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Contents
Unit I. WHAT IS ENERGY? ............................................................................................ 5 Unit II. HEATING ........................................................................................................... 18 Unit III. ENGINES ........................................................................................................... 28 Unit IV. HEAT EXCHANGERS .................................................................................... 39 INDIVIDUAL HOME TASK 1 ............................................................................... 51 Variant 1 ........................................................................................................................ 51 Variant 2 ........................................................................................................................ 57 Variant 3 ........................................................................................................................ 62 Variant 4 ........................................................................................................................ 67 INDIVIDUAL HOME TASK 2 ............................................................................... 73 Variant 1 ........................................................................................................................ 73 Variant 2 ........................................................................................................................ 78 Variant 3 ........................................................................................................................ 83 Variant 4 ........................................................................................................................ 88 WORD BANK ................................................................................................................... 93 GRAMMAR REFERENCE ............................................................................................ 97 Passive Voices ................................................................................................................ 97 Exercises ...................................................................................................................... 97 Non-Finite forms of the Verb .................................... 101 ................................................................................................................ 101 . The Complex Object (Objective with the Infinitive Construction). .................................................... 104 . The Complex Subject (The Nominative with the Infinitive Construction). ......................................... 104 for. The For to Infinitive Construction ....................................................................... 105 I (Participle I) ......................................................................................... 105 .................................................................................................... 105 I ............................................................................................... 106

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II (Participle II) ....................................................................................... 107 II ............................................................................................. 107 . I .......................... 108 .......................................................................... 109 Gerund ....................................................................................................................... 110 Exercise...................................................................................................................... 113 Modals .......................................................................................................................... 116 can............................................................................................. 118 could ......................................................................................... 118 may ........................................................................................... 119 might ......................................................................................... 119 must .......................................................................................... 119 have to....................................................................................... 120 Exercises. ................................................................................................................... 120 (Reported speech) Sequence of Tenses ........................................ 124 Word Order in Reported Speech ................................................................................ 126 Exercises .................................................................................................................... 127 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 131

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Unit I WHAT IS ENERGY?


WARM UP 1. What main resourses of renewable energy do you know?
tides

Renewable energy

2. What do you think are the main advantages of using renewable energy technologies? Complete the sentence: In my opinion, the best kind of alternative energy is. Give at least three reasons to support your opinion. READING 3. Read the text below and answer the questions. 1. What device converts heat into energy? 2. What are hermoelectric generators made of? 3. What source can be used to generate electricity? 4. Where can thermoelectric generators be used? 5. What can thermoelectric generators provide for home owners who use outdoor wood furnaces? 5

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Almost free electricity Thermoelectric generator (TEG) is a device that converts heat into electricity. It is a unique application which offers practical alternative energy solutions for industrial, commercial and consumer applications. Having the ability to convert heat into usable electrical energy opens the door to many untapped energy sources and in a time when energy conservation, environmental issues and economic survival have become paramount concerns all over the world. TEGs are made from thermoelectric modules which are solid-state integrated circuits that employ three established thermoelectric effects known as the Peltier, Seebeck and Thomson effects. It is the Seebeck effect that is responsible for electrical power generation. Their construction consists of pairs of p-type and n-type semiconductor materials forming a thermocouple. These thermocouples are then connected electrically forming an array of multiple thermocouples (thermopile). They are then sandwiched between two thin ceramic wafers. When heat and cold are applied, the device then generates electricity. Almost any heat source can be used to generate electricity, such as solar heat, ocean heat, geothermal heat, even body heat! In addition the efficiency of any device or machine that generates heat as a by-product can be drastically improved by recovering the energy lost as heat. Below is a pot of hot water with 4-thermoelectric modules attached around the sides. The output from this simple thermoelectric generator (TEG) is about 8 watt and the light is a 12 volt auto lamp. Thermoelectric generators have been in use for many years by NASA to power spacecraft and the oil and gas industry to power remote monitoring stations around the globe. Only in recent years has this technology become available to the general public and TEG Power is at the forefront of this thermoelectric energy revolution. One possible use for thermoelectric generators is to provide supplemental or back-up electricity for home owners who use outdoor wood/biofuel furnaces. The diagram below reflects just one of the possible thermoelectric home power stations that could be setup using TEGs. It should be noted that just 500 watts of thermoelectric power added to an outdoor wood/biofuel furnace like the one below can 6

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produce 12 kWh of electricity per day, which is enough to reduce the average household electric bill by more than one third. Based on an average household usage of 30.66 kWh per day. The vast majority of wood burning furnaces today use gasification technology which produces clean burning hydrogen gas, making them extremely efficient and clean burning. EPA approved wood furnaces are eligible for a federal tax credits. 4. Complete the sentences. 1. It is the Seebeck effect that is responsible for... 2. Almost any heat source can be used to generate electricity, such as... 3. Thermoelectric generators have been in use for many years by 4. The device generates electricity when 5. 12 kWh of electricity per day is enough to. 5. Read the text below and choose appropriate answer for each statement. 1. The largest biomass energy resource now is a) wood b) oil c) coal d) industrial waste 2. Pyrolysis a) converts biomass into a gas b) filters gas before burning c) produces steam d) occurs when biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen; 3. Most of the biopower plants a) turn biomass into a liquid b) burn bioenergy feedstocks directly to produce steam c) generate electricity at a capacity of 5 megawatts d) the waste from livestock 4. Pyrolysis a) turns biomass into a liquid called pyrolysis oil b) can carry the gas c) burns bioenergy feedstocks d) releases the methane from the decaying organic matter. 5. Microturbines a) work like refrigerators b) work like batteries c) work where there are space limitations for power production d) work like greenhouses 7

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Bioenergy We have used bioenergy the energy from organic matter for thousands of years, ever since people started burning wood to cook food or to keep warm. And today, wood is still our largest biomass energy resource. But many other sources of biomass can now be used, including plants, residues from agriculture or forestry, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes. Even the fumes from landfills can be used as a biomass energy source. The use of biomass energy can greatly reduce our greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass generates about the same amount of carbon dioxide as fossil fuels, but every time a new plant grows, carbon dioxide is actually removed from the atmosphere. There are six major types of biopower systems: direct-fired, co firing, gasification, anaerobic digestion, pyrolysis, and small, modular. Most of the biopower plants in the world burn bioenergy feedstocks directly to produce steam. This steam is usually captured by a turbine, and a generator then converts it into electricity. In some industries, the steam from the power plant is also used for manufacturing processes or to heat buildings. These are known as combined heat and power facilities. For instance, wood waste is often used to produce both electricity and steam at paper mills. Many coal-fired power plants can use cofiring systems to significantly reduce emissions, especially sulfur dioxide emissions. Gasification systems use high temperatures and an oxygen-starved environment to convert biomass into a gas (a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane). The gas fuels what's called a gas turbine turns an electric generator. The decay of biomass produces a gas methane. In landfills, wells can be drilled to release the methane from the decaying organic matter. Then pipes from each well carry the gas to a central point where it is filtered and cleaned before burning. Methane can be used as an energy source in many ways. It can be burnt it in a boiler to produce steam for electricity generation or for industrial processes. Two new ways include the use of microturbines and fuel cells. Microturbines have outputs of 25 to 500 kilowatts. About the size of a refrigerator, they can be used where there are space limitations for power production. Fuel cells work much like batteries but never need recharging, producing electricity as long as there's fuel. In addition to gas, liquid fuels can be produced from biomass through a process called pyrolysis. Pyrolysis occurs when biomass is heated in the 8

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absence of oxygen. The biomass then turns into a liquid called pyrolysis oil, which can be burned like petroleum to generate electricity. Several biopower technologies can be used in small, modular systems which generate electricity at a capacity of 5 megawatts or less. Farmers use the waste from their livestock to provide their farms with electricity. These systems also help farmers meet environmental regulations. 6. Answer the questions. 1. What is bioenergy? 2. What sources of biomass can you name? 3. How do biopower plants produce electricity? 4. What are the main advantages of bioenergy? 5. What are major types of biopower systems? 6. How is methane produced of biomass? 7. What systems provide small farms with electricity? 7. Read the text below and choose appropriate answer for each statement. According to the text, 1. The largest solar thermal power station operates in a) California b) the Mojave Desert c) Brazil d) Europe 2. 18 % of automotive fuel in Brazil is produced from a) oil b) sugarcane c) ocean biomass d) greenhouse gases 3. Solar hot water systems in China are situated a) in deserts b) at the ocean coast c) in small villages d) on multi-family apartment buildings 4. Biofuels displace a) solar energy b) oil c) ethanol d) hot water 9

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5. Solar power generators a) can use automotive fuel b) can increase oil prices c) can cause climate change d) can reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases 6. According to Ban Ki-moon, a) renewable energy projects are large-scale b) Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs c) renewable energy is able to make poor countries the richest in the world d) energy is crucial in human development Renewable energy Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat. It is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources. Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: electricity generation, hot water/space heating, motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services. About 16 % of global final energy consumption comes from renewables. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 19 %. Wind power is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States. Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest of these is the 354 MW SEGS power plant in the Mojave Desert. The world's largest geothermal power installation is the Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugarcane that provides 18 % of the country's automotive fuel. Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA. While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development. As of 2011, small solar PV systems provide electricity to a few million households, and micro-hydro configured into mini-grids serves many more. Solar hot water makes an important contribution to renewable heat in many countries. In China most of these systems are installed on multi-family apartment buildings and meet a portion of the hot water needs of a growing number of households. The use of biomass and direct geothermal for heating continues to grow as well. Over 44 million households use biogas made in 10

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household-scale digesters for lighting and/or cooking. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy has surpassed that of oil. Renewable biofuels have contributed to a significant decline in oil consumption .The 93 billion liters of biofuels produced worldwide in 2009 displaced the equivalent of an estimated 68 billion liters of gasoline, equal to about 5 % of world gasoline production. United Nations' Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity. Climate change concerns, coupled with high oil prices, and increasing government support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization. New government spending, regulation and policies helped the industry weather the global financial crisis better than many other sectors. According to a 2011 projection by the International Energy Agency, solar power generators may produce most of the worlds electricity within 50 years, dramatically reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases that harm the environment. 8. Answer the questions. 1. What is renewable energy derived from? 2. In what areas does renewable energy replace conventional fuels? 3. In what way are renewable technologies suited to rural and remote areas? 4. What are solar PV systems used for? 5. What is the share of renewables in electricity generation and energy consumption? 6. What kind of fuels have contributed to a decline in oil consumption? 7. What are the advantages of using renewable energy technologies? 9. Read the text about Wind Energy and give every part (16) the right title (af). a) How Wind Machines Work b) History Of Wind Energy c) Horizontal-Axis Wind Machines d) Types of Wind Machines e) Vertical-Axis Wind Machines f) The Wind Amplified Rotor Platform

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Wind energy 1._____________________________ Since ancient times, people have harnessed the winds energy. Over 5,000 years ago, the ancient Egyptians used wind to sail ships on the Nile River. Later, people built windmills to grind wheat and other grains. The earliest known windmills were in Persia (Iran). These early windmills looked like large paddle wheels. Centuries later, the people of Holland improved the basic design of the windmill. They gave it propeller-type blades, still made with sails. American colonists used windmills to grind wheat and corn, to pump water, and to cut wood at sawmills. As late as the 1920s, Americans used small windmills to generate electricity in rural areas without electric service. When power lines began to transport electricity to rural areas in local windmills were used less and less. The oil shortages of the 1970s changed the energy picture in the world. It created an interest in alternative energy sources, paving the way for the re-entry of the windmill to generate electricity. 2.______________________________ Like old fashioned windmills, todays wind machines use blades to collect the winds kinetic energy. Windmills work because they slow down the speed of the wind. The wind flows over the airfoil shaped blades causing lift, like the effect on airplane wings, causing them to turn to a drive shaft that turns an electric generator to produce electricity. 3.______________________________ There are two types of wind machines (turbines) used today based on the direction of the rotating shaft (axis): horizontal-axis wind machines and vertical-axis wind machines. The size of wind machines varies widely. Small turbines used to power a single home or business may have a capacity of less than 100 kilowatts. Some large commercial sized turbines may have a capacity of 5 million watts, or 5 megawatts. Larger turbines are often grouped together into wind farms that provide power to the electrical grid. 4._______________________________ Most wind machines being used today are the horizontal-axis type. Horizontal-axis wind machines have blades like airplane propellers. A typical horizontal wind machine stands as tall as a 20-story building and has three blades that span 200 ft across. The largest wind machines in the world have blades longer than a football field! Wind machines stand tall and wide to capture more wind.

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5._______________________________ Vertical-axis wind machines have blades that go from top to bottom and the most common type (Darrieus wind turbine) looks like a giant two-bladed egg beaters. The type of vertical wind machine typically stands 100 feet tall and 50 feet wide. Vertical-axis wind machines make up only a very small percent of the wind machines used today. 6.______________________________ The Wind Amplified Rotor Platform (WARP) is a different kind of wind system that is designed to be more efficient and use less land than wind machines in use today. The WARP does not use large blades; instead, it looks like a stack of wheel rims. Each module has a pair of small, high capacity turbines mounted to both of its concave wind amplifier module channel surfaces. The concave surfaces channel wind toward the turbines, amplifying wind speeds by 50 percent or more. 10. Read the text and decide if the sentences are TRUE or False. 1. The earliest known windmills were in Egypt. 2. The oil shortages of the 1970s created an interest in alternative energy sources. 3. There are two types of wind machines based on the direction of the rotating shaft 4. The size of wind machines is always the same. 5. The Wind Amplified Rotor Platform (WARP) is more efficient and uses less land. 6. Vertical-axis wind machines are the most popular wind machines used today. 7. Ancient wind machines used blades to collect the winds kinetic energy. 11. Answer the questions. 1. When did people begin using the energy of the wind? 2. How do todays wind machines collect the winds kinetic energy? 3. What are wind machines used today based on? 4. What is a wind farm? 5. What is the difference between vertical-axis wind machines and horizontal-axis wind machines? 6. What is The Wind Amplified Rotor Platform and how does it operate? 13

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VOCABULARY 12. Fill in the blanks, use the collocations from the box. The example is given. a. wind energy b. oil shortages c. no air or water pollution d. a renewed concern for the environment e. higher costs for fossil fuels f. the glistening blades of windmills g. wind machines, h. negative impacts i. power plants j. they use sonar Wind and the Environment In the 1970s, 1 b. oil shortages pushed the development of alternative energy sources. In the 1990s, the push came from 2 in response to scientific studies indicating potential changes to the global climate if the use of fossil fuels continues to increase. 3 is an economical power resource in many areas of the country. Wind is a clean fuel; wind farms produce 4. because no fuel is burned. Growing concern about emissions from fossil fuel generation, increased government support, and 5. (especially natural gas and coal) have helped wind power capacity in the United States grow substantially over the last 10 years. The most serious environmental drawbacks to 6. may be their negative effect on wild bird populations and the visual impact on the landscape. To some, 7.. on the horizon are an eyesore; to others, theyre a beautiful alternative to conventional 8. Another problem with wind turbines has been their 9 on bats which has been a complete mystery because unlike birds, bats are able to sense the rotating blades because 10.. One recent theory as to how turbines kill bats is that the pressure vortex created by the turbine creates enough strain on the bats weak lungs to make them explode.

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GRAMMAR & VOCABULARY 13. Give Russian equivalents. Renewable energy, geothermal heat, conventional fuels, solar thermal power stations, an important contribution, the emissions of greenhouse gases, to pump water, to generate electricity, alternative energy sources, fossil fuels. 14. Give English equivalents. () , , , , , , , , , . 15. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form. The example is given. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Water power has been well known since its use in the 1. Egyptian and classical Greek civilizations, and at the outset of the . Revolution, it was .used in Europe and the Americas to grind grain and run looms and in other small-scale . processes. Today water power is by far the of all fossil, nuclear, and renewable forms of energy for electricity but the ecological caused by hydroelectric dams have caused many .. controversies. Ocean energy takes Egypt industry wide industry cheap produce disrupt environment

advantage of the .of water in tides or waves or of the move

10 temperature between sun-heated surface water differ and cold 11 deep water. A few energy projects have been built, tide but this 12 form of energy is expensive and remains largely produce experimental. 15

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16. Translate from English into Russian. 1. Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat. 2. Solar power generators may produce most of the worlds electricity within 50 years, dramatically reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases that harm the environment. 3. Renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity. 4. There are solar panels that generate electricity and those that absorb heat for hot water. 5. The oil shortages of the 1970s created an interest in alternative energy sources, paving the way for the re-entry of the windmill to generate electricity. 6. The concave surfaces channel wind toward the turbines, amplifying wind speeds by 50 percent or more. 7. Thermoelectric generator (TEG) is a device that converts heat into electricity. 8. Almost any heat source can be used to generate electricity, such as solar heat, ocean heat, geothermal heat, even body heat. 9. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources. 10. The gigantic concentration of people results in a multiple increase in the supplies of water, energy, and food to cities. WRITING 17. Read the text and write an abstract. What is a Thermoelectric Generator? Thermogenerators are the devices that convert any sort of heat into electric energy. The process that allows this uses phenomenon known as the Seebeck effect or thermoelectric effect. The reason why the idea of converting heat into energy is so appealing is that it allows greater efficiency in a lot of cases. Many of the devices that we use on a daily basis produce heat as a byproduct of using energy, so imagine what would be possible if some of that heat was actually converted back into energy! 16

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Even if it was just a small percentage, in the long run it would certainly add up and wed be wasting a lot less energy than we normally do. There are two applications of such generators. Automotive Thermoelectric Generator The idea behind the automotive thermoelectric generator is simple it will convert waste heat generated from an internal combustion engine back into electricity that can be used to power a vehicle. There are two types of these thermogenerators. One of them uses heat from the exhaust of the internal combustion engine, whereas the other uses heat from the coolant that is being used to cool the engine. Considering that about 40 % of a typical internal combustion engines energy is lost through heat, there is certainly a lot of potential for this type of technology. By powering a vehicles electrical systems (such as the headlights or radio) using electricity generated through this method less fuel would be burned to do so! Radioisotope thermoelectric generators are already being used to generate power for robotic solutions in remote locations such as deep space or the Arctic. Because they generate power via the heat released by decaying radioactive material they arent entirely popular but certainly have found a high amount of usage in satellites, space probes, and so on. If heat engines are a real possibility, it could help reduce the amount of fuel we use on a daily basis!

