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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Course Structure for B. Tech, Electronics and Communication Engineering

Mathematics III Network Analysis and Synthesis Semiconductor Physics and Device Analog Electronics Signal & System

L 3 3 3 3 3 15 3 3 3 3 3 15 3 3 3 3 3 3 15

T 1 1 1 1 1 5 0 1 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

P 0 3 3 3 0 9 3 3 0 3 3 12 3 0 3 3 3 0 12 3 3 3 3 0 0 12 2 0 3 0 0 4 0 9 3 3 0 0 0 9 15

Total CR 4 4+2 4+2 4+2 4 26 3+2 4+2 3 4+2 4+2 26 4+2 4 3+2 3+2 3+2 2 27 4+2 4+2 3+2 3+2 3 2 27 3+2 3 3+2 3 3 4 2 25 3+2 3+2 3 3 3 8 27 159

Analog Communication Control System Electromagnetic Theory, Transmission Line Digital Electronics Electrical and Electronic Measurement & Instrumentation

Digital Communication Antenna and wave propagation Numerical Methods and Analysis Microprocessor and Microcontroller Data Structure and Programming Viva Voce- I

Microwave Engineering & Radar Digital Signal Processing VLSI Engineering Advanced Microprocessor and Computer Architecture Engineering Economics and Accounts Viva Voce-II

3 3 3 3 3 3 15 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 15

Industrial Electronics Industrial Management Communication Network and Switching Elective I- Open Elective Elective II- Departmental Elective Project Preliminary Viva Voce-III

Introduction to Fibre Optic Communication Wireless & Mobile Communication Elective III- Open Elective Elective IV-Departmental Elective Grand Viva Project Viva

3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 15 0 TOTAL

3rd Semester

Mathematics III

To be taken care of by the Maths department

Linear Differential Solution: 1st order and 2nd order differential solution for Transient and steady state response of R-L, R-C, L-C and R-L-C circuits. Fourier series: Periodic & aperiodic functions and waveforms and its applications in electrical circuits / Fourier transform of aperiodic functions / some properties of Fourier transformation

Laplace Transform: Initial value theorem, Final value theorem, Integral theorem, Differential theorem / Concept of complex frequency / Analysis of various functions like gate function, step function, ramp function, impulse function etc. / Transient and steady state response of R-L, R-C, L-C and R-L-C circuits in transient with or without stored energy / solutions in t & s domain / Concept of natural frequency and damping. / Transfer function / Wave form synthesis Review of AC Circuits: Applications of Network theorems in AC Circuits: Thevenine, Norton, Maximum power transfer, Superposition, Reciprocity, Substitution and Compensation, Tellegens Theorem. Magnetically coupled circuits: Mutual inductance and its evaluation / Equivalent inductance of mutually coupled circuits / signally tuned and doubly tuned transformer. Resonance: Series and parallel resonance circuits Graph of network: Concept of tree, link, tie-set and cut set matrix / Incidence matrix and its properties / loop currents and node-pair potentials / Duality network Two port networks: Impedance, admittance, transmission and inverse transmission parameters, hybrid and inverse hybrid parameters / Interrelationship between the various parameters / Series, parallel, cascade connection Network functions and passive network synthesis: Concept of poles and zeros / conditions for driving point function and transfer function / positive real function and their properties / testing procedure for PR function / Image impedance parameters / Concept of symmetry / characteristic impedance and propagation constant / Derivation of the synthesis procedure for LC and RC passive open circuit two ports / Design procedures for filters with resistance termination / Limitations of passive RC two port realizations.

Bonding Forces in Solids, Energy Bands theory in crystals (Qualitative Analysis), Metals, Semiconductors, & Insulators, Fermi-Level, Intrinsic, Extrinsic Semiconductors, Concept of Holes, Carrier Conc. and Mobility, diffusion and drift or carriers, continuity equation, Injected minority carrier charge. Recombination & generation of charge carriers.

Module 2:

Physical Description of p-n junction, current flow at a junction, I V characteristics, Quantitative analysis of p-n diode characteristics, equivalent circuit, temperature dependence, Capacitance of p-n junction diode (transition & storage), junction Breakdown (Avalanche & Zener), Step and linearly graded junction, diode switching characteristics, M S junction (Schottky barrier, Ohmic contact and rectifying contact), Hetero-junction.

Module 3:

Junction transistor, Charge transport in BJT, base narrowing (Early effect), Avalanche breakdown & Punch through, transistor switching, Coupled-Diode model, Ebers-Moll equations, LF and HF model.

Module 4:

MOS structure, Basic operation of Enhancement & Depletion mode MOSFET, MOS capacitance (Operation with band diagram, threshold voltage & Characteristics), CCD and applications, LF and HF model,.

Module 5:

Optical absorption in semiconductors, photovoltaic effects, solar cells (p-n junction), Photoconductors, Photodiode, PIN photodiode, Avalanche photodiode, Phototransistor, LED, Semiconductor Laser (p-n junction)

Text Book: 1. Solid State Electronic Devices by Streetman & Banerjee Reference Books: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Semiconductor Devices: Jasprit Singh Integrated Electronics: Millman & Halkis Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Donald Neaman Semiconductor Devices: Kanan Kano Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices: Pallab Bhattacharaya Semiconductor Physics: Device & Technology: S. M. Sze

7.

