, Married, Widowed, Divorced, Civil
partnership, Open relationship, Separated, Other):
A9. Indicate your living situation (Flat share (WG), Rented flat, Tenement (Mietshaus),
Owner-occupied flat, House):
A10. Number of persons living in your household:
A11. Current educational qualification (No educational qualification, Secondary modern
school diploma, Secondary school certificate (Realschulabschluss), Vocational BA
diploma, Higher education entrance qualification (Abitur), Certificate, Vocational
training, Terminated studies, BA, MA, University Diploma, PhD):
A12. Occupational status (Worker, Unemployed, Employee, Civil Servant, Pupil, Student,
Self-employed, Self-employed with employees, Entrepreneur, Voluntary social year,
Soldier, Other):
A13. Family status of the parents (Married, Separated, Divorced, Widowed, In a new
relationship, Other):

A13
A14. Secondary or higher education and occupation of the parents, as well as of the paternal
grandfathers (if applicable, the last exercised profession):
The highest degree Occupation (Worker, Employee, Civil Servant,
Housewife/Househusband, Entrepreneur, Self-
employed, Unemployed, Other, Not specified)
Mother
Father
Grandfather

A15. Please specify the range of the annual income of your household (gross income for all
family members together):
Less than 10,000 2025,000 4555,000
1015,000 2535,000 5570,000
1520,000 3545,000 Higher than 70,000


*** Context, Identifying Features and Preferences ***
B1. Which of the following items do you possess?
A plot of land Apple product Bicycle
Blu-Ray Player Brand watch Car
Dish washer Flat-rate mobile phone plan Flat-screen TV
Garage Horse House
Ikea Product Landline telephone Motorcycle
Musical instrument Netbook Notebook
Owner-occupied flat Railcard (BahnCard50 or higher) Record player
Scooter Smartphone Tablet Computer
B2. Which five of the following products would you like to buy:
A plot of land Apple product Bicycle
Blu-Ray Player Brand watch Car
Dish washer Flat-rate mobile phone plan Flat-screen TV
Garage Horse House
Ikea Product Landline telephone Motorcycle
Musical instrument Netbook Notebook
Owner-occupied flat Railcard (BahnCard50 or higher) Record player
Scooter Smartphone Tablet Computer
B3. Which of the following finance products do you use:
Building societies Call money account Eichel pension
Investment funds Life insurance Occupational disability
Occupational pension Private pension insurance Riester pension
Rrup pension Savings plan Shares
Time deposit A different financial product A different savings scheme

A14
B4. Where did you obtain furniture in the last five years:
Antiquities trade As a gift Auction
Classified advertising Department store Discounter
Flea market Furniture shop Hardware store
Inherited Made by a carpenter Online auction house
Online shop Ordered from a catalogue Speciality market
B5. How would you characterise your living style with maximum five words:
Calm Chaotic Clean
Colorful Comfortable Convenient
Cosy Elegant Flat share
Light Messy Modern
Modest Neat Open
Practical Pretty Small
Spacious Tidy Warm
B6. How would you characterise your clothing style with maximum five words:
Adequate Brand-oriented Casual
Classical Comfortable Conservative
Correct Daring Elegant
Fancy Functional Inconspicuous
Individual Modern Modest
Nonchalant Practical Serious
Simple Sporty Youthful
B7. Where did you obtain clothing in the last five years:
2nd hand shop As a gift Brand shop
Department store Online auction Online shop
Ordered from a catalogue Outlet Retail shop
Self-made Speciality shop Supermarket
B8. Which five of the following genres do you read most often?
Adventure Anime Comedy
Comic Detective stories Drama
Fantasy History Horror
Journals Magazines Mystery
Newspapers Non-fiction literature Poetry
Regional novels Romance Science fiction
Scientific literature Short stories Specialist books
Thriller Trade magazines Tragedy


A15
B9. Which five of the following film genres do you watch most often?
Action Adventure Animation
Anime Comedy Crime films
Documentary Drama Fantasy
History Horror Mystery
Nature Regional films Romance
Science fiction Thriller War films

B10. Do you prefer to watch films in the original language (Yes/No):
B11. Which five of the following TV channels do you prefer most?
3Sat ARD Arte
BR CNN Comedy Central
Das Vierte DMAX Eins Plus
Eurosport HR HSE24
Kabel 1 Kika MDR
MTV N24 NDR
N-TV Phoenix Pro Sieben
RBB RTL RTL 2
Sat. 1 SIXX Sky
Sport 1 SR Super RTL
SWR Tele 5 Viva
VOX WDR ZDF
ZDF Info ZDF Kultur ZDF Neo
Private regional channel A different channel
(German)
A different foreign
language channel

B12. Which five of the following TV genres do you watch most often:
Animation Call-in Comedy
Cooking shows Documentary Feature films
Music channels News Quiz shows
Reality shows Scientific programmes Soup operas
Sports Talk shows TV films
TV series TV shows US series


A16
B13. Please indicate how often you engage in the following leisure activities on a scale of 1
(never) to 5 (very often):
The intensity of the use of leisure time
1 2 3 4 5
Art
Celebrations
Doing sports
Family
Friends
Further education
Hobbies
Internet
Listening to music
Other activities
Photography
Playing music
Reading
Shopping
Travelling
Watching sports
Watching TV
Writing
*** Internet Use ***
C1. How many hours do you spend on the Internet during the week (broadband/mobile):
C2. How many hours do you spend on the Internet at the weekend (broadband/mobile):

A17
C3. Please specify your type of use of social networks:
Unknown Known Registered Weekly Use Daily Use
Facebook
Flickr
FourSquare
Google+
hi5
ICQ
Instagram
Jappy
Kwick
LastFM
LinkedIn
MSN Live
MySpace
Pinterest
Spotify
StayFriends
Twitter
VZ-Netzwerk
Wer kennt wen
WhatsApp
Xing
YouTube


A18
C4. Please indicate the intensity with which you use the following functions in social
networks on a scale of 1 (never) to 5 (very strong intensity):
Intensity of Use
1 2 3 4 5
Actively post status messages
Click the "I like" button
Customise security settings
Maintain personal information
Parts of web-sites in a social network
Plan events
Play games
Receive information about events
Share content publicly
Share content with specific persons only
Share videos from YouTube or similar sites
Tag friends in pictures
Tag friends in status messages
Upload images
Upload my own videos
Use apps
Write comments


A19
C5. What motivates you to use social networks? Please indicate the strength of your
motivation on a scale from 1 (no motivation) to 5 (very strong motivation).
Strength of your motivation
1 2 3 4 5
Birthday reminders and congratulations
Chatting
Creating content
Discussing politics
Discussing daily events
Discussing events
Discussing TV content
Establishing contacts
Exchanging opinions
Job search
Looking for business partners and customers
Looking for friends
Looking for information on people
Making comments
Receiving information
Releasing emotions
Sharing content
Sharing my location
Staying in touch with acquaintances
Staying in touch with friends


A20
C6. Please indicate the frequency with which you use five of the following Internet services
on a scale from 1 (never use) to 5 (use very often):
Intensity of Use
1 2 3 4 5
Banking operations
Blogs
Chat
Data exchange
Dating
Dictionaries and encyclopaedias
E-mail
Forums
Information portals
Internet telephone services
Listening to music
Search engines
Shopping
Social networks
TV
Watch videos
C7. Which of the following properties characterise the people with whom you most often
stay in contact using social networks? Please indicate from 1 to 5 for very important.
Intensity of Use
1 2 3 4 5
Artistic
Cheerful
Conscientious
Even-tempered
Funny
Open for new experiences
Optimistic
Outgoing
Refined and cultivated
Seeking relish
Sociable
Sophisticated
Vibrant
Well-behaved

A21
A-1.6 social structure survey 2012 recalculation overview
This section contains the answers of the questionnaire and the values that were stored for the
possible answers. These answers were used to analyse the correlations and factors. Detailed
information is presented only for the questions that were taken into consideration for the
analyses. The type of question has been explained for questions with the same answer type.
This overview should be viewed as additional information regarding the calculation,
processing and evaluation of the research results.
*** Demographics ***
A1. Gender (Dropdown):
Female 0
Male 1

A2. Year of birth (Dropdown)
1930 1930
1931-2001
2002 2002

A4. Number of inhabitants in the place of residence (Dropdown)
Less than 2,000 0
2,000 to 19,999 1
20,000 to 49,999 2
50,000 to 99,999 3
100,000 to 199,999 4
200,000 to 499,999 5
More than 500.000 6

A6. Access to broadband Internet since (Dropdown)
1989 1989
1990-2011
2012 2012

A7. Access to mobile Internet since (Dropdown)
1998 1998
1999-2011
A22
2012 2012

A8. Marital status (Dropdown)
Single 0
In a relationship 1
Married 2
Widowed 3
Divorced 4
Civil partnership 5
Open relationship 6
Separated 7
Other 8