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Unit II HEATING

WARM UP 1. What are the ways of heating the house? 2. Which of the following would you choose for your house? Why? 1. Heat pumps 2. Furnaces and Boilers 3. Wood and Pellet-Fuel Heating 4. Electric Resistance Heating 5. Active Solar Heating 6. Radiant Heating 7. Steam or water heating READING 3. Read the text below and do the tasks below. Heat Distribution Systems Heat is distributed through a variety of ways. Steam heating is one of the oldest heating technologies, but the process of boiling and condensing water is less efficient than modern systems and suffers from lag times between the boiler turning on and the heat arriving in the radiators. The first central heating systems used steam distribution because steam moves itself through piping without the use of pumps. Noninsulated steam pipes often deliver unwanted heat. Fiberglass pipe insulation that can withstand the high temperatures of these delivery pipes is very effective. Regular maintenance for steam radiators depends on whether the radiator is a one-pipe system (the pipe that supplies steam also returns condensate) or a two-pipe system (a separate pipe returns condensate). Onepipe systems use automatic air vents on each radiator, which bleed air as 18

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steam fills the system and then shut automatically when steam reaches the vent. A clogged air vent will keep a steam radiator from heating up. Air vents can be cleaned by boiling them in a water and vinegar solution, but usually need to be replaced. Steam radiators can also warp the floor and their thermal expansion and contraction over time can dig ruts into the floor. These effects can cause the radiator to tilt, preventing water from properly draining from the radiator when it cools and cause banging noises when the radiator is heating up. Shims should be inserted under radiators to pitch them toward the pipe or the steam trap in a two-pipe system. Older steam traps often stick in either the open or closed position, throwing off the balance in the system. The best approach is to replace steam traps in the system. Steam radiators located on exterior walls can cause heat loss by radiating heat through the wall to the outdoors. To prevent such heat loss, foil-covered cardboard reflectors should be installed behind these radiators. The foil should face away from the wall, and the reflector should be slightly larger than the radiator. Hot-water radiators are one of the most common heat distribution systems in newer homes. They may be a baseboard-type radiator or of an upright design. The most common problem in hot-water systems is unwanted air in the system. At the start of each heating season it is necessary to go from radiator to radiator and open each bleed valve slightly, then close it when water starts to escape through the valve. To save energy in hot-water systems it is necessary to provide separate zone control for different areas of the building. Automatic valves on the hotwater radiators, controlled by programmable thermostats in each zone of the house will allow to automatically heat and cool off portions of the house. 4. Answer the questions. 1. What are the most common heat distribution systems? 2. What are the main disadvantages of steam heating? 3. What does regular maintenance for steam radiators depend on? 4. What can cause heat loss? 5. What is the main problem with hot-water radiators? 6. What are the ways of saving energy in hot-water systems? 7. Which of these systems is more effective from your point of view?

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5. Complete the sentences. 1. The first central heating systems used 2. Fiberglass pipe insulation that can 3. In a one-pipe system the pipe that supplies steam 4. Foil-covered cardboard reflectors . 5. At the start of each heating season it is necessary to go from radiator to radiator and .. 6. Programmable thermostats in each zone of the house will allow 7. Steam radiators located on exterior walls can cause heat loss 6. Read the text and answer the questions. 1. How does the heat pump operate? 2. Why does the heat pump reduce the amount of electricity needed for heating? 3. What does the installation of ground-source or water-source heat pumps depend on? 4. What is the difference between a heat pump and a standard central air conditioner? 5. What makes air-source heat pumps unsuitable for cold climates? 6. What other types of heat pumps do you know? Heat Pump Systems For climates with moderate heating and cooling needs, heat pumps offer an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Like your refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. During the heating season, heat pumps move heat from the cool outdoors into your warm house; during the cooling season, heat pumps move heat from your cool house into the warm outdoors. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide up to 4 times the amount of energy they consume. The most common type of heat pump is the air-source heat pump, which transfers heat between your house and the outside air. If you heat with electricity, a heat pump can trim the amount of electricity you use for heating by as much as 3040 %. High-efficiency heat pumps also dehumidify better than standard central air conditioners, resulting in less energy usage and more cooling comfort in summer months. However, the efficiency of most airsource heat pumps as a heat source drops dramatically at low temperatures, 20

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generally making them unsuitable for cold climates, although there are systems that can overcome that problem. For homes without ducts, air-source heat pumps are also available in a ductless version called a mini-split heat pump. In addition, a special type of air-source heat pump called a reverse cycle chiller generates hot and cold water rather than air, allowing it to be used with radiant floor heating systems in heating mode. Higher efficiencies are achieved with geothermal (ground-source or water-source) heat pumps, which transfer heat between your house and the ground or a nearby water source. Although they cost more to install, geothermal heat pumps have low operating costs because they take advantage of relatively constant ground or water temperatures. However, the installation depends on the size of your lot, the subsoil and landscape. Ground-source or water-source heat pumps can be used in more extreme climatic conditions than air-source heat pumps, and customer satisfaction with the systems is very high. A new type of heat pump for residential systems is the absorption heat pump, also called a gas-fired heat pump. Absorption heat pumps use heat as their energy source, and can be driven with a wide variety of heat sources. 7. What distinguishes the following types of heat pumps? absorption heat pump(a gas-fired heat pump) air-source heat pumps reverse cycle chiller ground-source heat pumps water-source heat pumps mini-split heat pump 8. Read the text and decide if the sentences are TRUE or False. 1. Mini-split-system heat pumps are small in size. 2. A conduit houses an outdoor compressor/condenser, and an indoor airhandling unit. 3. It is necessary, to locate the outdoor unit as far away as 50 feet from the indoor evaporator. 4. Mini splits have no ducts, thats why they avoid the energy losses. 5. Split-systems can also help to keep your home safer since there is no big hole in the wall.

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Ductless Mini-splits Ductless, mini-split-system heat pumps make good retrofit add-ons to houses with non-ducted heating systems, such as hydronic (hot water heat), radiant panels, and space heaters (wood, kerosene, propane) and if extending or installing distribution ductwork is not feasible. Like standard air-source heat pumps, mini splits have two main components: an outdoor compressor/condenser, and an indoor air-handling unit. A conduit, which houses the power cable, refrigerant tubing, suction tubing, and a condensate drain, links the outdoor and indoor units. The main advantages of mini splits are their small size and flexibility for zoning or heating and cooling individual rooms. Many models can have as many as four indoor air handling units (for four zones or rooms) connected to one outdoor unit. The number depends on how much heating or cooling is required for the building or each zone. Since each of the zones will have its own thermostat, you only need to condition that place when someone is there. This will save energy and money. Ductless mini-split systems are also often easier to install than other types of space conditioning systems. For example, the hook-up between the outdoor and indoor units generally requires only a three-inch hole through a wall for the conduit. Also, most manufacturers of this type of system can provide a variety of lengths of connecting conduits. If necessary, you can locate the outdoor unit as far away as 50 feet from the indoor evaporator. This makes it possible to cool rooms on the front side of a building house with the compressor in a more advantageous or inconspicuous place on the outside of the building. Since mini splits have no ducts, they avoid the energy losses associated with ductwork of central forced air systems. Duct losses can account for more than 30 % of energy consumption for space conditioning, especially if the ducts are in an unconditioned space such as an attic. In comparison to other add-on systems, mini splits offer more flexibility in interior design options. The indoor air handlers can be suspended from a ceiling, mounted flush into a drop ceiling, or hung on a wall. Floor-standing models are also available. Most indoor units have profiles of about seven inches deep and usually come with sleek, high tech-looking jackets. Many also offer a remote control to make it easier to turn the system on and off when it's positioned high on a wall or suspended from a ceiling. Split-systems can also help to keep your home safer since there is only a small hole in the wall. Through-the-wall and window mounted room airconditioners can provide an easy entrance for intruders. 22

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9. Answer the questions. 1. What components do the mini splits consist of? 2. What are the main advantages of mini-split-system heat pumps? 3. Why are ductless mini-split systems easier to install than other types of space conditioning systems? 4. How do these systems save energy? 5. What mini splits design options are available? 6. Which one would you prefer for your room? Why? 10. Read the text and answer the questions. 1. How does radiant floor system work? 2. What are the benefits of radiant floor heating? 3. What are ultra-thin electric heating mats used for? 4. What is radiant energy transfer caused by? 5. Where does he radiant energy come from? Radiant Floor Heating Heating your home with a forced-air furnace isn't your only option when you have concrete floors. You can save energy and create a healthier, more comfortable living environment by having the floor itself distribute the heatfrom the ground up-via a radiant in-floor heating system. The science behind radiant floor heating is quite simple: tubes that circulate hot water or electrical heating elements are installed in the concrete slab turning the thermal mass of the concrete into an inconspicuous radiator of warm, even heat. Among the many benefits: your feet are always toasty warm, the temperature is consistent and easy to control, you will not feel the drafts or hear the noise of blowing air, and no dust or allergens get circulated within your home through air vents. Best of all, you will typically pay lower utility costs than with a forced-air system, because concrete floor radiant heating consumes less energy to achieve the same level of comfort. What if you have an existing concrete floor? Radiant heating is still an option. Newer ultra-thin electric heating mats are available that can be embedded in thin-set cement or gypsum overlays, allowing retrofitting over existing slabs without significantly raising the floor height. Here is more information about what radiant in-floor heating is, how it works, the benefits of radiant heat and where to find installers. What Is Radiant Floor Heating? What exactly is radiant energy? Here is an excellent description provided by the Radiant Panel Association which installs radiant floor heating: 23

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Hold your hand over a cup of coffee and feel the heat. The logical conclusion is that heat rises. Logical maybe, but incorrect! Hot air rises but heat can travel in many directions. That is why you can feel the heat of the coffee cup when you place your hand to the side of it. Radiant energy transfer is caused by a warm surface giving up its heat to a cooler surface. Consider how the sun (10,000 F) heats the earth (61 F). The sun radiates its energy towards the earth. The radiant energy is absorbed by the earth and is released as heat. A radiant floor heating system simply radiates heat upward from the floor to provide optimum comfort and many other benefits. 11. Complete the sentences. 1. It is possible to save energy and create a more comfortable living environment by 2. Tubes that circulate hot water or electrical heating elements are installed in 3. A radiant in-floor heating system saves money, because 4. A radiant in-floor heating system radiates . 5. The radiant energy is absorbed by and is released as .. GRAMMAR & VOCABULARY 12. Match the words 110 with its definitions aj. The example is given. 1) furnace 2) heating 3) slab 4) surface 5) concrete 6) radiant 7) to consume 8) to radiate 9) to circulate 10) to distribute a) to spread throughout a given area b) a broad flat thick piece of wood, stone, or other material c) the process of becoming warmer; a rising temperature d) a strong hard building material composed of sand and gravel and cement and water e) the outer or the topmost boundary of an object. f) to send out rays or waves g) to use h) sending out rays of heat, light or carried, sent in the form of, or by means of, rays of heat, light i) to move through a space, circuit or system, returning to the starting point j) an enclosed chamber in which heat is produced to heat buildings 24

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13. Put the words into the correct form. The example is given. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A heat pump is a device that transfers thermal energy from a source to a sink that is at a. temperature than the source. Thus, heat pumps move thermal energy in a. which is . to the direction of spontaneous heat flow. The heat pump uses some form of low entropy energy to accomplish the .transfer of thermal energy from source to sink. Compressor-driven air and. are examples of heat pumps. However, the term heat Pump is more general and applies to devices which are .. transfer high direct oppose desire condition freeze use warm heat

to heat a conditioned-space that must be. than a cold environment 10 A heat pump can provide or cooling of a given conditioned-space.

14. Complete the sentences with the missing words. Use the words from the box.

a) to heat a building b) passing hot gases from a furnace c) of making a building comfortably warm d) the open fire, the fireplace, and the stove e) by a fan f) heated in a furnace g) cooler air in the rooms h) a boiler for heating the water i) connecting pipes j) metal enclosures containing hot-water pipes

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Heating, is a means of 1..relative to a colder outside temperature. Old, primitive methods of heating a building or a room within it include 2... In ancient Rome a heating system, called a hypocaust, warmed a building by 3.. through enclosed passages under the floors and behind the walls before releasing them outside. The principal modern systems that are used 4. are classified as warm air, hot water, steam, or electricity. In the warm-air system air, 5.., rises through warm-air ducts and enters the rooms through outlets, while 6. passes into return ducts that lead back to the furnace. The air circulates through the system by convection, i.e., the tendency of a fluid such as air to rise when warm and sink when cool. In newer buildings the circulation is assisted 7.. The hot-water system has 8.. that is sent through 9. to radiators and convectors, the latter devices being 10. surrounded by metal fins. The circulation is maintained by pumps or, in older buildings, by convection. See F. Porges, Handbook of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (1982). 15. Translate the sentences from English into Russia. 1. Heat pump technology has a vast potential for providing renewable energy and reducing energy consumption. 2. A heat pump is able to extract heat from the air, ground or water and concentrate it to provide heating for water or indoor areas. 3. The only energy required is that which is used to concentrate the thermal energy. 4. So the system can provide a heat output up to four times larger than the energy input. 5. A heat pump can potentially reduce heating costs by more than 50 %. 6. By reversing the process heat pumps can also be used for cooling during the summer. 7. Thus, a single system can produce space heating, space cooling and hot water. 8. Not only are heat pumps an efficient form of heating, but reserves of fossil fuels are finite. 9. Carbon Dioxide emissions are continually contributing to climate change. 10. Heat Pumps are operational around the world, producing safe, reliable heating and cooling.

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WRITING 16. Read the text and write an abstract. Heat Pumps for Your House Heat pumps are an ingenious solution to providing your home with renewable heating capable of providing all of your hot water needs. Heat Pumps are not that common in Britain, whereas in Scandinavia they are used successfully in the majority of new builds, in Sweden alone, 97 % of all new housing projects use them as their source of heating. Why? Not only are they an efficient form of heating, but reserves of fossil fuels are finite and Carbon Dioxide emissions are continually contributing to climate change. The liquid which circulates within the heat pump, boils when it absorbs the outside ambient temperature, the gas created is then compressed which in turn gives it more heat energy, up to 70 C. This heat is then passed through the Heat Exchanger which in turn heats the water used throughout the heating system. A heat pump is able to extract heat from the air, ground or water and concentrate it to provide heating for water or indoor areas. Ground Source heat pumps are dependant on an area surrounding a property. The cheapest method for ground source heat pumps is a horizontal loop which requires a large surface area. If there isnt enough land available then a vertical closed loop system offers the same efficiencies; however a vertical loop is more expensive. A Water Source heat pump is most suitable when there is a water supply near by, this could be a river, lake or a borehole. A water source is the most efficient form of heat pump. Air Source heat pumps can be installed anywhere where there is a constant access to outside air on the ground outside, on a wall or even in a loft with ducting to the outside. Heat pump technology has a vast potential for providing renewable energy and reducing energy consumption and heating costs by more than 50 %. By reversing the process heat pumps can also be used for cooling during the summer. Thus, a single system can produce space heating, space cooling and hot water.

