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Research R h Gavekshana


FromtheFrenchword ord"recherche"which hich


Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge. -Redman and Mory.

The purpose of research is to g the discover answers through application of scientific procedures.

Research is Search for Knowledge g It is an Art of Scientific Investigation According to Redman and Mory, Research is a Systematized Systematized effort to gain new knowledge knowledge Research is an original addition to the available knowledge, which contributes to its further advancement In sum, Research is the search for knowledge, using objective j and systematic y methods to find solution to a problem

To g gain familiarity y with new insights g into a phenomenon To accurately portray the characteristics of a particular ti l i individual, di id l group, or a situation it ti To analyze the frequency with which something occurs To examine the Hypothesis of a casual relationship between two variables

AProcessofSystematic, ScientificData

Collection Analysis& Interpretation



Research R hi is an endeavour d which hi h helps to discover answers to intellectual and practical problems through h h the h application li i of f scientific i ifi method.


Method: Research Methods are the methods th t th that the researcher h adopts d t for f conducting the research Studies Methodology: Research Methodology is the way in which research problems are solved systematically. It is the Science of studying how research is conducted Scientifically



According to Sandra Harding: A research method is a technique for (or way of proceeding in) gathering evidence" while "methodology is a theory and analysis of how research does or should proceed proceed"

"It It is the theory that decides what can be observed." - Albert Einstein


Throws light on risks and uncertainty

Identify alternative courses of action Helps in project identification Solves investment problems

Solves pricing problems Solves allocation problems Solves various operational and planning problems of business and industry Provides P id th the b basis i f for all ll government policies in our economic system.

Characteristics of Research
Research is directed towards the solution of a problem. problem Research is based upon observable experience p or empirical p evidence. Research demands accurate observation and description.

Research involves gathering new data from primary sources or using existing data for a new purpose. Research activities are characterized by carefully d i designed d procedures. d Research is carefully recorded and reported

Types yp ofResearch
Qualitative Quantitative Q tit ti

Research Approaches
Q Quantitative Approach pp

(Uses experimental, inferential and simulation approaches to research) Qualitative Approach (Uses techniques like in-depth interview, focus group interviews)

Research Types
QuaL itative

QuaN titative
Nfor numbers

Numbersnotthe primaryfocus Interpretive, ethnographic, naturalistic




Types of Research
Descriptive p Analytical Applied pp Fundamental Quantitative Q Qualitative Conceptual p Empirical Other Types yp

Descriptive Vs A Analytical Research nalytical

In Descriptive Research, the Researcher has to only

report what is happening or what has happened.

In Analytical Research, the Researcher has to use the

already available facts or information, and analyse them to make a critical evaluation of the subject

Applied Vs Fundamental
An attempt p to find solution to an immediate p problem

encountered by a firm, an Industry, a business organization, or the Society is known as Applied R Research h
Gathering G th i k knowledge l d f for knowledges k l d sake k is i P Pure

or Basic or Fundamental Research

Quantitative Vs Qualitative
Q Quantitative Research involves the measurement of

quantity or amount. (ex: Economic & Statistical methods)

Qualitative Research is concerned with the aspects

related l t dt to or i involving l i quality lit or Ki Kind.(ex: d( Motivational Research involving behavioural Sciences)

Conceptual Vs Empirical
The Research related to some abstract idea or theory y

is known as Conceptual Research. (Ex: Philosophers and Thinkers using this to developing new concepts)
Empirical Research relies on the observation or

experience i with ith h hardly dl any regard df for th theory and d system.

Other Types of Research

One-time or Longitudinal g Research ( (On the basis

Laboratory Research or Field-setting or Simulational

Research (On the basis of environment)

Historical Research

The Importance of Knowing How to conduct Research

Helps Researcher to develop disciplined thinking The Researcher will confidently evaluate and utilize

th R the Research h Fi Findings di

Helps the Research consumer to evaluate Research

and make rational decisions

The Researcher will be equipped with knowledge of

different tools to conduct scientific Research

Qualities of a Researcher
Desire for accuracy y of observation & p precision of

statement An alert mind. Must practice The art of enduring intellectual hardships Making statements cautiously

Significance of Research
According g to Hudson Maxim All p progress g is born of

inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention

Research Process
1. Formulating the Research Problem 2. Extensive Literature Survey 3. Developing Hypothesis 4. 4 Preparing the Research Design 5. Determining Sample Design 6. Execution of the Project 7. Collecting Data 8. Analysis of the Data 9. 9 Hypothesis H th i T Testing ti 10. Generalization and Interpretation 11. Preparation p of the Report p or Presentation of the Results

Research Problem
Research Problem is an unanswered q question that a

researcher might encounter in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation

Research Design
It highlights decisions which include 1. The Name of the Study 2. The Purpose of the Study 3. The Th Location L i where h the h study d would ld b be conducted d d 4. The Nature of Data Required 5 From where the required Data can be collected 5. 6. What time period the study would cover 7. The Type 7 yp of Sample p Design g 8. The Techniques of Data Collection 9. The Methods of Data Analysis

Types of Research Design

Exploratory p y Research Design g Descriptive and Diagnostic Research Design Hypothesis-testing yp g Research Design g

Exploratory Research Design

To formulate a Research Problem for an in-depth p or

more precise investigation To discover new ideas and insights Three methods considered for such Research Design a) a Survey of related Literature b) experience survey c) analysis of insight-stimulating instances

Descriptive and Diagnostic Research Design

Descriptive p Research Design g is Concerned with

describing the characteristics of a particular individual or a group. Diagnostic Research Design is determines the frequency with which a variable occurs or its relationship with other. other Both Descriptive & Diagnostic Research design have common requirements

Hypothesis-Testing Research Design

The Researcher tests the Hypothesis yp of casual

relationship between two or more variables These studies require unbiased attitude of the Researcher

Importance of Research Design

It facilitates smooth conduct of the various stages g of

Research. Makes Research Efficient to yield maximum information with minimum effort, time, expenditure Plays a crucial role in attaining the reliability of the results lt obtained. bt i d

Characteristics of a Good Research Design

Flexible, , Suitable, , Efficient and Economical Minimizes bias and Maximizes Reliability No Experimental p Error Yields Maximum Information

Case Study Research

The method of exploring p g and analyzing y g the life or

functioning of a social or economic unit, such as a person, a family, a community, an institution, a firm or an industry i d t is i called ll d Case C St d Research Study R h Through this research the Researcher understands the complex behaviour and situations in specific detail

It is a Predictive statement Must be tested by scientific methods A hypothesis yp is a p proposed p explanation p for an

observable phenomenon Example: Students who take tuitions perform better than the others who do not receive tuitions

Characteristics of Hypothesis
Precise and clear Capable of being put to test Must be stated in simple p language g g Researcher must be able to test it within a stipulated

period A Hypothesis should explain what it actually wants to explain. A Hypothesis must be derived from known facts

Null Hypothesis
The statistical hypothesis yp that states that there are

no differences between observed and expected data. For example, imagine flipping a coin three times The null Hypothesis is expresses as H0

Alternative Hypothesis
The alternative hypothesis is the hypothesis used in

hypothesis testing that is contrary to the null hypothesis. It is usually taken to be that the observations are the result of a real effect (with some amount of chance variation superposed). An example might be where water quality in a stream has b been observed b d over many years and d a test is i made d of f the h null hypothesis that there is no change in quality between g the the first and second halves of the data against alternative hypothesis that the quality is poorer in the second half of the record.

Level of Significance
Very y important p concept p If for example, the significance level is taken 5

percent, then it means that 5 % level of significance implies that the researcher is willing to take a risk of 5 % of rejecting the null hypothesis, when (H0) is actually true. true

Type I and Type II Errors

Type yp I Error

Researcher rejects H0 when it is true ( Rejection j of the Hypothesis yp when it must have been accepted) Type II Error Researcher accepts H0 when it is not true (Acceptance of the Hypothesis which must have been rejected)

Two-tailed test

The two-tailed test is a statistical test used in

inference, in which a given statistical hypothesis , H0 (null hypothesis)will be rejected when the value of th statistic the t ti ti is i either ith sufficiently ffi i tl small ll or sufficiently ffi i tl large.

Procedure of Hypothesis Testing

Making g a formal Statement Selecting a Significance Level Deciding g the distribution to Use Selection of a Random Sample & Computing an

Appropriate Value Calculation of the Probability Comparing the Probability

Procedure of Hypothesis Testing


begin with a formal Statement of Null Hypothesis (H0) and Alternative Hypothesis (Ha) is Usually Us all 5% or 1 % Significance level le el is chosen for the Hypothesis Testing The divergence of the Result from expectation (Probability) when Null Hypothesis is True is calculated Probability is compared with Significance Level later on

Flow Diagram for Testing Hypothesis

St t H State H0 as Well W ll as H Ha
Specify the Level of Significance

Decide the Correct Sampling Distribution Sample a random Sample and workout an appropriate Value Calculate the Probability that Sample Result would diverge as widely as it has from expectations, t ti if H H0 were true t

Sample Survey
Sample p is a certain p portion of the p population p A Researcher adopts a Technique to select the items

of the Sample from the Population and that is called as Sampling Design. Sample design must be done before Data Collection.