A9. Indicate your living situation (Dropdown)
Flat share 0
Rented flat 1
Tenement 2
Owner-occupied flat 3
House 4

A10. Number of persons living in your household (Dropdown)
1 1
2..9 2..9
10 10


A23
A11. Current educational qualification (Dropdown)
No educational qualification 0
Secondary modern school diploma 1
Secondary school certificate 2
Vocational BA diploma 3
Higher education entrance qualification 4
Certificate 5
Vocational training 6
Terminated studies 7
Bachelor 8
Master 9
University Diploma 10
PhD 11

A12. Occupational status (Dropdown)
Worker 0
Unemployed 1
Employee 2
Civil Servant 3
Pupil 4
Student 5
Self-employed 6
Self-employed with employees 7
Entrepreneur 8
Voluntary social year 9
Soldier 10
Other 11

A24
A13. Family status of the parents (Dropdown)
Married 0
Separated 1
Divorced 2
Widowed 3
In a new relationship 4
Others 5

A14a. Secondary or higher education mother (Dropdown)
No educational qualification 0
Secondary modern school diploma 1
Secondary school certificate 2
Vocational BA diploma 3
Higher education entrance qualification 4
Certificate 5
Vocational training 6
Terminated studies 7
Bachelor 8
Master 9
University Diploma 10
PhD 11

A14b. Last occupation status mother (Dropdown)
Worker 0
Unemployed 1
Employee 2
Civil Servant 3
Housewife 4
Self-employed 5
Self-employed with employees 6
Entrepreneur 7
Other 8
A25
A14c. Secondary or higher education father (Dropdown)
No educational qualification 0
Secondary modern school diploma 1
Secondary school certificate 2
Vocational BA diploma 3
Higher education entrance qualification 4
Certificate 5
Vocational training 6
Terminated studies 7
Bachelor 8
Master 9
University Diploma 10
PhD 11

A14d. Last occupation status father (Dropdown)
Worker 0
Unemployed 1
Employee 2
Civil Servant 3
House husband 4
Self-employed 5
Self-employed with employees 6
Entrepreneur 7
Soldier 8
Other 9


A26
A14e. Secondary or higher education paternal grandfathers (Dropdown):
No educational qualification 0
Secondary modern school diploma 1
Secondary school certificate 2
Vocational BA diploma 3
Higher education entrance qualification 4
Certificate 5
Vocational training 6
Terminated studies 7
Bachelor 8
Master 9
University Diploma 10
PhD 11

A14f. Last occupation status paternal grandfathers (Dropdown)
Worker 0
Unemployed 1
Employee 2
Civil Servant 3
House husband 4
Self-employed 5
Self-employed with employees 6
Entrepreneur 7
Soldier 8
Other 9


A27
A15. Please specify the range of the annual income of your household (gross income for all
family members together) (Radio button)
Less than 10,000 1
1015.000 2
1520.000 3
2025.000 4
2535.000 5
3545.000 6
4555.000 7
5570.000 8
Higher than 70,000 9

*** Context, Identifying Features and Preferences ***
B1-B12. (Checkbox)
Checkbox checked (Yes) 1
Checkbox unchecked (No) 0

B13.
Likert scale from 1 (lowest value) to 5 (highest value)

*** Internet use ***
C1. How many hours do you spend on the Internet during the week (Dropdown)
Broadband usage:
1 1
2-70
71+ 71

Mobile usage:
1 1
2-70
71+ 71


A28
C2. How many hours do you spend on the Internet at the weekend (Dropdown)
Broadband usage:
1 1
2-29
30+ 31

Mobile usage:
1 1
2-29
30+ 31

C5-C7.
Likert scale from 1 (lowest value) to 5 (highest value)


A29
A-2 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
A-2.1 honesty on the internet workshop
1. Under what conditions do you share your private data on the Internet?
2. Under what conditions do you indicate correct data and when do you provide false
data on the Internet?
Correct data:
False data:
A-2.2 honesty on the internet discussion
1. Why do people share information, including personal details, on the Internet?
2. What could be the factors encouraging people to share private data on the Internet?
3. Do you have any idea what additional factors could influence the sharing of information
on the Internet in general?
4. What motivates you personally to take part in a survey?

A30
A-2.3 honesty on the internet telephone interview
1. In what form and in what situations can data be shared on the Internet?
2. Do you differentiate between public and personal information?
3. What, in your opinion, motivates a person to share his personal information on the
Internet?
4. How do you use your customers data within your company?
5. Does your company support its clients in the process of entering personal information?
6. What techniques does your company use to collect personal information?
7. Does your company review the personal information in a separate step for accuracy.
8. What techniques can be used to accomplish this?
9. Does your company pursue the goal to obtain additional information from its customers, if
applicable, in exchange for an added value?
10. Have you any idea why people enter false information on the Internet?
11. What factors does a user take into consideration when sharing private information?
12. Do you believe that trust can be built?
A-2.4 cebitglobal conference group interview
1. Could you please describe the customer base from your social network?
2. What seems to motivate your members to use your product:
3. How would you group your members?
4. Does your product have a real life application:
5. What future obstacles do you expect in your business?

A31
A-2.5 network personalities telephone interview
1. What is your gender?
2. How old are you?
3. Why did you sign up for Xing?
4. What does the Xing Network have that other networks do not?
5. What do you consider the target audience of Xing?
6. In what direction is Xing going to develop in your opinion?
7. What is your current experience with Xing?
8. How would you characterise Xing to other people?
9. What feelings do you associate with Xing in comparison with other networks?
10. What are the utilisation approaches of Xing?
11. What is the main target audience of Xing?
12. What other networks do you use regularly?
13. Why do you use this network regularly and what does it offer to you that Xing does not?

A-2.6 association questions on social networking workshop
1. Which network do you use regularly?
2. Where do you go on-line?
3. Why are you on-line?
4. Which functions do you use:
5. What motivates you to communicate information?
A32
A-3 EXPERT OVERVIEW
A-3.1 honesty on the internet group discussion
12 business informatics (35/10) students at the University of Weserbergland
A-3.2 honesty on the Internet interview
Torben Friedrich, Politician, German Pirate Party, 11/19/2012
A-3.3 honesty on the internet analogous surveys
The survey was completed by 65 people, mainly from the field of business management or
business computer science, as well as by personal contacts of the researcher.
A-3.4 honesty on the Internet telephone interview
Nina Mayerhoff, Head of Non Book, Music & Toys, Buch.de Interstores AG, 12/28/2011
Jens Loddeke, Feature Manager Mail Services Germany, United Internet AG, 01/05/2012
A-3.5 re:publica x face to face interviews
Daniel Bovensiepen, Ruby Germany, ruby-mine.de, 04/14/2010
Don Dahlmann, Internet Project Manager, Self-Employed, 04/14/2010
Felix Schwenzel, Social Media Project Manager, EsPresto AG, 04/14/2010
Johannes Kretzschmar, Blogger, blog.beetlebum.de, 04/14/2010
Mathias Winks, Blogger, whudat.de, 04/14/2010
RouvenRidder, Blogger, Zeitungsverlag NeueWestflische GmbH & Co. KG, 04/14/2010
Sascha Israel, Blogger, gilly.ws, 04/14/2010
Torben Friedrich, Politician, Pirate Party Germany, 04/14/2010
+ 1 anonymus person
A-3.6 cebit global conference group interview
Cary Rosenzweig, Chief Executive Officer, IMVU, Inc., 04/03/2011
Timo Soininen, Chief Executive Officer, Sulake Corporation Oy, 04/03/2011
Alexis Bonte, Co-Founder & Chief Executive Officer, eRepublik.com, 04/03/2011
A33
A-3.7 network personalities telephone interview
30 active and anonymous users in the age group from 1748.
A-3.8 association questionnaire open questionnaire
The questionnaire was completed by 43 students of business economics at the University of
Weserbergland, and processed by 27 people who are not associated with the University of
Weserbergland and who belong to the circle of acquaintances of the researcher.
A-3.9 association discussion social networking-group discussion
12 business informatics (35/10) students at the University of Weserbergland
A-3.10 discussion of the results of individual and group discussions
Michael Schlesinger, Marketing Professor, University of Latvia, 04/02/2013.
Philipp Muehlenkord, Business Development Manager DACH, LinkedIn Inc., 04/09/2013.
Florian H.W. Schmidt, Managing Director, Cresces Placement GmbH, 04/11/2013.
Simon Wondracek, General Manager, Cresces Media GmbH, 04/11/2013.
Christian Jordanich, Specialist, Facebook Inc., 04/16/2013.
Oliver Kster, Managing Director, Buzzrank GmbH, 04/17/2013.
Oliver Wagner, Managing Director, SocialObjects GmbH, 04/17/2013.
Daniel Meier, Managing Director, SPD LK Hildesheim, 04/21/2013.


