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The Latest Issues and Trends in International Development and Humanitarian Assistance

Developing Networks Kidnapped!

As Community Assets The Worst
Payment for Scenario
Environmental Services
The 2009
DATA Report

Vol. 27, No. 8

Managing Editor/Art Director

Chad Brobst

Copy Editor
Kathy Ward

Advertising & Sales
Michael Haslett

Communications Department
Nasserie Carew, Public Relations
Tawana Jacobs, Public Relations
Tony Fleming, New Media 21

Leslie Rigby, Writer/Editor
Chad Brobst, Publications
Michael Haslett, Publications

Margaret Christoph, Admin Associate

Editorial Committee
InterAction Communications Team August 2009 • Vol. 27 • No. 8

1400 16th Street, NW Features The Worst Possible Fifteen and Counting | 29
Suite 210 Scenario | 20 Countries in Latin America and
Washington, DC 20036 Cover Story: What’s the The second article in a the Caribbean have much to do
Tel: 202.667.8227 to meet the 2015 targets of the
Story on Militarization? | 8 continuing series covering a
Lack of U.S. government civilian fictional kidnapping scenario ICPD Programme of Action.
ISSN 1043-8157 capacity hampers efforts to and how an NGO might respond.
create the desired civilian-
Monday Developments is published 11 military balance in the U.S. Payment for
times a year by InterAction, the larg- presence abroad. Environmental
est alliance of U.S.-based international
development and humanitarian non-
Services | 23
governmental organizations. With more The Pentagon as a Changes in market demand
than 170 members operating in every Development Agency | 11 and use of profit incentives are
developing country, InterAction works to The U.S. military’s increasing creating new opportunities to
overcome poverty, exclusion and suffer- role as an aid provider. further human development
ing by advancing social justice and basic
dignity for all. and environmental protection at
Civil-Military Cooperation: the same time.
InterAction welcomes submissions of An Opportunity for
news articles, opinions and announce- Liberating Nonprofits | 25
ments. Article submission does not guar- Women? | 13
antee inclusion in Monday Developments. Recent developments present A conversation with Dan Pallotta.
We reserve the right to reject submis- possibilities to improve
sions for any reason. It is at the discretion participation by women. The G8’s Annual
of our editorial team as to which articles
are published in individual issues.
Report Card | 27
Quantum Blur | 15 ONE’s 2009 DATA Report reveals
All statements in articles are the sole Bringing clarity to civil-military some donors keeping promises,
opinion and responsibility of the authors. relationships in a ‘3D’ world. others facing credibility crisis.
Articles may be reprinted with prior per-
mission and attribution. Letters to the
editor are encouraged.
Building the Bridge | 17
A conversation starter for formal
information sharing between
15 Inside This Issue | 3
Letters to the Editor | 4
A limited number of subscriptions are and among NGOs and the U.S. Step By Step Advocacy | 5
made available to InterAction member government.
agencies as part of their dues. Individual Inside Our Community | 6
subscriptions cost $80 a year (add $15
for airmail delivery outside the U.S.) Heard with One Voice | 19 Inside InterAction | 7
Samples are $5, including postage. Developing networks as
Additional discounts are available for community assets. Events | 31
bulk orders. Please allow 4-6 weeks for
delivery. Advertising rates are available Employment
on request. Opportunities | 32
INSIDE This Issue

Civil-Military Relations:
NGOs Must Shape the Debate
n recent years, debate has intensified about
the use of the U.S. military to perform humanitarian and
development roles that have historically been the respon-
sibility of civilian agencies of the government and NGOs.
While many recognize the military’s unique capabilities to
support relief efforts, the rapidly expanding involvement of
the armed forces in long-term development and reconstruc-
tion strategies, combined with the growing proportion of aid
funding now channeled through the Department of Defense,
has heightened the U.S. NGO community’s concern about
the militarization of U.S. foreign assistance.
Tension over this blurring of boundaries is felt not only
where U.S. troops are carrying out military and humanitarian
missions simultaneously but also where they have no pres-
ence or direct involvement in development and relief work.
Increasingly, the face of U.S. foreign assistance is projected
and perceived globally as a soldier in helmet and fatigues, U.S. military help to push a truck loaded with
and humanitarian workers everywhere confront firsthand USAID-donated relief commodities for victims
the challenges and risks engendered by the apparent inter- of the Dec. 2004 tsunami in Indonesia.
twining of U.S. military and humanitarian objectives. The
appearance of counterinsurgency language in solicitations NGOs as such. But InterAction members do not rely exclu-
for development programs is of serious concern to the NGO sively on U.S. government dollars; they bring substantial
community—especially against the backdrop of the Obama private resources—almost $6 billion, more than twice what
administration’s delay in appointing a USAID administra- they receive from the U.S. government—and the support of
tor in time to contribute to key interagency debates that will a broad constituency of Americans. Military personnel are
shape future U.S. engagement with the world, especially its also often unaware that much of NGOs’ work is carried out
most poor and those whose lives are shaped by conflict. by local staff, who play a vital role in designing and delivering
In response to these growing concerns, InterAction has effective development services and in strengthening NGOs’
taken a lead role in facilitating a learning exchange to ability to build trust and help maintain stability. On the flip
broaden military awareness of NGOs’ roles, principles and side, the NGO community has learned through these discus-
expertise and to reaffirm the appropriate parameters of mili- sions that many in the armed forces do not want to take on
tary involvement in the humanitarian arena. As many read- expanded humanitarian and development roles and share
ers know, one product of this dialogue was the publication our community’s belief that NGOs are the best providers of
of the “Guidelines for Relations Between U.S. Armed Forces these services.
and Non-Governmental Humanitarian Organizations in This issue of Monday Developments features a range of
Hostile or Potentially Hostile Environments” in July 2007. articles on civil-military relations, drawing on the experi-
One of the InterAction website’s most popular downloads, ences and perspectives of very diverse groups and offering a
the Guidelines have also been written into military doctrine forum to encourage future discussion and debate. In addi-
as an appendix on how to work with other stakeholders on tion, the issue looks at the use of profit incentives to encour-
the ground—not only NGOs but interagency colleagues as age environmental protection. It also features an update on
well. More recently, the Army has sought the input of the the G8’s financial commitments to Africa, as well as an inves-
NGO community on its Field Manual on Stability Operations, tigation into the use of networks as community assets. MD
reflecting an awareness that it needs a better understanding
of the actors in environments and activities that are wholly
new to the military.
Photo: USAID

This ongoing dialogue can also help the military under- Sam Worthington
stand that NGOs are key stakeholders in their own right. President and CEO
The military is used to working with contractors, and sees InterAction


Letters Send your letters to:

ing in some respects the period following the Reagan years. I

Defining PVO Space in Today’s Environment remember writing in Foreign Policy back in 1988 of the chal-
The May issue of Monday Developments contains lenge to policymakers and agencies at the end of the Cold War:
the text of a letter to President Obama in which more than 90 “To identify the United States once again with humane values.
InterAction member agencies call for the swift appointment Reaffirming the tradition of solidarity with humankind deserves
of a USAID administrator, urge that the new official be given centerpiece status in American thinking about national secu-
a place in the National Security Council and “look forward to rity and in the day-to-day conduct of American foreign policy.”
partnering with your administration as you redefine the way No time should now be lost in implementing new directions,
America engages with the world’s poor.” which in their proposed emphasis on human security and
The fact that American private and voluntary organiza- cooperative problem-solving resonate strongly with the views of
tions are speaking out in support of U.S. foreign aid seems many private agencies and their constituencies.
unexceptional, yet it has not always been thus. When Church Private voluntary organizations (PVOs) today are better posi-
World Service and Lutheran World Relief opened a joint office tioned to influence U.S. policy than in earlier eras. During the
in Washington in 1976, they were, if memory serves, the first second Reagan term, InterAction CEOs examined the extent to
agencies to reach beyond a desire for grants and contracts which, in the words of then President Peter Davies, agencies
to seek to influence broader U.S. policy. A comparison of the “need to match their well-known warm-hearted compassion
legislative agenda of InterAction with its predecessor Ameri- with hard-headed professional and political expertise.” More
can Council of Voluntary Agencies in Foreign Service would recent experience has reinforced PVO awareness of the role
underscore the extent to which private groups have embraced played by political factors in creating human need and shap-
broader advocacy goals, becoming major players in formulat- ing public and private responses, although their traditional
ing U.S. humanitarian, development and human rights policy. reluctance to criticize U.S. policy has not altogether vanished.
American presidents and USAID administrators come and The policy directions needed today, however, are far more
go, bringing with them changes in foreign policy and in relations debatable than the InterAction letter’s expressed desire for
with U.S. nongovernmental groups. However, this historical “partnering” acknowledges. There is no doubt that effective
moment and this transition are especially momentous, recall- programs of humanitarian, reconstruction and development
assistance contribute to a safer and more secure world. Nor
is there any doubt that better coordination of U.S. govern-
ment policies programs will contribute to the more effective
use of available resources.
The debatable issue concerns the place of nongovernmental
SIT Graduate Institute organizations in that mix. Are they extensions of U.S. govern-
ment efforts, independent actors in their own right, or some
International Development combination of the two? Should PVO programs, whether
Programs funded with private or government resources, be integrated
into the tightly orchestrated national security policy which
• Education for Global Social Change Presidential Policy Directive 1 envisions? Can PVOs engaged
Master’s degrees/concentrations in humanitarian work be assured of the necessary space to
Sustainable Development/Development Management implement U.S. government-funded programs of emergency
assistance? How should PVOs relate to State Department-led
Conflict Transformation / Conflict and Development
reconstruction and stabilization programs and to the growing
Management/Development Management
Pentagon role in civil-military affairs?
• NEW: Fall 2009 in the Sultanate of Oman Relationships with a succession of administrations have
had varying degrees of mutuality, but the partnership that
Master of Global Management
emerges is often that of horse and rider. When push comes
focus in Middle Eastern Studies, to shove, U.S. national security goals, defined largely without
International Organizational Development, reference to the human security needs of the world’s poor,
Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation generally prevail. While InterAction staff may continue to be
vigilant in monitoring developments that erode PVO inde-
Scholarships and Financial Aid Available pendence and integrity, agencies should be careful in for-
mulating what they wish for. Rather than a blanket embrace of U.S. policy, greater wariness and selectivity, even with a sympathetically inclined administration, are clearly in order.
The moment is propitious and the issues of critical impor-
tance. I wish InterAction and its members well in their impor-
tant advocacy work.
Larry Minear


Step By Step Advocacy

and groups who represent differing positions and/or deci-
sion-makers. Negotiation entails exchange and compromise,
so it is important to select your negotiating team and enter

Activities: Part 2 negotiations with the understanding that the team will prob-
ably not be able to secure every facet of your goals. The team
will need to compromise on some or even many points. The
By John Ruthrauff following are key points to keep in mind:
Senior Manager of Member Advocacy, InterAction • Before each meeting or formal negotiation session, your
team should hold a “pre-meeting” to review its positions
Note: This is the sixth installment in a series of articles on and priorities for the meeting, and to make sure every-
developing an effective advocacy strategy. The series began one is clear on who will be the leader for the team in the
in the March 2009 edition of Monday Developments, and the meeting and who will address each point you want to
installments to date have examined selecting an issue, defin- raise and each topic likely to come up.
ing your goal and “asks,” conducting a power analysis, build- • Determine your fallback positions and bottom lines for
ing strategic alliances, developing objectives and part one on each point before negotiations begin and make sure
advocacy activities. everyone on the team understands what they are.
• Presentation matters. Make sure

dvocacy consists of a your negotiating team presents
series of planned activities your alliance and themselves in a
that organizations undertake way that maximizes their poten-
to press for policy changes related tial to be effective. Not only should
to a specific issue. The activities are the membership of the team reflect
the steps you use in your advocacy the diversity and strength of your
campaign to influence key actors alliance (including its most power-
who can bring about your desired ful members), they need to pres-
change. They should be based on ent themselves in a way that puts
a power analysis and designed to their best collective foot forward.
attain an objective. Advocacy activi- That includes the way they dress
ties can strengthen allies, increase for meetings, being on time and
pubic awareness of your issue, presenting a disciplined and coordi-
reduce the influence of opponents and/or convince undecided nated face in negotiations.
actors to join your effort. An advocacy campaign does not • Make sure the team has clear instructions and a com-
mean you need to take to the streets in protest or physically mon understanding of its authority. For example, can it
confront anyone; in fact, doing so is often counterproductive agree to a negotiated position on a particular point on
and can literally be dangerous. its own or does it need to bring the best offer back to
When choosing your activities for a particular campaign, an executive committee, board or the membership of the
make sure they take into account the local culture, religious alliance?
practices, social norms and the political and security situa- • Know and understand the people and groups with whom
tions. They should also draw on and reflect the strengths and you will negotiate. It is very important to do this bit of
interests of your alliance members. Last month we explored: homework in advance and to use what you learn about
(1) building relationships; (2) email, phone calls and letter your counterparts to determine your strategy and tac-
writing; and (3) meeting with individuals. Additional exam- tics. Who will represent the other party(ies) in the negoti-
ples of possible advocacy activities include: ations? What can you learn about their bottom lines and
primary concerns related to the issues at hand? What
Social Media other major concerns may they have before them on
As evidenced by Obama’s groundbreaking 2008 presidential other matters that might influence their bargaining posi-
campaign, social media is an invaluable tool for mobilizing a tions and abilities on the issue(s) of interest to you? Why
broad network of supporters. Using social media is a quick and have the groups and individuals they represent agreed to
Photo: Haider Yousuf -

easy way to advertize campaigns, identify potential support- meet with you at this time? What are these people like as
ers, educate existing supporters, build relationships and com- individuals and negotiators?
municate updates. The most popular sites for advocacy cam- • If your team at any point during the negotiations is unsure
paigns are Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, LinkedIn and YouTube. about what to do next or how to respond, the team can
meet privately (caucus) to address those questions. Team
Negotiations members should never argue or disagree with each other
During an advocacy campaign partners in an alliance often during the meetings with the other party(ies).
have the opportunity to undertake negotiations with people continued on page 7