Analog Electronics

FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER: General theory of feedback, Barkhausen criteria, stability of feedback amplifier, different feedback topologies, effect of different parameters of an amplifier, frequency response of 2 pole/3 pole feedback amplifiers, Bode plot, gain and phase margin, compensation, method of analysis, Design examples. MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIERS Frequency response of single stage R-C coupled amplifier, cascade amplifier, cascaded BJT and FET amplifiers, frequency response of R-C coupled multistage amplifier. TUNED AMLPIFIERS Bandwidth consideration of tuned amplifiers, Analysis of single and double tuned amplifiers, Stagger tuning, Butter worth and Chebyshev response. OSCILLATORS: DIFFERENT RC AND LC OSCILLATORS. SWITCHING CIRCUITS: Astable Multivibrator, Monostable Multivibrator, Bistable Multivibrator. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER - active load - current mirror - various stages of an operational amplifier simplified schematic circuit of op-amp 741 - typical op-amp parameters - slew rate - CMRR - open loop gain - unity gain bandwidth - offset current & offset voltage. LINEAR OP-AMP CIRCUITS - inverting and non-inverting configurations - analysis for closed loop gain - input and output impedances - virtual short concept - current to voltage and voltage to current converters - instrumentation amplifier - nonlinear op-amp circuits - log and antilog amplifiers - phase shift and wein bridge oscillators - comparators - astable and monostable circuits. FILTERS- Butterworth, Chebychev and Bessel approximations to ideal low pass filter characteristics frequency transformations to obtain HPF, BPF and BEF from normalized prototype. IC 555 TIMER Pin diagram of IC 555 Internal Circuit of IC 555 Multivibrator circuits using IC 555. PHASE LOCKED LOOP Block schematic and analysis of PLL Lock range and capture range Typical applications of PLL (eg.565) Basic principles of operation of VCO (eg. 566) and timer (555) and their applications Voltage regulator ICs Fixed and adjustable (723) regulators.

Reference Books 1. Op-AMPS and Lenear Integrated Circuits- Ramakant A. Gayakwad-Prentice Hall of India. 2. Sergio Franco, Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits, Tata McGraw Hill Book Company, 3rd Edn., 2002. 3. Jacob Baker R., Li H.W. & Boyce D.E., CMOS- Circuit Design, Layout & Simulation, PHI, 2000.

4. VLSI Technology, 2nd edition, S M Sze. 5. Semiconductor Devices & Circuits - B.P. Singh 6. Electronics Devices and Circuits - Allen Mottershead 7. Integrated Electronics - Millman & Halkias

Signals: Introduction, Types of signals, Continuous-time and discrete time signals. Energy and Power, Transformations of the independent variable, Exponential and sinusoidal signals, Unit impulse and Unit sample signals, Continuous-time and Discrete time systems and Basic system properties. Linear time-invariant systems: Discrete and Continuous time systems, convolution sum, convolution Integral, Properties, causal LTI systems described by difference equations, singularity function. Representation of periodic signal by Fourier: Continuous-time and discrete-time signals, Properties Representation of aperiodic signals by Fourier Transform: Continuous-time and discretetime signals, Properties, System characterized by linear constant coefficient differential equation. Review of Laplace Transform Sampling: representation of Continuous-time signals by its samples, sampling theorem, Impulse train sampling, Sampling with zero order hold, Reconstruction of signal from its samples using interpolation, Aliasing. Discrete time processing of continuous time signals, Digital differentiator, half sample delay, Sampling of Discrete-time signals, Decimation and interpolation. Random signals: review of probability theory, Random variable: Continuous and Discrete, Description of Continuous Random variable, Statistical averages. Description of Discrete Random variable, Statistical averages .Random processes: definition, properties and types.

Reference Books (1) Signals and Systems, A. V. Oppenheim, A. S Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, PrenticeHall, Englewood Clieffs (2) Probability, random variables, and stochastic Processes, A. Papoulis, McGrawHill (3) Signals and Systems, B. P. Lathi (4) Signals and Systems, M. J. Roberts McGraw-Hill

4th Semester

Analog Communication

Introduction : Introduction to communication systems, signals and spectra, electromagnetic spectrum

and its usage, communication channels and propagation characteristics. Review of Signal representation using Fourier Series & Fourier Transform. Power Spectral density, random variables, Random processes.

Introduction to Noise: Thermal Noise, Shot noise, Partition noise, Flicker noise, Gaussian Noise,