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Unit III ENGINES

WARM UP 1. Match the pictures and the definitions of the word engine: 1) engine motor that converts thermal energy to mechanical work; 2) engine a wheeled vehicle consisting of a self-propelled engine that is used to draw trains along railway tracks; 3) engine a mechanical appliance, instrument, or tool; 4) engine an instrument or machine that is used in warfare, such as a battering ram, catapult, artillery piece, etc.; medieval engines of war.

a)

b)

c)

d)

2. What kinds of engines do you know? (steam engine, heat engine, automobile engine ,aircraft engine, donkey engine, switch engine, rotary engine, otorcycle ngine) 28

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READING 3. Read the texts below and do the exercises. I. The Origin of Engine Originally an engine was a mechanical device that converted force into motion. Military devices such as catapults, trebuchets and battering rams are referred to as siege engines. The term engine is a short form of the Latin word ingenious. In modern usage, the term is used to describe devices capable of performing mechanical work, as in the original steam engine. In most cases the work is produced by exerting a torque or linear force, which is used to operate other machinery which can generate electricity, pump water, or compress gas. An engine burns or otherwise consumes fuel, and is differentiated from an electric machine (i.e., electric motor) that derives power without changing the composition of matter. A heat engine may also serve as a prime mover, a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but ultimately all such devices derive their power from the engine. The term motor was originally used to distinguish the new internal combustion engine-powered vehicles from earlier vehicles powered by steam engines but nowadays may be used to refer to any engine. Simple machines, such as the club and oar (examples of the lever), are prehistoric. More complex engines using human or animal power, water, wind and even steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, and with ropes, pulleys, and block and tackle arrangements; this power was transmitted usually with the forces multiplied and the speed reduced. These were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. It is known that a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries. Some were quite complex, with aqueducts, dams, and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. Medieval engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, and used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. 29

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In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this, the simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe. 4. Answer the questions to the text I. 1. What kind of device is an engine? 2. What is the difference between the engine and the electric motor? 3. What kinds of engines were used in Ancient Rome and Greece? 4. What did the term motor originally mean? What does it mean nowadays? 5. What machines were used in the Middle Ages? 6. When and where was the first rotor motor invented? 7. How was the rotor motor used in war times? 5. Decide if the sentences are TRUE or FALSE. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Military devices were siege engines Simple engines were used in prehistoric times. An engine derives power without changing the composition of matter. There were no complex devices in Ancient Rome. The rotor motor invented in China was able to deliver sustained power. II. A Stirling engine A Stirling engine is a heat engine operating by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas, the working fluid, at different temperature levels such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work. Like the steam engine, the Stirling engine is traditionally classified as an external combustion engine, as all heat transfers to and from the working fluid take place through the engine wall. An external combustion engine (EC engine) is a heat engine where an internal working fluid is heated by combustion of an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger. The fluid then, by expanding and acting on the mechanism of the engine produces motion and usable work. The fluid is then cooled, compressed and reused (closed cycle), or (less commonly) dumped, and cool fluid pulled in (open cycle air engine). Combustion refers to burning fuel with an oxidizer, to supply the heat. Engines of similar (or even identical) configuration and operation may use a supply of heat from other sources such as nuclear, solar, geothermal or 30

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exothermic reactions not involving combustion; but are not then strictly classed as external combustion engines, but as external thermal engines. This contrasts with an internal combustion engine where heat input is by combustion of a fuel within the body of the working fluid. Unlike a steam engine's (or more generally a Rankine cycle engine's) usage of a working fluid in both its liquid and gaseous phases, the Stirling engine encloses a fixed quantity of permanently gaseous fluid such as air. Typical of heat engines, the general cycle consists of compressing cool gas, heating the gas, expanding the hot gas, and finally cooling the gas before repeating the cycle. The efficiency of the process is narrowly restricted by the efficiency of the Carnot cycle, which depends on the temperature difference between the hot and cold reservoir. Originally conceived in 1816 as an industrial prime mover to rival the steam engine, its practical use was largely confined to low-power domestic applications for over a century. The Stirling engine is noted for its high efficiency compared to steam engines, quiet operation, and the ease with which it can use almost any heat source. This compatibility with alternative and renewable energy sources has become increasingly significant as the price of conventional fuels rises, and also in light of concerns such as peak oil and climate change. This engine is currently exciting interest as the core component of micro combined heat and power (CHP) units, in which it is more efficient and safer than a comparable steam engine. 6. Answer the questions. 1. What is a Stirling engine? 2. How does it operate? 3. What is the difference between the external combustion engine and internal combustion engine? 4. What does the general cycle consist of? 5. What sources of heat do external thermal engines use? 6. What is the importance of Stirlings invention? 7. Decide if the sentences are TRUE or FALSE. 1. A Sterling engine transforms heat energy to mechanical work. 2. A Stirling engine encloses a fixed quantity of permanently gaseous fluid such as air. 3. A Stirling engine is not so efficient as steam engines. 4. A steam engine is safer than the Sterling engine. 5. A Stirling engine can use almost any heat source. 31

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8. Read the texts below and do the exercises. I. What Are Advantages And Disadvantages of The Stirling Engines Advantages Stirling engines can run directly on any available heat source, not just one produced by combustion, so they can run on heat from solar, geothermal, biological, nuclear sources or waste heat from industrial processes. A continuous combustion process can be used to supply heat, so those emissions associated with the intermittent combustion processes of a reciprocating internal combustion engine can be reduced. The engine mechanisms are in some ways simpler than other reciprocating engine types and can be made using common household materials. A Stirling engine uses a single-phase working fluid which maintains an internal pressure close to the design pressure, and thus the risk of explosion is low. In some cases, low operating pressure allows the use of lightweight cylinders. They can be built to run quietly and without an air supply, for airindependent propulsion use in submarines. They start easily and run more efficiently in cold weather, in contrast to the internal combustion which starts quickly in warm weather, but not in cold weather. A Stirling engine used for pumping water can be configured so that the water cools the compression space. This is most effective when pumping cold water. They are extremely flexible. They can be used as CHP (combined heat and power) in the winter and as coolers in summer. Waste heat is easily harvested (compared to waste heat from an internal combustion engine) making Stirling engines useful for dual-output heat and power systems. Disadvantages Size and cost issues. Stirling engine designs require heat exchangers for heat input and for heat output, and these must contain the pressure of the working fluid, where the pressure is proportional to the engine power output. The materials must resist the corrosive effects of the heat source, and have low creep 32

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(deformation). Typically these material requirements substantially increase the cost of the engine up to 40 % of the total engine cost. All thermodynamic cycles require large temperature differentials for efficient operation. In an external combustion engine, the heater temperature always equals or exceeds the expansion temperature. This means that the metallurgical requirements for the heater material are very demanding. Dissipation of waste heat is especially complicated because the coolant temperature is kept as low as possible to maximize thermal efficiency. This increases the size of the radiators, which can make packaging difficult. II. Regenerative Heat Exchanger In a Stirling engine, the regenerator is an internal heat exchanger and temporary heat store placed between the hot and cold spaces such that the working fluid passes through it first in one direction then the other. Its function is to retain within the system that heat which would otherwise be exchanged with the environment at temperatures intermediate to the maximum and minimum cycle temperatures, thus enabling the thermal efficiency of the cycle to approach the limiting Carnot efficiency defined by those maxima and minima. The primary effect of regeneration in a Stirling engine is to increase the thermal efficiency by 'recycling' internal heat which would otherwise pass through the engine irreversibly. As a secondary effect, increased thermal efficiency yields a higher power output from a given set of hot and cold end heat exchangers. It is these which usually limit the engine's heat throughput. In practice this additional power may not be fully realized as the additional dead space (unswept volume) and pumping loss inherent in practical regenerators reduces the potential efficiency gains from regeneration. The design challenge for a Stirling engine regenerator is to provide sufficient heat transfer capacity without introducing too much additional internal volume ('dead space') or flow resistance. These inherent design conflicts are one of many factors which limit the efficiency of practical Stirling engines. A typical design is a stack of fine metal wire meshes, with low porosity to reduce dead space, and with the wire axes perpendicular to the gas flow to reduce conduction in that direction and to maximize convective heat transfer. The regenerator is the key component invented by Robert Stirling and its presence distinguishes a true Stirling engine from any other closed cycle hot air engine. Many small toy Stirling engines, particularly lowtemperature difference (LTD) types, do not have a distinct regenerator component and might be considered hot air engines, however a small amount 33

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of regeneration is provided by the surface of displacer itself and the nearby cylinder wall, or similarly the passage connecting the hot and cold cylinders of an alpha configuration engine. In small, low power engines this may simply consist of the walls of the cold space(s), but where larger powers are required a cooler using a liquid like water is needed in order to transfer sufficient heat. 9. Continue the phrases. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A continuous combustion process can be used. The engine mechanisms can be made .. Dissipation of waste heat is especially complicated because . All thermodynamic cycles require .. The materials must resist.

10. Answer the questions to the text I. 1. What heat sources do the Sterling engines run on? 2. What makes the risk of explosion of a Sterling engine low? 3. What makes Stirling engines useful for dual-output heat and power systems? 4. Why are the metallurgical requirements for the heater material are very demanding? 5. What increases the cost of the engine? 11. Answer the questions to the text II. 1. What is the regenerator? 2. What are the effects of regeneration in a Stirling engine? 3. What factors limit the efficiency of practical Stirling engines? 4. What component distinguishes a true Stirling engine from any other closed cycle hot air engine? 5. What is regeneration provided by? 6. What is a cooler needed for? 12. Continue the phrases. 1. The primary effect of regeneration in a Stirling engine is. 2. The working fluid passes through.. 3. The design challenge for a Stirling engine regenerator is. 4. The key component invented by Robert Stirling is 5. The surface of displacer itself provides 34

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GRAMMAR &VOCABULARY 13. Complete the sentences with the missing words. Use each word only once. a) machine; b) motion; c) energy; d) heat; e) air; f) efficiency; g) fuels; h) power; i) heat source; j) climate change I. An engine or motor is a 1. . designed to convert 2 into useful mechanical motion. Heat engines, including internal combustion engines and external combustion engines (such as steam engines) burn a fuel to create 3.. which is then used to create motion. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed 4 and others, such as wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors like myosins in muscles use chemical energy to create 5.. The Stirling engine is noted for its high 6 compared to steam engines, quiet operation, and the ease with which it can use almost any 7. This compatibility with alternative and renewable energy sources has become increasingly significant as the price of conventional 8 rises, and also in light of concerns such as peak oil and 9... This engine is currently exciting interest as the core component of micro combined heat and 10(CHP) units, in which it is more efficient and safer than a comparable steam engine. 14. Match the words 110 with the definitions aj. 1. HEAT 2. MOTION 3. COMBUSTION 4. ENERGY 5. FLUID 6. STEAM 7. COMPRESSION 8. TORQUE 9. EFFICIENCY 10. CONDUCTION a) the process of continual change in the physical position of an object; movement b) the energy transferred as a result of a difference in temperature c) a chemical change, especially oxidation, accompanied by the production of heat and light 35

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d) continuous amorphous matter that tends to flow and to conform to the outline of its container: a liquid or a gas e) force that tends to shorten or squeeze something, decreasing its volume. f) the capacity of a body or system to do work g) the gas or vapour into which water is changed when boiled h) any force or system of forces that causes or tends to cause rotation i) the ratio of the energy delivered (or work done) by a machine to the energy needed (or work required) in operating the machine. j) the transfer of energy, such as heat or an electric charge, through a substance 15. Word building. verb 1. compress 2. 3 4. 5. restrict 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. depend noun compressive reaction operation significance adjective Compression different combustive applicable comparable

16. Insert the prepositions: (in, for, of, as). 1. The Stirling engine is noted . its high efficiency. 2. The primary effect of regeneration a Stirling engine is to increase the thermal efficiency recycling internal heat. 3. These inherent design conflicts are one of many factors which limit the efficiency .practical Stirling engines. 4. The appliance consumed a large amount .fuel compared with later engines. 5. The Watt steam engine was the next great step the development of the steam engine.

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6. The general cycle consists compressing cool gas, heating the gas, expanding the hot gas, and finally cooling the gas before repeating the cycle. 7. All thermodynamic cycles require large temperature differentials .efficient operation. 8. Dissipation of waste heat is especially complicated because the coolant temperature is kept low possible to maximize thermal efficiency. 9. The materials must resist the corrosive effects the heat source. 10. The Stirling engine encloses a fixed quantity permanently gaseous fluid such as air. 17. Translate the sentences from English into Russian. 1. A Stirling engine is a heat engine operating by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas, the working fluid, at different temperature levels such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work. 2. 3 Stirling engines can run on any available heat source, not just one produced by combustion. 3. In a Stirling engine, the regenerator is an internal heat exchanger and temporary heat store placed between the hot and cold spaces such that the working fluid passes through it first in one direction then the other. 4. Since the Stirling engine is a closed cycle, it contains a fixed mass of gas called the working fluid, most commonly air, hydrogen or helium. 5. The primary effect of regeneration in a Stirling engine is to increase the thermal efficiency by recycling internal heat which would otherwise pass through the engine irreversibly. 6. Combustion engines are heat engines driven by the heat of a combustion process. 7. The regenerator is the key component invented by Robert Stirling and its presence distinguishes a true Stirling engine from any other closed cycle hot air engine. 8. The working fluid can be a gas as in a Stirling engine, or steam as in a steam engine. 9. Medieval engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, and used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. 10. An engine burns or otherwise consumes fuel.

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WRITING 18. Read the text and write an abstract. Combustion All internal combustion engines depend on combustion of a chemical fuel, typically with oxygen from the air (though it is possible to inject nitrous oxide to do more of the same thing and gain a power boost). The combustion process typically results in the production of a great quantity of heat, as well as the production of steam and carbon dioxide and other chemicals at very high temperature; the temperature reached is determined by the chemical make up of the fuel and oxidisers (see stoichiometry), as well as by the compression and other factors. The most common modern fuels are made up of hydrocarbons and are derived mostly from fossil fuels (petroleum). Fossil fuels include diesel fuel, gasoline and petroleum gas, and the rarer use of propane. Except for the fuel delivery components, most internal combustion engines that are designed for gasoline use can run on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gases without major modifications. Large diesels can run with air mixed with gases and a pilot diesel fuel ignition injection. Liquid and gaseous biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (a form of diesel fuel that is produced from crops that yield triglycerides such as soybean oil), can also be used. Engines with appropriate modifications can also run on hydrogen gas, wood gas, or charcoal gas, as well as from so-called producer gas made from other convenient biomass. Recently, experiments have been made with using powdered solid fuels, such as the magnesium injection cycle. Internal combustion engines require ignition of the mixture, either by spark ignition (SI) or compression ignition (CI). Before the invention of reliable electrical methods, hot tube and flame methods were used. Experimental engines with laser ignition have been built. Gasoline engine ignition systems generally rely on a combination of a leadacid battery and an induction coil to provide a high-voltage electric spark to ignite the air-fuel mix in the engine's cylinders.

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Unit IV HEAT EXCHANGERS

WARM UP 1. What unites all these pictures? What do they have in common?

2. What is a heat exchanger?

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3. Match the words with the irdefinitions. The example is given. 1) coolant 2) refrigerator 3) heat exchanger 4) engine 5) furnace a) a medium, usually fluid, used to draw heat from an object b) a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another c) a device in which the coolant is pumped around by an electric motor, an appliance for storing food at a low temperature. d) an enclosed chamber in which heat is produced to heat buildings e) motor that converts thermal energy to mechanical work

READING 4. Read the text and do the tasks below. Energy Recovery Energy recovery includes any technique or method of minimizing the input of energy to an overall system by the exchange of energy from one subsystem of the overall system with another. The energy can be in any form in either subsystem, but most energy recovery systems exchange thermal energy in either sensible or latent form. An energy recovery system will close this energy cycle to prevent the input power from being released back to nature and rather be used in other forms of desired work. Heat recovery is implemented in heat sources like a steel mill. Heated cooling water from the process is sold for heating of homes, shops and offices in the surrounding area. Regenerative braking is used in electric cars, trains, heavy cranes etc. where the energy consumed when elevating the potential is returned to the electric supplier when released. Active pressure reduction systems where the differential pressure in a pressurized fluid flow is recovered rather than converted to heat in a pressure reduction valve and released. 40

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There is a large potential for energy recovery in compact systems like large industries and utilities. Together with Energy conservation it should be possible to dramatically reduce the world energy consumption. The effect of this will then be: Reduced number of coal-fired power plants; Reduced airborne particles, NOx and CO2 improved air quality; Slowing or reducing climate change; Lower fuel bills on transport; Longer availability of crude oil. Widespread use of energy recycling could therefore reduce global warming emissions by an estimated 20 percent. Indeed, as of 2005, about 42 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas pollution came from the production of electricity and 27 percent from the production of heat. Heat recovery systems in private homes can have an efficiency as low as 30% or less. It may be more realistic to use energy conservation like insulation or improved buildings. Many areas are more dependant on forced cooling and a system for extracting heat from dwellings to be used for other uses are not widely available. Ineffective infrastructure can cause losses of heat. Heat recovery in particular need a short distance from producer to consumer to be viable. A solution may be to move a large consumer to the vicinity of the producer. The transport sector uses about 20 % of the energy supply, most of the energy is spent on overcoming gravity and friction. Electric cars with regenerative breaking seem to be the best candidate for energy recovery. Wind systems on ships is under development. Very little work on the airline industry is known in this field. 5. Read the text below and choose appropriate answer for each statement. 1. Energy recovery systems a) exchange thermal energy b) consume thermal energy c) waste thermal energy d) produce thermal energy 2. Heated cooling water from the process of a steel mill should be a) cooled b) sold for heating of homes c) thrown away d) heated again 41

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3. Large industries and utilities for energy recovery a) have large potential b) do not have any potential c) are impossible b) have no opportunities 4. Heat recovery systems in private homes a) is very effective b) is impossible c) has low efficiency d) is the same as in steel mines 5. Electric cars with regenerative breaking a) have good potential for energy recovery b) do not exist c) are inefficient d) consume much energy 6. Answer the questions. 1. What is energy recovery? 2. How can the heated cooling water from the process be used? 3. What will the effect of reducing the world energy consumption be? 4. Is heat recovery system efficient in private homes? 5. Is energy recovery possible in the transport system? What can be done? 7. Read the text and match the questions (ag) with the parts of the text (07). The example is given 0a. a. How are the hot zones designed to operate? b. How may these systems be configured? c. What does the furnace system consist of? d. What is offered to match the system to the customers requirements? e. What heating elements provide temperature uniformity within the working volume? f. What are Automatic processing furnace systems (APF) used for? g. What is the highest operation temperature?