A34
A-4 INTERMEDIATE DATA
A-4.1 cpm comparison
Bild Financial Times Deutschland
Percentage target group 25% 85%
Circulation 727,084 103,230
Readers 3,032,500 425,000
Price per ad page 398,899 38,900
CPM Circulation 548.63 376.83
CPM Readers 131.54 91.53
Table 83 Comparison: CPM Bild/FTD (Source: authors research)
A-4.2 honesty on the internet results questionnaire
Question A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6
Median 2 6 6 7 5 5 5 5 3 6 5
Mode 1 6 6 7 6 6 5 5 2 7 6
Standard deviation 1.72 1.63 1.61 1.58 1.6 1.68 1.53 1.59 1.57 1.52 1.64
Number of 1 25 2 2 3 0 4 2 3 11 2 4
Number of 2 17 5 4 1 10 7 3 5 16 2 5
Number of 3 6 1 6 1 5 7 4 5 10 1 6
Number of 4 4 7 6 5 12 11 10 14 12 9 11
Number of 5 6 11 14 4 11 15 19 17 11 9 15
Number of 6 3 20 20 14 19 15 13 12 3 19 18
Number of 7 2 18 12 36 7 5 13 8 1 22 5
n=64
Table 84 Comparison: Honesty on the Internet A1B6 (Source: authors research)
Question B7 B8 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 D1 D2 D3 D4
Median 6 4 6 6 6 5 6 4 5 5 4
Mode 6 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 4
Standard deviation 1.45 1.46 1.69 1.51 1.42 1.53 1.59 1.84 1.72 1.49 1.72
Number of 1 3 6 3 2 2 4 3 8 6 3 7
Number of 2 0 7 5 3 1 0 3 6 5 2 8
Number of 3 4 6 3 6 5 3 1 8 11 5 8
Number of 4 8 23 7 6 6 8 7 11 10 8 16
Number of 5 11 16 12 15 16 18 12 10 15 22 11
Number of 6 28 4 22 24 23 19 23 17 12 16 10
Number of 7 10 2 13 9 12 13 16 4 5 8 4
n=64
Table 85 Comparison: Honesty on the Internet B7D4 (Source: authors research)

A35
A-4.3 honesty in the internet correlation matrix questionnaire
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B1 B2 B3
A1 1 +,281
*
+,298
*
-,090 +,355
**
-,084 -,093 -,017
A2 +,281
*
1 +,647
**
+,369
**
+,449
**
+,239 +,109 +,345
**

A3 +,298
*
+,647
**
1 +,301
*
+,485
**
+,287
*
+,150 +,214
A4 -,090 +,369
**
+,301
*
1 +,272
*
+,289
*
+,439
**
+,428
**

A5 +,355
**
+,449
**
+,485
**
+,272
*
1 +,099 +,040 ,136
B1 -,084 +,239 +,287
*
+,289
*
+,099 1 +,404
**
+,326
**

B2 -,093 +,109 +,150 +,439
**
+,040 +,404
**
1 +,567
**

B3 -,017 +,345
**
+,214 +,428
**
+,136 +,326
**
+,567
**
1
B4 ,076 +,193 +,193 -,076 +,235 +,292
*
-,017 ,089
B5 -,325
**
+,187 +,253
*
+,443
**
+,131 +,319
*
+,368
**
+,392
**

B6 -,003 +,256
*
+,276
*
+,217 +,103 +,347
**
+,291
*
+,423
**

B7 +,041 +,235 +,391
**
+,328
**
+,209 +,268
*
+,436
**
+,564
**

B8 +,074 +,366
**
+,423
**
+,209 +,365
**
+,385
**
+,346
**
+,202
C1 +,031 +,214 +,201 +,285
*
+,244 +,431
**
+,388
**
+,483
**

C2 -,151 +,058 +,139 +,355
**
-,010 +,316
*
+,487
**
+,598
**

C3 -,014 +,190 +,191 +,303
*
+,122 +,348
**
+,461
**
+,684
**

C4 -,086 +,177 +,165 +,318
*
+,018 +,377
**
+,417
**
+,622
**

C5 +,018 +,310
*
+,306
*
+,468
**
+,301
*
+,378
**
+,493
**
+,657
**

D1 -,035 +,253
*
+,232 +,226 +,131 +,630
**
+,263
*
+,317
*

D2 +,063 +,258
*
+,252
*
+,345
**
+,156 +,594
**
+,327
**
+,515
**

D3 -,077 +,132 +,198 +,206 +,018 +,336
**
+,166 +,313
*

D4 +,217 +,259
*
+,221 +,338
**
+,150 +,443
**
+,345
**
+,366
**

n=64; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 86 Correlation matrix: Honesty on the Internet A1B3 (Source: authors research)

A36
B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 C1 C2 C3
A1 +,076 -,325
**
-,003 +,041 +,074 +,031 -,151 -,014
A2 +,193 +,187 +,256
*
+,235 +,366
**
+,214 +,058 +,190
A3 +,193 +,253
*
+,276
*
+,391
**
+,423
**
+,201 +,139 +,191
A4 -,076 +,443
**
+,217 +,328
**
+,209 +,285
*
+,355
**
+,303
*

A5 +,235 +,131 +,103 +,209 +,365
**
+,244 -,010 +,122
B1 +,292
*
+,319
*
+,347
**
+,268
*
+,385
**
+,431
**
+,316
*
+,348
**

B2 -,017 +,368
**
+,291
*
+,436
**
+,346
**
+,388
**
+,487
**
+,461
**

B3 +,089 +,392
**
+,423
**
+,564
**
+,202 +,483
**
+,598
**
+,684
**

B4 1 +,122 +,253
*
+,180 +,389
**
+,157 +,028 +,202
B5 +,122 1 +,443
**
+,613
**
+,371
**
+,353
**
+,404
**
+,424
**

B6 +,253
*
+,443
**
1 +,556
**
+,325
**
+,406
**
+,445
**
+,467
**

B7 +,180 +,613
**
+,556
**
1 +,484
**
+,404
**
+,499
**
+,541
**

B8 +,389
**
+,371
**
+,325
**
+,484
**
1 +,377
**
+,274
*
+,376
**

C1 +,157 +,353
**
+,406
**
+,404
**
+,377
**
1 +,540
**
+,599
**

C2 +,028 +,404
**
+,445
**
+,499
**
+,274
*
+,540
**
1 +,706
**

C3 +,202 +,424
**
+,467
**
+,541
**
+,376
**
+,599
**
+,706
**
1
C4 +,184 +,428
**
+,478
**
+,560
**
+,348
**
+,552
**
+,642
**
+,858
**

C5 +,193 +,411
**
+,436
**
+,572
**
+,403
**
+,598
**
+,572
**
+,789
**

D1 +,235 +,280
*
+,363
**
+,255
*
+,259
*
+,373
**
+,272
*
+,405
**

D2 +,312
*
+,210 +,283
*
+,316
*
+,210 +,348
**
+,337
**
+,458
**

D3 +,138 +,459
**
+,285
*
+,481
**
+,133 +,299
*
+,226 +,331
**

D4 +,123 +,216 +,334
**
+,405
**
+,284
*
+,407
**
+,315
*
+,396
**

n=64; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 87 Correlation matrix: Honesty on the Internet B4C3 (Source: authors research)

A37
C4 C5 D1 D2 D3 D4
A1 -,086 +,018 -,035 +,063 -,077 +,217
A2 +,177 +,310
*
+,253
*
+,258
*
+,132 +,259
*

A3 +,165 +,306
*
+,232 +,252
*
+,198 +,221
A4 +,318
*
+,468
**
+,226 +,345
**
+,206 +,338
**

A5 +,018 +,301
*
+,131 +,156 +,018 +,150
B1 +,377
**
+,378
**
+,630
**
+,594
**
+,336
**
+,443
**

B2 +,417
**
+,493
**
+,263
*
+,327
**
+,166 +,345
**

B3 +,622
**
+,657
**
+,317
*
+,515
**
+,313
*
+,366
**

B4 +,184 +,193 +,235 +,312
*
+,138 +,123
B5 +,428
**
+,411
**
+,280
*
+,210 +,459
**
+,216
B6 +,478
**
+,436
**
+,363
**
+,283
*
+,285
*
+,334
**

B7 +,560
**
+,572
**
+,255
*
+,316
*
+,481
**
+,405
**

B8 +,348
**
+,403
**
+,259
*
+,210 +,133 +,284
*

C1 +,552
**
+,598
**
+,373
**
+,348
**
+,299
*
+,407
**

C2 +,642
**
+,572
**
+,272
*
+,337
**
+,226 +,315
*

C3 +,858
**
+,789
**
+,405
**
+,458
**
+,331
**
+,396
**

C4 1 +,747
**
+,383
**
+,316
*
+,247
*
+,396
**

C5 +,747
**
1 +,331
**
+,428
**
+,281
*
+,439
**

D1 +,383
**
+,331
**
1 +,619
**
+,365
**
+,491
**

D2 +,316
*
+,428
**
+,619
**
1 +,451
**
+,524
**

D3 +,247
*
+,281
*
+,365
**
+,451
**
1 +,481
**

D4 +,396
**
+,439
**
+,491
**
+,524
**
+,481
**
1
n=64; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 88 Correlation matrix: Honesty on the Internet C4-D4 (Source: authors research)