INSIDE Our Community

Honduras: Political Unrest Disrupts Delivery of Aid tension. Scores of demonstrations both in protest and sup-
The recent political unrest in Honduras is causing delays in port of the recent events continue, disrupting travel and
providing valuable humanitarian aid for communities in one encouraging many businesses to remain closed.
of the most disadvantaged regions of the country, reported the
Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA). ADRA
is currently completing the implementation of the Develop- HealthRight International Appoints
ment Assistance Program in Support of Subsistence Farmer Mila Rosenthal as Executive Director
Households, a food security project funded by USAID. The Board of Directors of HealthRight Interna-
“As we near completion of the project, to ensure project sus- tional Inc. (formerly Doctors of the World-USA) recently
tainability, we begin to transfer responsibilities to the benefi- announced the appointment of Mila Rosenthal as the
ciaries, and local governmental authorities,” shared Roberto organization’s next Executive Director.
Brown, country Finance Director for ADRA Honduras. “Unfor- Rosenthal succeeds Tom Dougherty on Sept 8, 2009, as
tunately, due to the current political situation, most of the Dougherty completes his term of nearly seven years. “We
mayors and government offices in our targeted regions are were sorry about Tom’s decision to seek new challenges,
unavailable. It is a real setback in achieving our goals.” but extremely pleased with the great strides we made
Country Director Claudio Sandoval also noted that other under his tenure,” said Steven J. Berger, Chairman of the
logistical challenges included getting aid to targeted regions, Board and Co-Chair of the search committee. “Thanks
due to insecurity, political demonstrations and roadblocks. to Tom and his team, HealthRight has grown in size and
“We are trying not to put our staff and our commodities at impact, with an impressive record of success doing critical
risk, because our trucks cannot pass,” said Sandoval. “It’s work building lasting access to health for excluded com-
not every day that something happens, but it is difficult, munities around the world. We are confident that Mila will
because we don’t know where it’s going to happen, or which help us continue and expand on this success.”
day...this is causing problems for our staff in the region.” Rosenthal brings 17 years of experience in interna-
On June 28, Honduran President Manuel Zelaya was tional affairs and development to HealthRight. She
deposed by the Honduran military, after months of rising is currently a Deputy Executive Director of Amnesty
International USA (AIUSA), responsible for research
and policy. She has directed AIUSA’s advocacy address-
InterAction’s ing global human rights challenges, including oversee-

Online ing an upcoming research report on maternal mortality

in the U.S. and discrimination in access to health care.

Job Board! Report Finds Climate Change a Driver of Migration

Unless aggressive measures are taken to halt global warm-
ing, the consequences for human migration and displacement
could reach a scope and scale that vastly exceed anything
Visit: that has occurred before, according to a report released dur-
ing recent climate change talks in Germany.
Climate change is already contributing to migration and
displacement, the report from CARE, the United Nations
Talk about interacting! University and Columbia University found. All major esti-
To compliment Monday mates project that the trend will rise to tens of millions of
Developments’ popular monthly migrants in coming years. Within the next few decades, the
consequences of climate change for human security efforts
job section, InterAction’s online could be devastating, according to the report, In Search of
job board instantly connects Shelter: Mapping the Effects of Climate Change on Human
you to the latest international Migration and Displacement.
development jobs as they The exact number of people that will be on the move by
become available. Search by midcentury is uncertain. The International Organization for
Migration estimates that there may be 200 million environ-
job sector, level, region and
mentally induced migrants by 2050. ‘’While human migration
country—or post your resume and displacement is usually the result of multiple factors, the
and let the hiring managers influence of climate change in people’s decision to give up
come to you! their livelihoods and leave their homes is growing,’’ said Dr.
Charles Ehrhart, CARE’s climate change coordinator and one
of the report’s authors. MD


INSIDE InterAction

Step By Step Advocacy

InterAction Welcomes New Members continued from page 5
The Board of Directors in its July meeting unanimously
voted for six new member organizations to join InterAction. Media
InterAction welcomes the following new member organiza- Media attention to your issue can often be helpful, so if
tions: this seems to be the case in your situation, it is important
AmericasRelief Team was formed by a collaboration of to consider reaching out to relevant media outlets and mem-
corporations and nonprofit organizations to expedite relief to bers of the press. Sometimes this is easier in small cities
the Caribbean and Latin Amer- and towns than in large cities like New York or Washington,
ica in response to natural disas- D.C.—unless your issue already is or neatly ties into an issue
ters and human crises. Ameri- already on the national press agenda, or unless one or more
casRelief Team focuses on coordinating logistics through members of your alliance have close contacts with a member
guidance, education and state-of-the-art techniques while of the national press corps that your member(s) knows would
planning and implementing effective distribution of humani- be interested and able to take up your issue. In any event,
tarian aid. media coverage brings your issue to the attention of a wider
Development GATEWAY provides web-based platforms audience. Ideally, you obviously would like that attention to
to make aid and development efforts more effective around convert into greater support for the change you seek. But you
the world. It envisions a world cannot control reporting, so there is always a risk that the
in which the digital revolu- coverage you get might not take the track you want or, even
tion serves people every- worse, could come across as more sympathetic to your oppo-
where—creating opportunities sition. The bottom line is to remember that working with the
through increased access to critical information; greater reli- media is complicated and requires careful research, consid-
ance on local capabilities; and more effective, better-coordi- eration and often the involvement of people with particular
nated international aid. experience in such outreach. This is a bigger topic than we
International Center for Not-for-Profit Law (ICNL) pro- can take on in this article, so just keep in mind that you will
motes an enabling legal environ- need to do more research if you want to explore this option.
ment for civil society, freedom of
association and public participa- Research and Publications
tion around the world. ICNL has Having carefully conducted and well-presented research
worked in over 90 countries, col- to back up your positions and ideas is important. This often
laborating with civil society orga- takes the form of reports. But the reports used in conjunction
nizations (CSOs), scholars, government officials and repre- with advocacy campaigns need to follow a couple of rules that
sentatives of the business community. aren’t always part of reporting in more academic environments.
Operation Blessing International (OBI) aims to alleviate Reports used in advocacy campaigns need to be concise and
human need and suffering in the United States and around begin with an executive summary. If you have lots of informa-
the world. As a worldwide tion you really feel you need to include (and which you have
relief organization OBI has carefully vetted line by line), you can attach it in appendices. If
touched the lives of more respected universities, think tanks and experts with respected
than 209.3 million people in more than 105 countries and all reputations are associated with the reports you use (either as
50 U.S. states. Its primary goals are to help break the cycle the authors or as endorsers of the report), it can increase the
of suffering by providing hunger relief, medical aid, disaster credibility of a report. Publishing your research (or summary
relief, clean water, orphan and vulnerable children programs articles related to it) in respected journals can also increase the
and other basic necessities of life that will make a significant, credibility of your findings and help you reach a wider audience.
long-term impact on those in need.
Rural Development Institute (RDI) works to secure Indirect Persuasion
rights for the world’s poorest peo- Sometimes the most effective method for convincing a deci-
ple. RDI partners with developing sion-maker to adopt your position is indirect and behind the
countries to design and imple- scenes. Indirect persuasion can involve informal “off the record”
ment laws, policies and programs meetings or discussions with officials and supporters. Or it can
that provide opportunity, further involve meeting with people whom the decision-maker respects
economic growth and promote social justice. and then letting those individuals carry your message forward
The Solidarity Center’s mission is to to the decision-maker in a more informal manner. This sort of
help build a global labor movement by indirect persuasion is often conducted quietly and may never
strengthening the economic and political be something that can be discussed publicly, but it can, at
power of workers around the world times, be the most effective way to achieve your goals. MD
through effective, independent and dem- Part seven of this series will continue to describe activities and
ocratic unions. MD will appear in the August edition of Monday Developments.



he sprawling, isolated desert town of Nema, 1,100 kilometers

Photo: Jason Seagle

from the Mauritanian capital Nouakchott, has a new, U.S.-funded health
clinic. But the clinic is unused. In fact, it never opened. Fully constructed,
the clinic sits abandoned because people cannot get to it
and because the Ministry of Health cannot support it.
This sounds like the beginning of a story where the good
intentions of donors are for naught because the host
nation lacks the capacity for follow-through. Well, not
exactly. The Ministry of Health can’t support the clinic
because the Ministry was not consulted before
construction began. Funds to build the clinic
came from the U.S. Department of Defense,
and the Special Forces soldiers who coordi-
nated the construction worked through the
Mauritanian Ministry of Defense.
But this isn’t just a story about the mili-
tarization of America’s foreign policy. While
a critic would say that if the soldiers had
coordinated with USAID maybe this
would not have happened, the prob-
lem is that there is no USAID office in
Nouakchott. There is no USAID pres-
ence for the soldiers to coordinate
their activities with.
The Nema medical clinic is a monu-
ment to poor U.S. interagency coordi-
nation due to a staggering lack of civil-
ian capacity in foreign affairs. So this is a
story about the effect in the field that the

absence of civilian capacity has on the
recipients of our assistance and on Amer-
ican’s image in the world.



Lack of U.S. government

civilian capacity hampers
efforts to create the desired
civilian-military balance in
the U.S. presence abroad.