Noise in Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), FET noise, Equivalent input noise, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Noise Temperature, Noise equivalent Bandwidth, Noise Figure. Experimental determination of Noise Figure, Pulse Response and Digital Noise and its elimination. Analog Modulation Techniques: Introduction, Theory of Amplitude Modulation; AM Power Calculations, AM Modulation with a Complex wave, Theory of Frequency Modulation (FM); Spectra of FM Signals, Narrow Band and Wide Band FM, Theory of Phase Modulation, Comparison of AM and FM, Comparison of PM and FM, Noise and Frequency Modulation, Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis. AM Transmission/AM Reception: Introduction, Generation of Amplitude Modulation, Basic Principles of AM Generation; Square law Diode Modulation, Vander Bijl Modulation, Suppressed Carrier AM Generation, Ring Modulator, Balanced Modulator. Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) Receiver, Basic Elements of AM Super-heterodyne receiver; RF Amplifiers Characteristics- Sensitivity, Selectivity , Image Frequency Rejection, Mixers Tracking and Alignment, Local Oscillator, IF Amplifier, AM Detectors; Envelope or Diode Detector, AGC, AM Receiver using Transistors Communication Receiver. SSB Transmission/SSB Reception: Advantages of SSB transmission, Generation of SSB; Independent Side-Band Systems (ISB), Vestigial Side-Band Modulation (VSB).SSB Product Demodulator, Balanced Modulator as SSB Demodulator, ISB/Suppressed Carrier Receiver. FM Transmission/FM Reception: Generation of FM by Direct Methods. Indirect Generation of FM; The Armstrong Method, FM Stereo Transmission.FM Receiver Direct Methods of Frequency Demodulation; Slope Detector, Travis Detector , Foster Seely or Phase Discriminator, Indirect methods of FM Demodulation; FM Detector using PLL and Stereo FM Multiplex Reception. Pulse Modulation Transmission and Reception: Introduction, Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), PAM Modulator Circuit, Demodulation of PAM Signals, Pulse Time Modulation (PTM); Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), Pulse Position Modulation (PPM), PPM Demodulator.

Books:

1. Lathi B P, Digital and Analog Communication Systems, Oxford University Press 2. George Kennedy, Electronic Communication System, McGraw- Hill. 3. Simon Haykin, Communication Systems, John Wiley and Sons 4. Roddy and Coolen, Electronic Communication, PHI .

Control System

Introduction: Control systems, Physical elements of a control system, effects of feedback. Mathematical Model of Physical Systems: Introduction, Differential equation representation of physical systems, Transfer function concepts, Block diagram algebra, Signal flow graphs, Masons Gain formula State Space: Concepts of state, state variables and state model, State models of linear continuous-time systems, Concept on Controllability and Observability, Illustrative examples. Control System Components: DC servomotors, DC tacho-generators, AC servomotors, AC tachogenerators, Stepper motors, Synchro error detectors, Areas of Application. Time Response Analysis: Introduction, Standard test signals, Performance indices, Time response of first order system, Time response of second order systems, steady state error and their minimisation, error coefficients, P, PI and P-I-D type controllers. Stability Analysis in Time Domain: The concept of stability, Assessment of stability from pole positions, Necessary conditions for stability, Routh Stability Criterion, Relative stability analysis, Illustrative examples. Root Locus Technique : Introduction, The root locus concept, Root locus construction rules, Root contours, Case studies. Frequency Response Analysis: Introduction, Performance indices, Frequency response of second order systems, Polar plots, Bode plots, All pass systems, Minimum-phase and Non-minimum-phase systems, Illustrative examples Stability Analysis in Frequency Domain: Introduction, A brief review of Principle of Argument, Nyquist stability criterion, Assessment of relative stability Gain Margin and Phase Margin, Closed loop frequency response, Illustrative examples. Texts/References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Kuo B.C. Automatic Control System, PHI Nagrath I J & Gopal M : Control Systems Engineering, New Age International Pub. Ogata K : Modern Control Engg. PHI Dorf R C & Bishop R.H.: Modern Control System ; Addison Wisley Gopal: Modern Control System Theory, New Age International Gopal: Digital Control Engineering, New Age International

Review of Vector Calculus: Orthogonal coordinate systems, Coordinate transformation, Gradient of scalar fields, Divergence and Curl of vector fields. Electrostatics: Coulombs law, electric field, flux and Gausss law, curl and divergence of electrostatic fields, electric potential, Poissons equation, Laplaces equation, solutions to

electrostatic boundary problems, method of images, work and energy in electrostatics, induced dipoles and polarization, field inside a dielectric, electric displacement, electric susceptibility, permittivity and dielectric constant, boundary conditions, capacitors, surface charge and induced charge on conductors. Magnetostatics: Lorentz force, Biot-Savart law, magnetic flux density, divergence and curl of flux density, Amperes law, magnetic vector potential, magnetization, torque and force on magnetic dipoles, magnetic field inside matter, magnetic field intensity, magnetic susceptibility and permeability, magnetic materials, boundary conditions. Electrodynamics: Electromagnetic induction, inductance, continuity equation, displacement current, Maxwells equations, boundary conditions, Poyntings theorem, energy and momentum in electromagnetic field. Electromagnetic Waves: EM waves in vacuum and in matter, monochromatic plane waves, group velocity, wave polarization, Lorentz gauge, retarded potentials. Refection and transmission at interfaces: Normal and Oblique incidence of uniform plane electromagnetic waves at conducting boundary, dielectric boundary. Transmission lines: Quasi-TEM analysis, characteristic impedance, standing wave ratio, impedance matching techniques, Smith Chart

Essential Reading: 1. N. Ida, Engineering Electromagnetics, Springer,2004 2. E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balmain, Electromagnetic waves and Radiating systems, Prentice hall, 2004 Supplementary Reading: 1. M. N. O. Sadiku, Elements of Electromagnetics- Oxford University Press, 2006 2. W. H. Hayt, Engineering Electromagnetics, McGraw Hill, 2007 3. Electromagnetic waves and Radiating systems - E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balmain. 4. Introductory course in electromagnetic fields - P.V. Gupta. 5. Electromagnetics - Hayt 6. Fandamentals of Electromageatics - M.A. Wazed Miyah 7. Electromagnetic fields and waves - V.V. Sarvate 8. Electromagnetics - B.B. Laud

Digital Electronics

1. Introduction to Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates.

Signed binary number, Binary arithmetic, CodesBCD, Gray, Excess-3, Error detection & Correcting code-Hamming code, Logic Gates, Universal gates, Boolean Algebra, Basic theorems & properties of Boolean Algebra, De-Morgans theorem, Minterms & Maxterms, K-map representation, Q-M Method, simplification and realization with logic gates.