A38
A-4.4 results association questionnaire
A-4.4.1 which three of the electronic devices in your possession are most important
for your status/self-realisation:
Named term Amount Percentage
Mobile 36 51.4%
Laptop 22 31.4%
TV 17 24.3%
Car 13 18.6%
Notebook 12 17.1%
Computer 11 15.7%
Smartphone 8 11.4%
iPhone 7 10.0%
PC 7 10.0%
Washing machine 6 8.6%
iPod 5 7.1%
Herd 4 5.7%
Refrigerator 4 5.7%
Television 3 4.3%
Camera 3 4.3%
Mp3Player 3 4.3%
Telly 3 4.3%
iPad 2 2.9%
Coffee machine 2 2.9%
Radio 2 2.9%
Reflex camera 2 2.9%
Vacuum cleaner 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 89 Association result: Electronic devices in your possession (Source: authors research)

A39
A-4.4.2 which three items/properties (non-electronic) are most important for your
status/self-realisation:
Named term Amount Percentage
Clothes 20 28.6%
Books 14 20.0%
Car 10 14.3%
Clock 8 11.4%
Bed 7 10.0%
Furniture 3 4.3%
Horse 3 4.3%
Jewelry 3 4.3%
Couch 3 4.3%
Bath tub 2 2.9%
Fair-mindedness 2 2.9%
Bicycle 2 2.9%
Money 2 2.9%
Hairbrush 2 2.9%
Cat 2 2.9%
Glad rags 2 2.9%
Shoes 2 2.9%
Sport 2 2.9%
Bags 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 90 Association result: Non-electronic devices/items in your possession (Source: authors research)

A40
A-4.4.3 which three goods or services that meet your standard of living would you
like to buy:
Named term Amount Percentage
Car 16 22.9%
Clothes 6 8.6%
House 4 5.7%
MacBook 4 5.7%
Mobile 3 4.3%
Island 3 4.3%
iPad 3 4.3%
iPhone 3 4.3%
Laptop 3 4.3%
Netbook 3 4.3%
Journey 3 4.3%
Couch 3 4.3%
Walk-in cupboard 2 2.9%
Boat 2 2.9%
TV 2 2.9%
iPad2 2 2.9%
Motorcycle 2 2.9%
Stereo 2 2.9%
Record player 2 2.9%
Brand watch 2 2.9%
Trip 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 91 Association result: Goods or services you would like to purchase (Source: authors research)

A41
A-4.4.4 name three shopping opportunities which you have already used to buy
furniture:
Named term Amount Percentage
Ikea 42 60.0%
Mbel Heinrich 16 22.9%
Furniture shop 12 17.1%
Internet 9 12.9%
Porta 6 8.6%
Hardware store 5 7.1%
Mbel Boss 5 7.1%
eBay 4 5.7%
Flea market 4 5.7%
Mbel Hesse 4 5.7%
Furniture store 4 5.7%
As a gift 3 4.3%
Poco 3 4.3%
Made by a carpenter 3 4.3%
Amazon 2 2.9%
Dnisches Bettenlager 2 2.9%
Specialised trade 2 2.9%
Specialty store 2 2.9%
Friends 2 2.9%
Hammer 2 2.9%
Department store 2 2.9%
Online 2 2.9%
Otto 2 2.9%
2nd hand 2 2.9%
Roller 2 2.9%
Tospann 2 2.9%
Assumed 2 2.9%
Relatives 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 92 Association result: Shopping opportunities for furniture (Source: authors research)

A42
A-4.4.5 how would you characterise your apartment with maximum five words:
Named term Amount Percentage
Comfortable 32 45.7%
Modest 12 17.1%
Modern 11 15.7%
Daring 8 11.4%
Practical 6 8.6%
Neat 5 7.1%
Pretty 5 7.1%
Messy 5 7.1%
Spacious 4 5.7%
Big 4 5.7%
Clean 4 5.7%
Tidy 3 4.3%
Chaotic 3 4.3%
Colourful 3 4.3%
Open 3 4.3%
Calm 3 4.3%
Cosy 3 4.3%
Ordered 2 2.9%
Elegant 2 2.9%
Cheap 2 2.9%
Cute 2 2.9%
Organized 2 2.9%
Simple 2 2.9%
Meaningful 2 2.9%
Not tidy 2 2.9%
Warm 2 2.9%
Flat share 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 93 Association result: Characterise your apartment (Source: authors research)

A43
A-4.4.6 name three of your favourite leisure activities:
Named term Amount Percentage
Friends 19 27.1%
Reading 15 21.4%
Sport 13 18.6%
Football 10 14.3%
Dancing 7 10.0%
Fitness 5 7.1%
Running 5 7.1%
Music 5 7.1%
Sleeping 5 7.1%
Tennis 5 7.1%
Watching TV 4 5.7%
Equestrian 4 5.7%
Swimming 4 5.7%
Shopping 4 5.7%
Racewalking 4 5.7%
Fishing 3 4.3%
Chilling 3 4.3%
Bicycle 3 4.3%
Party 3 4.3%
Photography 3 4.3%
Handball 3 4.3%
Internet 3 4.3%
Running 3 4.3%
Chinema 3 4.3%
Motorbike 3 4.3%
Traveling 3 4.3%
Sex 3 4.3%
Volleyball 3 4.3%
Relaxing 2 2.9%
Handicraft work 2 2.9%
Eating 2 2.9%
Family 2 2.9%
Movies 2 2.9%
A special Friend 2 2.9%
Walking 2 2.9%
GeoCaching 2 2.9%
Golf 2 2.9%
My dog 2 2.9%
Drinking coffee 2 2.9%
Playing piano 2 2.9%
Cooking 2 2.9%
Listening to music 2 2.9%
Playing 2 2.9%
Table tennis 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 94 Association result: Favourite leisure activities (Source: authors research)

A44
A-4.4.7 name three of your favourite singers/musicians:
Named term Amount Percentage
Adelee 5 7.1%
David Guetta 5 7.1%
Seeed 5 7.1%
Taio Cruz 5 7.1%
Bruno Mars 3 4.3%
Die rzte 3 4.3%
Jan Delay 3 4.3%
Rihana 3 4.3%
ACDC 2 2.9%
Beatles 2 2.9%
Depeche Mode 2 2.9%
James Morrison 2 2.9%
Lana Del Ray 2 2.9%
Nickelback 2 2.9%
Paul Kalkbrenner 2 2.9%
Pink 2 2.9%
Pitbull 2 2.9%
Rihanna 2 2.9%
Samy Deluxe 2 2.9%
Sunrise Avenue 2 2.9%
Xavier Naido 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 95 Association result: Favourite singers/musicians (Source: authors research)

A45
A-4.4.8 which three types of books or newspapers do you prefer:
Named term Amount Percentage
Detective stories 15 21.4%
Novel 14 20.0%
Newspaper 10 14.3%
Thriller 10 14.3%
Trade journal 9 12.9%
Fantasy 5 7.1%
Non-fiction book 5 7.1%
Spiegel 5 7.1%
Specialised book 4 5.7%
Comedy 4 5.7%
Stern 4 5.7%
Womens magazine 3 4.3%
Handelsblatt 3 4.3%
Magazine 3 4.3%
Clothing 3 4.3%
Autobild 2 2.9%
Bild 2 2.9%
Books 2 2.9%
BWL 2 2.9%
Cosmopolitan 2 2.9%
Drama 2 2.9%
Focus 2 2.9%
Haz 2 2.9%
Kicker 2 2.9%
Romance 2 2.9%
Neon 2 2.9%
SciFi 2 2.9%
Sport 2 2.9%
Sport magazines 2 2.9%
Sddeutsche 2 2.9%
Business 2 2.9%
Journals 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 96 Association result: Favourite books or newspapers (Source: authors research)

A46
A-4.4.9 name three shopping facilities where you have bought clothing:
Named term Amount Percentage
HM 22 31.4%
Internet 16 22.9%
C&A 6 8.6%
eBay 4 5.7%
Retail shop 4 5.7%
Supermarket 4 5.7%
Esprit 3 4.3%
Speciality store 3 4.3%
As a gift 3 4.3%
Brandshop 3 4.3%
Jack&Jones 3 4.3%
Department store 3 4.3%
New Yorker 3 4.3%
Online 3 4.3%
Onlineshop 3 4.3%
Vero Mode 3 4.3%
Amazon 2 2.9%
Shops 2 2.9%
Karstadt 2 2.9%
Shop 2 2.9%
Otto 2 2.9%
Outlet 2 2.9%
PC 2 2.9%
Private purchase 2 2.9%
Takko 2 2.9%
Tom Tailor 2 2.9%
Orderd from a catalogue 2 2.9%
Zara 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 97 Association result: Shopping facilities to bought clothing (Source: authors research)