What’s the Story on

By Ron Capps, Peacekeeping Program Manager, Refugees International



The numbers are overwhelming. While of government” approach to recon- corps are an expeditionary force. They
there are over 2,300,000 uniformed struction and stability operations. At don’t increase the staff of the Depart-
service members, there are fewer than that time, interagency processes were ment of State or USAID, only rearrange
6,800 Foreign Service Officers at the strained by struggles over power and it. The Department of State remains
Department of State and about 1,400 influence at the highest levels of gov- critically short of personnel, particu-
Foreign Service Officers at USAID. The ernment and staff were overwhelmed larly in the mid- and senior-level ranks.
General Accounting Office claims nearly by the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. USAID is embarrassingly understaffed.
30 percent of language-designated posi- Over time, the office produced a blue- State plans to hire 700 new officers
tions at American embassies are filled print for civilian response. this year, while USAID wants to bring
by inadequately trained officials, and a S/CRS has also created a Civilian in 300. These numbers are insufficient
recent article in Foreign Affairs noted Response Corps to serve as the civil- to meet the needs.
that American embassies in Africa are ian expeditionary capability the United The interagency management system
short 30 percent of their assigned staffs. States so urgently needs as a comple- approved by the NSC and the support-
Things are so bad the State Department ment to its unparalleled military capac- ing structures of S/CRS and the Civil-
has hired over 2,300 family members to ity. Once complete, it will include 250 ian Response Corps remain substan-
fill embassy positions. active officers, 2,000 government offi- tially untested. As of late May, there
Personnel numbers alone still don’t cials on standby and 2,000 in a reserve were only about 35 active response
tell the whole story. A recent study by corps. These officers will bring civilian corps officers on the job. Training pro-
the Association for American Diplo- grams at the Foreign Service Institute
macy and the Henry L. Stimson Cen- were scheduled to begin in July. At
ter repeatedly cited a lack of program a recent war game at U.S. European
management skills at State and USAID. Command, officials stated that the mil-
Congress has granted the Department itary officers involved seemed reluctant
of Defense authorities and funding for The Department of to cede authority over reconstruction
and stability activities to the civilians.
security and development assistance
that should reside with State and State plans to hire 700 Defense Secretary Robert Gates is
USAID; and it did so principally because
the civilian agencies cannot carry their
new officers this year, often lauded for his public calls for
increased civilian capacity. However, in
load. A congressional report cites a wan- while USAID wants to October 2007 he laid down his marker
ing of diplomatic effectiveness in repre- on the expanded role of the Department
senting U.S. interests as foreign officials bring in 300. These of Defense: “All these so-called ‘nontra-
“follow the money,” increasingly empha-
sizing defense relations over diplomacy.
numbers are insufficient ditional’ capabilities have moved into
the mainstream of military thinking,
The RAND Corporation calls these dis- to meet the needs. planning and strategy—where they
crepancies “a dysfunctional skewing of must stay.” Once the Department of
resources-to-tasks.” expertise from State, USAID and the State regains the personnel strength
In 1971, former Secretary of State Departments of Commerce, Homeland and capacities to lead America’s foreign
Dean Acheson wrote in Foreign Affairs, Security, Health and Human Services, affairs enterprise, Congress should
“For over a decade it has been received Treasury, Agriculture and Justice. pass the funding and authorities it has
as accepted truth in the highly charged In 2008, Congress funded the active granted to the Department of Defense
political atmosphere of Washington that response corps and hiring began. back to State.
the role, power and prestige of the Sec- RAND, among others, has called for The real story here is that America
retary and Department of State in the a multiagency National Security Col- has just passed the outermost point
conduct of foreign affairs have steadily lege to address interagency planning of one of our regular foreign policy
declined.” Things have not gotten any and management shortcomings. In the pendulum swings and we are headed
better in the 38 years since Acheson 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review, the back to a more centered approach.
wrote his article. For the past two gen- Department of Defense offered to turn Right now, we in the development,
erations, the Department of State and the National Defense University into a humanitarian assistance and advo-
USAID have atrophied thanks to budget university for national security profes- cacy communities have an opportunity
cuts and reductions in force driven by sionals. The National Security Council to influence the political story line. Now
a misguided belief that American secu- (NSC) approved a management system is the time to press for greater fund-
rity is solely the provenance of the mili- for interagency operations in March ing for civilian personnel, more train-
tary and the intelligence services. But 2007. ing to increase civilian capacity and a
recently, Congress and the executive So now we have a civilian expedition- return of authorities and funding and
branch have begun to reverse the trend. ary force, an education and training oversight of development and security
In 2004, a presidential order gave program and an interagency manage- assistance to the Department of State
the Office of the Coordinator for Recon- ment system. Is this the happy ending? and USAID. MD
struction and Stability (S/CRS) at No, the story isn’t finished yet. To learn more, please visit www.
State the task of coordinating a “whole The officers in the civilian response


Pentagon Aid

also shrunk over the past few years.

As a result, the proportion of assis-
tance funding that the Department of
Defense controls has grown dramati-
cally to as much as 20 percent all of
U.S. official development assistance.
We have arrived at a situation where
the Pentagon is now one of the largest
shareholders in U.S. foreign policy. In
more than a couple of countries, the
face of U.S. presence abroad is a sol-
dier in camouflage fatigues carrying
a rifle. Humanitarian assistance has
become a weapon of war. Even the U.S.
Army Field Manual No. 3-24 states that
counter-insurgency “operations can be
characterized as armed social work.”
Rather than politicizing the humani-
tarian agenda, we must humanize the

The Pentagon as a
political agenda. It is unfortunate that
the leading edge of U.S. foreign assis-
tance is increasingly of a military char-

Development Agency
acter. What does it say to our detrac-
tors abroad when the armed forces
occupy the highest profile of Ameri-
can engagement outside our borders?
The U.S. military’s increasing role as an aid provider. When questions of American motives
arise, we face the burden of trying to
By Gerald Martone, Director of Humanitarian Affairs explain away fears that our nation’s
International Rescue Committee actions are driven not by largesse but
by a desire to dominate others.

ith mounting concern, year. The IRC’s extensive global ser- Even Secretary of Defense Rob-
NGOs have been watching vices are provided on a lean annual ert Gates acknowledged this when he
the U.S. military take on budget of only $285 million. It is hard stated, “the U.S. military should never be
more direct service activi- to believe that IRC’s budget for the mistaken for a Peace Corps with guns.”
ties for disaster, poverty and conflict- entire year would run the U.S. military Assistance delivered by the military
affected populations. These relief activ- for a mere 3.5 hours. is often skeptically perceived as the
ities were traditionally the domain of The Pentagon, with $600 billion a “instrumentalization” of aid that serves
civilian agencies including USAID, the year in funding and over 1.5 million U.S. national interests. It would be
Department of State, United Nations uniformed personnel, also dwarfs the naïve to assume that relief assistance
agencies and humanitarian nongov- Department of State, which has an delivered by armed forces would be seen
ernmental organizations (NGOs). annual budget of only $30 billion and as anything other than a pretext for mil-
This expansion of the military’s role less than 7,000 permanent employees. itary adventurism. Civilian-led efforts
is as much a result of policy directives During frustrating budget discussions on the other hand are more likely to be
aimed at reducing the impoverished within the State Department, some viewed as a collective manifestation of
environments that nurture extrem- employees cynically refer to their mod- America’s commitment to help others.
Photo: DoD\Master Sgt. Ken Hammond, U.S. Air Force

ism in the global war on terror as it is est accounts in measures of “FJEs” Of course, civilian disaster relief
an inevitable response to the need to (Fighter Jet Equivalents). agencies do not hold the monopoly on
fill the void left by chronically under- The U.S. federal budget allocates responding to populations in crises.
resourced civilian agencies. about 1 percent for critical foreign Armed forces have provided assistance
On a daily basis we confront the assistance and policy initiatives com- to civilian populations since the very
obscene disparity of resources between pared with 22 percent for military beginnings of organized armies. In the
the U.S. military and civilian agencies. defense and weapons. time of Alexander the Great, command-
The International Rescue Committee Since the State Department’s abil- ers viewed relief assistance as not only a
(IRC), for example, operates in over 40 ity to carry out effective, long-term humane gesture but a way to win pub-
countries and resettles refugees in 23 strategies to rebuild countries recov- lic loyalty of the vanquished popula-
U.S. cities. Its 10,000 staff members ering from conflict is underresourced, tions to their conquerors. Ancient Chi-
around the world assist more than 16 the U.S. military has stepped in to nese Moguls used relief aid to “soften”
million conflict-affected people each fill the gap. The USAID budget has resistance. Marcus Aurelius reminded


Pentagon Aid

his generals that “benevolence is a colleague as the “edifice complex”—is pendent, impartial NGO efforts is the
great weapon of war.” And throughout harshly criticized by many professional Guidelines for Relations Between U.S.
the American Revolutionary War, army aid workers. In Iraq, some field staff Armed Forces and Non-Governmental
physicians routinely helped civilians mockingly referred to military relief proj- Humanitarian Organizations in Hostile
such as settlers, trappers, hunters and ects as the “re-painting” of Iraq since or Potentially Hostile Environments,
even Indians at frontier posts. some rehabilitated schools had no stu- jointly published in 2007 by InterAction
We must acknowledge that the U.S. dents, no teachers, no curricula and no and the U.S. Department of Defense. 
military has a particular competence to community support. The Guidelines provide practical rec-
offer in sudden-onset natural disasters These superficial and unsustainable ommendations on how NGOs and the
due to its colossal logistical capacity. projects were intended more to win the military should conduct themselves in
Its ability to deliver quality engineering “hearts and minds” of people than to terms of dress and appearance, insti-
capabilities, transport personnel and provide meaningful solutions to depri- tutional visibility protocols, transpor-
materials and provide emergency tele- vation and underdevelopment. This type tation, field activities, communication,
communications is unmatched by any of activity may meet short-term goals joint meetings and coordination.
civilian agency in the world. Its contri- of outreach to local populations and The legitimacy of foreign aid depends
butions to affected populations after harvesting public opinion, as well as on the extent to which our efforts are
the Indian Ocean tsunami and the an exercise in team-building and troop perceived as credible and morally unam-
Pakistan earthquake were invaluable. morale, but it is not a good use of tax- biguous. The solution will not be found
But even in these dramatic examples, payer money. in covert propaganda disguised as assis-
the U.S. military’s efforts were most What we have repeatedly heard from tance projects. The military experiment
effective when they were coordinated the very people whose hearts are trying in do-good projects lacks the dedicated
with civilian agencies on the ground, to be won is that if you want to win their ethos of the humanitarian and develop-
such as USAID, the United Nations and favor, protect them. By making people ment guilds—tenacious, professional,
NGOs that are experts in disaster relief. safe from rebel attacks, lawless environ- long-term aid programs that build trust
Many of the IRC’s relief workers, ments and sectarian violence, the U.S. with communities and cultivate ongoing
like other NGO workers, spend their military can gain more confidence from relationships with affected populations.
careers cultivating the craftsmanship local communities than it can by imple- As Secretary of Defense Gates stated,
of aid delivery that emphasizes empow- menting ill-conceived aid projects. “We cannot kill or capture our way to vic-
erment and participation of local com- When the U.S. military conducts tory.” Might does not make right. We are
munities, capacity building of national assistance projects, it can compromise learning that the fight against extrem-
institutions, gender equity and self-reli- the security of NGO staff by blurring ism will not be won on the battlefield.
ance of individual beneficiaries. State- the lines between military and civilian The enemy is not terrorism. The enemy
of-the-art relief interventions empha- humanitarian personnel. NGOs become is poverty and ignorance. The remedy is
size evidence-based projects that are vulnerable to accusations that we are development and education. In this war,
empirically informed by past successes. agents of the global war on terror rather the pen is truly mightier than the sword.
Minimum operating standards, evalua- independent humanitarian workers. The We must build people’s capabilities
tion and monitoring and data-driven unfortunate and stinging characteriza- and shape the security environment
projects are among the “best practices” tion of NGOs as “force multipliers” by the in ways that obviate the need for mili-
in our arsenal of relief technology. U.S. military in Afghanistan still lingers. tary intervention. Poverty reduction and
Both the military and civilian agen- This problem is exacerbated even state building are the keys to reduc-
cies should each focus on what they do further in those instances when the ing external threats to U.S. security.
best. For the military, that is providing U.S. military has chosen to conduct aid The Department of State and USAID—
security and conducting war opera- projects while driving civilian vehicles our Departments of Offense—must be
tions. For civilian agencies, that is car- and dressed as civilian aid workers—a supported at rates greater than those
ing for civilians and providing assis- dangerous practice referred to by field of the early 1990s. They must have
tance to those in need. As Gen. William staff as “cross-dressing.” ample financial resources, an enhanced
E. Ward, Commander of AFRICOM One of the most crucial compo- cadre of experienced personnel and a
(the U.S. military command for Africa), nents of NGO staff security is our surge capacity of civilian staff ready for
suggested in a meeting with NGOs, we acceptance by local communities. We deployment on short notice to trouble
should each “stay in our lanes.” cultivate acceptance through a deep spots around the world.
The civilian humanitarian community understanding of local custom, cul- America’s moral leadership in the
is often critical of costly and paternalis- tural sensitivity, long-term commit- world must be earned. It can only be
tic military relief projects as they tend ment, employment of high numbers of advanced when we secure our repu-
to emphasize high-profile and high-visi- local community members and projects tation as a benevolent power, not an
bility projects such as rebuilding roads, designed to involve people in the very imposing force. The recent trend of mil-
wells, schools and hospitals rather than projects from which they will benefit. itarization of foreign assistance is coun-
promoting community involvement. The best remedy for ensuring sep- terproductive. And it must be changed.
This urge to build imposing monuments arateness and maintaining a firewall Questions and comments can be sent
of goodwill—cynically referred to by one between military activities and inde- to the author at MD



Civil-Military Cooperation:
An Opportunity for Women? Originally designed as a forum for
Recent developments present possibilities to improve equal partnership between civilian and
military actors engaged in the recon-
participation by women. struction efforts in Iraq and Afghani-
By Lyric Thompson, Policy Analyst and External Relations Officer stan, the PRTs quickly became mili-
Women for Women International tary-dominated. Inability to fill civilian
positions on the PRTs meant that the

n her testimony before the realm of civil-military cooperation, men and women of the armed ser-
Senate Foreign Relations Commit- there is some evidence that this is not vices were increasingly called upon to
tee this April, Secretary of State only possible but already an emerging perform development tasks for which
Hillary Clinton presented an image reality. The PRTs provide an interest- they often lacked necessary expertise.
of an egalitarian relationship between ing case study. Troops were tasked with such tradi-
civilian and military actors: “First, civil-
ians complement and build upon our Women are engaged in much of the reproductive work that rebuilds societies after conflict,
military’s efforts in conflict areas like and can be key partners in reconstruction efforts.
Iraq and Afghanistan. Second, they use
diplomatic and development tools to
build more stable and peaceful societ-
ies, hopefully to avert or end conflict
that is far less costly in lives and dollars
than military action.” We in the devel-
opment community welcome the idea of
an equal partnership after a period of
time in which funding for defense assis-
tance has exponentially trumped that
of development assistance; we welcome
the call for a “civilian surge.”
As the Obama administration looks
to define itself in the world generally
and in Iraq and Afghanistan in par-
ticular, a new opportunity is emerging
to redefine civil-military cooperation as
a true partnership in which both com-
munities participate fully. The admin-
istration’s evident emphasis on wom-
en’s issues (President Obama signed
the Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act into law
his first day in office, created a White
House Council on Women and Girls on
International Women’s Day and has
created the new position of Ambas-
sador-at-Large for Global Women’s
Photo: Women for Women International

Issues in the State Department) cou-

pled with recent developments in the
mandate of civil-military mechanisms
such as the Provincial Reconstruction
Teams (PRTs) indicate an opportunity
for the engagement of women as lead-
ers and partners in the quest for global
security and development.
While this assertion may seem a
bit of a stretch within the traditional



In post-genocide Rwanda, a proposed hospital-construction project.