2. Combinational Circuits

Code Converters, Adders (Half and Full adders, parallel binary adders, look ahead carry adder generator, BCD Adder), Subtractor (Half and Full subtractor), Combined adder/subtractor block, Magnitude comparator, decoders and Encoders, Priority Encoder, Multiplexer and Multiplexertree, De-multiplexer, Parity generator/checkers.

3. Sequential Logic

Latches, Flip-Flops(SR, D, JK, T and Master Slave JK, EDGE Triggered),Conversion of FlipFlops, Glitches, Shift Register (SISO, SIPO, PIPO, PISO, Bidirectional), Counter (ripple and synchronous, Ring and Johnson Counters).

4. Memory

Memory concepts, RAM, ROM, uv EPROM, EEROM, Flash memory, Optical memory.

PAL, PLA, PROM, CPLD, FPGA and Programmable ASIC.

Model of Finite State Machine---State diagram, Mealy and Moore models, Logic diagrams, State table, State reduction, State assignment, Excitation table. Realization of memory elements (S-R, J-K, T, Master-Slave), State diagram, state table, Excitation table, Synthesis of Synchronous sequential circuits. Sequence detector, parity-bit generators). Minimization of completely specified sequential machine, Simplification of incompletely specified machine.

7. Logic Families

Transistor as switch, Characteristics (Propagation delay, Speed-power product, Noise margin, Fan-in, Fan-out), Standard logic families (RTL, TTL, ECL, CMOS), Gate Design using TTL/ CMOS.

Sample and Hold Circuits, Digital to Analog converter (Binary weighted resister network & R-2R ladder network), Analog to Digital converter (Flash type, Counter type, Dual Slope & Successive approximation type).

Text Books:1. Fundamentals of Digital Logic Anand Kumar - PHI 2. Digital Logic and Computer Design M. Morris Mano PHI Reference Books:3. Digital Fundamentals --- Floyd, UBS 4. Digital Principles and Applications Malvino & Leach - TMH 5. Digital Fundamentals T. L. Floyd & Jain Pearson Education

Basic Measurement Techniques: Construction and principle of operation of Moving coil, Moving Iron, dynamometer, Wattmeter, Electro-static Instruments, Thermal and Rectifier type deflecting instruments, extension of instrument ranges using shunts, multipliers and instrument transformers. Errors in Measurement : Definition of accuracy, precision, Fidelity, speed of response,non-linearity, techniques of linearization, classification of errors. Statistical analysis. Measurements of Resistances: Measurement of low, medium and high resistances, Kelvins double bridge, multimeters, megger, D.C. and A.C. potentiometers, Localization of cable faults: Murray and Varley loop methods. AC Bridges: measurement of inductances, capacitance and frequency by A.C. Bridges- Maxwell, Schering, Anderson, De-Sauty, Wien. Measurement of power & Energy: Measurements of power in polyphase circuits, various wattmeter connections. A.C. and D.C. energy meters. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope: C.R.O. construction & principle of operation. Sensors & Transducers: piezoelectric sensors, LVDT, Stain Gauges, Actuators A/D, D/A conversion techniques; S/H and multiplexers; isolation amplifiers; Data Acquisition system. Digital Instrumentation Block diagram of Instrumentation schemes, DVM, DMM, frequency counter Frequency domain instruments : Wave analyzer, spectrum analyzer Special Purpose Instruments: Signal generators, Q-meter Text Books: 1. Golding E.W. & Wides F.C. : Electrical Measuring Instruments & Measurements ; Wheeler 2. Sawhney A K:A course in Electrical & Electronic Measurements & Instruments, Dhanpat Rai & Co. 3.Kalsi:Electronic Instrumentation 4.SK Singh :Industrial Instrumentation & Control , Tata McGraw Hill.New Delhi 5.H.S. Kalsi :Electronic Instrumentation, Tata Mc-Graw Hill 6.Heltrick A.D. & Cooper W.D. : Modern Electronic Instrumentation & Measuring Instruments; Wheeler 7.Patranabis D: Sensors & Transducers, Wheeler 96 8. Bell, David : Electronic Instrumentation & Measurement, Reston Publishers