A47
A-4.4.10 name three clothing brands with which you identify yourself:
Named term Amount Percentage
HM 9 12.9%
Adidas 6 8.6%
Nike 6 8.6%
S-Oliver 6 8.6%
Esprit 5 7.1%
Jack&Jones 5 7.1%
Vero Mode 5 7.1%
Bench 3 4.3%
Hilfiger 3 4.3%
Hollister 3 4.3%
MarcoPolo 3 4.3%
Boss 2 2.9%
Carhartt 2 2.9%
Diesel 2 2.9%
Gstar 2 2.9%
Jack Wolfskin 2 2.9%
Lacoste 2 2.9%
Marie Lund 2 2.9%
Olymp 2 2.9%
Ralph Lauren 2 2.9%
Roxy 2 2.9%
Tommy Hilfiger 2 2.9%
Vans 2 2.9%
We 2 2.9%
Westbury 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 98 Association result: Clothing brands (Source: authors research)

A48
A-4.4.11 characterise your clothing style in three words:
Named term Amount Percentage
Sporty 22 31.4%
Modern 19 27.1%
Comfortable 6 8.6%
Easy going 6 8.6%
Simple 6 8.6%
Elegant 5 7.1%
Loose 5 7.1%
Convenient 4 5.7%
Classic 4 5.7%
Conservative 4 5.7%
Dress down 4 5.7%
Dressy 4 5.7%
Inconspicuous 3 4.3%
Colorful 2 2.9%
Casual 2 2.9%
Chic 2 2.9%
Individual 2 2.9%
Practical 2 2.9%
Serious 2 2.9%
Bourgeois 2 2.9%
Style 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 99 Association result: Characterize your clothing style (Source: authors research)

A49
A-4.4.12 which three types of tv programmes do you prefer:
Named term Amount Percentage
Comedy 19 27.1%
Documentry 17 24.3%
News 16 22.9%
Movies 9 12.9%
Detective stories 9 12.9%
Series 8 11.4%
Action 7 10.0%
Sport 7 10.0%
Two and a half Men 6 8.6%
Comedy movies 4 5.7%
Reports 4 5.7%
Cooking show 3 4.3%
Soap 3 4.3%
Casting 2 2.9%
Daily Soaps 2 2.9%
How I meet your mother 2 2.9%
Infotainment 2 2.9%
Late Night 2 2.9%
Lifestyle 2 2.9%
Lindenstrae 2 2.9%
Quiz 2 2.9%
Reality 2 2.9%
RTL 2 2.9%
Sat.1 2 2.9%
Simpsons 2 2.9%
Tagesschau 2 2.9%
Tatort 2 2.9%
Science 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 100 Association result: TV programms (Source: authors research)

A50
A-4.4.13 which three types (genres) of films do you prefer:
Named term Amount Percentage
Action 31 44.3%
Funny movies 30 42.9%
Thriller 15 21.4%
Detective stories 13 18.6%
US-Comedy 8 11.4%
Drama 8 11.4%
Horror 8 11.4%
Romantic 6 8.6%
Documentation 5 7.1%
Fantasy 4 5.7%
Romantic comedy 3 4.3%
Sci-Fi 3 4.3%
History 2 2.9%
Historian movies 2 2.9%
Comedy 2 2.9%
Psychological thriller 2 2.9%
Dancing movies 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 101 Association result: Film genres (Source: authors research)
A-4.4.14 which three films are most well-known among your acquaintances:
Named term Amount Percentage
Harry Potter 18 25.7%
Lord of the rings 10 14.3%
Twilight 9 12.9%
Titanic 7 10.0%
Hangover 6 8.6%
Pirates of the Caribbean 5 7.1%
Pulp Fiction 5 7.1%
Avatar 3 4.3%
Lion King 3 4.3%
Mission Impossible 3 4.3%
300 2 2.9%
Bud Spencer 2 2.9%
Feuerzangenbowle 2 2.9%
Fight Club 2 2.9%
Hangover 1+2 2 2.9%
Inception 2 2.9%
James Bond 2 2.9%
Keinohrhasen 2 2.9%
Lambock 2 2.9%
Rocky 2 2.9%
Saw 2 2.9%
Simpsons 2 2.9%
Terence Hill 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 102 Association result: Films most well-known among acquaintances (Source: authors research)

A51
A-4.4.15 which three Internet social media do you use most often:
Named term Amount Percentage
Facebook 54 77.1%
Email 20 28.6%
ICQ 19 27.1%
Skype 8 11.4%
YouTube 8 11.4%
Foren 5 7.1%
Twitter 5 7.1%
StudiVZ 4 5.7%
Google 3 4.3%
WhatsApp 3 4.3%
Xing 3 4.3%
Gmx 2 2.9%
Ilias 2 2.9%
MeinVz 2 2.9%
Web 2 2.9%
Web.de 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 103 Association result: Used social media (Source: authors research)

A52
A-4.4.16 name three of your favourite foods:
Named term Amount Percentage
Pizza 28 40.0%
Noodles 17 24.3%
Steak 9 12.9%
Fish 7 10.0%
Salad 7 10.0%
Spaghetti 7 10.0%
Vegetables 5 7.1%
Roast 4 5.7%
Hotpot 4 5.7%
Lasagna 4 5.7%
Fries 4 5.7%
Souffl 3 4.3%
Curried sausage 3 4.3%
Duck 3 4.3%
Meat 3 4.3%
Dairy products 3 4.3%
Escalope 3 4.3%
Burger 2 2.9%
Doner 2 2.9%
Prawn 2 2.9%
Gyro 2 2.9%
Italian 2 2.9%
Potato salad 2 2.9%
Dumpling 2 2.9%
Stuffed cabbage 2 2.9%
Salmon 2 2.9%
Pasta 2 2.9%
Pancake 2 2.9%
Rice 2 2.9%
Chocolate 2 2.9%
Vegan 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 104 Association result: Prefered food (Source: authors research)

A53
A-4.4.17 which tree types of food do you prefer to eat at home:
Named term Amount Percentage
German 14 20.0%
Italian 14 20.0%
Pizza 13 18.6%
Chinese 11 15.7%
Noodles 10 14.3%
Steak 6 8.6%
Plain fare 5 7.1%
Salad 5 7.1%
Escalope 4 5.7%
Souffl 3 4.3%
Civic 3 4.3%
Noodle souffl 3 4.3%
Soups 3 4.3%
Asian 2 2.9%
Fish 2 2.9%
Meat 2 2.9%
Vegetables 2 2.9%
Chicken 2 2.9%
Indian 2 2.9%
Lasagna 2 2.9%
Mediterranean 2 2.9%
Mexican 2 2.9%
Cereal 2 2.9%
Soup 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 105 Association result: Prefered food at home (Source: authors research)

A54
A-4.4.18 which tree types of food do you prefer to eat at a restaurant/as a snack:
Named term Amount Percentage
Italian 23 32.9%
Pizza 17 24.3%
Chinese 16 22.9%
Steak 14 20.0%
Greek 13 18.6%
German 7 10.0%
Fish 7 10.0%
Curried sausage 5 7.1%
Mexican 5 7.1%
Burger 4 5.7%
Doner 4 5.7%
Indian 4 5.7%
Noodles 4 5.7%
Escalope 4 5.7%
Fast Food 3 4.3%
Meat 3 4.3%
Fries 3 4.3%
Salad 3 4.3%
Asian 2 2.9%
Civic 2 2.9%
Gyro 2 2.9%
Plain fare 2 2.9%
Spanish 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 106 Association result: Prefered food at restaurant/as a snack (Source: authors research)

A55
A-4.4.19 which three classical music pieces come to your mind first:
Named term Amount Percentage
Fr Elise 17 24.3%
KleineNachtmusik 9 12.9%
9Symphonie 8 11.4%
Zauberflte 7 10.0%
VierJahreszeiten 4 5.7%
Beethovens5 3 4.3%
FreudeschnerGtterfunken 3 4.3%
Mondscheinsonate 3 4.3%
Mozart 3 4.3%
1812Overtre 2 2.9%
Bach 2 2.9%
Beethovens9 2 2.9%
Bolero 2 2.9%
Carmen 2 2.9%
Die kleineNachtmusik 2 2.9%
Die Moldau 2 2.9%
Die Zauberflte 2 2.9%
Ritt der Walkren 2 2.9%
River Flows in me 2 2.9%
Schwannsee 2 2.9%
Symphonien 2 2.9%
Walkre 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 107 Association result: Classical music (Source: authors research)
A-4.4.20 name three artists/painters you like or who come to your mind first:
Named term Amount Percentage
Picasso 26 37.1%
Van Gogh 20 28.6%
Da Vinci 11 15.7%
Dali 7 10.0%
Hundertwasser 7 10.0%
Monet 5 7.1%
Andy Warhol 4 5.7%
Rembrandt 4 5.7%
Otto Dix 3 4.3%
Kadinsky 2 2.9%
Michelangelo 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 108 Association result: Artists and painters (Source: authors research)