Steps in Sample Design

Type yp of Interview Sampling Unit Source List Size of Sample Parameters of Interest Budgetary Constraint Sampling p g Procedure

Steps in Sampling Design (Explained)

Define the Universe to be studied

(Finite Universe: Population of a City, No. of Workers in a factory) (Infinite Universe: Stars in the Sky) Sampling Unit: (Geographical Area: State, District, Village) (Social Unit: Family, School, Religious Community)

Steps in Sampling Design (Explained)

Source List is nothing g but Sample p Frame from which

the Sample is to be selected. (For example, in an opinion poll, possible sampling frames include: Electoral register Telephone directory) No. of Units to be chosen from the Universe to form a Sample S l i is Size Si of f the h S Sample l

Criteria for Selecting a Sampling Procedure

Two Costs control the Selection of a Sampling p g

Procedure 1. Cost of Data Collection 2. Cost of drawing incorrect inference from the selected Data

Characteristics of Good Sample Design

Small Sampling p g Error Sample Design must fit into the Budget Controllable Bias Results of the Sample Study must be applicable to

the Universe, with confidence

Different Types of Sampling Design

Non-probability p y Sampling p g

No probability sampling techniques cannot be used to infer from the sample to the general population. Examples : To sample friends, co-workers, or shoppers at a single mall, are all examples of convenience sampling. The first respondent refers a friend. The friend also refers a friend, friend etc

Quota sampling

In q quota sampling p g, the population p p is first

segmented into mutually exclusive sub-groups.Then judgment is used to select the subjects or units from each h segment tb based d on a specified ifi d proportion. ti F For example, an interviewer may be told to sample 200 females and 300 males between the age of 45 and 60.

Probability Sampling
A p probability y sampling p g scheme is one in which

every unit in the population has a chance (greater than zero) of being selected in the sample, and this probability b bilit can be b accurately t l determined. d t i d Example: We want to estimate the total income of adults living in a given street. street We visit each household in that street, identify all adults living there, , and randomly y select one adult f from each household.

Data Collection
Primary y Data

Primary Data is a term for data collected on source which has not been subjected to processing or any other manipulation. When Primary Data is Processed it becomes I f Information ti Primary Data is the data collected for the first time

Secondary Data
Secondary y Data is the Data that has already y been

collected and used earlier by somebody or some agency. Example: Statistics about the Population of the country collected for the first time by Govt. of India is Primary Data, Data but when a researcher uses it for his study the same data becomes Secondary Data

Sources of Secondary Data

Published Sources

Examples: Official Publications of State and Central Governments, Research Institutions, Committees and Commissions Unpublished Sources Examples: Records maintained by different offices, Scholars in the Universities

Factors which determine the Source of Data

Purpose p and Scope p of Enquiry q y Availability of Time Availability y of Resources The degree of accuracy desired Statistical Tools to be used Method of Data Collection

Factors which determine the Source of DataExplained

For example p if the researcher interested in knowing g

the nature of price change over a period of time, it would be necessary to to collect data of commodity prices(wholesale i ( h l l or retail t il prices) i ) The purpose and scope of data collection should be clearly set out at the very beginning

Methods of Collecting Data

Direct Personal Interview Indirect oral interviews Information from correspondents p Mailed Questionnaire methods Schedule sent through g interviewers

Methods of Collecting Data..Explained

Under Indirect Oral Interview method of data

collection, the investigator contacts third parties generally called witnesses who are capable of supplying l i necessary information. i f ti Schedule is the name usually applied to a set of questions which are asked in a face to face situation with another person.

Choice between Primary & Secondary Data

Primary y Data is more accurate and authentic. Time, Money and labour is more involved in Primary

data Collection But in Statistical enquiries secondary data is used. Primary Data is are collected only if there exists no secondary data.

Questionnaire & Sampling

According g to Bogardus, g ,aq questionnaire is a list of

questions sent to a number of persons for their answers and which obtains standardised results that h can b be tabulated b l d and d treated d statistically i i ll Example1 of Sampling: A housewife testing small quantity tit of f rice i t to see whether h th it h has b been W Well ll cooked Example2 E l 2 of f Sampling: S li A pathologist th l i t t testing ti bl blood d sample of the patient.

Qualities of a Good Questionnaire

Number of q questions as small as possible. p Questions should be clear Q Questions should be arranged g in a logical g order Questions should be simple to understand Q Questions should be easily y answerable No personal questions

Types of Questions
Shut Questions: Q

Simple Alternate Questions..Yes or No Multiple p Choice q questionsa)..b)...c)d) ) ) ) ) The questionnaire must be pre-tested on a small scale before using it for the enquiry A covering letter from the organizers of the enquiry should be enclosed along with the questionnaire

Absolute Experiment: p Example: p The impact p of

fertilizer on the yield of a crop Comparative Experiments: Example: Impact of one fertilizer as compared to the impact of some other fertilizer

Principles of Experimental Designs

The Principle p of Replication p

Experiment should be repeated more than once to increase the statistical accuracy The Principle of Randomization The Principle of Local Control

It is accurate watching g and noting g of p phenomena as

they occur with regard to the cause and effect or mutual relations. Example1: Watching bonded labours life Example2: Treatment of widows at home

Statistical Analysis