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Automatic processing furnace systems 0. Automatic processing furnace systems (APF) and ceramic processing furnace systems (CPF) provide fully automatic, unattended operation. 1. at temperatures to 2500 C. Parts processing may be cycled in under two hours with rapid temperature ramp up (> 100 C/min) and ramp down (>300 C/min). 2. These systems may be configured as a hydrogen furnace, a vacuum furnace or both. 3. Thermal Technology's APF and CPF furnaces are used for processing high purity advanced ceramic materials which are susceptible to contamination in traditional graphite furnaces. These furnaces also process refractory metals under high vacuum conditions at elevated temperatures and can be supplied without high vacuum pumps for processing under inert or reducing gas atmospheres. 4. Each vacuum furnace is supplied as a complete system including vacuum chamber, metallic heat zone, power supply, vacuum pumps and a programmable control system. Optional upgrades to the power supply, vacuum pumps, and controls are available to meet individual requirements. 5. Hot zones are designed to operate in wet or dry hydrogen, fully dissociate dry ammonia, inert gasses, nitrogen, or vacuum. 6. The large surface area heating elements provide excellent temperature uniformity within the working volume. Molybdenum sheet, molybdenum wire mesh, or tungsten wire mesh heating elements are used, depending on the operating temperature. 7. A variety of work volumes, temperature, and processing capabilities are offered to match the system to the customers requirements. 8. Complete the sentences 15 with the words ae. ) furnace b) hydrogen c) requirements d) used for e)operate

1. These systems may be configured as a.. furnace, a vacuum furnace or both. 2. Each vacuum.. include vacuum chamber, metallic heat zone, power supply, vacuum pumps and a programmable control system. 3. Optional upgrades are available to meet individual. 4. Hot zones are designed to in wet or dry hydrogen. 5. APF and CPF furnaces are processing high purity advanced ceramic materials. 43

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9. Read the text about OIL COOLING and do the tasks below. Oil Cooling Oil cooling is the process of removing heat from machinery and electrical components with oil as a transfer medium. The process typically involves circulating cool oil past the heat source, thereby allowing it to absorb thermal energy, and then circulating the hot oil to a cooling mechanism where it sheds the heat. Oil is an ideal liquid coolant medium because it has a higher boiling point than water and can be used for cooling components with temperatures in excess of 212 F (100 C). It is also an electrical insulator when free of moisture and impurities. The oils in cooling applications are typically mineral varieties produced as byproducts in the petroleum refinement process, though plant varieties are sometimes used. These byproducts of petroleum refinement are typically low to medium viscosity, colorless combinations of alkanes and cyclic paraffins. Several additives are included in cooling oils to enhance their performance including corona and arc suppressants, fire retardants, and corrosion inhibitors. This form of cooling is typically an immersion process where heat sources operate within an oil bath. The process relies on the oil absorbing thermal energy from direct contact with the hot equipment. Once heated, the oil then circulates through convection or is pumped out of contact with the heat source to a radiator where it sheds the heat into water or the air. It then moves back to the heat source to repeat the cycle. This process is a good example of heat transfer cooling where thermal energy is moved or transferred from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink or absorber. Electrical oil cooling applications include transformers, switchgear, and oil bath welding machines. Oil is also used to cool high performance electronic components; several experimental computers feature main boards and processors totally submerged in mineral oil. Mechanical oil cooling applications include machining operations such as cutting, milling, and turning where oil is used to lubricate and cool the tool tip. The lubricating oil in automobile engines also serves as a coolant, thereby absorbing heat from the combustion area and shedding it through a separate oil cooler or the reserve oil in the engine sump. Large industrial gearboxes and drive trains also utilize combined oil lubrication and cooling.

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10. Complete the sentences 16 choosing the right option ac. 1. Oil cooling is the process of a) removing heat from machinery b) producing heat c) absorbing oil 2. The process typically involves circulating cool oil past a) liquid coolant b) the heat source c) cyclic paraffins 3. Oil is an ideal a) liquid coolant b) thermal energy c) heat source 4. When free of moisture and impurities, oil is a) thermal energy b) heat source c) electrical insulator 5. This form of cooling is an immersion process where heat sources operate within a) electronic components b) oil bathc c) fire retardants 6. The lubricating oil in automobile engines also serves as a) coolant b) thermal energy c) electrical insulator 11. Answer the questions. 1. What is oil cooling? 2. Why is oil an ideal liquid coolant medium? 3. Under what conditions can it be an electrical insulator? 4. What kind of process is this form of cooling? 5. What does the process of heat transfer cooling consist of? 6. What do electrical oil cooling applications include? 7. Oil is also used to cool high performance electronic components, isnt it?

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12. Read the text and answer the questions. 1. Where are wooden granules usually used? 2. How is the movement of granules from buffer capacity to combustion chamber organized? 3. How long is the burning process? 4. How is the temperature of operation controlled? 5. What is thermal solar device used for? 6. How are wooden granules inflamed? 7. What is the disadvantage of such heating systems?

fireplaces and heating devices with free flame, which are placed inside premises and return warmth as a result of incandescence or convection. This method of incandescence is considered to be the most comfortable for people. Fireplaces contain separated from the combustion chamber special small capacity with granules store, from which granules are automatically moved to the combustion chamber. Granules burn in it behind the observation glass. The length of the burning process is from 24 to 100 hours. This reservation can be refilled by hand even during the burning process. Movement of granules from buffer capacity to combustion chamber is automatically organized with the help of screw. At the same time heating power can be fixed by hand or regulated with the help of thermostat (range of the power from 2 to 10 kilowatt or from 3 to 15 kilowatt). Some producers also offer heaters with remote control. Correlation of the air combustion, the quantity of granules and temperature of operation are controlled with the help of electronic-digital devices. It makes possible to improve the burning process, the emission of harmful substances is trifling and the coefficient of efficiency is very high. Fireplaces with hot-water heating, in opposite with forced-air heating devices, contain water reservoir to which hot-water supply can be connected. As a result fireplaces turn into central heating devices. In many systems water reservoir has such size that 6080 % of the heating power got to heating contour and the rest power in the form of incandescence and convection heating move directly to the heated rooms. The heater can not be used in summer that is why it is suggested to combine it with thermal solar device, used for warming of drinking water. But heating system of the kind (fireplace with water contour) can be used only for heating of objects with low warmth requirements, for instance for low-rise buildings. 46

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Heating devices working on wooden granules are automatically regulated. Wooden granules are inflamed by means of electricity. It is appropriate to combine boiler working on wooden granules with hot water storage device. Moreover the heating system may include heating solar device. Different combinations are available on the market: boilers working on logs, in which wooden granules as well as wood chips can be burned. The only disadvantage of such heating system is the need to remove ashes from time to time and regularly clean heating surface. Cleaning can be made in automatic regime, although this will require increase of investments. 13. Choose an appropriate answer (ac) for each sentence 17. 1. Fireplace is a) hot water storage device b) an electronic-digital device c) a heating device with free flame 2. Fireplaces contain a) the combustion chamber b) harmful substances c) thermal solar device 3. Correlation of the air combustion is controlled with the help of a) hot water storage device b) heating solar device c) electronic-digital devices 4. Coefficient of efficiency is very a) low b) trifling c) high 5. Fireplace with water contour can be used for a) warming of drinking water b) removing ashes c) cleaning heating surface 6. Heating power can be fixed a) by hand b) by boiler c) by combustion chamber 7. It is necessary regularly to clean a) heating solar b) device water contour c) heating surface 47

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VOCABULARY 14. Read the article. Choose the best word (A, B, C or D) for each space (110). A refrigerator (colloquially fridge) is a common household appliance that consists of a thermally 1. compartment and 2. (mechanical, electronic, or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external 3. so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature 4... the ambient temperature of the room. Cooling is a popular food storage technique in developed countries and works by 5.... the reproduction rate of bacteria. The device is thus used to 6 the rate of spoilage of foodstuffs. A refrigerator 7.... a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is 3 to 5 C (37 to 41 F).A similar 8. which maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer. The refrigerator is a relatively modern 9. among kitchen appliances. It replaced the icebox, which had been a common household appliance for almost a century and a half prior. For this reason, a 10.. is sometimes referred to as an icebox.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A A A A A A A A A A consumed heat pump kitchen below increasing reduce reduce divice combustion refrigerator B B B B B B B B B B insulated combustion chamber compartment higher inventing derive reduces derive invention icebox C C C C C C C C C C reduced energy recovery environment freezer decreasing maintain maintain decrease technique heat pump D D D D D D D D D D reproduced kitchen appliance foodstuff heater heating device maintains dissociate temperature household appliance

15. Match the words (17) with their definitions (AJ). 1) incandescence 2) convection 3) capacity 4) coolant 5) to insulate 6) to supply 7) to operate 8) to dissociate A. to perform a function; work B. a state or condition in which everything is regular, homogeneous, or unvarying C. light from heat D. process of heat transfer through a gas or liquid by bulk motion of hotter material into a cooler region E. separate (substances) into constituent elements or parts F. the ability or power to contain, absorb, or hold 48

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9) insulator 10) uniformity

G. a fluid agent (gas or liquid) that produces cooling H. a material or an object that does not easily allow heat, electricity, light, or sound to pass through it. I. protect from heat, cold, or noise by surrounding with insulating material; J. An amount available or sufficient for a given use; stock.

16. Put the words into the correct form. The example is given. A regenerative heat wheel is a revolving disc filled with an air-permeable medium .. a desiccant. When the air passes through the medium, heat energy and . are transferred to the medium. As the medium .... into the opposing 5 air stream, the warmed, moist medium the heat 6 and moisture to the ..-flowing air stream. Therefore, a heat 7 wheel can either: reduce of warm, moist outside air into 8 the lab.., or recover heat and moisture that would 9 have been .exhausted for the building. There has been 10 a. interest in heat wheels since molecular sieve coatings have been used that ensure minimal contaminant transfer. 1 2 3 4 17. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. Thermal energy is generated and measured by heat of any kind. 2. Most energy recovery systems exchange thermal energy in either sensible or latent form. 3. There is a large potential for energy recovery in compact systems like large industries and utilities. 4. Wooden granules are usually used with the purpose of burning in fireplaces and heating devices with free flame. 5. This method of incandescence is considered to be the most comfortable for people. 6. These systems may be configured as a hydrogen furnace, a vacuum furnace or both. 7. Each vacuum furnace is supplied as a complete system including vacuum chamber, metallic heat zone, power supply, vacuum pumps and a programmable control system. 49 regenerate include moist rotate transfer oppose enter build simple renew

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8. Oil cooling is the process of removing heat from machinery and electrical components with oil as a transfer medium. 9. This form of cooling is typically an immersion process where heat sources operate within an oil bath. 10. Oil is also used to cool high performance electronic components. WRITING 18. Read the text and write an abstract. Heat Exchangers A device used to transfer heat from a fluid flowing on one side of a barrier to another fluid flowing on the other side of the barrier. When used to accomplish simultaneous heat transfer and mass transfer, heat exchangers become special equipment types, often known by other names. When fired directly by a combustion process, they become furnaces, boilers, heaters, tube-still heaters, and engines. If there is a change in phase in one of the flowing fluids condensation of steam to water, for example the equipment may be called a chiller, evaporator, sublimator, distillation-column reboiler, still, condenser, or cooler-condenser. Heat exchangers may be so designed that chemical reactions or energygeneration processes can be carried out within them, e.g. a nuclear reactor, catalytic reactor, or polymerizer. Heat exchangers are normally used for the transfer and useful elimination or recovery of heat without an accompanying phase change. The fluids on either side of the barrier are usually liquids, but they may also be gases such as steam, air, or hydrocarbon vapors; they may be liquid metals such as sodium or mercury. Most often the barrier between the fluids is a metal wall such as that of a tube or pipe. It can be fabricated from flat metal plate, graphite, plastic, or other corrosion-resistant materials of construction. Heat exchangers find wide application in the chemical process industries, including petroleum refining; in the food industry for pasteurization of milk and canning of processed foods; in the generation of steam for production of power and electricity; in nuclear reaction systems; in aircraft and space vehicles; and in the field of cryogenics for the lowtemperature separation of gases. Heat exchangers are the workhorses of the entire field of heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration. (http://www.answers.com/topic/heat-exchanger) 50

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INDIVIDUAL HOME TASK 1

Variant 1
READING Text 1. Read the text and choose the right ending (ac) for each sentence (110). 1. A heat pump is a device that a) transfers thermal energy b) consumes thermal energy c) produces thermal energy 2. Heat pump a) warms a building b) cools a building c) warms or cools a building 3. Heat is transferred from a) a relatively low-temperature reservoir to one at a higher temperature) b) the energy of the sun c) cool air 4. People need a) more heat b) more efficient ways to utilize heat c) the heat pump industry 5. Air conditioners a) are not heat pumps b) are used to produce heat pumps c) are examples of heat pumps 6. Heat pumps do not a) provide heating in the winter and cooling in the summer b) displace heat energy to a more useful location and purpose c) send electricity through power lines 7. Liquid and/or gas medium a) changes phases as a result of altering pressure b) changes phases as a result of lowering pressure c) do not change phases 8. The demand for more efficient ways .. is rising. a) to produce air conditioners b) to utilize heat and energy c) to control temperatures 51

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9. Heat pumps are a) very cheap b) not useful c) relatively costly to setup 10. Heat pump system a) produces electricity b) provides a more economical and efficient way to control temperatures and reuse existing heat energy c) consumes thermal energy Heat Pump System Heat pump is a device that warms or cools a building by transferring heat from a relatively low-temperature reservoir to one at a higher temperature. As a result of society's increasing concern for ecological and environmental issues, the demand for more efficient ways to utilize heat and energy is rising. The heat pump industry uses technological advances such as year-round space heating to displace heat energy to a more useful location and purpose. This concept is accomplished by providing localized or redirected heat, while exchanging cool air with heated air. The principles of heat pumps are actually the reverse of the technological and thermodynamic principles of an air conditioner unit. The majority of them give the added benefit of providing both heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. This can be accomplished simply by reversing the flow of the working fluid circulating through the coils. The heat pump is an entire thermodynamic system whereby a liquid and/or gas medium is pumped through an assembly where it changes phases as a result of altering pressure. Although relatively costly to setup, the heat pump system provides a more economical and efficient way to control temperatures and reuse existing heat energy. Text 2. Read the text and match the questions (AF) to the numbered spaces (15), as in the example (0). A. B. C. D. E. F. How is geothermal hot water used? Where do reservoirs of hot water exist? What are the main benefits of geothermal resources? What makes geothermal power plants environmentally clean? What fuel is needed for using geothermal resources for power production? How can the rate of energy extraction be balanced with a reservoir's natural heat recharge rate? 52

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What is a geothermal resource? 0. Geothermal resources are reservoirs of hot water that exist at varying temperatures and depths below the Earth's surface. 1. Mile-or-more-deep wells can be drilled into underground reservoirs to tap steam and very hot water that can be brought to the surface for use in a variety of applications, including electricity generation, direct use, and heating and cooling. 2. Geothermal energy is a vast underutilized heat and power resource that is renewable, baseload, domestic and clean. 3. Renewable Through proper reservoir management, the rate of energy extraction can be balanced with a reservoir's natural heat recharge rate. Baseload Geothermal power plants produce electricity consistently, running 24 hours per day / 7 days per week, regardless of weather conditions. 4. Domestic geothermal resources can be harnessed for power production without importing fuel. Small Footprint Geothermal power plants are compact; using less land per GWh (404 mi2) than coal (3642 mi2) wind (1335 mi2) or solar PV with center station (3237 mi2). 5. Clean Modern closed-loop geothermal power plants emit no greenhouse gasses. Geothermal power plants consume less water on average over the lifetime energy output than the most conventional generation technologies. VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR TEST Choose the correct item. 1. Thermogenerators are the devices that 1 any sort of heat into electric energy. a) convert b) consume c) waste 2. The idea of converting 2 into energy is so appealing because it allows greater efficiency. a) hot b) heat c) heating 53

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3. Many of the devices 2. heat as a byproduct of using energy. a) produce b) share c) residue 4. Renewable energy 3 the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity. a) have b) has c) haves 5. Wood .is often used to produce both electricity and steam at paper mills. a) water b plants c) waste 6) Liquid fuels can be . from biomass through a process called pyrolysis. a) produced b) produce c) produces 7. Windmills .because they slow down the speed of the wind. a) works b) work c) to work 8. The most common problem in hot-water systems is . air in the system. a) unwanted b) hot c) cold 9. Heat can provide your home with renewable heating capable of providing all of your hot water needs. a) pumps b) consumption c) production 10. Old, primitive methods.. heating a building include the open fire, the fireplace, and the stove. a) in b) at c) of

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TRANSLATION Translate the sentences from English into Russian. 1. The ecological and economic benefits to the world in the development of these systems would be huge. 2. Already today, wind power is the worlds most rapidly growing modern type of energy. 3. Heat is distributed through your home through a variety of ways. 4. Steam heating is one of the oldest heating technologies. 5. Hot-water radiators are one of the most common heat distribution systems. 6. Almost any heat source can be used to generate electricity, such as solar heat, ocean heat, geothermal heat, even body heat. 7. About 16 % of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10 % coming from traditional biomass. 8. The amount of power generated by a PV system at a particular site depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches it. 9. Thermal pump belongs among alternative energy sources. 10. Heat Pumps are not that common in Britain, whereas in Scandinavia they are used successfully. Read the text and write an abstract. Geothermal Direct Use Many technologies have been developed to take advantage of geothermal energy the heat from the earth. This heat can be drawn from several sources: hot water or steam reservoirs deep in the earth that are accessed by drilling; geothermal reservoirs located near the earth's surface. This variety of geothermal resources allows them to be used on both large and small scales. A utility can use the hot water and steam from reservoirs to drive generators and produce electricity. Other applications apply the heat produced from geothermal directly to various uses in buildings, roads, agriculture, and industrial plants. Still others use the heat directly from the ground to provide heating and cooling in homes and other buildings. Geothermal direct use has a long history, going back to when people began using hot springs for bathing, cooking food, and loosening feathers and skin from game. Today, hot springs are still used as spas. But there are now more sophisticated ways of using this geothermal resource. 55

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In modern direct-use systems, a well is drilled into a geothermal reservoir to provide a steady stream of hot water. The water is brought up through the well, and a mechanical system piping, a heat exchanger, and controls delivers the heat directly for its intended use. A disposal system then either injects the cooled water underground or disposes of it on the surface. Geothermal hot water can be used for many applications including heating buildings, raising plants in greenhouses, drying crops, heating water at fish farms, and several industrial processes, such as pasteurizing milk.