A56
A-4.4.21 which three compositions are most well-known among your acquaintances:
Named term Amount Percentage
Danza Kuduro 5 7.1%
Welcome to St. Tropez 4 5.7%
Disco Pogo 3 4.3%
Nationalhymne 3 4.3%
Pokerface 3 4.3%
Taio Cruz 3 4.3%
Eye of the Tiger 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 109 Association result: Well known music (Source: authors research)
A-4.4.22 please name three ways how you received music:
Named term Amount Percentage
CD 32 45.7%
Download 20 28.6%
From several Friends 12 17.1%
As a gift 12 17.1%
Internet 12 17.1%
Via a purchase 11 15.7%
Purchase 9 12.9%
YouTube 9 12.9%
iTunes 5 7.1%
MP3 3 4.3%
Amazon 2 2.9%
Friend 2 2.9%
Illegal 2 2.9%
Copy 2 2.9%
Loading 2 2.9%
Radio 2 2.9%
Exchange 2 2.9%
USB 2 2.9%
n=70; multiple answers possible
Table 110 Association result: Ways of obtaining music (Source: authors research)
A-4.5 results iss2012
A4.5.1 distribution population iss2012
Population Frequency Percentage Cumulative percentage
under 2,000 142 8.8 8.8
2,000 to 19,999 302 18.8 27.6
20,000 to 49,999 178 11.1 38.7
50,000 to 99,999 196 12.2 50.9
100.000 to 199.999 198 12.3 63.2
200,000 to 499,999 246 15.3 78.5
more than 500,000 345 21.5 100.0
Total 1,607 100.0
n=1,607
Table 111 Distribution: Population ISS2012 (Source: authors research)

A57
A4.5.2 distribution participants/place of residence
Place of residence Frequency Percentage Cumulative
percentage
Flatshare 252 15.7 15.7
Rented flat 794 49.4 65.1
Tenement 71 4.4 69.5
Owner-occupied flat 72 4.5 74.0
House 418 26.0 100.0
Total 1,607 100.0
n=1,607
Table 112 Distribution: Participants/place of residence (Source: authors research)
A4.5.3 scatterplots sh1 ground population
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Figure 14 Scatterplots: SH1aSH1c GP (Source: authors research)

A58
A4.5.4 distribution participants/place of residence
Cluster Participants
1 18
2 82
3 6
4 133
5 200
6 10
7 47
8 203
9 455
10 93
11 25
12 355
n=1,607
Table 113 Overview: Participants Clusteranalysis (Source: authors research)
Cluster 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 84.426 63.190 54.160 73.411 30.648
2 84.426 67.905 53.925 25.035 69.131
3 63.190 67.905 83.116 76.663 34.943
4 54.160 53.925 83.116 31.447 61.210
5 73.411 25.035 76.663 31.447 67.252
6 30.648 69.131 34.943 61.210 67.252
7 44.845 45.011 62.397 22.539 30.147 43.185
8 72.306 56.984 95.041 25.339 35.579 78.287
9 69.642 53.314 94.294 15.933 28.976 75.437
10 73.446 44.420 85.600 29.851 26.244 73.691
11 81.995 33.338 75.838 48.358 29.524 73.805
12 70.201 39.731 85.365 20.197 15.051 70.384
Table 114 Overiew: Cluster distance 1 (Source: authors research)

Cluster 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 44.845 72.306 69.642 73.446 81.995 70.201
2 45.011 56.984 53.314 44.420 33.338 39.731
3 62.397 95.041 94.294 85.600 75.838 85.365
4 22.539 25.339 15.933 29.851 48.358 20.197
5 30.147 35.579 28.976 26.244 29.524 15.051
6 43.185 78.287 75.437 73.691 73.805 70.384
7 40.536 34.792 36.687 43.794 29.387
8 40.536 19.339 15.585 39.898 25.212
9 34.792 19.339 25.939 46.827 14.210
10 36.687 15.585 25.939 24.790 22.550
11 43.794 39.898 46.827 24.790 37.113
12 29.387 25.212 14.210 22.550 37.113
Table 115 Overiew: Cluster distance 2 (Source: authors research)
A59
A4.5.5 scatterplots sh1 digital vanguard
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Figure 15 Scatterplots: SH1aSH1c DV (Source: authors research)
A4.5.6 srcc parents/grandparents digital vanguard
Degree
mother
Degree
father
Occupation
father
Degree
grandfather
Occupation
grandfather
Degree mother 1.000 +.574
**
+.065 +.594
**
-.009
Degree father +.574
**
1.000 +.109 +.594
**
+.070
Occupation father +.065 +.109 1.000 +.094 +.476
**

Degree grandfather +.594
**
+.594
**
+.094 1.000 +.171*
Occupation grandfather -.009 +.070 +.476
**
+.171* 1.000
n=152; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 116 Correlation matrix: SRCC Parents/Grandparents DV (Source: authors research)
A4.5.7 pcc financial services significant for the digital vanguard
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Shares (1) 1.000 +.251
**
+.322
**
+.293
**

Occupational disability (2) +.251
**
1.000 +.425
**
+.359
**

Investment funds (3) +.322
**
+.425
**
1.000 +.249
**

Private pension insurance (4) +.293
**
+.359
**
+.249
**
1.000
n=152; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 117 Correlation matrix: PCC financial services significant for the DV (Source: authors research)
A60
A4.5.8 scatterplots sh1 responsibility-drifen individuals
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Figure 16 Scatterplots: SH1aSH1c RI (Source: authors research)
A4.5.9 srcc parents/grandparents responsibility-driven individuals
Degree
mother
Degree
father
Occupation
father
Degree
grandfather
Occupation
grandfather
Degree mother 1.000 +.610
**
+.170 +.629
**
+.059
Degree father +.610
**
1.000 +.180
*
+.651
**
+.134
Occupation father +.170 +.180
*
1.000 +.113 +.325
**

Degree grandfather +.629
**
+.651
**
+.113 1.000 +.227
*

Occupation grandfather +.059 +.134 +.325
**
+.227
*
1.000
n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 118 Correlation matrix: SRCC Parents/Grandparents RI (Source: authors research)
A4.5.10 pcc financial services significant for the responsibility-driven individuals
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Occupational disability (1) 1.000 +.346
**
+.367
**
+.297
**
+.343
**

Occupational pension (2) +.346
**
1.000 +.165
**
+.147
**
+.262
**

Investment funds (3) +.367
**
+.165
**
1.000 +.268
**
+.344
**

Life insurance (4) +.297
**
+.147
**
+.268
**
1.000 +.370
**

Private pension insurance (5) +.343
**
+.262
**
+.344
**
+.370
**
1.000
n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 119 Correlation matrix: PCC financial services significant for the RI (Source: authors research)
A61
A4.5.11 comparison of the median and mode of the general population, digital
vanguard and responsibility-driven individuals for social network functions
Median Mode
GP DV RI GP DV RI
Customise security settings 3 3 3 5 3 3
Express approval 4 4 4 4 5 4
Maintain personal information 2 3 3 2 3 2
Plan events 2 2 2 1 2 1
Play games 1 1 1 1 1 1
Post comments 3 4 3 3 4 3
Post status messages 3 3 3 2 3 2
Share content publicly 2 2 2 1 1 1
Share content with specific people 3 2 3 2 1 2
Share videos 2 3 2 1 3 1
Share websites 2 3 2 1 2 1
Tagging friends in messages 2 2 2 1 2 1
Tagging friends in pictures 2 2 2 1 2 1
Upload videos 1 1 1 1 1 1
Uploading images 2 3 2 2 3 2
Use events 3 4 3 3 4 3
Using applications 2 2 2 1 2 1
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 120 Comparison: Median and mode of GP, DV and RI for functions (Source: authors research)

A62
A4.5.12 comparison of the median and mode of the general population, digital
vanguard and responsibility-driven individuals for motivating factors
Median Mode
GP DV RI GP DV RI
Birthday reminders 3 3 3 3 4 3
Chatting 3 4 3 4 4 3
Creating content 2 3 2 2 3 2
Discus politics 1 2 2 1 2 1
Discuss daily events 2 3 2 1 2 1
Discuss TV 1 2 1 1 1 1
Discussing events 2 3 2 1 2 1
Establish contacts 3 3 3 3 3 3
Exchanging opinions 3 3 3 3 3 3
Job search 1 1 1 1 1 1
Looking for friends 2 2 2 1 2 2
Making comments 3 4 3 3 4 3
Receiving information 4 4 4 4 4 4
Releasing emotions 2 2 2 1 2 1
Searching for business partners 1 1 1 1 1 1
Searching for information 3 4 3 3 4 3
Share your location 1 2 1 1 1 1
Sharing content 2 3 2 1 3 1
Stay in touch with acquaintances 4 4 4 5 5 4
Staying in touch with friends 4 5 4 5 5 5
Other 1 1 1 1 1 1
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 121 Comparison: Median and mode of GP, DV and RI for motivating factors (Source: authors research)