The conflict/post-conflict context in which much of civil-
constitutional quota for women’s military cooperation takes place has proven a unique opening
parliamentary participation has for advancing the status, participation and rights of women.
Quotas for women’s political participation are possible in new
paved the way for the country’s constitutions, as we have seen in Iraq and Afghanistan. In
post-genocide Rwanda, a constitutional quota for women’s par-
current achievement of 56 percent, liamentary participation has paved the way for the country’s
the world’s greatest female current achievement of 56 percent, the world’s greatest female
representation in government. (The country, one might add,
representation in government. is an island of socioeconomic stability amid a tide of insecu-
rity and conflict throughout the Great Lakes region.) Also in
tionally civilian-run projects as constructing schools and Rwanda, women led the way forward in the country’s recon-
hospitals, often with less-than-ideal results. struction and recovery efforts, organizing to adopt children
Women for Women International Afghanistan country orphaned by conflict and participating fully in new structures
director Sweeta Noori recalls one example: “[The PRTs] built for democratic governance at all levels. This is an encouraging
a hospital in Jalalabad, a fine hospital, and were eager to body of evidence pointing to the critical role women have to
see it put to use. But they forgot to communicate this to the play in the construction of stronger communities and nations.
Ministry of Health, which had no plans to support a hospi- Remarks by Secretary Clinton at an April 2009 town hall
tal in that location, and the building stands empty to this meeting of Iraqi PRT leaders demonstrate a renewed commit-
day.” Noori shakes her head as she recalls the confusion. ment to women’s development, empowerment and full par-
“Any mother or caretaker in the community could have told ticipation in civil-military efforts. She said, “I believe strongly
them this was not the proper place to build a hospital. We that supporting and empowering women is good for countries
know where our sick and our injured have need for medical … I believe that Iraq will be much stronger if women are edu-
facilities. It was unfortunate.” cated and empowered to participate on behalf of themselves
In this instance, consulting community stakeholders— and their families, particularly their children, as Iraq makes
especially women, who care for the sick and infirm—would a new future.”
have quickly made clear the actual needs surrounding the There are heartening indications that these words will
be translated into practice within the existing civil-military
framework. Noori reports encouraging conversations with
PRT representatives in Afghanistan who are newly interested
in engaging women in their efforts to rebuild the fractured
and poverty-stricken country. “I had a wonderful conversa-
tion with the PRTs, who are looking to support and learn
from Afghan women moving forward. I’m very excited by the
idea that women might access the opportunity to develop
their own potential as leaders and participants in Afghani-
stan’s social, political and economic realms, and, in so doing,
contribute to a stronger, more stable Afghanistan.”
Noori is hopeful that this and other developments signify a
genuine indication that progress is being made toward a new
era of balanced civil-military cooperation that leverages the
distinct knowledge and capacities of women toward the twin
goals of security and development. “I think that we can help
each other to achieve our common goals. In a recent survey
we conducted among 1,500 Afghan women, the women iden-
tified the inseparability of security and development: 66 per-
cent identified security as the primary challenge facing the
state, and 81 percent identified the need for commodities, job
opportunities and services as primary challenges they faced
on a daily basis. We need the military to provide a secure
environment in which we can do our work. And the military
needs us to sustain that stability and cement peace through
the creation of opportunities for social, political and economic
participation. I’m looking forward to working together for a
more peaceful, stable Afghanistan, of which women are going
to be an integral part. And in my conversations with the PRT
representatives in Afghanistan, they’re equally excited about
us and ready to support our work with women.” MD


quantum Blur

development funds for winning over

local populations rather than address-
ing root causes.
On the other hand, an increasing
number of policymakers are articulat-
ing U.S. national interests in develop-
ment-oriented human security through
efforts that build stable, participatory
governments that respond to the needs
of their citizens. The human security
approach seeks to prevent terrorism
and destabilizing violence by address-
ing root causes of economic disparity

Quantum Blur
and political exclusion.
Both approaches to security address
terrorism, but the goals and tactics are
significantly different.
Where the U.S. uses development to
promote political stability, participatory
Bringing clarity to civil-military relationships in a “3D” world. governance, human rights and the rule
of law, many NGOs can and do share
By Lisa Schirch, Director, 3D Security Initiative and Professor of those values and goals. In a situation
Peacebuilding, Eastern Mennonite University of shared vision, closer coordination
and communication between the 3Ds

n today’s world, the line the perception that NGOs and military of development, diplomacy and defense
between the military and nongov- personnel work together and have the may be possible and desirable to achieve
ernmental organizations (NGOs) is same goals, further complicating civil- long-term human security goals. But
blurring at exponential speed. Here military relationships. where U.S. military forces are given
are some of the reasons for the civil- short-term goals of hunting down and
military blur and what NGOs can do Security Terminology killing, securing natural resources or
about it. NGOs simultaneously warn against projecting geopolitical power, the goals
the “securitization of aid” (where mili- of NGOs and the military are often seen
The Security-Development Nexus tary personnel administer one-fifth of as irreconcilable. In the growing num-
Research on the links between eco- U.S. development dollars for short-term ber of places where policymakers make
nomic inequality and conflict are creat- hearts and minds efforts) and make the the case for both approaches (in Iraq,
ing a new breed of theories explaining case that development contributes to for example), civil-military relations are
the complex nexus between security long-term security. The terminology to understandably confused.
and development. Every humanitar- describe the distinction between short-
ian or development project or transfer term and long-term security goals The Politics of Security Budgets
of resources can be done in a way that needs further elaboration. Underfunding for civilian-led human
exacerbates political conflicts between Some scholars such as Reuben security efforts contributes to difficult
groups or helps to ease the divisions and Brigety offer terminological clarity to civil-military relationships. Diplomats
build consensus and stability between the civil-military blur by distinguishing and military leaders knock on congres-
groups. Whether an NGO intends to between “fundamental” development sional doors over and over to ensure
have a political impact or not, nearly assistance aimed at reducing poverty that the purse-holders know the need
every move an NGO makes has an impli- and “instrumental” development assis- for a significant increase in funding for
cation for civil-military relations. tance aimed at achieving short-term development and diplomacy. Yet the
political goals. Articulating the differ- spring 2009 budget process shows that
Local Politics, Armed Guards ent functions of development helps to only modest increases for foreign assis-
and Impartiality clarify the conversation. tance are possible even when the stars
Local armed groups interpret the More specifically, short-term, politi- align with the White House, the Defense
political interests of NGOs based on cal or “instrumental” development Department, the State Department,
whom they interact with and where assistance refers to helping the U.S. USAID and NGOs all singing from the
resource transfers end up, for exam- achieve goals related to the counterter- same sheet of music about the need for
ple. Armed groups increasingly tend to rorism, geopolitical power and secur- more funding for the civilian agencies.
lump NGO workers and U.S. military ing access to global resources. In this The growing consensus on the need
Photo: USAID

personnel together. Sensing this dan- approach, counterterrorism still largely for more development and diplomacy
ger, some NGOs in turn ask for mili- means hunting down and killing, top- cannot translate into a budgetary real-
tary or armed escorts. This reinforces down control of civil society, and using ity for two reasons. First, while Con-


quantum Blur

gress now widely accepts the contributions development and protect has to do with human rights and participatory gover-
diplomacy make to security, members of Congress do not nance, not cheap oil and exploitative trade relations. Human
think constituents understand this new security narrative, security requires a foundation of sustainable development,
even though polls show the public does support greater fund- backed up by diplomacy and defense. NGOs could take sev-
ing for development and diplomacy. Second, Congress plays a eral steps to help achieve this goal.
central role in the highly wasteful military-industrial complex, Strategic planning. Broad consultation and strategic
demonstrated by this year’s fight over funding for the F-22, planning among local and international NGOs are needed
a warplane the Defense Department does not want or need, to develop joint strategies for proactive responses to civil-
but which Congress continues to fund because it means jobs military challenges and addressing the political and security
for constituents. The development community simply doesn’t dimensions of working in conflict regions. It may be help-
have the lobbying clout of the defense industry. ful for NGOs to develop more precise language to address
Meanwhile, the Department of Defense is operating under the new security-development nexus, to set criteria to assess
a directive to build military capacity to perform traditionally the nature of U.S. military interventions as per the diagram
civilian tasks such as conflict prevention, development and above, and to distinguish different levels of civil-military
other “theater shaping” nonkinetic activities. Insiders whis- communication appropriate depending on the local context.
per that the Defense Department is building its own version Long-term engagement. NGOs know that long-term
of USAID internally since Congress will not fund the real one engagement and relationship building pays off in their devel-
adequately. Even Afghan NGO workers admit that they pre- opment programs. Likewise, NGOs should invest in making
fer working with the Commander’s Emergency Response Pro- sure their staff have funds to participate in conferences, train-
gram (CERP) funds the military can give out quickly to local ings, meetings and simulations alongside government and
NGOs rather than the slow and administratively burdensome military personnel. If Congress eventually does fund civilian
funds available through USAID. agencies at significantly higher levels, the next challenge will
be how to dismantle or transform the dual structures that the
Toward Civil-Military Clarity Defense Department felt it had to create in these interim years
In this new era of civil-military relations, NGOs would do when the interagency rhetoric does not match the severely
well to help focus U.S. interests on human security. The civil- lopsided budgeting. Long-term commitment is needed to
military balance will never be right until there is a consensus ensure that authentic NGO voices with real on-the-ground
that the American way of life that U.S. foreign policy seeks to experience represent their perspectives and make their case
for long-term, human security-oriented U.S. policies.
Conflict assessment. Aid effectiveness and NGO impar-
tiality require increasing political awareness about the rela-
tionship between development assistance and local conflicts.
Conflict assessments such as Mary Anderson’s Do No Harm
approach should be fully integrated into NGO planning so
that NGOs themselves become aware of how they are blurring
the civil-military line. Local and international NGOs should be
part of the new U.S. Interagency Conflict Assessment Frame-
work (ICAF) processes to help determine the local resources
and resiliency that can be supported to address the key driv-
ers of conflict and instability in failing and fragile states.
Policy planning. Recognizing the long-term presence and
cultural intelligence of the many local and international
NGOs that already exist in every region of the world, new
U.S. interagency planning processes should ensure that both
local and international NGOs can participate in the policy-
planning process, particularly for regions in which both civil-
ian and military personnel are present. This could help pre-
vent the undermining of long-term poverty alleviation goals
by short-term political objectives.
Operational communication. Finally, further efforts need
to be made in creating more neutral spaces for communica-
tion between civilian and military personnel at the opera-
tional level in country. The humanitarian NGO community
and the Department of Defense successfully negotiated a set
of principles on civil-military engagement with the help of the
U.S. Institute of Peace. NGOs involved in development, con-
flict prevention and peacebuilding should create a similar
process to lay out principles for engagement in these more
long-term programs. MD