5th Semester

Digital Communication

Sampling Theory: Sampling theorem, Signal reconstruction in time domain, Practical and Flat Top Sampling, Sampling of Bandpass Signal. Waveform Coding Techniques: Pulse Code Modulation , Linear quantizer, Quantization noise power calculation, Signal to Quantization noise ratio, Non-uniform quantizer, A law & Mu- law, companding; encoding and, Bandwidth of PCM, Differential pulse code modulation, Delta modulation, Idling noise and slope overload, Adaptive delta modulation, DPCM, Comparison of PCM and DM. Digital Multiplexing: Fundamentals of time division multiplexing, electronic commutator, bit, byte interleaving T1Carrier system, Synchronization and Signaling of T1, TDM, PCM hierarchy, NorthAmerica CCITT standards, T1 to T4 PCM TDM system (DS1 to DS4 signals), Signal format of M12 Mux for AT & T (Bell) system, bit rate calculation for DS1 to DS4 signals. Digital Base Band Transmission: Line Coding & its properties. NRZ & RZ types, signaling format for unipolar, Polar, bipolar (AMI) & Manchester coding and their power spectra (No derivation), HDB and B8ZS signaling, ISI, Nyquist criterion for zero ISI & raised cosine spectrum, Matched filter receiver, Derivation of its impulse response and peak pulse signal to noise ratio, Correlation detector decision threshold and error probability for binary unipolar (on-off) signaling. Digital Modulation Techniques: Types of digital modulation, Wave forms for Amplitude, Frequency and Phase Shift Keying, Method of generation and detection of coherent & non-coherent binary ASK, FSK & PSK, Differential phase shift keying, Quadrature modulation techniques, M-ary FSK, Minimum Shift Keying (MSK), Probability of error and comparison of various digital modulation techniques. Coherent reception, Coherent reception of ASK, PSK and FSK, Non-Coherent reception of ASK, FSK, PSK and QPSK, Calculation of error probability of BPSK and BFSK, Error probability for QPSK. Elements of Information Theory: Information; Mutual information and channel capacity of a discrete memoryless channel, Calculation of channel capacity of a discrete memoryless channel, of a BSC, of a continuous AWGN Channel, Hartely- Shannon law, Bandwidth-S/N tradeoff. Books: 1. Haykin Simon, Communication Systems, 4th Edition, Wiley publication. 2. Lathi B P, Digital and Analog Communication Systems, Oxford University Press 3. Tomasi, Electronic Communication Systems, 4thedition, Pearson Publications. 4. Proakis J J, Digital Communications, 2nd Edition, Mc Graw -Hill.

Radiation fundamentals. Potential theory. Helmholtz integrals. Radiation from a current element. Basic antenna parameters. Radiation field of an arbitrary current distribution. Small loop antennas. Receiving antenna. Reciprocity relations. Receiving cross section, and its relation to gain. Reception of completely polarized waves. Linear antennas. Current distribution. Radiation field of a thin dipole. Folded dipole. Feeding methods. Baluns. Antenna arrays. Array factorization. Array parameters. Broad side and end fire arrays. YagiUda arrays Log-periodic arrays. Aperture antennas. Fields as sources of radiation. Horn antennas. Babinets principle. Parabolic reflector antenna.Microstrip antennas. Wave Propogation: Propogation in free space. Propogation around the earth, surface wave propogation, structure of the ionosphere, propogation of plane waves in ionized medium, Determination of critical frequency, MUF. Fading, tropospheric propogation, Super refraction

Essential Reading: 1. C Balanis, Antenna theory, analysis and design, 2nd. Edn., John Wiley & Sons, Supplementary Reading: 1. E.C. Jordan & K.G. Balmain, Electromagnetic waves and Radiating Systems. 2. R. Chatterjee, Antenna Theory and Practice - New age Publisher, 2004 3. J. D. Kraus, Antenna- Tata McGraw Hii, 2006. 1. R.E.Collin, Antennas and Radio Wave Propagation, McGraw Hill,1985. 2. K.F.Lee, Principles of Antenna Theory, Wiley,1984. 3. J.R. James etal, Microstrip Antenna Theory and Design, IEE, 1981. 4. Frederick Emmons Terman, Electronic Radio Engineering (4/e), McGraw Hill

Unit I: Introduction to finite differences, difference formulae, fundamental theorem of difference calculus, the difference table, to express value of the function in terms of leading term and the leading differences of a difference table, the operator E, properties of two operators E & D, relation between operator E of finite differences and differential coefficient D of differential calculus, one or more missing terms, factorial notation, to show that x(-n)= 1/[(x+n)], generalized factorial notations, methods of representing any given polynomial in factorial notation.

Unit II: Introduction to interpolation, interpolation with equal intervals, different interpolation methods (Newton-Gregory forward and backward difference formulae), interpolation with unequal intervals, divided differences and table, Newtons divided difference formulae, central difference interpolation formulae (Gauss, Stirling, Bessel formulae), piecewise and spline interpolation, (cubic splines) least squares approximations. Unit III: Numerical differentiation based on interpolation, numerical integration, a general quadrature formula for equidistant ordinates, the trapezoidal rule, Simpsons 1/3rd and 3/8th rules, Weddles rule, Method of undetermined coefficients, extrapolation method. Unit IV: Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations of first order by Eulers and Runge Kuttas method. Unit V: Solution to Algebraic and transcendental equations by Regula-Falsi method, iteration method, Newton-Raphson method, simultaneous linear Algebraic equations by Gauss-Jordon method, Crouts method, factorization method, Gauss-Seidel iterative method, determination of eigen values.