A63
A4.5.13 comparison of the median and mode of the general population, digital
vanguard and responsibility-driven individuals for motivating factors
Median Mode
GP DV RI GP DV RI
Banking operations 3 4 4 1 4 4
Blogs 1 2 2 1 1 1
Chat 3 3 2.5 5 5 2
Data exchange 3 3 3 3 3 3
Dating 1 1 1 1 1 1
Dictionaries and encyclopaedias 3 4 3 3 4 3
E-mail 5 5 5 5 5 5
Forums 3 3 3 2 2 3
Listening to music 3 4 3 5 5 4
Online portals 3 3 3 3 3 3
Search engines 5 5 5 5 5 5
Shopping 3 4 4 3 4 4
Social networks 5 5 4 5 5 5
Telephony services 2 2 1 1 1 1
TV programmes 2 3 2 1 2 1
Videos 3 4 3 3 4 3
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 122 Comparison: Median and mode of GP, DV and RI Internet applications (Source: authors research)
A4.5.14 comparison of the median and mode of the general population, digital
vanguard and responsibility-driven individuals for motivating factors for
personality preferences
Median Mode
GP DV RI GP DV RI
Artistic 2 3 2 2 2 2
Cheerful 4 4 4 4 4 4
Conscientious 4 3 3 4 3 3
Even-tempered 4 4 4 4 3 4
Funny 4 4 4 4 5 4
Open 4 4 4 4 5 4
Optimistic 4 4 4 4 4 4
Outgoing 3 4 4 3 4 4
Refined and cultivated 3 3 3 3 3 3
Seeking relish 3 3 3 3 3 3
Sociable 4 4 4 4 4 4
Sophisticated 3 3 3 3 3 3
Vibrant 3 3 3.5 3 3 4
Well-behaved 3 3 4 4 3 4
Other 1 1 1 1 1 1
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128
Table 123 Comparison: Median and mode of GP, DV and RI personality preferences (Source: authors
research)

A64
A4.5.15 detailed results sh1 with sh1Ash1c
SH1: A higher household income has a positive and significant impact on the living
environment of the participant.
SH1a: There is a significant correlation of at least -0.3 between the household income and
the first time of installing an Internet connection in the household.
SH1b: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the household income
and its residential environment.
SH1c: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the household income of
the participant and his educational qualification.
Sub-hypothesis Reference group
Responsibility-driven
Individuals (RI)
General population
(GP)
Digital Vanguard (DV)
Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison
DV GP RI DV RI GP
SH1a
broadband
+.000 -.290
**
-.196
**

SH1a mobile -.114
**
-.227
**
-.213
**

SH1b +.230
**
+.407
**
+.369
**

SH1c +.212
*
+.270
**
+.354
**

SH1 unconfirmed unconfirmed unconfirmed
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = SRCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 124 Comparison: Correlation SH1 with SH1aSH1c (Source: authors research)

A65
A4.5.16 detailed results sh2 with sh2ash2d
SH2: There is a significant and positive correlation between particular media content and
gender.
SH2a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the female participants
and consumption of romantic films.
SH2b: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the male participants and
consumption of action films.
SH2c: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the male participants and
consumption of TV content relating to sports.
SH2d: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the female participants
and consumption of romantic literature.
Sub-hypothesis Reference group
Responsibility-driven
Individuals (RI)
General population
(GP)
Digital Vanguard (DV)
Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison
DV GP RI DV RI GP
SH2a +.549
**
+.458
**
+.381
**

SH2b +.313
**
+.342
**
+.336
**

SH2c +.246
**
+.331
**
+.239
**

SH2d +.452
**
+.387
**
+.345
**

SH2 unconfirmed confirmed unconfirmed
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 125 Comparison: Correlation SH2 with SH2aSH2d (Source: authors research)

A66
A4.5.17 detailed results sh3 with sh3ash3c
SH3: There is a significant correlation between the duration of Internet use during the week
and at the weekend.
SH3a: There is a highly significant correlation of at least +0.5 between the duration of
using broadband Internet during the week and at the weekend.
SH3b: There is a highly significant correlation of at least +0.5 between the duration of
using mobile Internet during the week and at the weekend.
SH3c: There is no correlation of at least +0.3 between the duration of using mobile or
broadband Internet.
Sub-
hypothesis
Reference group
Responsibility-driven
Individuals (RI)
General population
(GP)
Digital Vanguard (DV)
Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison
DV GP RI DV RI GP
+.748
**
+.724
**
+.693
**

SH3a mobile +.782
**
+.745
**
+.693
**

SH3b all +.805
**
+.864
**
+.756
**

SH3b mobile +.735
**
+.776
**
+.756
**

SH3c confirmed confirmed confirmed
SH3 confirmed confirmed confirmed
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = SRCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 126 Comparison: Correlation SH3 with SH3aSH3c (Source: authors research)

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A4.5.18 detailed results sh4 with s4Ash4e
SH4: There is a positive and significant correlation between the duration of using the Internet
on a mobile device and the use of certain functions within social networks.
SH4a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the time spent online
from a mobile device and the intensity of uploading pictures.
SH4b: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the time spent online
from a mobile device and the intensity of tagging friends in pictures.
SH4c: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the time spent online
from a mobile device and the intensity of tagging friends in messages.
SH4d: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the time spent online
from a mobile device and the intensity of using the location function.
SH4e: A significant factor can be defined for the functions of SH4aSH4d.
Sub-
hypothesis
Reference group
Responsibility-driven
Individuals (RI)
General population
(GP)
Digital Vanguard (DV)
Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison
DV GP RI DV RI GP
SH4a week +.120 +.280
**
+.275
**

SH4a weekend +.173 +.256
**
+.186
*

SH4b week +.102 +.232
**
+.150
SH4b
weekend
+.130 +.211
**
+.194
*

SH4c week +.129 +.241
**
+.254
**

SH4c weekend +.163 +.262
**
+.237
**

SH4d week +.211
*
+.347
**
+.249
**

SH4d
weekend
+.307
**
+.346
**
+.220
**

SH4e unconfirmed confirmed confirmed
SH4 unconfirmed unconfirmed unconfirmed
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = SRCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 127 Comparison: Correlation SH4 with SH4aSH4e (Source: authors research)

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A4.5.19 detailed results sh5 with sh5Ash5b
SH5: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using Facebook and the
intensity of using functions in social networks.
SH5a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the core functions of
social networks and Facebook.
SH5b: The functions of social networks allow defining a significant factor for Facebook.
Sub-hypothesis
Reference group
Responsibility-driven
Individuals (RI)
General
population (GP)
Digital
Vanguard (DV)
SH5a confirmed confirmed unconfirmed
SH5b confirmed confirmed confirmed
SH5 confirmed confirmed unconfirmed
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = PCC
Table 128 Comparison: Correlation SH5 with SH5aSH5b (Source: authors research)
A4.5.20 detailed results sh6 with sh6Ash6b
SH6: There is a significant correlation between social networks and the intensity of their use.
SH6a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between social networks.
SH6b: Significant factors consisting of social networks can be defined.
Sub-hypothesis
Reference group
Responsibility-driven
Individuals (RI)
General population
(GP)
Digital Vanguard
(DV)
SH6a confirmed confirmed confirmed
SH6b confirmed (7 factors) confirmed (3 factors) confirmed (4 factors)
SH6 confirmed confirmed confirmed
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = PCC
Table 129 Comparison: Correlation SH6 with SH6aSH6b (Source: authors research)

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A4.5.21 detailed results sh7 with sh7ash7g
SH7: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using business networks,
specific users and the factors motivating them to use business networks.
SH7a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the intensity of using
business networks and the motivation to find business partners and customers.
SH7b: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the intensity of using
business networks and the motivation to search for jobs using social networks.
SH7c: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the motivation to find
business partners and customers and to search for jobs using social networks.
SH7d: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the motivation to find
business partners and customers and to establish contacts within social networks.
SH7e: A significant factor can be defined for the functions of SH7aSH7d.
SH7f: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the intensity of using
business networks and the educational qualification of the user.
SH7g: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between Xing and LinkedIn.
Sub-hypothesis
Reference group
Responsibility-driven
Individuals (RI)
General population
(GP)
Digital Vanguard (DV)
Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison
DV GP RI DV RI GP
SH7a LinkedIn +.499
**
+.372
**
+.287
**