Info Sharing

Building the
would provide basic cultural and infrastructure information
on a periodic basis. This information would be posted to an
open, Wikipedia-style database, available to the global NGO
community, international agencies and organizations, host-

nation governments and the U.S. government. In short, the
ISP would provide digital infrastructure, standards and opera-
tional incentives for the NGO community to share basic infor-
mation amongst its members and with the larger audience.
Of course, whenever this type of arrangement is raised even
casually the NGO community rightly rises in defense of its
A conversation starter for formal core values of independence, neutrality and impartiality. The
information sharing between and problem is twofold: determining what kind of information, if
among NGOs and the U.S. government. any, it is acceptable to provide; and determining what kind of
assistance, if any, it is acceptable to receive. The conversation
never gets started because of long-standing fears of the poten-
By Colonel David W. Tohn, U.S. Army, National Security
tial cost of formally associating with the U.S. government.
Fellow, John F. Kennedy School of Government
Hard-nosed bureaucrats who dismiss these concerns miss
Harvard University
the point. The U.S. NGO community performs critical work for

hrinking resources, growing need and humanity while gently promoting America’s reputation and
deteriorating security place future humanitarian and standing globally. Facilitating greater effectiveness and cooper-
development assistance at risk. These three dynamics ation between and among the NGO community supports these
threaten the good and important work of helping people noble goals and greatly serves
and communities to survive and thrive. America’s nongovern- The conversation America’s long-term interests.
mental organizations (NGOs) are a critical element in maintain- Conversely, the NGO com-
ing progress in many of the darkest places around the world, never gets started munity has a vested interest
but many may soon face agonizing decisions to curtail opera-
tions where they cannot operate due to cost or risk. The impact
because of long- in more informed, capable and
nuanced government interven-
on the global community would be dramatic and unfortunate. standing fears tions. On a larger scale, the
Further complicating the outlook, the international secu- community has an interest in
rity environment implies an even greater potential of inter- of the potential opening channels to promote
ventions. As U.S. Director of National Intelligence Dennis
Blair noted, “[R]ising unemployment and reduced welfare
cost of formally practices that contribute to
sustainable development inter-
spending are leading to political instability in many coun- associating ventions beneficial to all stake-
tries, with a growing danger of civil unrest and violence.”
Of all interventions, military interventions are perhaps the
with the U.S. holders. The U.S. government
shares the very same interests.
most dramatic and potentially problematic. They are disrup-
tive by definition; and they are specifically disruptive to relief
government. The trick to forging this
relationship is finding the
and development efforts. As Gen. David Petraeus commented areas of common interest and mutual advantage. By adher-
at the Munich Security Conference in February 2009: ing to certain key principles—preserving values, transpar-
[T]o be effective… A nuanced appreciation of local ency and mutual respect—the ISP would serve this function.
situations is essential. Leaders and troopers have
to understand the tribal structures, the power bro- What kind of information can be provided?
kers, the good guys and the bad guys, local cultures The key to effective interventions is to have key informa-
and history, and how systems are supposed to work tion in place in advance: infrastructure, cultural, demo-
and how they do work. [Emphasis added] graphic and political/social information at a level of detail
that reaches down to neighborhoods, villages, towns and cit-
The same holds true for interventions by the Department ies. The tone and perception of an intervention are set early
of State, the U.S. Agency for International Development on, yet the information critical to determining the tenor and
(USAID) and others. image is least likely to be available in those early stages.
Yet never before have the needs and interests of the gov- But Principle 4 of the Code of Conduct for the International
ernment, the nongovernmental sector and the private sector Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and NGOs in Disas-
been so keenly arrayed to support one another. So, within ter Response Programs addresses the heart of the issue of
this crisis, there is opportunity to match capability with deliberate collaboration with the U.S. government for this
need: a formal information-sharing program between the information:
U.S. government and the NGO community. We shall endeavor not to act as instruments of
What could be called the Information Sharing Program government foreign policy. …We will never know-
(ISP) would provide guaranteed government resources and ingly—or through negligence—allow ourselves, or
in-kind support to NGOs, ranging from funding to logistics our employees, to be used to gather information of
to operational and security support. In exchange, the NGOs a political, military or economically sensitive nature


Info Sharing

for governments or other bodies that may serve pur- tive do not yet serve as a clearinghouse. Moreover, neither
poses other than those which are strictly humani- supports systemic deliberation or crisis planning.
tarian, nor will we act as instruments of foreign The information-sharing benefits of the ISP are clear on
policy of donor governments… two levels. First, more accurate information supports a more
effective response and the wider policy. Second, more effec-
Clearly, this is perhaps the starkest obstacle to an ISP-like tive cross-NGO and international cooperation helps all par-
relationship. The key terms are “political, military, or econom- ties, improves the global condition and perhaps mitigates the
ically sensitive nature” and “instruments of foreign policy.” need for disruptive interventions to begin with.
Yet Principle 4 is not an impermeable barrier to cooper-
ation and information sharing. It frames the problem and What kinds of services can be accepted?
establishes the points of discussion. Rather, the ISP would A list of what support an NGO might find valuable might
seek to formalize the mutual benefits while preventing inad- include:
vertent confusion or conflict. • Funding;
How NGOs approach cooperation might be described as a • Security support, such as briefings, incidental or dedi-
spectrum of tolerance. At one end, any overt and premedi- cated convoy escorts, dedicated protection, landmine
tated cooperation may be so anathema that an NGO would not mapping and/or clearing, and input into military priori-
consider any relationship. However, many more find coopera- ties to emphasize areas of focus;
tion and collaboration acceptable, and even desirable. Indeed, • Emergency evacuation support;
much of the proposed cooperation already occurs at the discre- • Medical evacuation;
tion of NGO field workers and their government counterparts. • Communications support;
Finding the right level of acceptable information sharing, • Logistics support; and/or
in detail and subject area, is the first challenge. Information • Infrastructure repair.
of utility to the entire community might include:
• Road/infrastructure information; The specifics would be subject to negotiation and the
• Ethnic/tribal affiliations and disposition; nature of U.S. government presence in the region.
• Leaders and key social and humanitarian issues; and/or The benefits are clear. Direct funding relieves pressure for
• Critical infrastructure improvement requirements. fundraising through other means. Services in-kind free up
resources and simplify contingency planning and responses
This is information NGOs have access to in the course of in fast-moving crisis. Finally, guaranteed access to medical
their normal operations. evacuation and emergency extraction may reduce the cost of
While providing information on the general picture on insurance and provide reassurances to exposed workers in
these issues might work, NGOs may feel that providing the field. All of these combine to make an NGO more effective
more detailed information on these topics could raise greater and capable than otherwise.
concerns for them. In addition, some may perceive certain
types of information or characterizations as offensive or inac- The road forward
curate. For example, an ISP entry describing a host-nation Currently, there is a lot of distance between “now” and
medical or education program as failing or underresourced a fully functioning ISP. The challenges begin with differ-
due to graft or mismanagement could easily run afoul of the ent institutional cultures and ethos and extend to the most
local leaders running the program. The ISP proposal would basic details of implementation. Yet, if the past and present
offer a pre-established set of procedural controls to manage are any indicators, the future holds more government-NGO
expectations and address these concerns: cooperation as they try to accomplish their respective mis-
• Strict transparency and open access of the information; sions efficiently and effectively.
• Pre-established data fields, levels of detail and standards Given these dynamics, the U.S. government and the NGO
of information; community should expand their conversations to include
• Funding through USAID or the Department of State; and an ISP initiative. The first step would be hosting a leader-
• A board of ombudsmen and robust editorial standards ship conference to identify the spectrum of tolerance and to
and editorial standards. describe the “realm of the possible.” Based on the outcome,
the two communities can lay out the road ahead.
Arguments that the U.S. government ought to rely on its Carefully planned and implemented, the ISP would pro-
own resources (intelligence agencies, embassies and field vide the NGO community access to critical resources without
offices) to gather this information fall flat in the face of decades compromising basic values or endangering ongoing efforts. It
of experience. If one focuses solely on military interventions, would also offer cost-effective access to the information nec-
which arguably draw on the most capabilities available, mul- essary for all parties. Clearly, the ISP can be a win-win for
tiple military reviews reveal a pattern of failure through every all involved.
major intervention from Grenada to Somalia to Afghanistan to So let’s get the conversation started.
Iraq, with no realistic prospect of improvement. The views expressed in this article are those of the author
The State Department and USAID are even less capable of and do not reflect the official policy or position of Harvard Uni-
filling this function. For example, USAID’s Knowledge Ser- versity, the U.S. Government, the Department of Defense or the
vices Center and its “Global Development Commons” initia- United States Army. MD



Heard with One Voice

the Kenyan government have begun to
tackle system-level changes related to
water in this district.

Developing networks as community assets. How does a network function

as an asset?
By Rajyashri Waghray, Director of Education & Advocacy for International At the workshop for the national net-
Justice and Human Rights, Church World Service (developed the ‘Water work formation, Kenyan nonprofit rep-
Network’ concept); Dawn Murdock, Nonprofit Management & Fundraising resentatives identified values of being
Consultant; and Deborah Katina, Director, YANG’AT, Kenya in a network, including the following:
• Amplifying a unified voice;

sset-based approaches • Sharing a common vision and
to poverty reduction are much dream;
talked about these days. Peo- • Gaining power in numbers;
ple typically consider tangibles • Gaining a sense of belonging and
such as housing, savings and income- identification;
generating resources as assets. Yet a • Sharing essential skills and exper-
group of Kenyan nonprofit organiza- tise;
tions is spearheading a water resource • Sharing common challenges and
strategy—Water for All—that incorpo- problems; and
rates developing networks as assets at • Pooling resources.
the community, district and national
levels. Their experiences illustrate on a These ideas reflect what Caroline
practical level how networks effectively Moser identified in her 2007 piece for
generate other resources to fuel pov- Brookings, Asset Accumulation Policy
erty reduction. These Kenyan examples viders and access a range of resources and Poverty Reduction, as second-
also demonstrate the value of integrat- including government funding helps generation asset accumulation: creat-
ing support for network development ensure the continued viability of the ing psychological, social and political
with programs aimed at creating assets water systems beyond the limited life of capital. As communities living in pov-
to meet basic needs. an international grant. erty acquire first-generation assets to
The Co-Chair of the national network, meet their basic needs, they can lever-
Maji kwa Wote / Water for All Network Deborah Katina, is the Coordinator of age that experience and continue the
Nine Kenyan agencies formed Maji Yang’at, a nonprofit dedicated to the development process.
kwa Wote/Water for All Network to empowerment of girls and women in the
spearhead the national segment of the Pokot district. Katina facilitated the for- Psychological capital
global Water for All campaign with the mation of a district-level water network At the local community level, the
support of Church World Service. These comprised of community water asso- capacity-building and organizing pro-
organizations work in dry rural areas, ciations, the government water board cess augments the potential of people
facilitating a process for communities to and representatives from government accustomed to the isolation of poverty
create sustainable access to safe water, ministries and other nonprofits, build- to develop their own voices and their
thereby transforming a scarce natural ing on lessons from the regional Water ability to dialogue with others. Through
resource into a community-owned asset for All Network. Waghray and Katina the accomplishments of developing
managed by a local committee. shared these in a workshop sponsored and managing their own water sys-
Specifically, the network’s objectives by the Brookings Institution and the tems, community leaders gain self-
are to: Ford Foundation, and a related Brook- confidence and skills they put to use in
• Promote implementation of com- ings study on the asset-based approach their wider networking.
munity rights to water; in 2007, and tested the approach in
• Link local partners with govern- relation to their Water for All Network Social capital
mental water boards and other and experiences in the region since The networks strengthen civil soci-
stakeholders; and 2005. The network provides training in ety and provide a vehicle for communi-
• Advocate for and leverage public participatory water development and ties and NGOs to work effectively with
resources for community-based management and works to solve com- other stakeholders. As the networks
water resource development projects mon problems and access resources. make tangible progress in the water
Photos: Jefferson Shriver

The water resource management offi- sector, they use their skills and experi-
Thus, while international aid may cer commented that teamwork through ence to tackle other needs and meet the
fund specific community water resource the network “helps us work on protect- requirements of larger donors to sup-
development over a 12 month period, the ing our catchment areas and empower port the work. Partner organizations
ability of communities to register with the Water User Associations.” By col- learn from peers and are empowered
the Kenyan government as water pro- laborating, these organizations and continued on page 32



Continuing Series: Kidnapped! Somali interpreter, might be used as an

example by the kidnappers to force his

The Worst Possible

organization’s hand. He knew the ruth-
lessness of criminal groups in impover-
ished Somalia, where a cottage kidnap-

ping industry generated revenue for a
range of bad guys operating around the
capital. He picked up the phone to get in
touch with Wali’s family.
By Josh Kearns, Associate Security Coordinator, InterAction Alpha’s field staff was scrambling to
respond in the absence of their Chief of
Party. Abdi, the Somalia security focal
point for Alpha, stepped in to fill the
vacuum and took the lead in organiz-
ing the staff to cope with the crisis. He
made a call to Aziza, Hamid’s wife, and
assured her that Alpha was doing all it
could to get her husband (the family’s
sole breadwinner and father of five chil-
dren) back safely. He assigned Laila,
Alpha’s administrator, the task of han-
dling communications with headquar-
ters until they were able to get orga-
nized. He knew that until then, fielding
calls from New York from a half-dozen
different people would only slow things
down. Once New York got organized and
assigned a single point of contact, com-
munications could be streamlined and