Evolution of digital computer, evolution of microprocessor. Microprocessor architecture: 8-bit (e.g.8085) and 16-bit (e.g. 8086/8088). Addressing modes of microprocessors, instruction set of 8-bit (8085) and 16-bit microprocessors (8086/8088). Instruction cycle, timing diagram. Subroutine, assembly language and machine language programming. Types of memories and their organizations (RAM, ROM, stack, secondary etc.). Interrupt, DMA, principle of data transfer (synchronous and asynchronous). Serial data communication, RS-232 standard. Peripheral interface: PPI, DMA controller, interrupt controller, programmable timer, CRT controller, USART. Microcontrollers like 8051, 80196 etc Text Books/References: 1. Microprocessor architecture, programming and application with the 8085- Gaonkar 2. Fundamentals of microprocessors and microcomputers- B. Ram 3. 8086/8088 family (Design, programming & inteface)- Uffenbeck 4. 8088 & 8086 microprocessors (Programming, interfacing, software, hardware and application)- Triebel & Singh

Concepts of data Structures Information & Meaning, Abstract data Types. Linear Data Structures Sequential Representations : Arrays and Lists, Stacks, Queues and Dequeues and their Applications; Linked Representations: Linear Linked List, Circular Linked List, Doubly Linked List and their Applications.

Nonlinear Data structures: Trees : Basic Terminologies; Binary trees: Properties, Traversals and Threads, Expression. Tree, Binary search tree: Operations, Height Balanced Binary trees; M-Way Search Tree, BTrees; Applications. Heaps & Priority Queues. Graphs: Graph Terminologies, Representation of graphs, Graph Traversals, Application of Graphs. Recursion Design of Recursive Algorithms, Tail Recursion, When not to use recursion, Removal of Recursion. Shorting Algorithms: Insertion sorts : Straight insertion sort, Binary insertion of sort, Shell sort; Exchange Sorts: Bubble sort, Quick sort, selection sorts: Straight Selection Sort, Heap Sort; Merge sort; Distribution Sorts : Bucket Sort, Radix Sort. Searching: Sequential Search, Ordered Sequential Search, Binary Search, Interpolation Search. Hashing: Hashing Methods, Hash Function Implementations, Hash Tables, Scatter Tables, Scatter tables using Open Addressing. Programming Experiments based on: Arrays, Stacks, Queues, Linked lists, Trees, Recursion, Sorting, searching and Hashing data structures.

Viva Voce- I

6th Semester

Microwave Engineering & Radar

Modal analysis of rectangular and circular metallic waveguides TE and TM modes, guide wavelength, cut-off, mode excitation, re-entrant cavity, Microwave Resonators analysis, Q factor of resonators, Strip lines and microstrip lines analysis, filter implementation with transmission lines and strip lines Passive microwave components S matrix formalism, directional coupler, waveguide tees, isolator, circulator, phase shifter, impedance matching single stub and double stub Vacuum tube microwave devices Klystron - velocity modulation and bunching, Reflex klystron, traveling wave tube - slow wave structure and Brillouin diagram. Semiconductor microwave devices tunnel diode, Gunn diode, IMPATT diode, TRAPATT diode, heterojunction bipolar transistors principle, characteristics, noise figure Low noise microwave amplifiers and oscillators masers stimulated emission, noise figure, parametric amplifiers Manley Rowe relations, up, down and negative resistance parametric amplifier Radar- Basic Radar, Radar Equation, Threshold Detection, Integration of Radar Pulses, system Losses, Effects of RCS Fluctuation, Internal and External Noise. MTI and Pulse Doppler Radars, Range and Speed Ambiguities, Limitations to MTI performance. Tracking Radars: Sequential Lobing, Conical Scan and Monopolse, ADT. Matcherd Filter Receiver, Detection Criteria, Automatic Detection, Detectors & Integrators, Target Recognition: SAR & ISAR.

Essential Reading: 1. D M Pozar, Microwave Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 2004 2. S Liao, Microwave Devices & circuits, Prentice halls, India, 2004 3. M.I. Skolnik - Introduction to Radar Systems, McGraw Hill, 2004 4. G. Stimson, Introduction to Airborne Radar, IEE Press, 2002

Supplementary Reading: 1. M L Sisodia, V. L. Gupta,; Microwaves: Introduction to Circuits, Devices and Antennas, New Age, 2001 2. R E Collin, Foundations of Microwave Engg. McGraw-Hill 2001 3. Francois Le Chevalier, Principles of Radar and Sonar Signal Processing, Artech House, 2002

Introduction: Limitations of analog signal processing, Advantages of digital signal processing and its applications; Some elementary discrete time sequences and systems; Basic elements of digital signal processing such as convolution, correlation and autocorrelation, Concepts of stability, causality, linearity, and difference equations Sampling of Continuous Time Signals: Sampling and aliasing problem, Reconstruction of a continuous time signal from its samples; Discrete Time Processing of Continuous time signals and vice-versa. Decimation & Interpolation; changing the sampling rate by integer and non-integer factors using discrete time processing. The Z Transform: Z-Transform, Region of convergence; Properties of the Z-transform; convolution theorem; Parsevals relation; Unilateral Z-transform and its application to difference equations with nonzero initial condition. Discrete Fourier Transform: DFT and its properties; Linear Periodic and Circular convolution; Linear Filtering Methods based on DFT; Filtering of long data sequences; Fast Fourier Transform algorithm using decimation in time and decimation frequency techniques; Linear filtering approaches to computation of DFT. Design of Digital Filters: Linear Phase FIR filters; Design methods for FIR filters, FIR filter design using windows; IIR filter design by Impulse Invariance, Bilinear Transformation, Matched ZTransformation, Frequency Transformation in the Analog and Digital Domain, Filter structures for IIR and FIR filters, direct form I and II, parallel and cascade forms, frequency sampling structure for FIR filters Finite Precision Effects: Fixed point and Floating point representations, Effects of coefficient unitization, Effect of round off noise in digital filters, Limit cycles. Introduction to multirate DSP: Decimation and interpolation, polyphase decomposition, uniform DFT filter banks, quadrature mirror filters and perfect reconstruction