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Variant 2
READING Text 1. Read the article about Thermal Energy. Choose the best word (A, B or C) for each space (18). Thermal Energy is a 0. A (part) of the internal energy of a system which is the total present kinetic energy resulting from the random 1. of atoms and molecules. The ultimate source of 2.... energy available to mankind is 3..., the huge thermo-nuclear furnace that supplies the earth with the 4.. and light that are essential to life. The nuclear fusion in the sun increases the sun's thermal 5 Once the thermal energy leaves the sun (in the form of 6..) it is called heat. Heat is thermal energy in transfer. Thermal energy is part of the overall internal energy of a system. When you put your hand over a hot stove you can feel the 7... You are feeling thermal energy in transfer. 8. in the metal of the burner are moving very rapidly because the electrical energy from the wall outlet has 9... the thermal energy in the burner. We all know what happens when we rub our hands together. Our 10. energy increases the thermal energy content of the atoms in our hands and skin. We then feel the consequence of this heat. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 part movements conventional the sun wind heat light heat the sun and the moon 9 A increased 10 A thermal A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B peace heat heat the moon heat energy wind radiation the atoms and molecules B decreased B conventional C C C C C C C C C lump pump thermal the universe cold movement radiation light the earth and the sun

C moved C mechanical

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Text 2. Read the article about solar cells, and match the questions (AF) to the numbered spaces (15), as in the example (0). A. What is a solar cell? B. What energy is generated from solar modules? C. What are solar modules used for? E. What are photovoltaics used for? D. What is used for detecting light or other electromagnetic radiation? F. What is a solar panel? 0. A A solar cell (also called photovoltaic cell or photoelectric cell) is a solid state electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. 1. ___________________________________________ Assemblies of solar cells are used to make solar modules which are used to capture energy from sunlight. 2. ___________________________________________ When multiple modules are assembled together (such as prior to installation on a pole-mounted tracker system), the resulting integrated group of modules all oriented in one plane is referred to in the solar industry as a solar panel. 3. ___________________________________________ The electrical energy generated from solar modules, referred to as solar power, is an example of solar energy. 4. ____________________________________________ Photovoltaics is the field of technology and research related to the practical application of photovoltaic cells in producing electricity from light, though it is often used specifically to refer to the generation of electricity from sunlight. 5. ____________________________________________ Cells are described as photovoltaic cells when the light source is not necessarily sunlight (lamplight, artificial light, etc.). These are used for detecting light or other electromagnetic radiation near the visible range, for example infrared detectors, or measurement of light intensity.

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VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR TEST Choose the correct item. 1. Thermoelectric generator (TEG) is a device that converts into electricity a) capacity b) heat c) share 2. Almost any heat source can be used to .. electricity. a) derive b) reduce c) generate 3. The vast majority of wood burning .. today use gasification technology a) furnaces b) residue c) waste 4. Renewable energy is from natural processes that are replenished constantly a) derive b) derives c) derived 5. Renewable energy replaces conventional a) fuels b) heat c) waste 6. The use of biomass energy can greatly our greenhouse gas emissions. a) reduced b) reduce c) reduces 7. The earliest known windmills in Persia. a) was b) are c) were 8. Steam radiators located on exterior walls can cause heat loss by radiating .. through the wall to the outdoors. a) waste b) heat c) furnace 9. The first central heating systems used steam a) distribute b) distribution c) distributing 59

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10. A radiant floor heating system simply .. heat upward from the floor to provide optimum comfort a) radiates b) consumes c) wastes Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. Thermogenerators are the devices that convert any sort of heat into electric energy. 2. The reason why the idea of converting heat into energy is so appealing is that it allows greater efficiency in a lot of cases. 3. Many of the devices that we use on a daily basis produce heat as a byproduct of using energy. 4. Most of the biopower plants in the world burn bioenergy feedstocks directly to produce steam. 5. Wood waste is often used to produce both electricity and steam at paper mills. 6. Liquid fuels can be produced from biomass through a process called pyrolysis. 7. Windmills work because they slow down the speed of the wind. 8. The most common problem in hot-water systems is unwanted air in the system. 9. Heat pumps are an ingenious solution to providing your home with renewable heating capable of providing all of your hot water needs. 10. Old, primitive methods of heating a building or a room within it include the open fire, the fireplace, and the stove. Read the text and write an abstract. How Can Nanotechnology Improve Solar Cells Using nanoparticles in the manufacture of solar cells has the following benefits: Reduced manufacturing costs as a result of using a low temperature process similar to printing instead of the high temperature vacuum deposition process typically used to produce conventional cells made with crystalline semiconductor material.

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Reduced installation costs achieved by producing flexible rolls instead of rigid crystalline panels. Cells made from semiconductor thin films will also have this characteristic. Currently available nanotechnology solar cells are not as efficient as traditional ones, however their lower cost offsets this. In the long term nanotechnology versions should both be lower cost and, using quantum dots, should be able to reach higher efficiency levels than conventional ones. Combining lead selenide quantum dots with titanium dioxide to form higher higher efficiency solar cells. Combining carbon nanotubes, bucky-balls and polymers to produce inexpensive solar cells that can be formed by simply painting a surface. Researchers at Stanford University have found a way to trap light in organic solar cells. The idea is that the longer light is in the solar cell the more electrons will be generated. The researchers found that by making the organic layer much thinner than the wavelength of light and sandwiching the organic layer between a mirror layer and a rough layer the light stayed in the solar cell longer and excited more electrons. Nanoparticles in plastic film to form solar cells that can be incorporated into cases for devices such as mobile phones and laptop computers.

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Variant 3
READING Text 1. Read the article about Thermal Energy. Choose the best word (A, B or C) for each space (18). Thermal Energy is a 0. A (part) of the internal energy of a system which is the total present kinetic energy resulting from the random1... of atoms and molecules. The ultimate source of 2..... energy available to mankind is 3..., the huge thermo-nuclear furnace that supplies the earth with the 4... and light that are essential to life. The nuclear fusion in the sun increases the sun's thermal 5 Once the thermal energy leaves the sun (in the form of 6..) it is called heat. Heat is thermal energy in transfer. Thermal energy is part of the overall internal energy of a system. When you put your hand over a hot stove you can feel the 7.. You are feeling thermal energy in transfer. 8. in the metal of the burner are moving very rapidly because the electrical energy from the wall outlet has 9... the thermal energy in the burner. We all know what happens when we rub our hands together. Our 10. energy increases the thermal energy content of the atoms in our hands and skin. We then feel the consequence of this heat. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 part movements conventional the sun wind heat light heat the sun and the moon 9 A increased 10 A thermal A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B peace heat heat the moon heat energy wind radiation the atoms and molecules B decreased B conventional C C C C C C C C C lump pump thermal the universe cold movement radiation light the earth and the sun

C moved C mechanical

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Text 2. Read the text and match the questions (AF) to the numbered spaces (15), as in the example (0). G. H. I. J. K. L. How is geothermal hot water used? Where do reservoirs of hot water exist? What are the main benefits of geothermal resources? What makes geothermal power plants environmentally clean? What fuel is needed for using geothermal resources for power production? How can the rate of energy extraction be balanced with a reservoir's natural heat recharge rate? What is a geothermal resource? 0. Geothermal resources are reservoirs of hot water that exist at varying temperatures and depths below the Earth's surface. 1. Mile-or-more-deep wells can be drilled into underground reservoirs to tap steam and very hot water that can be brought to the surface for use in a variety of applications, including electricity generation, direct use, and heating and cooling. 2. Geothermal energy is a vast underutilized heat and power resource that is renewable, baseload, domestic and clean. 3. Renewable Through proper reservoir management, the rate of energy extraction can be balanced with a reservoir's natural heat recharge rate. Baseload Geothermal power plants produce electricity consistently, running 24 hours per day / 7 days per week, regardless of weather conditions. 4. Domestic geothermal resources can be harnessed for power production without importing fuel. Small Footprint Geothermal power plants are compact; using less land per GWh (404 mi2) than coal (3642 mi2) wind (1335 mi2) or solar PV with center station (3237 mi2). 5. Clean Modern closed-loop geothermal power plants emit no greenhouse gasses. Geothermal power plants consume less water on average over the lifetime energy output than the most conventional generation technologies.

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VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR TEST Choose the correct item. 1. Many of the devices 2. heat as a byproduct of using energy. a) produce b) share c) residue 2. Renewable energy 3 the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity. a) have b) has c) haves 3. Thermogenerators are the devices that 1 any sort of heat into electric energy. a) convert b) consume c) waste 4. The idea of converting 2 into energy is so appealing because it allows greater efficiency. a) hot b) heat c) heating 5. Renewable energy replaces conventional a) fuels b) heat c) waste 6. The use of biomass energy can greatly our greenhouse gas emissions). a) reduced b) reduce c) reduces 7. The earliest known windmills in Persia. a) was b) are c) were 8. Steam radiators located on exterior walls can cause heat loss by radiating .. through the wall to the outdoors. a) waste b) heat c) furnace 64

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9. The first central heating systems used steam . a) distribute b) distribution c) distributing 10. A radiant floor heating system simply .. heat upward from the floor to provide optimum comfort. a) radiates b) consumes c) wastes TRANSLATION Translate the sentences from English into Russian. 1. Almost any heat source can be used to generate electricity, such as solar heat, ocean heat, geothermal heat, even body heat. 2. Already today, wind power is the worlds most rapidly growing modern type of energy. 3. Heat is distributed through your home through a variety of ways. 4. Steam heating is one of the oldest heating technologies. 5. Hot-water radiators are one of the most common heat distribution systems. 6. Most of the biopower plants in the world burn bioenergy feedstocks directly to produce steam. 7. Wood waste is often used to produce both electricity and steam at paper mills. 8. About 16 % of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10 % coming from traditional biomass. 9. Heat Pumps are not that common in Britain, whereas in Scandinavia they are used successfully. 10. Thermal pump belongs among alternative energy sources. Read the text and write an abstract. Geothermal Direct Use Many technologies have been developed to take advantage of geothermal energy the heat from the earth. This heat can be drawn from several sources: hot water or steam reservoirs deep in the earth that are accessed by drilling; geothermal reservoirs located near the earth's surface. 65

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This variety of geothermal resources allows them to be used on both large and small scales. A utility can use the hot water and steam from reservoirs to drive generators and produce electricity. Other applications apply the heat produced from geothermal directly to various uses in buildings, roads, agriculture, and industrial plants. Still others use the heat directly from the ground to provide heating and cooling in homes and other buildings. Geothermal direct use has a long history, going back to when people began using hot springs for bathing, cooking food, and loosening feathers and skin from game. Today, hot springs are still used as spas. But there are now more sophisticated ways of using this geothermal resource. In modern direct-use systems, a well is drilled into a geothermal reservoir to provide a steady stream of hot water. The water is brought up through the well, and a mechanical system piping, a heat exchanger, and controls delivers the heat directly for its intended use. A disposal system then either injects the cooled water underground or disposes of it on the surface. Geothermal hot water can be used for many applications including heating buildings, raising plants in greenhouses, drying crops, heating water at fish farms, and several industrial processes, such as pasteurizing milk.

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Variant 4
READING Text 1. Read the text and choose the right ending (ac) for each sentence (110). 1. A heat pump is a device that a) transfers thermal energy b) consumes thermal energy c) produces thermal energy 2. Heat pump a) warms a building b) cools a building c) warms or cools a building 3. Heat is transferred from a) a relatively low-temperature reservoir to one at a higher temperature b) the energy of the sun c) cool air 4. People need a) more heat b) more efficient ways to utilize heat c) the heat pump industry 5. Air conditioners a) are not heat pumps b) are used to produce heat pumps, c) are examples of heat pumps 6. Heat pumps do not a) provide heating in the winter and cooling in the summer b) displace heat energy to a more useful location and purpose c) send electricity through power lines 7. Liquid and/or gas medium a) changes phases as a result of altering pressure b) changes phases as a result of lowering pressure c) do not change phases 8. The demand for more efficient ways .. is rising. a) to produce air conditioners b) to utilize heat and energy c) to control temperatures

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9. Heat pumps are a) very cheap b) not useful c) relatively costly to setup 10. Heat pump system a) produces electricity b) provides a more economical and efficient way to control temperatures and reuse existing heat energy. c) consumes thermal energy Heat Pump System Heat pump is a device that warms or cools a building by transferring heat from a relatively low-temperature reservoir to one at a higher temperature. As a result of society's increasing concern for ecological and environmental issues, the demand for more efficient ways to utilize heat and energy is rising. The heat pump industry uses technological advances such as year-round space heating to displace heat energy to a more useful location and purpose. This concept is accomplished by providing localized or redirected heat, while exchanging cool air with heated air. The principles of heat pumps are actually the reverse of the technological and thermodynamic principles of an air conditioner unit. The majority of them give the added benefit of providing both heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. This can be accomplished simply by reversing the flow of the working fluid circulating through the coils. The heat pump is an entire thermodynamic system whereby a liquid and/or gas medium is pumped through an assembly where it changes phases as a result of altering pressure. Although relatively costly to setup, the heat pump system provides a more economical and efficient way to control temperatures and reuse existing heat energy. Text 2. Read the article about solar cells, and match the questions (AF) to the numbered spaces (15), as in the example (0). A. What is a solar cell? B. What energy is generated from solar modules? C. What are solar modules used for? E. What are photovoltaics used for? D. What is used for detecting light or other electromagnetic radiation? F. What is a solar panel? 68

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0.A A solar cell (also called photovoltaic cell or photoelectric cell) is a solid state electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. 1.___________________________________________ Assemblies of solar cells are used to make solar modules which are used to capture energy from sunlight. 2.___________________________________________ When multiple modules are assembled together (such as prior to installation on a pole-mounted tracker system), the resulting integrated group of modules all oriented in one plane is referred to in the solar industry as a solar panel. 3.___________________________________________ The electrical energy generated from solar modules, referred to as solar power, is an example of solar energy. 4.____________________________________________ Photovoltaics is the field of technology and research related to the practical application of photovoltaic cells in producing electricity from light, though it is often used specifically to refer to the generation of electricity from sunlight. 5.____________________________________________ Cells are described as photovoltaic cells when the light source is not necessarily sunlight (lamplight, artificial light, etc.). These are used for detecting light or other electromagnetic radiation near the visible range, for example infrared detectors, or measurement of light intensity. VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR TEST Choose the correct item. 1. Heat can provide your home with renewable heating capable of providing all of your hot water needs. a) pumps b) consumption c) production 2. Old, primitive methods .. heating a building include the open fire, the fireplace, and the stove a) in b) at c) of 69

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3. Thermoelectric generator (TEG) is a device that converts . into electricity a) capacity b) heat c) share 4. Almost any heat source can be used to .. electricity. a) derive b) reduce c) generate 5. The vast majority of wood burning .. today use gasification technology a) furnaces b) residue c) waste 6. Renewable energy is from natural processes that are replenished constantly a) derive b) derives c) derived 7. Wood . is often used to produce both electricity and steam at paper mills. a) water b) plants c) waste 8. Liquid fuels can be . from biomass through a process called pyrolysis. a) produced b) produce c) produces 9. Windmills . because they slow down the speed of the wind. a) works b) work c) to work 10. The most common problem in hot-water systems is . air in the system. a) unwanted b) hot c) cold

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Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. Old, primitive methods of heating a building or a room within it include the open fire, the fireplace, and the stove 2. Thermogenerators are the devices that convert any sort of heat into electric energy. 3. The ecological and economic benefits to the world in the development of these systems would be huge. 4. The amount of power generated by a PV system at a particular site depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches it. 5. The reason why the idea of converting heat into energy is so appealing is that it allows greater efficiency in a lot of cases. 6. Many of the devices that we use on a daily basis produce heat as a byproduct of using energy. 7. Heat pumps are an ingenious solution to providing your home with renewable heating capable of providing all of your hot water needs. 8. Liquid fuels can be produced from biomass through a process called pyrolysis. 9. Windmills work because they slow down the speed of the wind. 10. The most common problem in hot-water systems is unwanted air in the system. WRITING Read the text about Coolants and write an abstract. Coolants The most common coolant is water. Its high heat capacity and low cost makes it a suitable heat-transfer medium. It is usually used with additives, like corrosion inhibitors and antifreeze. Antifreeze, a solution of a suitable organic chemical (most often ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, or propylene glycol) in water, is used when the water-based coolant has to withstand temperatures below 0 C, or when its boiling point has to be raised. Betaine is a similar coolant, with the exception that it is made from pure plant juice, and is therefore not toxic or difficult to dispose of ecologically. Very pure deionized water, due to its relatively low electrical conductivity, is used to cool some electrical equipment, often high-power transmitters and high-power vacuum tubes. 71

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Heavy water is a neutron moderator used in some nuclear reactors; it also has a secondary function as their coolant. Light water reactors, both boiling water and pressurised water reactors the most common type, use light water. Polyalkylene Glycol or PAG's are used as high temperature, thermally stable heat transfer fluids exhibiting strong resistance to oxidation. Cutting fluid is a coolant that also serves as a lubricant for metalshaping machine tools. Oils are used for applications where water is unsuitable. With higher boiling points than water, oils can be raised to considerably higher temperatures (above 100 degrees Celsius) without introducing high pressures within the container or loop system in question.