This is the second in a four-part series ony, Wali, Sally and Hamid Abdi would take over. For now, he knew
detailing a fictional kidnap scenario. had been missing for 24 hours. that establishing proof of life was the
The purpose of the series is to high- NGOs Alpha and Bravo have priority. But when he called the satellite
light appropriate and inappropriate both been able to confirm that phone number the kidnappers had pro-
responses that organizations might their staff members are missing; how- vided, there was no answer. Abdi began
take, and resources that are avail- ever, they have not been able to con- to worry.
able, when faced with the kidnapping firm “proof of life.” Jack, the Chief of At headquarters, both NGOs were
of staff. The scenario is based on a Party for Alpha, is out of the country, now racing against the clock. In New
recent hostage incident management leaving his team on the ground to York, Alpha’s management went about
training conducted by the InterAc- handle communications. Bravo’s Chief setting up a crisis management team
tion Security Unit, in conjunction with of Party, Billy, is taking the lead in- (CMT). Upon the advice of their secu-
InterAction’s Security Advisory Group. country for his team. The kidnappers rity director, they had gone through
All events and characters are entirely have demanded $1 million for the safe annual crisis-response drills in which
fictitious, as are all organizations with return of all four victims, threatening to they practiced setting up a CMT. This
the exception of the United Nations execute them if their demands are not afforded Alpha several advantages.
Department of Safety and Security, the met. Meanwhile, headquarters for both First, since it had been practiced, it
Federal Bureau of Investigation and NGOs are mobilizing their responses. gave the staff a familiar procedure to
Overseas Security Advisor Council. “Tony and the girl will die unless one fall back on in uncertain times. Sec-
million dollars are paid.” The words ond, the CMT created a clear chain
echoed through Billy’s mind as he of command, crucial during a crisis
awaited further instructions from NGO when quick decision-making is essen-
Bravo’s headquarters. Bravo had told tial. Third, it provided a buffer between
Illustration: Bibanesi -

the kidnappers that it did not negotiate. the intense emotions experienced by
Bravo headquarters had told Billy it was the staff and the job that needed to be
in contact with NGO Alpha headquar- done. Finally, it removed the CEO from
ters, a much larger organization with a incident management; more than ever,
full complement of options for this type her managerial skills would be needed
of contingency. Billy did not like the to make sure the rest of the organiza-
idea of relying on Alpha for his people’s tion’s operations ran smoothly.
safety. He was worried that Wali, his The CMT included a mix of personnel



with decision-making power and subject Dave would be at her side to help explain her, as she recalled that Bravo also
and area expertise. At its head sat Stan, events and what the likely outcomes had a “no negotiation” policy when it
Vice President of Emergency Operations. could mean for the organization. Mes- came to kidnappers. By Vijaya’s esti-
The highest-ranking employee working sages to the rest of Alpha’s staff would mation, Bravo’s hands were tied. Their
in Alpha’s humanitarian response wing, be tightly controlled, and would emanate best bet was to rely on Alpha to get all
Stan had years of both field and man- from Stan’s office. Communications with four hostages back.
agement experience, as well as the trust the staff in Mogadishu and with staff in Back in Mogadishu, as Abdi sat in his
of his CEO. Dave, the security director, Nairobi who might also have a role to office awaiting instructions from Alpha
brought knowledge and experience with play were to be handled by Vivek and, headquarters on how to respond to the
security incidents to the table. Ellen, where appropriate, Dave. Vivek was also ransom demands, his phone rang. On
Alpha’s in-house counsel, was familiar tasked with communicating with the vic- the other end was Aziza, in tears and
with the organization’s risk manage- tim’s families. As mentioned, media calls barely coherent. Hamid’s dead body,
ment policies and liability exposure. The were to be handled by Natalie. riddled with bullets, had been left in the
director of Africa programs, Vivek, over- Bravo headquarters, though smaller street in front of their house with a note
saw Somalia operations and was the in size than Alpha, proved less nimble in his pocket: “No negotiation policy.”
chief of party’s direct supervisor. Nata- in responding to the kidnapping. Vijaya, Abdi felt sick. He knew that Alpha was
lie, Alpha’s communications director, Director for Programs, also served as prepared to negotiate to get the four vic-
would handle press calls. An adminis- Bravo’s security focal point. Though tims back safely. Something must have
trative aide was seconded to the head- she took the responsibility seriously, happened on Bravo’s end, and whatever
quarters team for support. she simply did not have enough time to it was, it had gotten his friend and col-
The CMT’s primary goal is to facilitate devote to the role. As a result, Bravo’s league killed. Now he knew he would
the resolution of the crisis. Its means CEO, sensing a gap, stepped in and have to handle complicated negotia-
of doing this is communications, both began handling communications with tions with Hamid’s family, while also
within the organization and with external the field himself. Vijaya busied herself trying to negotiate Sally’s safe return
actors. Dave was given the job of brief- by calling Bravo’s insurance company. from a group of proven killers. It was the
ing the CEO on a regular basis. At some She was reminded that Bravo had not worst possible scenario. MD
point, the CEO would be asked to brief opted for kidnap and ransom insur- Next month: Dealing with the families;
the board of directors on the situation. ance with their policy. This concerned setting up an incident management team.



Fidencio Antonio Gutierrez, cacao farmer

in Waslala, Nicaragua.

cept called payment for environmental

services (PES). The concept of PES is
simple: pay the land users (e.g. farmers)
for the environmental services they pro-
vide, which creates a direct incentive for
the land users to include these services
in their land use decisions.
PES capitalizes on the fact that rural
farmer families make decisions about
their livelihoods based on profit motives.
Their choices can either destroy or
protect the environment. The concept
harnesses the power of the market to
achieve both poverty alleviation and
environmental protection. It has the
potential to be a major driver to alter
our current direction.
To work, PES mechanisms need both

Payment for
an environmental service provider and
buyer of these services. One PES mech-
anism, sustainable agriculture ser-
vices, is providing a series of environ-

mental and social services, including:
• Incorporating organic, nonchemi-
cal fertilizer and pesticides to pre-
vent contamination of the water

table, soil, air and aquatic spe-
cies and reduce health risks to
the farmer and consumer. Organic
fertilizers have a cumulative effect
on topsoil and fertility, producing
Changes in market demand and use of profit sustained increases in soil fertility
incentives are creating new opportunities to further over the medium to long term, and
require fewer inputs;
human development and environmental protection at • Promoting genetic diversity of seed
the same time. and species varieties, and prohibit-
ing the use of genetically modified
By Jefferson Shriver, Chief of Party, Nicaragua, Catholic Relief Services organisms (GMOs);
• Managing pest, disease and

overty alleviation pro- often originates in forests, and ground- weeds using crop rotations, green
grams have long championed water is recharged there. Increased manures, mulching and integrated
the goals of food security and water scarcity and desertification can pest management;
raising the incomes of the poor be directly attributed to deforestation. • Employing water and soil conser-
as pillars of their missions. Yet envi- Pesticides, herbicides and fungicides, vation practices that reduce ero-
ronmental destruction is often seen which have been misused and over- sion and sedimentation; and
as a necessary trade-off for social pro- used in commercial and family farm • Using agroforestry systems, such
grams to succeed. agriculture, are contaminating the soil, as integrating trees and tall woody
This pro-poor versus pro-environ- food chain and water table. plants on farms and enhancing bio-
ment split has serious environmental The pro-poor, pro-environment dichot- diversity within the farm ecosystem.
consequences. More forests have been omy is no longer viable. We need new
Photos: Jefferson Shriver

destroyed in the last 50 years than paradigms to bring the know-how, inno- For producers to profit from sustain-
in the previous 500, as millions of vation and resources of development pro- able agriculture services, the services
hectares are cleared for pastures and fessionals and environmentalists under need to be packaged and commoditized
farms. Earth’s natural sponge or “sink” one umbrella. to the consumer. Such packaging of
forests absorb and store greenhouse An alternative already exists. Land environmental services is beginning to
gases such as carbon. Surface water users are beginning to respond to a con- happen through third-party certifiers



such as Organic, Rainforest Alliance and the Smithsonian’s ing for almost 10 million of that total.
Bird-Friendly (certified shade-grown crops) that provide an Certified organic products are by far the leading market
objective guarantee that the farmer is employing sustainable for sustainable agriculture services. Certified organic prod-
agriculture practices. Such certifications are applied and add ucts went from a $27 billion global industry in 2004 to a
environmental value to a wide variety of products, and fetch $40 billion industry in 2008, representing 15 percent annual
a price premium of 5 to 30 percent above market price in a growth. The market in the U.S. went from $1 billion in 1990 to
rapidly expanding market. $12.3 billion in 2007, and in Europe from $13 billion in 2003
My book Reaping Profits While Restoring the Environment: to $25.5 billion in 2007. While such growth is significant, the
Lessons from Central America (VDM 2009) highlights one market is still only 2.5 percent of the total global food mar-
potent example of how PES works. Germany represents the ket. Moreover, these products have been marketed primarily
largest and fastest-growing market in Europe for organic certi- based on their health benefits to the consumer. Retail com-
fied products. The German chocolate company Ritter Sport is panies are leading the way in
paying farmers who grow organic-certified, shade-grown cacao PES capitalizes on demonstrating to consumers
that such products are also
twice what they would pay for other cacao. That has translated
into a business opportunity for small farmers in Nicaragua. the fact that rural protecting ecosystems where
Cultivating cacao is so profitable that it is becoming as eco-
nomically viable for locals as cattle-grazing and logging. Thou-
farmer families they are grown and in some
cases also helping to mitigate
sands of farmers in the area are now rehabilitating abandoned make decisions climate change.
cacao plantations or reforesting land that was deforested in the PES, however, is not lim-
past 20 years in order to create shade for cacao using diverse about their ited to agriculture. Another
fruit and forest tree species. Beautiful diverse plots of forests
of hardwoods, fruit trees and cacao are now being erected in
livelihoods based PES mechanism is recreation
and landscape beauty ser-
areas that only five years ago were barren cow pastures. on profit motives. vices, packaged to the con-
Cacao growers in Nicaragua are among the numerous sumer in what is commonly
farmers in Latin America, Asia and Africa that have turned to called ecotourism. Ecotourism as a global industry is growing
organic production. The number of hectares of organic crops by 20 percent annually, as travelers are increasingly looking
worldwide has increased from 7.4 million in 1999 to 31.5 for “life enhancing” travel involving environmental and cul-
million in 2006, with Latin America, Asia and Africa account- tural connections. Many are seeking isolated wilderness and
opportunities to learn about the environment and culture.
Creature comforts and accommodations are not the primary
criteria used when deciding on the travel destination.
This provides a window of opportunity for poor people who
may be the inhabitants of pristine environments. In Costa
Rica, which has branded itself as an ecotourism destina-
tion—and to a lesser extent in Nicaragua—ecotourists are
beginning to pay local inhabitants directly in ecotourism ven-
ues for maintaining the rich biodiversity found there.
Many poor communities receiving assistance from interna-
tional NGOs live on or near natural reserves, on organic farms,
in sustainable villages or on cultural heritage sites. If the host
country is promoting a tourist-friendly climate with safe access
and decent infrastructure to these areas, there are promising
opportunities for community—NGO collaboration to establish
ecotourism businesses owned and operated by the poor.
Watershed protection services represent a third PES mecha-
nism holding profit potential for impoverished communities.
Properly managed watersheds protect water quality, regulate
water flows, prevent floods, control soil salinization and sedi-
mentation and maintain aquatic habitats. They provide water-
spring protection and potable water for human consumption
and for agriculture. They also provide business opportunities.
Potential and current consumers of such services include
hydroelectric companies, beverage companies, water compa-
nies or local water authorities, local and national governments
interested in natural disaster prevention and users of potable
water for human consumption and irrigation.
Sustainable agriculture, recreation and landscape beauty,
and watershed protection services are just a few of a number
continued on page 30



Liberating Nonprofits
DS: What are the right questions to ask

DP: Some of the right questions for

A conversation with Dan Pallotta. charities are:
1. What are your goals and what
Interviewed by Donna Stokes, Managing Editor, World Ark, the magazine of progress are you making toward
Heifer International those goals?
2. What challenges are you facing
and how are you trying to over-
come those challenges?
3. How do you know that you’re being
effective? Tell me what you know
about the effectiveness of your work.