Books Recommended :

1. Oppenheim A V & Sehafer R W, Discrete Time Signal Processing, Prentice Hall. 2. Proakis J G & Manolakis D G, Digital Signal Processing, Pearson Education. 3. Oppenheim A V, Willsky A S & Young I T, Signal & Systems, Prentice Hall. 4. Ifeachor and Jervis, Digital Signal Processing, Pearson Education India. 5. D.J. DeFatta, J.G.Lucas and W. S. Hodgkiss, Digital Signal Processing, J Wiley and Sons, 6. Andrias Antonion, Digital Filters, Analysis, Design and Applications, Second Edition, Tata Mcgraw Hills.

VLSI Engineering

(1) Introdiction to VLSI design, Moores Law, VLSI Design flow, Design hierarchy, VLSI Desin style: Full custom, Gate array, standard-cell, Macrocell based design, Field programmable devices, design quality. (2) Electrical charactersistics of MOSFET, Body effect, MOSFET scaling, Short-chennel effects.

(3) Unit process in VLSI: Wafer preparation, Oxidation, Diffusion, Ion implantaion, Deposition, Metalization, Etching and Lithography. (4) IC fabrication: nMOS fabrication, n-well and p-well process, Stick diagram. Layout and Layout design rules. (5) CMOS Digital Circuits: General CMOS logic structure, VTC of inverter, noise margin, Different types of inverter (resistive load, enhancement and depletion nMOS load and CMOS), Switching characteristice (propagation delay and parasitic capacitance estimation), switching power, latchup, sizing for large capacitive load, NAND, NOR and other complex CMOS logic circuits. Dynamic CMOS logic circuits (Domino and NORA logic). Introducing sequential CMOS logic circuits. (6) CMOS analog circuits: Differnetial Amplifier Source coupled pair, CMRR, Basic CMOS opAmp design. (7) Physical Design Automation: Objectives and goals of partitioning, floor planning and placement, Global routing. (8) Advanced topic: Low power VLSI Design and Testing.

Introduction to advanced microprocessors (16 bit, 32 bit & 64 bit), Multi-user, Multitasking operating system concept. Architecture of advanced microprocessors-80186, 80286, 80386, 80486. Memory management system, Protected mode of operation, Introduction to Pentium microprocessor. Evaluation of modern computer architecture, Basic architectural classification. Introduction to parallel processing. Parallel computer structure. Principles of pipelining and vector processing. Pipeline computers. SIMD array processors. Multiprocessor architecture. Text Books/References: 1) Microprocessor & Interfacing- Hall 2) Intel Microprocessors- Brey 3) The Pentium Microprocessor- Antonakos 4) Computer Architecture & Parallel Processing- Hwang & Briggs

Introduction Engineering economy and its important, Want activity satisfaction of wants. Resources planning and distribution in economic system Laissez Faire and socialism. Factors of production and concept of optimum. Laws of return. Demand - Elasticity of demand, demand estimation, market research, supply and industrial costs. Money Value of money, quantity theory; inflation and deflection. Neural network and its applications. Banking - role in commercial banks credit and its importance in industrial financing, sources of finance Reserve bank of India and its functions. Business management and organization, Proprietorship, Partnership and joint stock company their formation, finance and management. Elements of taxation, insurance, Business combinations. Basic Principals of management. Industrial record keeping : Double entry system Journal, lager, trail balance, cash book, preparation of final accounts, trading and profit and lose account and balance sheet. Industrial costs and their classifications Material cost control, labor cost control and overhead cost control. Depreciation and replacement studies; Financial control ratio analysis and their interpretation for industrial control. Budgetary control.

Viva Voce-II

7th Semester

Industrial Electronics

Thyristors : Thyristor family, Two transistor analogy of SCR, construction, Turn on and Turn Off characteristics, specifications and parameters, Turn On methods, S.C.R. firing and synchronizing circuits, U.J.T. related firing circuits, SCR Protection, Commutation circuits. Phase Controlled Rectifier : Principle of Phase Control, Single-Phase Mid-Point Converter, Bridge Converter, Full Converter, Semiconverter, Dual converter. DC to DC converters : Basic principle of chopper circuit, various chopper circuits and their working, set up chopper, Line Regulators. Inverters : Pulse width modulated Inverters, Single Phase Series and Parallel inverter, Force Commutated Thyristor Inverters, Current Source Inverter, Three Phase Bridge Inverter. AC Voltage Controllers : Types, Single Phase Voltage Controller with RL Load, Sequence Control of AC Voltage Controllers, Cycloconverters. Industrial application of ultrasonic and its basic principle, optical devices, S.M.P.S., U.P.S., Advanced control of power electronic circuits using microprocessors, isolation and amplifier circuits, synchronization circuits.