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INDIVIDUAL HOME TASK 2

Variant 1
READING Text 1. Read the text. Choose the best word (A, B or C) for each space (18). The Stirling Engine The Stirling engine is 1 that is vastly different from amount of oxygen in our cars. Invented by Robert Stirling in 1816, the Stirling engine has the potential to be much more 2. than a gasoline or diesel engine. But today, Stirling engines are used only in some very specialized applications, like in submarines or auxiliary 3 generators for yachts, where quiet operation is important. A Stirling engine uses the Stirling 4, which is unlike the cycles used in interna l-5 engines. The gasses used inside a Stirling engine never leave the engine. There are no 6 that vent high-pressure gasses, as in a gasoline or diesel engine, and there are no explosions taking place. Because of this, Stirling engines are very quiet. The Stirling cycle uses 7, which could be anything from gasoline to solar energy to the heat produced by decaying plants. No combustion takes place inside the cylinders of the engine. There are different types of Stirling engines. A displacer-type engine has one piston and a displacer. The displacer serves to control when the 8.is heated and when it is cooled. In order to run, the engine requires a temperature difference between the top and the bottom of the large cylinder. In this case, the difference between the temperature of the hand and the air around it is enough to run the engine. 1 2 3 4 5 6 a heat engine fluid torque cycle compression exhaust valves 7 A diesel engine 8 A gas chamber A A A A A A B B B B B B an internal engine enclosed power compression combustion specialized applications B combustion B temperature difference 73 C C C C C C C C a hot engine efficient fluid usage conversion generators for yachts an external heat source decaying plants

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Text 2. Read the text, and match the questions. (AF) to the numbered spaces (15), as in the example (0). 0. Combustion is a rapid chemical reaction of two or more substances with a characteristic liberation of heat and light; it is commonly called burning. 1. The burning of a fuel (e.g., wood, coal, oil, or natural gas) in air is a familiar example of combustion. 2. Combustion need not involve oxygen; e.g., hydrogen burns in chlorine to form hydrogen chloride with the liberation of heat and light characteristic of combustion. Combustion reactions involve oxidation and reduction. 3. Before a substance will burn, it must be heated to its ignition point, or kindling temperature. Pure substances have characteristic ignition points. Although the ignition point of a substance is essentially constant, the time needed for burning to begin depends on such factors as the form of the substance and the amount of oxygen in the air. 4. A finely divided substance is more readily ignited than a massive one; e.g., sawdust ignites more rapidly than does a log. The vapors of a volatile fuel such as gasoline are more readily ignited than is the fuel itself. The rate of combustion is also affected by these factors, particularly by the amount of oxygen in the air. 5. In 1774 the French chemist A.L. Lavoisier performed experiments that led to the modern understanding of the nature of combustion. A. B. C. D. E. F. 0. What is combustion? 3. What does the time needed for burning to begin depend on? 4. What substance is more readily ignited? 1. What is an example of burning a fuel? 2. What reactions do Combustion reactions involve? 5. What experiments did A. L. Lavoisier perform?

VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR TEST Choose the correct item. 1. Originally an engine was a mechanical device that converted force into 1 a) motion b) fuel c) substance 74

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2. An engine burns or otherwise consumes fuel. ) explosions b) fuel c) combustion 3. .. distinguishes a true Stirling engine from any other closed cycle hot air engine. ) the heat pump b) the heat exchanger c) the regenerator 4. The still-warm was recycled as feed water for the boiler. ) condensate b) device c) fuel 5. Combustion refers to burning fuel with an oxidizer, to supply the. ) reaction b) heat c) boiler 6. Some producers also offer heaters with ) remote control b) amount of oxygen c) amount of oxygen 7. The Stirling engine encloses a fixed quantity of permanently gaseous fluid such as ) air b) breath c) wind 8. Widespread use of energy. could therefore reduce global warming emissions ) recycle b) recycling c) recycled 9. The large surface area heating elements excellent temperature uniformity within the working volume. ) provide b) provides c) providing 10. A heat exchanger a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer. ) am b) be c) is 75

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TRANSLATION Translate the sentences from English into Russian. 1. In modern usage, the term engine is used to describe devices capable of performing mechanical work, as in the original steam engine. 2. Engines using human or animal power, water, wind and even steam power date back to antiquity. 3. The design challenge for a Stirling engine regenerator is to provide sufficient heat transfer capacity without introducing too much additional internal volume. 4. Typical of heat engines, the general cycle consists of compressing cool gas, heating the gas, expanding the hot gas, and finally cooling the gas before repeating the cycle. 5. Fireplaces contain separated from the combustion chamber special small capacity with granules store. 6. Heat exchangers are normally used for the transfer and useful elimination or recovery of heat without an accompanying phase change. 7. Each vacuum furnace is supplied as a complete system including vacuum chamber, metallic heat zone, power supply, vacuum pumps and a programmable control system. 8. A heat exchange is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. 9. An enclosed chamber in which heat is produced to heat buildings is defined as a furnace. 10. A regenerative heat wheel is a revolving disc filled with an air-permeable medium including a desiccant. WRITING Read the text and write an abstract. Our fuel cubes are a proven, clean-burning, high-BTU fuel alternative for paper mills and other wood- or coal-burning plants. Made from recycled wood, plastics, and other challenging recyclables, they divert materials that would have otherwise been destined for the landfill and produce an alternative fuel thats better for the environment. Customers drastically reduce their waste hauling costs and help meet environmental goals or guidelines. 76

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Mills, plants, and kilns get better performance from our high-BTU fuels. Fewer natural resources are pulled from the environment to create fuel. Air pollution is minimized with our cleaner-burning alternative fuel. Always striving for new solutions and outlets for recyclables, Balcones Resources is working with a technology company to develop a second alternative fuel for the ethanol market. Today, this new process generates fuel thats ideally suited for cement kilns. Tomorrow, these same waste streams could be converted into higher value, non-food feedstock based, automobilegrade ethanol. Plastics help traditional energy recovery technology work better. Because plastics have a higher energy value than other components of municipal solid waste, they help to significantly increase the efficiency of the energy recovery process in traditional energy from waste facilities.

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Variant 2
READING Text 1. Read the article Select a Suitable Heat Exchanger. Choose the best word (A, B or C) for each space (18). Heat exchangers control a system or substances temperature by adding or removing 1.energy. While there are many different sizes and types of heat exchangers, they all use a thermally conducting element generally in the form of a tube or plate - to separate two 2.., such that one can transfer thermal energy to the other. Home heating systems use a heat exchanger to transfer 3. heat to water or air, which is circulated through the house. 4.use locally available water or ambient air in quite large heat exchangers to condense steam from the turbines. Many industrial applications use small heat exchangers to create or 5. a required temperature. In industry, heat exchangers do many tasks, ranging from 6. lasers to establishing a controlled sample temperature prior to chromatography. Anyone who wants to use a heat exchanger deals with a basic challenge: fully defining the problem to be solved, which requires an understanding of the 7 and transport properties of fluids. It is necessary to define a specific heattransfer problem and select a suitable heat exchanger 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A A A A A A A A thermal heat control a system home heating systems maintain cooling control heat-transfer B conventional B fluids B industrial applications B power plants B B B B dehumidify exchanging thermodynamic conventional C C C C C C C C renewable energy combustion gas thermal energy insulate demidifying available thermal

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Text 2. Read the text, and match the questions (AF) to the numbered spaces (15), as in the example (0). 0. In 1698, the English mechanical designer Thomas Savery invented a steam pumping appliance that drew water directly from a well by a vacuum, then sent it up to a higher level by steam pressure. 1. The appliance was also proposed for draining mines, but its pumping height was limited, making this impracticable. It consumed a large amount of fuel compared with later engines. 2. The solution to draining deep mines was found by Thomas Newcomen who developed an atmospheric engine also working on the vacuum principle. The Newcomen engine was more powerful than the Savery engine. 3. For the first time water could be raised from a depth of over 150 feet. The engine was able to replace a team of 500 horses. Seventy-five Newcomen pumping engines were installed at mines in Britain, France, Holland, Sweden and Russia. In the next fifty years only a few small changes were made to the engine design. 4. The Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston helped by a partial vacuum. Improving on the design of the 1712 Newcomen engine, the Watt steam engine was the next great step in the development of the steam engine. 5. Offering a dramatic increase in fuel efficiency, the new design replaced Newcomen engines in areas where coal was expensive, and then went on to be used in the place of most natural power sources such as wind and water. James Watt's design became synonymous with steam engines. A. What appliance did Thomas Savery invent? B. Where did the Watt steam engines replace Newcomen engines? C. What made the appliance impracticable? D. What was the engine able to do? E. What principle was the Newcomen engine based on? F. What was new about the Watt steam engine?

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VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR TEST Choose the correct item. 1. Oil ..is the process of removing heat from machinery and electrical components with oil as a transfer medium. a) heating b) cooling c) reducing 2. Heat exchangers control a system or substances by adding or removing thermal energy. a) energy b) system c) temperat ure 3. Heat .. is implemented in heat sources like a steel mill. a) recovery b) engine c) machinery 4. Fireplaces with hot-water heating contain water reservoir to which . can be connected. a) hot-water supply b) a steel mill. c) coolant 5. In a Stirling .., the regenerator is an internal heat exchanger. a) windmill b) engine c) energy 6. The primary effect of regeneration in a Stirling engine is to increase the . efficiency by 'recycling' internal heat. a) global b) thermal c) atmospheric 7. This type of condenser .. as a surface condenser. a) is known b) are known c) will known 8. In 1774 John Wilkinson. a boring machine. a) invent b) invents c) invented 80

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9. Thermal energy and measured by heat of any kind. a) generated b) generate c) is generated 10. Electric cars with regenerative breaking seem to be the best candidate for energy . a) recovery b) heat c) temperature

TRANSLATION Translate the sentences from English into Russian. 1. Widespread use of energy recycling could therefore reduce global warming emissions by an estimated 20 percent. 2. The Newcomen engine was more powerful than the Savery engine. 3. These improvements allowed the steam engine to replace the water wheel and horses as the main sources of power for British industry. 4. The greater fuel-efficiency of their engines meant that they were most attractive in areas where fuel was expensive. 5. The regenerator is the key component invented by Robert Stirling and its presence distinguishes a true Stirling engine from any other closed cycle hot air engine. 6. These systems may be configured as a hydrogen furnace, a vacuum furnace or both. 7. Oil cooling is the process of removing heat from machinery and electrical components with oil as a transfer medium. 8. Most energy recovery systems exchange thermal energy in either sensible or latent form. 9. A variety of work volumes, temperature, and processing capabilities are offered to match the system to the customers requirements. 10. Most often the barrier between the fluids is a metal wall such as that of a tube or pipe.

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WRITING Read the text and write an abstract. Energy Recovery Inc. Solutions Deliver Unique Energy Savings ERI (Energy Recovery Inc.) develops award-winning, industry-leading products that offer innovations solutions to global industries. Our technologies have revolutionized the water industry, making desalination a viable economic. By utilizing ERI products, desalination plants recover and recycle massive amounts of otherwise wasted fluid energy many times over. This significantly reduces their carbon footprint, and saves our clients more than $1 billion in energy costs each year. Imagine the impact now that ERI is focusing on energy recovery from all industrial flows. In gas processing applications, innovative ERI gas processing solutions deliver unique energy savings and reduced capital and operational costs. With installations on practically every continent, our solutions are best suited for industrial applications that translate into energy savings. For more than a quarter of a century we have developed technologies that recapture the otherwise lost energy from fluids at the highest efficiencies possible making desalination affordable. Our flagship technology, called the PX Pressure Exchanger (PX) device, provides the highest efficiencies and guarantees the best economic solution in energy recovery for desalination. In addition, the low investment TurboCharger solution offers substantial savings and quality for those sensitive to upfront costs and where power costs are very minimal. ERI pumping solutions are efficient, robust and reliable. In gas processing applications, the innovative ERI gas processing solution delivers unique energy saving and reduced capital and operational costs.

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Variant 3
READING Text 1. Read the article Select a Suitable Heat Exchanger. Choose the best word (A, B or C) for each space (18). Heat exchangers control a system or substances temperature by adding or removing 1.energy. While there are many different sizes and types of heat exchangers, they all use a thermally conducting element generally in the form of a tube or plate to separate two 2.., such that one can transfer thermal energy to the other. Home heating systems use a heat exchanger to transfer 3. heat to water or air, which is circulated through the house. 4.use locally available water or ambient air in quite large heat exchangers to condense steam from the turbines. Many industrial applications use small heat exchangers to create or 5. a required temperature. In industry, heat exchangers do many tasks, ranging from 6. lasers to establishing a controlled sample temperature prior to chromatography. Anyone who wants to use a heat exchanger deals with a basic challenge: fully defining the problem to be solved, which requires an understanding of the 7 and transport properties of fluids. It is necessary to define a specific heattransfer problem and select a suitable heat exchanger 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A A A A A A A A thermal heat control a system home heating systems maintain cooling control heat-transfer B B B B B B B B conventional fluids industrial applications power plants dehumidify exchanging thermodynamic conventional C C C C C C C C renewable energy combustion gas thermal energy insulate demidifying available thermal

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Text 2. Read the text, and match the questions (AF) to the numbered spaces (15), as in the example (0). 0. Combustion is a rapid chemical reaction of two or more substances with a characteristic liberation of heat and light; it is commonly called burning. 1. The burning of a fuel (e.g., wood, coal, oil, or natural gas) in air is a familiar example of combustion. 2. Combustion need not involve oxygen; e.g., hydrogen burns in chlorine to form hydrogen chloride with the liberation of heat and light characteristic of combustion. Combustion reactions involve oxidation and reduction. 3. Before a substance will burn, it must be heated to its ignition point, or kindling temperature. Pure substances have characteristic ignition points. Although the ignition point of a substance is essentially constant, the time needed for burning to begin depends on such factors as the form of the substance and the amount of oxygen in the air. 4. A finely divided substance is more readily ignited than a massive one; e.g., sawdust ignites more rapidly than does a log. The vapors of a volatile fuel such as gasoline are more readily ignited than is the fuel itself. The rate of combustion is also affected by these factors, particularly by the amount of oxygen in the air. 5. In 1774 the French chemist A. L. Lavoisier performed experiments that led to the modern understanding of the nature of combustion. G. H. I. J. K. L. 0. What is combustion? 3. What does the time needed for burning to begin depend on? 4. What substance is more readily ignited? 1. What is an example of burning a fuel? 2. What reactions do Combustion reactions involve? 5. What experiments did A. L. Lavoisier perform?

VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR TEST Choose the correct item. 1. Oil .. is the process of removing heat from machinery and electrical components with oil as a transfer medium. a) heating b) cooling c) reducing 84

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2. Heat exchangers control a system or substances by adding or removing thermal energy. a) energy b) system c) temperat ure 3. Heat.. is implemented in heat sources like a steel mill. a) recovery b) engine c) machinery 4. Fireplaces with hot-water heating contain water reservoir to which .can be connected. a) hot-water supply b) a steel mill c) coolant 5. In a Stirling .., the regenerator is an internal heat exchanger. a) windmill b) engine c) energy 6. Some producers also offer heaters with a) remote control b) amount of oxygen c) amount of oxygen 7. The Stirling engine encloses a fixed quantity of permanently gaseous fluid such as a) air b) breath c) wind 8. Widespread use of energy . could therefore reduce global warming emissions. a) recycle b) recycling c) recycled 9. The large surface area heating elements excellent temperature uniformity within the working volume. a) provide b) provides c) providing 10. A heat exchanger a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer. a) am b) be c) is 85

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TRANSLATION Translate the sentences from English into Russian. 1. In modern usage, the term engine is used to describe devices capable of performing mechanical work, as in the original steam engine. 2. Engines using human or animal power, water, wind and even steam power date back to antiquity. 3. The design challenge for a Stirling engine regenerator is to provide sufficient heat transfer capacity without introducing too much additional internal volume. 4. Typical of heat engines, the general cycle consists of compressing cool gas, heating the gas, expanding the hot gas, and finally cooling the gas before repeating the cycle. 5. Fireplaces contain separated from the combustion chamber special small capacity with granules store 6. Heat exchangers are normally used for the transfer and useful elimination or recovery of heat without an accompanying phase change. 7. Each vacuum furnace is supplied as a complete system including vacuum chamber, metallic heat zone, power supply, vacuum pumps and a programmable control system. 8. A heat exchange is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. 9. n enclosed chamber in which heat is produced to heat buildings is defined as a furnace. 10. A regenerative heat wheel is a revolving disc filled with an air-permeable medium including a desiccant. WRITING Read the text and write an abstract. Benefits of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems The biggest benefit of GHPs is that they use 2550 % less electricity than conventional heating or cooling systems. This translates into a GHP using one unit of electricity to move three units of heat from the earth. According to the EPA, geothermal heat pumps can reduce energy consumption and corresponding emissions up to 44 % compared to airsource heat pumps and up to 72 % compared to electric resistance heating 86

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with standard air-conditioning equipment. GHPs also improve humidity control by maintaining about 50 % relative indoor humidity, making GHPs very effective in humid areas. Geothermal heat pump systems allow for design flexibility and can be installed in both new and retrofit situations. Because the hardware requires less space than that needed by conventional HVAC systems, the equipment rooms can be greatly scaled down in size, freeing space for productive use. GHP systems also provide excellent zone space conditioning, allowing different parts of your home to be heated or cooled to different temperatures. Because GHP systems have relatively few moving parts, and because those parts are sheltered inside a building, they are durable and highly reliable. The underground piping often carries warranties of 2550 years, and the heat pumps often last 20 years or more. Since they usually have no outdoor compressors, GHPs are not susceptible to vandalism. On the other hand, the components in the living space are easily accessible, which increases the convenience factor and helps ensure that the upkeep is done on a timely basis.

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Variant 4
READING Text 2. Read the text, and match the questions (AF) to the numbered spaces (15), as in the example (0). 0. In 1698, the English mechanical designer Thomas Savery invented a steam pumping appliance that drew water directly from a well by a vacuum, then sent it up to a higher level by steam pressure. 1. The appliance was also proposed for draining mines, but its pumping height was limited, making this impracticable. It consumed a large amount of fuel compared with later engines. 2. The solution to draining deep mines was found by Thomas Newcomen who developed an atmospheric engine also working on the vacuum principle. The Newcomen engine was more powerful than the Savery engine. 3. For the first time water could be raised from a depth of over 150 feet. The engine was able to replace a team of 500 horses. Seventy-five Newcomen pumping engines were installed at mines in Britain, France, Holland, Sweden and Russia. In the next fifty years only a few small changes were made to the engine design. 4. The Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston helped by a partial vacuum. Improving on the design of the 1712 Newcomen engine, the Watt steam engine was the next great step in the development of the steam engine. 5. Offering a dramatic increase in fuel efficiency, the new design replaced Newcomen engines in areas where coal was expensive, and then went on to be used in the place of most natural power sources such as wind and water. James Watt's design became synonymous with steam engines. G. H. I. J. K. L. What appliance did Thomas Savery invent? Where did the Watt steam engines replace Newcomen engines? What made the appliance impracticable? What was the engine able to do? What principle was the Newcomen engine based on? What was new about the Watt steam engine?