The answer to the overhead question

tells you nothing about those three

DS: How do you answer the questions

about trust that arise from arguing that
nonprofits be allowed to use the tools of
capitalism, such as higher CEO salaries and
more spending on marketing and advertis-
ing, to be more effective?

n his latest book, Unchari- ful overhead. Investing in leadership,
table: How Restraints on Nonprofits educating donors and marketing events DP: Trust is a completely different issue
Undermine Their Potential, pub- to raise money greater serve the end from the rules by which the game will
lished in December 2008, Dan Pal- cause. If as a donor you demand that be played. People who are untrust-
lotta argues that society’s separate your favorite charity keep overhead low, worthy are that way regardless of
rulebook for nonprofits limits their you may very well be demanding that where they are. I don’t think we as a
capacity to address the world’s prob- the charity be less effective for it. Chari- society, despite all the problems we
lems in an effective way. An author and ties can’t solve long-term problems if have right now, are saying let’s jettison
entrepreneur, Pallotta has a degree in we hold them to this higher moral stan- capitalism. We’re still trying to bail out
development economics from Harvard dard and refuse to allow them to use the auto companies, still buying laptops,
and has organized fundraising events same tools of capitalism that allow for- groceries, clothing, etc., all produced
for AIDS, breast cancer, urban pov- profit businesses to succeed. by the wheels of capitalism.
erty and suicide prevention. His com- The overhead question is also the Because we cling to old ways of think-
pany, Pallotta TeamWorks, has raised wrong one because it doesn’t tell you ing, some people will look to examples
$556 million for charity over nine anything about the quality of the char- such as Bernie Madoff to find reasons to
years. Donna Stokes of Heifer Interna- ity’s programs. You may learn what per- not donate to charities. One has noth-
tional recently interviewed him about centage of your money is going to the ing to do with the other. People will be
his views on the need to change the cause but not what long-term result or greedy; people will bend the rules. That’s
way donors decide which nonprofits effect it might have. For instance, you not an argument for denying nonprofits
deserve their support. can put two soup kitchens side by side equal access to the tools that can help
and one has lower overhead on paper, them better achieve these ambitious
DS: In your book Uncharitable, you say do- but it serves rancid soup. The second world goals. We’re never going to solve
nors are told to ask the wrong question soup kitchen reports slightly higher big problems until we apply equal stan-
when deciding which nonprofits to sup- overhead but buys quality ingredients dards of economics to nonprofits.
port, namely, “What percentage of my do- and serves a healthful meal to more
nation goes directly to programs and not to people. We’re taught to give to the option DS: You said that your book is about
overhead?” Why is this the wrong question? with lower overhead, with no further dreams, not management. What are your
questions. But which one is more effec- dreams and goals for the future of nonprof-
DP: It’s the wrong question for many tive and more useful to those who need its and for the causes you care about?
reasons. The questions we should be it? You don’t ask about overhead when
asking are: “How do you intend to solve you buy a new pair of shoes; you’re inter- DP: I think our dreams ought to be out-
this problem?” and “What are the things ested in the quality of the shoes. Why rageous. End AIDS in 10 years. Make
you’re doing toward that end?” High should that be different when you’re poverty obsolete. If you say let’s end
overhead doesn’t mean there’s waste- talking about donations to charity? hunger within the next decade, it cre-



ates a whole different urgency. You in space and time. Nonprofits need to poverty in the next seven years, or that
start to see that to end AIDS in 10 assert real leadership and set goals in our overhead is less than 22 percent?
years, you’re going to have to consoli- time for the eradication of these great Educate them about spending money,
date these hundreds or thousands of social problems, take our cues from and you’ll find a powerful new under-
groups to get this done. A whole set of the Apollo program. Apollo offers amaz- standing and more willingness to give.
plans comes together that’s completely ing lessons for anyone trying to engage
different than not setting a definite goal. some huge, vexing problem. And isn’t DS: And do the donors have a role?
On a plane ride back from Toronto it time we find inspiration in something
recently I watched the DVD Moon that’s happening now? DP: The donor’s responsibility is to just
Machines on the building of various show up. It is the charity’s respon-
pieces of the Apollo space program. DS: What other steps are necessary? sibility to figure out how to get more
I’ve always been a huge fan of Apollo, donations, and the donor’s role is to
the last truly great thing that America DP: Educating and challenging donors. listen to what the charity has to say. I
achieved. And what’s interesting and We have to educate donors about what think we’ll find donors already bright-
distinctive about Apollo is that Presi- we need to solve these problems. We eyed and open-minded about doing
dent Kennedy in 1962 set the goal in live and breathe that stuff so we should what it takes to make the biggest dif-
time; he said we will see a man on the be holding big workshops and seminars ference. I’ve found from my talks that
moon before this decade is out. to change the perspective instead of all it takes is 45 minutes and they say,
The nonprofit sector has lots of cowering when they say our overhead “I’m with you.” People are anxious to
seductive phrases like “let’s find a is too high. Nonprofits need to say, make a change, to make donations
cure” or “we won’t stop walking until “Investment in our future is necessary smarter. The nonprofit sector and
AIDS is over” or “let’s end poverty” but and produces results and let me show America’s compassion have so much
no one puts their rear end on the line you why.” Charities need to stop follow- more potential than we’ve allowed it so
and says by when. When you listen to ing what donors want and start leading far. I believe if we take the shackles off
the Apollo engineers and see how they donors. That’s our real responsibility— charities, we can reap benefits the likes
turned that nine-year deadline into to set bold goals and educate donors. of which we can never imagine. MD
reality, it’s awe-inspiring. When I talk Which is more inspiring to a donor: to For more information please visit
about dreams, I mean solidifying them say that we’re on a campaign to end


DATA report

The G8’s
Report Card
ONE’s 2009 DATA Report reveals some
donors keeping promises, others facing
credibility crisis.
percent of national income on ODA.
By Joshua Lozman, Deputy Director, Global Policy, ONE
Italy and France threaten to drag down the entire G8’s
efforts. Despite an increase in global ODA in 2008, France’s

n 2005 at the Gleneagles Summit, the G8 made ODA to Africa fell from 2007 to 2008, making it far offtrack to
a host of historic promises to Africa. In an effort to help meet its 2010 commitment. Italy has utterly failed to act on
the continent reach the Millennium Development Goals its aid promises, delivering just 3 percent of its increases to
(MDGs), the G8 (excluding Russia) pledged to double date. As host of July’s G8 Summit, Italy must quickly reverse
official development assistance (ODA) by 2010, promote its course if it hopes to maintain credibility with African
increased trade and investment, achieve universal primary countries and its G8 partners.
education by 2015, cancel debt and improve access to health ONE also undertook a review of 2009 G8 budgets and
care, clean water and sanitation. likely disbursements. Looking ahead, ONE estimates that by
On June 11, 2009, at simultaneous events held in Lon- the end of 2009, the G8 will have delivered only a half of their
don, Berlin, Rome and Washington, D.C., ONE released its commitment to Africa; and 80 percent of the 2009 shortfall
fourth annual DATA Report, its in-depth look at how the G8 will be due to France and Italy. That means that in 2010, the
are progressing toward these targets. With the 2010 deadline G8 must deliver the entire other half to reach their target.
quickly approaching, have the G8 lived up to their important Regarding issues of aid effectiveness, the 2008 Accra Aid
promises? According to the Report, the past year’s efforts call Forum revived efforts to improve and monitor the quality of
for both applause and alarm. ODA, and while significant advances have been made—in
large part by recipient country governments—much more
Development Assistance must be done in order to reach the 2010 target. Critical to
By the end of 2008, the G8 had delivered only a third of the overall agenda is the need for increased transparency
the ODA increases promised by 2010: just $7 billion of the and reporting, aid predictability, use of national systems and
committed $21.5 billion. While the G8 is collectively at fault untied aid. In terms of how the G8 countries rank in terms
for this disappointing progress, some countries deserve more of ODA effectiveness, the U.K. ranks first and Italy last. Of
of the blame. particular note this year is Canada’s announcement that it
Three countries are on track to meet or beat their modest will untie all of its aid (including food aid) by the 2012/2013
targets: a significant increase in ODA to Africa between 2007 budget year.
and 2008 meant that Canada surpassed its modest Gle-
neagles commitment; Japan exceeded its 2010 target with Debt
a significant increase in 2008 and for the first time in three The G8 has largely delivered on its Gleneagles promises
years, it significantly increased its global ODA and its ODA to on debt cancellation. By the end of 2008, Africa had been
Africa; and U.S. ODA rose by 26 percent in 2008, placing it relieved of over $92 billion in obligations. Freeing up these
solidly on track to surpass its 2010 commitment. funds has allowed African countries to invest in underfunded
Two other countries are making progress toward much sectors, such as education, agriculture and health.
more ambitious targets. In 2007 and 2008, Germany signifi- But the global financial crisis threatens to unravel much
cantly increased ODA to Africa, and while it has budgeted for of the progress made in recent years. Eleven of the 20 Afri-
further increases in 2009, it remains a bit offtrack to meet can countries that have had their debts cancelled and have
its significant 2010 goal. And despite small increases in ODA reached “completion point” now risk falling back into debt.
to Africa in 2008, the United Kingdom’s recent budget called And a new report by the IMF warns that 31 low-income coun-
for historic global ODA increases, which, when achieved, will tries are at high risk of debt distress. Moving forward, to help
make it the first G8 country to meet its goal of spending 0.7 African countries avoid reaccumulating unsustainable debt,


DATA report

* Since Japan’s commitment to SSA was only bilateral ODA, this was all ONE considered when monitoring the percentage increase to the region. To generate a 2010 target, ONE
assumed a flatlined, multilateral 2009-2010 ODA.
** Because multilateral contributions are often disbursed in lumps, ONE combined 2004 and 2005 to establish a baseline for progress.

the G8 must issue more grants instead integration and, finally, greater flex- remains extremely small.
of loans, cancel debt for more poor ibility to allow African governments the Slow progress does not mean that
countries, and move more countries space to implement and evaluate trade lives aren’t being saved. In areas
from decision point to completion point policies. where targeted smart aid was deliv-
in the debt-cancellation process. In 2005, the G8 also made specific ered, remarkable results have been
commitments tied to the completion of achieved. An estimated 3 million Afri-
Trade the World Trade Organization (WTO) cans were receiving AIDS treatment at
On trade, the G8 is falling far short Doha Round. These talks, begun in the end of 2008, up from just 50,000 in
of their promises. In 2005, the group 2001, were meant to help integrate 2002. Thirty-nine percent of the people
pledged to “make trade work for Africa,” poor countries into the global trading at risk of malaria in Africa were cov-
and there have been small steps in the system. But eight years later, the talks ered by insecticide-treated bed nets in
right direction. African exports more are largely stalled. As long as they fal- 2007, up from just 3 percent in 2001.
than doubled between 2003 and 2007 ter, African countries will have trouble Thirty-four million more children were
and for the first time in 45 years, the breaking into the world global mar- enrolled in primary school between
continent’s growth exceeded 5 percent ket and earning sustainable income 1999 and 2006; and deaths among
for five straight years. through exports. children less than five years old have
But the bad news persists. Africa’s decreased from 12.7 million in 1990 to
share of global trade (3.5 percent) Investing in People: Health, 9.2 million in 2007. In order to build
remains the smallest of any region in Education, Agriculture and Water upon these successes, the G8 must
the world and the global economic cri- At the 2005 Gleneagles Summit, the honor all of their commitments, in
sis has meant a decline in remittances, G8 not only promised to double ODA to each and every sector.
a decline in global demand for exports Africa by 2010, but also committed to
and a major blow to foreign direct use this aid to help African countries Looking Ahead
investment (FDI). While FDI inflows to achieve specific development outcomes By the time this article is published,
Africa grew 78 percent from 2005 to in health, education, water and agri- the G8 will have met in L’Aquila, Italy.
2007, global investments were down culture. Unfortunately, the G8 are seri- We hope that the group will have
15 percent in 2008 and are expected to ously off track in delivering support to strongly reconfirmed their 2010 com-
drop further in 2009. reach for some of these goals. Progress mitments to Africa and will have begun
In order to make trade work for in particular sectors has been frustrat- to set the stage for a bold, new partner-
Africa, conditions must improve in ingly slow; the number of people with ship post-2010. With the global food,
five key areas. Africa must be given access to clean water and sanitation climate and financial crises, it is hard
enhanced access to developed country has only improved by 9 percent over to imagine a more important time for
markets, increased aid for trade to help 16 years; and though the number of the G8 to keep their critical promises
countries produce and deliver goods, a hungry are expected to rise due to the to Africa, and for the trust between
reduction in agricultural subsidies by food and financial crisis, the amount North and South, East and West, and
the G8 countries, stronger regional of aid offered for agriculture in Africa rich and poor to be strengthened. MD


ICPD update

Fifteen and
tices have damaging health effects and
claim the lives of thousands of women,
particularly poor women, each year.