SH7a Xing +.602
**
+.434
**
+.397
**

SH7b LinkedIn +.489
**
+.268
**
+.291
**

SH7b Xing +.428
**
+.305
**
+.268
**

SH7c +.557
**
+.470
**
+.517
**

SH7d +.340
**
+.368
**
+.389
**

SH7e confirmed confirmed confirmed
SH7f LinkedIn +.376** +.324** +.421**
SH7f Xing +.419** +.409** +.473**
SH7g +.654** +.559** +.572**
SH7 confirmed unconfirmed unconfirmed
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; SH7a-SH7d, SH7g = PCC; SH7f = SRCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 130 Comparison: Correlation SH7 with SH7aSH7g (Source: authors research)
RI GP DV
Adjusted R Xing .556 .452 .442
LinkedIn .472 .350 .352
Standard error Xing .866 .803 .889
LinkedIn .709 .600 .795
Sig. Xing .000 .000 .000
LinkedIn .000 .000 .000
Table 131 Comparison: Regressionanalyses GP, DV and RI SH7 (Source: authors research)
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A4.5.22 detailed results sh8
SH8: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the use of security settings
and protection of personal data.
Sub-
hypothesis
Reference group
Responsibility-driven
Individuals (RI)
General population
(GP)
Digital Vanguard (DV)
Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison
DV GP RI DV RI GP
SH8 +.422
**
+.430
**
+.297
**

confirmed confirmed unconfirmed
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 132 Comparison: Correlation SH8 (Source: authors research)
A4.5.23 detailed results sh9 with sh9ash9c
SH9: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using the Internet for political
discussions and the intensity of using communication functions.
SH9a: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the motivation to hold
discussions relating to politics and the intensity to leave comments.
SH9b: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the motivation to hold
political discussions and to exchange opinions.
SH9c: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the motivation to hold
discussions relating to politics and to share web-sites within social networks.
SH9d: A significant factor can be defined for the functions of SH9aSH9c.
Sub-
hypothesis
Reference group
Responsibility-driven
Individuals (RI)
General population
(GP)
Digital Vanguard (DV)
Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison
DV GP RI DV RI GP
SH9a +.309
**
+.294
**
+.185
*

SH9b +.445
**
+.442
**
+.281
**

SH9c +.462
**
+.315
**
+.264
**

SH9d unconfirmed confirmed unconfirmed
SH9 unconfirmed unconfirmed unconfirmed
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 133 Comparison: Correlation SH9 with SH9aSH9c (Source: authors research)

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A4.5.24 detailed results sh10
SH10: There is a significant correlation of at least +0.3 between the users degree of
interest in listening to music as a leisure activity and the intensity of using online services
which offer music.
Sub-
hypothesis
Reference group
Responsibility-driven
Individuals (RI)
General population
(GP)
Digital Vanguard (DV)
Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison Absolute
value
Comparison
DV GP RI DV RI GP
SH10 +.422
**
+.486
**
+.442
**

confirmed confirmed confirmed
GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; = PCC
** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01.
* The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.
Table 134 Comparison: Correlation SH10 (Source: authors research)

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A4.5.25 scatterplot comparison sh1a, sh1b and sh1c
H
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d

I
n
c
o
m
e

RI GP DV
Start broadband Internet
Figure 17 Comparison: Scatterplots SH1a broadband Internet (Source: authors research)
H
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d

I
n
c
o
m
e

RI GP DV
Start of mobile Internet use
Figure 18 Comparison: Scatterplots SH1a mobile Internet (Source: authors research)
H
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d

I
n
c
o
m
e

RI GP DV
Educational qualification
Figure 19 Comparison: Scatterplots SH1b (Source: authors research)
H
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d

I
n
c
o
m
e

RI GP DV
Residential environment
Figure 20 Comparison: Scatterplots SH1c (Source: authors research)


A73
A-5 GLOSSARY
Badges Badges are used to display or highlight special
achievements in the virtual realm. The straight-
forward language of iconography allows people
to communicate their status cross-linguistically.
Basic Orientation Basic orientation refers to individual personality
traits and concerns the ways in which
individuals interact with the environment. The
interaction might be conservative and thoughtful
or progressive and active. Basic orientation also
describes how controlled a persons behaviour is
or if the person is experience-oriented.
Business Pattern In the field of software development, a business
pattern denotes a collection of patterns for a
business application. This application (customer
requirements) can be explained by the use of a
recurring pattern.
Communication The term communication refers to the exchange
between at least one or two objects within a
system. The system can be defined or non-
defined.
Computer-mediated Interaction Computer-mediated interaction describes the
interaction between two or more individuals
performed using a computer.
Cost per Impression The ratio Cost per Impression describes the cost
which arises for displaying advertisements. The
basis for assessment is the unit of 1000 contacts,
which is transparent from the former designation
of this ratio as Cost per Mile. This ratio
describes the cost for 1000 contacts in the
respective medium.
Data transfer Data transfer refers to the amount of data which
lies in the scope of requests from clients and
which is displayed to the visitor. In the business
environment, this term may be used as a
synonym for the number of views of an offer
and calculated in conjunction with transaction
costs necessary for the data transfer.
Dial-Up Dial-up is a manual connection between a
computer and another computer that usually
provides an additional service. The connection
takes place over a telephone line via a modem.
E-Mail Marketing E-mail marketing refers to marketing activities
performed via e-mail. It is also known as
newsletter marketing or simply newsletter.
Invitation Rollout The invitation rollout approach originates from
the provision of new Internet services in the
USA where a special procedure was introduced
to control the process of registration for services
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or products for which a large number of users
can be expected. The procedure requires new
users to register for registration. At the launch
of a new product or service, theses users are
informed of the possibility to register for using
the product a specific link or code. This allows
the producer to control the number of people
using the product. Furthermore, this makes it
possible to control the load that may affect the
performance of the systems.
Keyword Marketing Keyword marketing deals with website and e-
mail content analysis. A programme analyses
the available texts and searches for key words.
Upon finding the key words, the associated
advertisements are displayed. Keywords can
also be compared against a database, making it
is possible to search for related words and
establishing a connection with advertising
material.
Lifeworld Societies consist of people. As part of the
description of a society, these people are
grouped into milieus. Lifeworld describes the
living environment of a specific milieu. It
provides a detailed description of the
preferences characteristic for the particular
milieu, specific behaviour patterns, as well as
views common to its members. The lifeworld
itself is influenced by the preferences of the
people belonging to it, as well as their habitus.
The concept of habitus involves behaviour and
language-related peculiarities. These factors
mostly depend on education and environment.
Multiplicator A multiplicator is a person with a significant
influence on other people or target audiences
within a system. Multiplicators can support
advertising or content communication to
influence the opinion of others.
New media The term new media refers to the carrier media
which offer a direct interactivity. Due to its role
as a transfer medium, the Internet acquires
special significance and becomes important in
everyday life by facilitating communication
through the constant presence of mobile
technology.
Pattern A pattern describes a recurring behaviour or
procedure which can be standardised, thus
corresponding to a recurring model and allowing
to be processed or dissolved by a constant
operation. In software development the term is
defined as the recurrence of a particular
behaviour which can be predicted and
A75
supported.
QR-Codes A type of graphical encoding of information.
Usually associated with an Internet-based
application.
Reach The reach refers to the number of views and the
number of distinct users.
Rollout A rollout describes the process of releasing a
new product in an existing or new market. The
term is mainly used during the presentation of
new online products or services.
Search Engine Marketing Search engine marketing refers to the
organisation of marketing activities related to
search engines, which involves placing
advertismenets in search engines. Similarly as in
keyword marketing, advertisements containing
specific keywords can appear and be displayed.
Social Bookmarking Social bookmarks are bookmarks that can be
shared with other members of an online
community or made public on the Internet.
Search engines can review these bookmarks to
show the charges and added value of an online
publication; thus, the recommended sites are
better displayed in the search results.
Social Interaction Pattern In the area of Patterns and Computer-
mediated Interaction samples, which follow the
specific aim to support social interaction thus
mainly occurring in social networks, are usually
described as social interaction patterns.
Social Media The term social media denotes the
communication between companies and
potential or existing customers that aims to
intensify or establish a closer bond between the
customer and the company.
Social News Sites An Internet service that offers users an
opportunity to review and comment on posts
from external websites. The technology used
here is similar to that of social bookmarking,
however, the content is aimed at topical
discussion topics.
Social Search The search results are supported by information
from social or personal interactions within the
Internet or social networks.
Social Web Internet content that allows sharing information
in an interactive form by enabling a direct
networking with other Internet applications.
Tweet A message consisting of 140 characters that is
sent on the social network Twitter; colloquially
known as a tweet.
VPN Virtual connection channels that can perform
connections by means of an existing software
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network to a central server on the basis of
software encryption.
Web Banner A web banner, also known as banner ad, is a
pre-defined advertising medium delivered via a
network or a website which is usually
standardised in size.
Web Portal Web portals are designed home pages that allow
users to start working in the World Wide Web.