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Text 2. Read the text. Choose the best word (A, B or C) for each space (18). The Stirling Engine The Stirling engine is 1 that is vastly different from amount of oxygen in our cars. Invented by Robert Stirling in 1816, the Stirling engine has the potential to be much more 2. than a gasoline or diesel engine. But today, Stirling engines are used only in some very specialized applications, like in submarines or auxiliary 3 generators for yachts, where quiet operation is important. A Stirling engine uses the Stirling 4, which is unlike the cycles used in interna l-5 engines. The gasses used inside a Stirling engine never leave the engine. There are no 6 that vent high-pressure gasses, as in a gasoline or diesel engine, and there are no explosions taking place. Because of this, Stirling engines are very quiet. The Stirling cycle uses 7, which could be anything from gasoline to solar energy to the heat produced by decaying plants. No combustion takes place inside the cylinders of the engine. There are different types of Stirling engines. A displacer-type engine has one piston and a displacer. The displacer serves to control when the 8. is heated and when it is cooled. In order to run, the engine requires a temperature difference between the top and the bottom of the large cylinder. In this case, the difference between the temperature of the hand and the air around it is enough to run the engine. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A A A A A A A A a heat engine fluid torque cycle compression exhaust valves diesel engine gas chamber B B B B B B B B an internal engine enclosed power compression combustion specialized applications combustion temperature difference C C C C C C C C a hot engine efficient fluid usage conversion generators for yachts an external heat source decaying plants

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VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR TEST Choose the correct item. 1. Originally an engine was a mechanical device that converted force into 1 ) motion b) fuel c) substance 2. An engine burns or otherwise consumes fuel. ) explosions b) fuel c) combustion 3. .. distinguishes a true Stirling engine from any other closed cycle hot air engine. ) the heat pump b) the heat exchanger c) the regenerator 4. The still-warm was recycled as feed water for the boiler. ) condensate b) device c) fuel 5. Combustion refers to burning fuel with an oxidizer, to supply the. ) reaction b) heat c) boiler 6. The primary effect of regeneration in a Stirling engine is to increase the . efficiency by 'recycling' internal heat ) globalb b) thermal c) atmospheric 7. This type of condenser .. as a surface condenser. a) is known b) are known c) will known 8. In 1774 John Wilkinson . a boring machine. a) invent b) invents c) invented 9. Thermal energy and measured by heat of any kind. a) generated b) generate c) is generated 90

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10. Electric cars with regenerative breaking seem to be the best candidate for energy . a) recovery b) heat c) temperature

TRANSLATION Translate the sentences from English into Russian. 1. Widespread use of energy recycling could therefore reduce global warming emissions by an estimated 20 percent. 2. The Newcomen engine was more powerful than the Savery engine. 3. These improvements allowed the steam engine to replace the water wheel and horses as the main sources of power for British industry. 4. The greater fuel-efficiency of their engines meant that they were most attractive in areas where fuel was expensive. 5. The regenerator is the key component invented by Robert Stirling and its presence distinguishes a true Stirling engine from any other closed cycle hot air engine. 6. These systems may be configured as a hydrogen furnace, a vacuum furnace or both. 7. Oil cooling is the process of removing heat from machinery and electrical components with oil as a transfer medium. 8. Most energy recovery systems exchange thermal energy in either sensible or latent form. 9. A variety of work volumes, temperature, and processing capabilities are offered to match the system to the customers requirements. 10. Most often the barrier between the fluids is a metal wall such as that of a tube or pipe.

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WRITING Read the text and write an abstract. Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption (or gas-fired) coolers available that work on the same principal. Unlike some absorption heat pumps, however, these are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its pressure is then reduced and the refrigerant is evaporated to absorb heat. If the system absorbs heat from the interior of your home, it provides cooling; if it releases heat to the interior of your home, it provides heating. The difference in absorption heat pumps is that the evaporated ammonia is not pumped up in pressure in a compressor, but is instead absorbed into water. A relatively low-power pump can then pump the solution up to a higher pressure. The problem then is removing the ammonia from the water, and that's where the heat source comes in. The heat essentially boils the ammonia out of the water, starting the cycle again. A key component in the units now on the market is generator absorber heat exchanger technology, or GAX, which boosts the efficiency of the unit by recovering the heat that is released when the ammonia is absorbed into the water. Other innovations include high-efficiency vapor separation, variable ammonia flow rates, and low-emissions, variable-capacity combustion of the natural gas.

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WORD BANK
Unit 1. Energy renewable , Photovoltaic (PV) consumption ; , , share ; , ; capacity , , ; weather () ;, , (, , ..) derive , conventional , , windmills , ; blade ( , ..) aerofoil ; (); shaft , , rim ( ) concave ; untapped , untapped resources paramount , , thermocouple , ; circuits , ; semiconductor landfill reduce , , , carbon dioxide residue ; waste () ,, ; , solar array , ; solar battery solar cell

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Unit 2. Heating Heat pump furnace ; ; maintenance , ; generate ; , consume , insulate (from) ; bleed ; , ; trim the amount of dehumidify , duct ; ; ; air duct , retrofit () add-on , , ( ) feasible , , condenser , conduit ; , evaporator suspend (from) , , heating slab ; , surface concrete radiant to radiate , (, ) to circulate , ; to distribute vent ; ,

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Unit 3. Engines cyclic compression ; , a heat engine expansion , fluid ( ) conversion , ; ( ) a combustion engine combustion , , transfer ; input ; enclose (-., -.) efficiency , ,, , usage , , device , ; ; , , exert , () torque ingenious , , a heat exchanger compression ; ; compression chamber / quantity ; , ; ; supply , , , , supply with restrict fuel , ; ) ( ) retain ; , ; regeneration , ; resistance

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Unit 4. Heat Exchangers Energy Recovery recovery , , input ; latent , incandescence , ; convection combustion chamber capacity , , , observations premises , warmth length , , buffer supply , , , hydrogen dissociate , ; nitrogen molybdenum tungsten mesh , , . requirements ; containment , , , operate ; ; suppressant ; ubricating oil

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GRAMMAR REFERENCE Passive Voices


, , , . , : the Active Voice ( ) the Passive Voice ( ). , , , . to be III ( II).
PRESENT PAST FUTURE INDEFINITE I am invited I was invited I will be invited CONTINUOUS I am being invited I was being invited PERFECT I have been invited I had been invited I will have been invited

() , : When was the work done? Has the work been done? not, , : The work was not done last week. The work will not done tomorrow. Exercises 1. , . : hear. The music at the party was very loud and __________ from far away. The music at the party was very loud and WAS HEARD from far away. Arrest, wake, knock, check translate, find, drive, make, spend carry. 97

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1. A decision will not _______________ until the next meeting. 2. That old building was dangerous. So it ___________ down. 3. When you go through customs, you luggage ___________ by the customs officer. 4. In the morning I _____________ by my alarm clock. 5. Next year her new book ______________ into a number of foreign languages. 6. John kicked a policeman, so he ____________. 7. After a long search the missing boy _________ in the forest near the town. 8. Many people think that today too much money ______________ on arms. 9. The injured man couldn't walk, so he _____________ by the hospital orderlies. 10. I don't mind driving but I like when I _______________ by other people. 2. , . 1. The porter will (bring, be brought) your luggage to your room. 2. Your luggage will (bring, be brought) up in the lift. 3. You may (leave, be left) your hat and coat in the cloak-room downstairs. 4. They can (leave, be left) the key with the clerk downstairs. 5. From the station they will (take, be taken) straight to the hotel. 6. Tomorrow he will (take, be taken) them to the Russian Museum. 7. At the station they will (meet, be met) by a man from the travel bureau. 8. She will (meet, be met) them in the hall upstairs. 3. Passive Voice. E.g. Mother waters the flowers in the evening. The flowers are watered in the evening (by Mother) 1. A marble pavillion protects the house. 2. The boys will paint the roof of the house. 3. Tom Sawyer whitewashed the fence. 4. Her daughters gave her three beautiful dishes as a birthday present. 5. Tom gave Nick a book for his birthday. 6. Our mother tells us stories every evening. 7. Lydia will show you a new book of pictures. 8. A boy showed her the way. 9. They will send us a box of fruit. 10. Five or six small children followed them.

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4. , Passive Voice. 1. At the last competition the first prize (to win) by our team. 2. The question (to settle) as soon as they arrived. 3. Your report must (to divide) into two chapters. 4. Soon he (to send) to a sanatorium. 5. The book (to discuss) at the next conference. 6. The composition must (to hand) in on Wednesday. 7. Yesterday he (to tell) to prepare a speech. 8. The article (to publish) last week, if I am not mistaken. 9. The lectures (to attend) by all of us. 10. A taxi (to call) fifteen minutes ago, so we are expecting it any moment. 5. Complete the following sentences using the most appropriate forms of the verbs. 1. A famous architect ..... the bridge. a) was built b) built c) have built 2. Not much ..... about the accident since that time. a) has said b) said c) has been said 3. He ..... responsible for the accident. a) is holding b) was holding c) was held 4. A dog ..... by the small red car. a) was hitting b) was hit c) is hitting 5. People ..... this road very often. a) aren't used b) don't use c) haven't used 6. This house ..... in 1930. a) built b) was built c) has built 7. Weekends ..... outdoors by most English people. a) spend b) are spended c) are spent 99

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8. This is a large hall. Many parties ..... here. a) are held b) are being held c) has been held 9. Two men tried to sell a painting that ...... a) was stolen b) had been stolen c) had stolen 10. A decision ..... until the next meeting. a) has not been made b) will not made c) will not be made 6. Complete the following sentences using the most appropriate forms of the verbs. 1. The porter (bring) your luggage to your room. a) will bring b) will be bring c) will be brought 2. The milk (sell) in this shop a) sell b) is sold c) sells 3. The paper (examine) attentively a) examined b) was examine c) was examined 4. I (buy) potatoes yesterday a) was bought b) was buyed c) bought 5. At the station they (meet) by a man a) will meet b) will met c) will be met 6. She (meet) them in the hall upstairs. a) will been met b) will be met c) will meet 100

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7. They (play) tennis yesterday a) played b) were played c) are played 8. All the text (translate) a) is translated b) translated c) was translate 9. The doctor (send) for a) sent b) was sent c) were sent 10. He (steal) a lot of money from the shop. a) stole b) was stolen c) was stole

Non-Finite forms of the Verb


, (Participle I, II), (Infinitive) (Gerund) , , , , . E.g. To translate () the text I used a dictionary. , . Smoking () is not allowed here. () . The stars shining ( I) in the dark sky seem blue. , , . (the Infinitive) , . ( I) . to: to help , to read .

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to : 1. shall, will. e.g. He will write to his parents tomorrow. . 2. ( ought). e.g. She can ski and skate. . 3. feel, see, hear, watch . e.g. We saw him enter. , . 4. let (), have, make (). e.g. What makes you think so? ? Let me take this book, please. , . 5. had better (), would rather ( ). e.g. You had better go now. / . I must see you at once. . . Active Indefinite Continuous Perfect to write to be writing to have written to have been written Passive to be written

Perfect Continuous to have been writing , , , , . I like to help. . I like to be helped. , . Indefinite Active , . Continuous Active . She likes to write letters. . She must be still writing. , , . 102

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, - ( ). , , -. I am glad to study at the University. , . I am glad to have studied at the University. , . : ) : To walk in the garden was very pleasant. . To read a lot is to know much. . ) : To read the book I went to the reading-hall. , . ) . : 1) . He is going to take part in the conference to be held in Moscow. , . 2) . I have nothing to sky. . 3) , . She was the first to come. . ) : He was glad to have been given a new job. , . I decided to read this book. . ) ( ). You may come in. . We ought to leave early in the morning. . My wish is to read much. . 103

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. The Complex Object (Objective with the Infinitive Construction). . . He wants the book to be returned tomorrow. , . . The Complex Subject (The Nominative with the Infinitive Construction). . : She is expected to come any minute. , . The water seems to be boiling. , . The Delegation is reported to have left London. , . He is likely to know her address. , , . He is sure to be asked about it. , , . She is said to be very beautiful. , . The car was seen to disappear. , . : 1. , to see, to hear, to notice . , to think, to consider, to expect . ( ); to say, to report, to ask, to order, to announce ( ). 2. to be likely (), to be unlikely (), to be certain / to be sure ( / ). 3. to seem / to appear ( / -), to prove / to turn out (), to happen ().

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for. The For to Infinitive Construction for. . It's easy for me to answer this question. . It will be very pleasant for us to spend a week in England. . There was nothing else for me to say. . It is for you to decide. . Here are some books for you to read. ( ). I (Participle I) I (Participle I) , , . . active Indefinite asking Perfect passive being asked

having asked having been asked

Participle I Indefinite , -. While translating difficult texts we use a dictionary. , . Participle I Perfect , , -. Having read the book I returned it to the library. , .

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I I (Participle I) : 1. . Participle I Indefinite, . A smiling girl. . A swimming man. . The men building our house with me are my friends. , , . The house being built in our street is a new building of school. , . 2. . Participle I Indefinite Active . Translating the article he consulted the dictionary. , . when while. ( ) , , , . While translating the article the student consulted the dictionary. , . / , . Participle I Indefinite Passive . Being built of wood the bridge could not carry heavy loads. , . Participle I Perfect Active . Having built a house he began building a greenhouse. , . Participle I Perfect Passive (, ) . . Having been built of concrete, the house was cold in winter. , . 106

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3. . Participle I Indefinite Active . They are playing chess. . II (Participle II) II (Participle II) (III ), , . . II , Past Indefinite, -ed to ask asked, to help helped. I, II , . , . , II, - . The book discussed yesterday was interesting. , , . The books discussed at the lessons are always interesting. , , . II II : ) : Lost time is never found again. ( ). A written letter lay on the table. . They are reconstructing the house built in the 18th century. , 18 . ) . II if, unless, when. , , . If built of the local stone, the road will serve for years. ( ) , .

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. I . I saw her crossing the street. , . I the Objective with the Participle I Construction , , , , . I Participle I Indefinite Active. , . to see, to hear, to watch, to feel . . They watched him entering the house. , . I saw John passing our house. , . II the Objective with the Participle II I, , II , , . . : 1) to see, to hear, to feel, to watch .; 2) , to want, to wish .; 3) to have, to get. We head his name mentioned. , . I want the work done. , . I have my photo taken. . .

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, , (the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction) Participle I, Participle II. 1. I. I , , - . ( ) I. , , ( ). . . . The weather permitting, we shall go to the country. , . ( ) It being very cold, we could not go for a walk. , . ( ) The sun having risen, we continued our way. , , . ( ) The article having been translated, the student showed it to the teacher. () , . ( ) 2. II. : , , II. . His work finished, he went home. , .

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Gerund (Gerund) , . . , , . , , , . (Gerund) gerere . , , , . -, , : , . . , -ing, . , , -ing , , , . , . : , . : , .. , , , ( ). : ) , , ; ) , , , , , ; ) , . 110

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: ) ; ) (of + ); ) ; ) . ) : ; (of + ); ; ; ; ; . ) : ; (of + ); ; ; ; ; .

, , , , ; , . -ing. To translate translating, to read reading.