Although some progress has been
made, in many countries abortion
is still criminalized in most circum-
stances. This hardly paints the picture
envisioned under the ICPD Programme
Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have of Action 15 years ago where, by 2015,
all people would have access to crucial
much to do to meet the 2015 targets of the ICPD sexual and reproductive health ser-
Programme of Action. vices.
The data on teenage pregnancy
By Laura Zaks, Public Affairs Coordinator, International Planned rates and contraceptive use in 1995
Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region and 2008 does indicate progress in
the region. However, aggregate coun-

ive years remain for gov- accomplish the intended goals. try data often mask issues of poverty
ernments to fully implement Latin America and the Caribbean, and inequality within a given coun-
the Programme of Action agreed a region plagued by inequality, still try. While a country may report prog-
upon at the International Con- has far to go to achieve the ICPD Pro- ress on average, further analysis often
ference on Population and Develop- gramme of Action targets, particu- reveals stark contrasts between the
ment held in Cairo in 1994. Known as larly with regard to maternal mortal- richest and poorest quintiles of the
the ICPD, this United Nations confer- ity, HIV/AIDS and the accessibility of population.
ence was the first population confer- reproductive health services. The ICPD Undeniably, poverty is a cross-
ence to move away from setting demo- Programme of Action set out to reduce cutting issue, relevant to each of the
graphic targets toward emphasizing the maternal mortality levels of the ICPD targets. Access to sexual and
people’s needs for, and right to, sexual 1990s by half before the year 2000, reproductive health services is inex-
and reproductive health. At this his- and to reduce those levels by another tricably linked to poverty reduction
toric meeting, 179 governments came half before 2015. According to data and sustainable development because,
together to affirm the inalienable rights from the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), without access to such services, other
of women and men to make free and there was only a 3 percent improve- targets such as universal access to
informed choices regarding reproduc- ment in maternal mortality levels on primary education, reduction of infant
tive health. The ICPD Programme of average for the region. According to and child mortality and the reduction
Action was the first document in which UNFPA, while more than half of the of maternal mortality are difficult to
the international community explic- countries for which data is available attain. According to the United King-
itly recognized reproductive rights as saw an improvement in maternal mor- dom’s Department for International
human rights. In addition to its empha- tality levels, nearly all of the countries Development, an estimated 32 percent
sis on rights, the ICPD also notably that were categorized as having high of maternal deaths could be averted
stressed the importance of women’s maternal mortality rates in 1994 saw through family planning—one of the
empowerment as a key component of further deterioration by 2008. most cost-effective interventions in
development. For these reasons, the While often overlooked within the public health.
ICDP created a significant paradigm global perspective, the Latin American To this end, it is urgent that all gov-
shift and became a milestone in the and Caribbean region is at a crucial ernments implement the following rec-
protection of human rights. tipping point where prevention efforts ommendations:
The ICPD Programme of Action set and access to treatment for HIV/AIDS • Institute comprehensive programs
2015 as the deadline to achieve the tar- and other sexually transmitted dis- and policies to reduce maternal
gets established in 1994. These targets eases could determine the future of the morbidity and mortality;
include universal access to primary epidemic in the region. The increase • Recognize the sexual and repro-
education, reduction of infant and in the number of women living with ductive rights of adolescents and
child mortality, reduction of maternal HIV in Latin America and the Carib- young people;
mortality and access to sexual and bean is particularly alarming. In 21 • Ensure youth-friendly sexual and
reproductive health services including out of 23 countries in the region for reproductive health services;
Photo: kreefax -

family planning. Reviewed in five-year which UNFPA reports data, the num- • Incorporate comprehensive sexual-
intervals, 2009 marks the 15th anni- ber of women 15 and older who are ity education at every educational
versary of the ICPD. Although progress living with HIV has risen, and in some level and ensure that it includes a
has been achieved, the experiences instances this rate has nearly doubled. gender perspective and is rights-
and outcomes of the last 15 years indi- Throughout the region, where abor- based;
cate that both much more attention tion is still legally restricted in most • Diversify and update the supply of
and greater resources are needed to instances, harmful, clandestine prac- contraceptives to ensure that the


ICPD update

full range of methods are available health and sexual and reproductive bon offset credit trading is still under
to every segment of the population; rights on the public agenda. Unfortu- development. The proposed American
• Decriminalize abortion and provide nately, however, the progress made is Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009,
access to safe and legal abortion insufficient and varies between coun- now under review in the U.S. Congress,
services; tries. To improve its accomplishments, could serve as a major boost to unleash
• Integrate policies that eradicate governments in the region must make the potential of carbon offset trading
violence against women, including it a priority to enact and implement over the short to medium term.
sexual violence; laws, policies and programs that pro- Payment for environmental services
• Guarantee universal access to pre- tect sexual and reproductive rights in provides an opportunity for partner-
vention, treatment, care and sup- the next five years. MD ship among those who have formerly
port for HIV/AIDS; For more information on the thought not to have much in com-
• Strengthen political will and finan- ICPD+15, visit and mon: greenhouse gas-emitting compa-
cial commitments to reach the nies from the Global North with rural
most vulnerable sectors of the families in the Global South, conscious
population; PES consumers with organic farmers, eco-
• Create and strengthen mecha- continued from page 24 travelers with burgeoning rural entre-
nisms of permanent dialogue preneurs. It represents an opportunity
between governments and civil of PES mechanisms surfacing today. for communities in watersheds to do
society in decision-making and As payment mechanisms for carbon business with beverage and hydroelec-
accountability; and sequestration develop, all three of these tric companies, water-spring owners
• Collect accurate and disaggregated PES mechanisms could fully incorpo- with water companies, and yes, inter-
statistics and data related to sex- rate carbon sequestration. While pio- national development agencies with
ual and reproductive health. neer initiatives such as Carbonfund. environmental organizations to work
org, TIST (The International Small toward the common objectives of rais-
The significant progress made to Group & Tree Planting Program) and ing incomes of the poor and protecting
date in Latin America and the Carib- Sustainable Travel International are and restoring the environment. What
bean proves that governments can leading the way on a small scale, a could be more important and timely?
make an impact when they prioritize global, functional mechanism for car- MD




Out Ou



n !

Page 30

The Lates
rian Assis
t Issues and
Trends in Internation
al Development and Huma
nitarian Assistance
The La
test Is
sues an
d Tren
ds in In
O hec
JOubt Ourk
pment Usin ional D

ds in In
tern ational
Develo g
for D Sport
ment an
d Hum
Pag tion
and Tren e !
and P velopme
ian As e 42
st Issues

The Late
eace nt

tion’s in Development
Anti- /MTV
Cam rafficking
2008 hts paign

Highlig The Five Stages

of Foreign Aid
The Militarization
of Aid Glob
Reform Grief a
Emp l Youth

Addressing C
Oppo risis or
Linking the Global rtunit
Human Rights Food Crisis

Meet h
and Developme Crea
Security Guard on C ANGE
Climate Change Management Dow
and Conflict
P The oten

tial ir
Deve g for
Prevention lopm

July 2008
2008 Vol. 26, No. 7
June 6
, No. InterAction
Vol. 26 tion

Vol. 26 2008
InterA No. 8

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MONDAY Developments

Program Director for Financial Education Executive Director
Washington, DC Berkley, CA
Microfinance Opportunities, a microenterprise resource center with a Seva Foundation is seeking a leader who is eager to join a team in guiding
focus on the consumers of financial services, is seeking a Program Direc- the organization in the work it does internationally and domestically. This
tor for Financial Education. Key responsibilities include: expanding the person should have proven operational management skills, and a proven
Global Financial Education Program by reaching new markets, explor- nonprofit fundraising record. Experience with medical/public health/de-
ing new avenues of dissemination, supervising and managing multiple velopment programs in low income and/or international populations and
large-scale grant and fee-for-service programs, leading a team of 5 – 10 a desire to work in a partnership/network mode to support the long term
professional staff and consultants, and developing and implementing development of self-sustaining programs is desired. If interested, please
a comprehensive marketing and communications plan. Requirements: contact: Steve Okano, Okano Associates, Executive Search Consultants,
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liverables, proven track record in successful proposal development, 5+
years experience working internationally in microfinance, finance, and/
or non-formal adult education preferred, fluency in at least one foreign US Gov’t Grants Manager
language, and an advanced degree. Please send CV and cover letter to Seattle, WA US Citizenship or work authorization required. World Concern is looking for someone with experience with USAID and
institutional fundraising plus direct proposal creation, submission, com-
Manager Public Sector Business Development pliance & reporting. This person will be responsible for building organi-
Baltimore, MD zational commitment to programs excellence by establishing and com-
International Youth Foundation (IYF) is a global nonprofit organization municating standards and procedures for monitoring and evaluation. To
that prepares young people to be healthy, productive and engaged citi- apply, go to and fill out
zens. This position is responsible for securing resources from public sector our online application.
sources, both bilateral and multilateral, for development of new programs
that support IYF’s strategic priorities. REQUIREMENTS: 3-5 years experi- Development Director
ence in fundraising, program development and/or program management
in the international development sector; strong network of relationships Beirut, Lebanon
Middle East and North Africa Division, Human Rights Watch. To be based
with USAID and other bilateral and multilateral development agencies;
in Beirut. Fundraising, advocacy and outreach efforts in the region. Imme-
strong proposal writing, editing, & budget development skills for USAID
diate vacancy. Please see full description and application guidelines on our
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vant field; second language fluency preferred. To apply go to: http://www. and click on the Jobs link.

Networking as they accumulate financial and other assets.

continued from page 19 However, network development requires separate fund-
ing, apart from the community development projects that
through South-South exchanges, gaining skills related to best typically receive grants and donations. As Katina noted, “The
practices and knowledge management. main challenge is the sustainability of the water systems.
The networks contribute in many ways to overcoming that
Political capital challenge: NGOs learn more effective approaches to working
Leaders from the most marginalized communities, particu- with communities, communities are empowered to be self-
larly women, gain advocacy skills and recognize and leverage reliant and we can speak with one voice on water issues.”
the assets of their networks to secure rights and resources. As this work in the field continues to develop, international
The focus is on constructive engagement with the govern- NGOs and others in the aid community need to collaborate
ment and corporate sectors and strategies for collaboration with Southern NGOs in three key areas:
that meet community needs and assist the ministries to • Documenting how networks function as assets in poverty
achieve their mandates. Government services are very lim- reduction, from the point of view of both the participants
ited in remote, rural, semi-arid areas such as West Pokot. By and development theory and strategies;
organizing a network, many communities are able to work • Identifying best practices in network formation and func-
with government representatives to find practical ways to tioning and in peer learning among Southern NGOs; and
access health, education, environment and other services. • Developing an outcome measurement process for net-
Often the nonprofit organizations serve as the service deliv- work development, capacity-building and advocacy work.
ery mechanism when traveling to these areas.
Networks can create assets in the form of knowledge, skills,
Investing in an upward spiral financial resources, political leverage, connections and access
When we combine implementation of community-managed to other resources. These assets fuel a dynamic process of com-
safe water systems—a first-generation asset-accumulation munity development and organizational growth that can have
strategy—with network development it reinforces the contin- long-term impacts. The network development process ensures
ued creation of both tangible and intangible resources. Net- that communities not only manage their own resources, but
works serve as “working” capital, fueling actions that con- also are able to increase their asset base, yielding long-term
tribute to meeting the basic needs of communities in poverty returns in the form of empowerment and poverty reduction. MD

32 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2009 To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email
Director, Cultural
Heritage Program
Baghdad, Iraq

Finance and
Mosul and
Baquba, Iraq

Deputy Director,

Monitoring and
Evaluation Team

Job Openings
1621 North Kent Street For more
Fourth Floor information,
Arlington,VA 22209 contact Christine
P: 703.248.0161 Dalpino at
F: 703.248.0194 703.248.0161 or visit www.ird.
org and click on
34 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS August 2009 To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email
Senior Marketing Associate
Washington, DC
The Senior Marketing Associate reports to the Senior Publications
Manager and is responsible for sales and marketing of InterAction
publications, communication outreach, promoting the Monday
Developments Magazine brand and other multi-media marketing
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Relations and New Media Manager in creating ways to use media and
marketing to help InterAction achieve its strategic objectives.

Basic Functions:
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• BA/BS in marketing, communications, or related field.
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Salary & Benefits

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