Industrial Management

Introduction to management, evolution of scientific management, modern management. Principles. Elements of management;. Planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, budgeting. Core concepts of marketing. need, want, demand, product, value, satisfaction, marketing mix- product, price, place, promotion. Financial management, objectives, scope, techniques of investment analysis, pay back period, accounting rate of return, working capital, cost of capital. Sources of financing. Technology management. Product design . Types of production system. Plant location-factors to be considered. Plant layout. Types of layout. Inventory management. Significance of HRM. HR planning job evaluation. Recruitment and selection. Placement and induction. Training. Performance appraisal. Compensation. Industrial relations.

Microeconomics. Demand and supply. Forecasting techniques. Cost and revenues.Competitive nature of firms. Keynesian economics. Aggregate demand and supply. Employment determination. National income. Trade cycle. Inflation. Index numbers. Capital budgeting. Cash flow analysis. Balance sheet. Risk analysis and decision making. Impact of liberalization, privatization and globalization. Locating the firm in a global economy. Fiscal policy. Taxation-principles. Exchange rate determination. Monetary policy. Functions of banks. Credit creation by commercial banks. References:1. L.M.Prasad, Priciples and Practice of Management, S.Chand & Sons. 2. P.Kotler, Marketing Management (12/e), Pearson, 2005 3. P.Chandra, Financial Management Theory and Practice (3/e), TMH, 2004 4. K.Ashwathappa, Human Resources and Personnel Management (3/e),TMH, 2005 5. E.S.Buffa & R.K.Sarin, Modern Production/Operation Management (8/e), Wiley, 1994. 6. M.Adhikari, Business Economics, Excel Books, 2004 7. S.K.Misra &V.K.Puri, Economic Environment of Business, HPH, 2003

Fundamentals of Data Transmission, Asynchronous and synchronous transmission, Data Communication Protocols. Data Communication Networks: Topology design issues, OSI-reference model, open system standards, service primitives, Other architectures, Connection oriented and connection less services. Circuit switching, Packet switching, Message switching, Hybrid switching and ATM switching. Interface and standards- EIA RS232C, 442, 449 and others, Modem specifications. Data link layer, LLC & MAC level protocols and design, issues IEEE 802 LAN Standards, framing, Error control, Flow control, HDLC, ALOHA and performance issues. Frame relay networks and performance parameters. LLC protocols, Network layer design issues, Routing algorithms, Congestion control algorithm, Subnet concept, Virtual circuit and Data gram Subnet, Flow control, Internetworking, Bridges, Routers, Gateways and different level switches. Transport level Fundamentals of TCP/IP, addressing schemes ISDN systems, B-ISDN and ATM network fundamentals, Introduction of wireless network architectures, WATM, Network design issues, Fast Ethernet architecture and protocols.

Reference Books 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Computer Network - Tanenbaum Telecommunication networks- M. Schwartz Data network - Basket and Gallager Data Communication, Computer network & open systems - F. Haball Computer Networks : An Engineering approach - S. Keshav

Project Preliminary

Viva Voce-III

8th Semester

Introduction to Fibre Optic Communication

Introduction: introduction to optoelectronics material, Characteristics of optical transmission media, optical fibres- preparation and transmission characteristics, loss and dispersion mechanisms; Optical sources: principles of operation, modulation characteristics and driver circuits, LED, laser diodes, light source linearity, modal, and partition and reflection noise; Power Launching and Coupling: Source to fibre power launching, lensing schemes for coupling improvement, fibre to fibre joints, couplers, multiplexers and splices; Photo detectors: principles of operation, circuits and performance, preamplifiers and post-detection amplifiers; Optical Fiber systems: intensity modulation/direct detection system, link budget using direct detection, coherent system, wavelength converters, coherent and WDM systems, Photonic switching.

Essential Reading: 1. G. Keiser, Optical Fibre Communications, McGraw Hill, 2008. 2. John M. Senior, Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice, PHI, 2008. Supplementary Reading: 1. Jones, William B. Jones, Introduction to Optical Fiber Communications Systems, Oxford University Press (1995) 2. A. J. Rogers, Understanding Optical Fiber Communications, Artech House (2001) 3. J. C. Palais, Fiber optic communication, 5th edition, Prentice Hall, 2004

Radio communication principles. Radio wave propagation.- HF, VHF,UHF and microwave propagation. Multipath scattering and signal fading; Modulators and Demodulators, Mixers, Carrier synchronization. Geostationary communication satellities. Transponders, satellite and earth station transmitters and receivers, Link budget calculations, Multiple Access techniques-FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, SPADE, VSATs. Non geostationary satellites for communications- LEO,MEO. Mobile Communications: Principles, systems, standards and diversity systems. Cellular mobile communication concepts, principles systems, standards and diversity systems. Multiple access and coding in wireless communication. Various standards. Mobile satellite communications, Personal communication series. ICs for wireless communication. Wireless computing and data communications.

Text Books/References: 1) Wireless digital Communication-K. Feher 2) Mobile Communication Engineering- W.C.Y.Lee 3) Cellular Radio- Asha Mehrota

Grand Viva

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