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active Indefinite writing Perfect

passive being written

having written having been written

Participle I Perfect Participle. , , . Indefinite Gerund , , -. He likes inviting friends to his place. . He likes being invited to his friends. , . (Perfect Gerund) , , -. He is proud of having invited this man to his place. , . He was proud of having been invited to the party. , . : ) : Smoking is not allowed here. () . ) : There are different ways of obtaining this substance. . ) : His hobby is driving a car. () (). ) : The car needs repairing. ( ). . ) : They spoke about their travelling. (, ). . 112

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) : Learning rules without examples is of little use. ( ) . I like reading. (). Think before answering. . By doing that you'll save a lot of time. , . I am tired of waiting. ( ). The floor of the room needs painting. ( ). Everybody laughed on hearing his answer. , ( ) . Thank you for coming. , . He is proud of having won in the tournament. , . She is sorry for being late. , . He ran without stopping. , . Before going to bed, she locked the door. , . , , . Exercise 1. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. In passing through a metal electrons collide with many ions. 2. When the boiling is reached the adding of heat does not raise the temperature. 3. The proper work of an engine depends upon its being well lubricated. 4. All the chemical transformations that take place around us only change energy from one form into another without aifecting the total. 5. Coal and any other fuel provide the heat required for driving our engines and turbines. 6. In carrying out the plan of launching an artificial satellite our scientists had to solve many difficult problems. 7. The bridge having been repaired so quickly surprised us very much. 8. Before discussing this question they made a short break. 9. I knew nothing about the recent happenings. 10. Their having crossed the river caused a great surprise. 11. War causes hard sufferings. 113

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2. Fill in the blanks with the words from the box. being having been changed Electroplating being raised moving becoming being having been repaired being moving

1. ________ was invented in Russia, its inventor being Russian scientist Yacobi. 2. The bridge _________, we were able to cross the river. 3. Electrons ________through a wire, electrical energy is generated. 4. The vapour pressure of a liquid ________equal to atmospheric pressure, the liquid boils. 5. Water has a higher specific heat than most of other common substances, the specific heat of iron _______approximately one-ninth the heat of water. 6. Any _______object is able to do work, the quantity of kinetic energy depending on its mass and velocity. 7. The temperature of a wire ________, the random motion of the electrons increases. 8. The current flow ___________, the direction of the magnetic lines of force also changed. 9. The substance ___________ a dielectric, no current can flow through it. 10. Gases are light substances, the lightest of them _______ hydrogen. 3. Put the verb from the brackets into the correct form. 1.________ (overcome) the economic backwardness inherited from the militarist Japan, the post-war Japan increased its output of means of production 183-fold, as compared to 1941. 2. The _______ (suffer) of people in Africa from starvation were terrible. 3. The growing economic difficulties are prompting the average citizen ______ (to lift) his voice for development of industry and international cooperation. 4. The disintegration of radioactive substances is a spontaneous process, no method ______ (accelerate) or _______ (retard) it _____ (be known). 5. Carbon dioxide may be obtained by _____ (heat) some carbonates to a high temperature. 6. In chemical changes ______ (occur) in substances atoms continue to be indivisible. 7. Water vapour can be condensed into a liquid by ____ (take) away heat or by _____ (decrease) its volume. 114

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8. Sometimes the ____ (cool) without the _____ (increase) of pressure results in ______ (liquefy) the gas. 9. While _____ (teach) mathematics Tsiolkovsky continued his selfeducation _____ (study) astronomy, biology, and chemistry. 10. Stanyukovich distinguished himself as a ______ (gift) writer, most of his novels (be connected) with the sea. 4. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. The Chinese appear to have been the first to use pieces of lodestones as compasses. 2. When two elementary substances combine, the process involves the union of the two kinds of atoms to form compound molecules. 3. The radio signal is too weak to be detected at this distance. 4. When the wire is connected in such a manner that the current can flow through it, the circuit is said to be closed. 5. We know all bodies to consist of atoms. 6. To tear away from the liquid the molecule, which leaves it, is to have a large amount of kinetic energy. 7. A non-ionised clean air is considered to be good insulator. 8. An important problem, which is to be considered with regard to any engine, is the question of its efficiency. 9. When iron and water are heated in a closed vessel, the hydrogen and the oxide of iron which are produced react with one another to give back water and iron. 10. The next step to be taken in this process involves the treatment of camphor with acetic acid. 5. Put the verb from the brackets into the correct form. 1. This problem has ____ (to be solved) as soon as possible. 2. Nakhimov is known _______ to be) one of the most talented Russian admirals. 3. Water ______ (to make up) for evaporation and to aid in digestion is a most necessary part of our food. 4. Many substances unite with water ______ (to give) compounds which are called hydrates. 5. An active element is very difficult _______ (to liberate) from a compound. 6. A video-amplifier is expected _______ (to cover) a very wide range of frequencies. 115

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7. Temperature changes up to 200 appear ________ (to have) no effect on this substance. 8. The study of electricity seems _______ (to begin) about 1600 when the first book on experiments in electricity appeared. 9. We know the sun ______ (to be) intensely hot. 10. It is unlikely for the oxygen ______ (to liberate) from this substance under such a temperature. 6. Translate from Russian into English. 1. , . 2. , . 3. . 4. , , . 5. , . 6. 7. , . 8. , , 22 600. 9. . 10. To , -,

MODALS
, , , , , .. , . can, could, must, have to, have got to, may, might, ought, shall, should, be to, need, dare. have, be, should , , need, have, be, get . , : 116

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1. . , (, ). . be to, ought to, have to, have got to to, ( to). : I can fly an aeroplane. . He should behave. . "May I go now?" "Yes, you may (go)." ? , . ( , .) You have to finish the work today. . 2. , have to, have got to, be to, dare, , , ( , , ). , s/-es . : I can swim. . She can swim. ( She cans swim.) . He may help you. , , . He may be swimming right now. , , . 3. , ( ). 4. ( have to). , not. : Can you come over here? ? May I ask you a question? ? You mustn't (= must not) talk to the teacher that way. . I shouldn't be talking about it. . : Do you have to go now? ? I don't have to go now. . 117

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can . , , . , , . : I can ride a horse. . ( .) We can stay with my brother when we are in Paris. , . ( .) She cannot stay out after 10 pm. 10 . ( .) Can you hand me the stapler? ? ( .) Any child can grow up to be president. . ( .) could . . could can. : Extreme rain could cause the river to flood the city. - . ( .) Nancy could ski like a pro by the age of 11. 11 . ( .) You could see a movie or go out to dinner. . ( .) Could I use your computer to email my boss? , ? ( .) We could go on the trip if I didn't have to work this weekend. - , . ( .) 118

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may . , , . : Cheryl may be at home, or perhaps at work. , . ( , .) Johnny, you may leave the table when you have finished your dinner. , - , . ( .) May I use your bathroom? ? ( .) might . . , might , , . : Your purse might be in the living room. . ( .) If I didn't have to work, I might go with you. , . ( .) You might visit the botanical gardens during your visit. . ( .) Might I borrow your pen? ? ( .) must , , . , , have to. Must not - 119

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, should not ought not. : This must be the right address! , , ! ( , .) Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school. , . ( .) You must take some medicine for that cough. - . ( .) Jenny, you must not play in the street! , ! ( .) have to ( ) ( ) ( ). have to , , . Have to must, , - . : This answer has to be correct. , , . ( , .) They had to leave early. . ( , .) The soup has to be stirred continuously to prevent burning. , . ( .) Exercises 1. Complete the sentences, using may or can. 1. I come in? 2. Let me look at your exercises. I be able to help you. 3. I not swim, because until this year the doctor did not allow me to be more than two minutes in the water. But this year he says I stay in for fifteen minutes if I like, so Im going to learn to swim. 4. Libraries are quite free, and any one who likes get books there. 5. I come and see you tomorrow if I have time. 6. Take your raincoat with you: it rain today. 120

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7. Do you think you do that? 8. I finish the work tomorrow if no one bothers me any more. 9. we come and see you next Sunday at three oclock in the afternoon? 10. What time is it? It be about six oclock, but I am not sure. 2. Complete the sentences, using may (might) or can (could). 1. you help me? 2. I imagine her speaking in public: I knew that she was so shy. 3. Something was wrong with the car: he not start it. 4. A fool ask more questions than a wise man answer. 5. She asked me if she use my telephone. 6. I use your pen? 7. I find a pen on that table? 8. You read this book: you know the language well enough. 9. You take this book: I dont need it. 10. help you? 3. Translate into Russian. 1. You must work hard at your English. 2. You must learn the words. 3. Must we learn the poem today? 4. It must be very difficult to learn Chinese. 5. You must not talk at the lessons. 6. Everybody must come to school in time. 7. Dont ring him up: he must be very busy. 8. You must not make notes in the books. 9. I must help my mother today. 10. Dont worry! This is not important. Not important! You must be joking! 4. Complete the following sentences using the most appropriate forms of the verbs. 1. Jack has got a headache. He sleep well recently. a) cant b) couldnt have c) hasnt been able to 2. I sleep for hours when I was a little girls. a) could b) am able to c) can 3. Tom play tennis well but he play a game yesterday because he was ill. a) couldnt, could b) can, was able c) can, couldnt 4. I didnt want to be late for the meeting. We meet at 5 sharp. a) were to b) had to c) could 121

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5. Where are my gloves? I put them on because its cold today. a) cant b) have to c) neednt 6. You take an umbrella today. The Sun is shining. a) neednt b) mustnt c) cant 7. Im sorry, you didnt invite me to your birthday party. You invite me next time. a) must b) should c) need to 8. Well, its 10 oclock. I go now. a) can b) has to c) must 9. You smoke so much. a) would b) cant c) shouldnt 10. We have got plenty of time. We hurry. a) must b) neednt c) should 5. Translate the sentences into English. 1. . 2. . . 3. . 4. . 5. , . 6. ? 7. . 8. , . . 9. . 10. , .

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6. Complete the following sentences using the most appropriate forms of the verbs. 1. I ___ go now because I am already late for my class. a) must b) have c) have to d) had to 2. Do you ___ clean the house every day or every week? a) must b) have c) have to d) had to 3. I ___ speak French without a problem now because I have had many lessons. a) may b) can c) have d) must to 4. They ___ do their homework today because it is a holiday at the school. a) must not b) don't have c) don't have to d) had not to 5. This isn't a difficult task, so you ___ be able to complete it by Friday. a) can b) should c) mustn't d) couldn't 6. You ___ have been really angry when your boss tried to embarrass you in front of your co-workers. a) can b) must c) shall d) won't 7. ___ you come over for dinner on Friday night? I really want to hang out with you, so I hope you can come. a) Can b) Will have c) Must d) Must have 123

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8. We've worked long and hard today. ___ we call it a day? a) Must have b) Should have c) Shall d) Could have 9. Kendra ___ finish her homework on time, or she can't go outside to play with her friends. a) must b) can't c) must have d) shall have 10. I ___ see that you have a hole in your sneakers. You need a new pair of shoes. a) can b) must c) shall d) may Answers: Ex. 4. 1. c; 2. a; 3. c; 4. a; 5. b; 6. a; 7. b; 8. c; 9. c; 10. b. Ex. 5 1. You must stop smoking. 2. The party was great. You should have come. 3. You can solve this problem. 4. You ought to visit your sick friend. 5. You ought to have visited your sick friend, but you didnt. 6. Would you like some more tea? 7. I had to do that. 8. I dont know why we hurried. We neednt have hurried. 9. Id like to go with you. 10. You may do everything you want.

(Reported speech) Sequence of Tenses


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. . a) - , - , . ) - (, Simple Past), - .
Direct Speech Present Simple Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Future Tenses (will) Direct Speech Peter: "I work in the garden." Peter: "I'm working in the garden." Peter: "I have worked in the garden." Peter: "I have been working in the garden." Peter: "I worked in the garden." Reported Speech Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Future in the Past (would)

Reported Speech Peter said that he worked in the garden. Peter said that he was working in the garden. Peter said that he had worked in the garden. Peter said that he had been working in the garden. Peter said that he had worked in the garden. Peter said that he had been working in the Peter: "I was working in the garden." garden. Peter: "I had worked in the garden." Peter: "I had worked in the garden." Peter: "I had been working in the Peter said that he had been working in the garden." garden. Peter: "I will work in the garden." Peter said that he would work in the garden. Peter: "I can work in the garden." Peter said that he could work in the garden. Peter: "I may work in the garden." Peter said that he might work in the garden. Peter: "I would work in the Peter said that he would work in the garden. garden."(could, might, should, ought to) (could, might, should, ought to)

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this (evening) today/this day these (days) now here next (week) tomorrow in a few days yesterday three days ago, a week age last week, last month last weekend

that (evening) that day those (days) then there the following (week) the next/following day a few days later the day before three days before, a week before the week before, the month before the weekend before / the previous weekend

) .
Word Order in Reported Speech
Statements General questions Special questions Commands Suggestions She said, "I live here." He asked, "Do you know this man?" He asked me, "What are you doing?" She said, "Go to your room." He said, "Let's go to the lake." She said that she lived there. He asked me whether (if) I knew that man. He asked me what I was doing. She told me to go to my room He suggested that we go to the lake. / He suggested going to the lake.

) , , , . ) . say . tell . She said (that) she was going. She said to me she was going. She told me not to go there. She told me dont go there. She told us/me/the doctor/her husband the news. , say tell. : explain, interrupt, demand, insist, admit, complain, warn. ) , 126

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. ( ) , . : : . , . ( , .) , . ( , .)
Exercises

1. Choose the appropriate alternative that matches the direct speech given. 1. "Whats she doing?" a. I wondered what was she doing. b. I wondered what she was doing. 2. "Dont talk!" a. The teacher told us not to talk. b. The teacher told us to not talk. 3. "Have you finished with the computer?" a. She asked if had I finished with the computer. b. She asked if I had finished with the computer. 4. "Why did you have to wait so long?" a. She wanted to know why we had to wait so long. b. She wanted to know why did we have to wait so long. 5. "What is the time?" a. Can you tell me what is the time? b. Can you tell me what the time is? 6. "Do you play chess?" a. He asked me if I did play chess. b. He asked me if I played chess. 7. "Do not tell her what I said." a. He begged me to not tell her what he had said. b. He begged me not to tell her what he had said. 8. "Where do you live?" a. Tom asked me where I lived. b. Tom asked me where did I live. 127

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9. "When are you going back to Russia?" a. He asked when I was going back to Russia. b. He asked when was I going back to Russia. 10. "How did you get on in this quiz?" a. How did I get on in this quiz is my business, not yours! b. How I got on in this quiz is my business, not yours! 2. Choose the appropriate alternative that matches the reported speech given. 1. Tom said, 'I want to visit my friends this weekend.' a. Tom said he wants to visit his friends that weekend. b. Tom said he wanted to visit his friends that weekend. c. Tom said he wanted to visit his friends this weekend. 2. Jerry said, 'I'm studying English a lot at the moment.' a. Jerry said he was studying English a lot at that moment. b. Jerry said he was studying English a lot at the moment. c. Jerry said I was studying English a lot at that moment. 3. They said, 'We've lived here for a long time.' a. They said they have lived there for a long time. b. They said they lived here for a long time. c. They said they had lived there for a long time. 4. He asked me, 'Have you finished reading the newspaper?' a. He asked me if had I finished reading the newspaper. b. He asked me if I had finished reading the newspaper. c. He asked me if I finished reading the newspaper. 5. Susan reassured me, 'I can come tonight.' a. Susan told me I could come that night. b. Susan told me she could come that night. c. Susan told me she could come tomorrow evening. 6. 'I get up every morning at seven o'clock.', Peter said. a. Peter said he got up every morning at seven o'clock. b. Peter said I got up every morning at seven o'clock. c. Peter said he had got up every morning at seven o'clock. 7. Cheryl asked her, 'How long have you lived here?' a. Cheryl asked her how long she has lived there. b. Cheryl asked her how long she lived there. c. Cheryl asked her how long she had lived there. 8. She asked me, 'When are we going to leave?' a. She asked me when she was going to leave. b. She asked me when we were going to leave. c. She asked me when we are going to leave. 128

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9. Mark asked me, 'Why do you want to study Russian?' a. Mark asked her why I wanted to study Russian. b. Mark asked me why did I want to study Russian. c. Mark asked me why I wanted to study Russian. 10. Jason asked me, 'Are you coming with me?' a. Jason asked me if I came with him. b. Jason asked me if I was coming with him. c. Jason asked me if I was coming with you. 3. Make reported questions. Start with she asked me. 1. "Is John at home?" 2. "Does Julie drink tea?" 3. "Are you working tonight?" 4. "Do the children study Chinese?" 5. "Can you help me?" 6. "Where is the post office?" 7. "What does Luke do at the weekend?" 8. "Why did you go out last night?" 9. "Where will you live after graduation?" 10. "Have you been to Paris?" 4. Make reported requests or orders. Start each sentence with she asked me or she told me. 1. "Please help me carry this" 2. "Please come early" 3. "Could you please open the window?" 4. "Can you help me with my homework, please?" 5. "Do your homework!" 6. "Don't smoke!" 7. "Would you mind passing the salt?" 8. "Don't do that!" 9. "Would you bring me a cup of coffee, please?" 10. "Would you mind lending me a pencil?"

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5. Make the reported speech into the direct speech. 1. She said that she was leaving the following day. 2. She told me to be quick. 3. She asked me where I lived. 4. She said that they had gone to the cinema and then to a Chinese. 5. She asked me what I was doing the following day. 6. She asked me if I worked in London. 7. She said that she had never been to Wales. 8. She said that she didn't like mushrooms. 9. She asked me how often I played sport. 10. She said that she could help me the following day. 6. Complete the sentences with said or told. 1. Julie ______ that she would join us after work. 2. She ______ me that she was going running this evening. 3. John ______ us that he couldn't come to the party. 4. John ______ that he had been to the cinema at the weekend. 5. She ______ them she wanted to quit. 6. They ______ that they didn't want to meet us on Tuesday. 7. They ______ they were meeting Luke today. 8. I ______ him I wasn't impressed. 9. Lucy ______ Julie that she was leaving on Wednesday. 10. We ______ that we were going on holiday the following week.

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REFERENCES
1. . / . . .. .. . 2- ., . .: , 1991. 2. .. . .: , 2008. 447 . 3. MacKenzie I. Management and Marketing:.with mini dictionary of 1,000 common terms. Publisher: Heinle ELT. Date: 1 edition (January 1, 1997). 4. .. : . / .. , .. , .. . 2- ., . .: , 2006. 5. .. Business Correspondence. . 11: - . : . , 2001. 52 . 6. Heat Exchangers [ ]. : http://www.answers.com/topic/heat-exchanger 7. Heat Distribution Systems [ ]. : http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/space_heating_cooling/index.cfm/mytopic=12580 8. Automatic processing furnace systems [ ]. : http://thermaltechnology.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id= 25&Itemid=28 9. Oil Cooling [ ]. : http://www.wisegeek. com/what-is-oil-cooling.htm 10. Wooden granules [ ]. : http://www.woodenhause.by/en/article/2008/08/heating-devices.html 11. Heat Pump System [ ]. : http://www.answers.com/topic/heat-pump 12. How can nanotechnology improve solar cells [ ]. : http://www.understandingnano.com/ solarcells.html 13. What is a geothermal resource? [ ]. : http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/geothermal_basics.html 14. Have To [ ]. : http://www.correctenglish.ru/theory/grammar/ have-to/ 15. . / STUDYENGLISH.INFO- , , [ ]. : http://studyenglish.info/exercises-modal.php 16. [ ]. : http://www.native-english.ru/exercises/modal 17. can, may, must [ ]. : http://abcdetomsk.narod.ru/grammar/verb/modals_ exercise_e.htm 18. Coolants [ ]. : http://www.answers. com/topic/coolant 19. The Stirling Engine [ ]. : http://auto.howstuffworks.com/stirling-engine2.htm

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. 6084/16. . Xerox. . . . 7,67. .- . . 6,95. . 150 . NATIONAL QUALITY ASSURANCE BS EN ISO 9001:2008 . 634050, . , . , 30. ./: 8(3822)56-35-35, www.tpu.ru

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