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SATURATED

FAT: FACT
& FICTION
JOE WE IDERS
EAT
BIG
STAY
LEAN
FEBRUARY
2014
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M&F
Contents
VOL. 75 N
O
. 2
FEBRUARY 2014
TRAINING
72 Giant Sets, Giant Gains
The famed Weider Principle gets an
update with our eight-week high-volume
programme.
BY KEVIN LILLY
120 Straight-Up: Biceps
Attack your arms from every angle with
this diverse biceps routine.
BY JOE WUEBBEN
126 Winning Workouts
Three 2013 Olympia champions
share the routines that helped them
grab the top prize.
BY JOE WUEBBEN
134 Get Fighter Fit
Part 2 of strength and conditioning expert
Paul Reads 12-week body makeover.
BY JOHN PLUMMER
152 Flushing
The Weider flushing principle explains
how to turbo-boost your muscle pump
to fuel greater gains.
BY GREG MERRITT
160 Training Talk
Strongman James Ward, British athletic
fitness champion Amy Porter, and UFC
fighter Ross Pearson reveal how they train
to stay on top of their sport.
BY JOHN PLUMMER AND STEVE MITCHELL
172 Nutrition Made Easy
A monthly Q&A column that gets right to
the heart of your most asked questions on
diet and supplementation.
BY PHIL LEARNEY
NUTRITION
82 This is a Test (Story)
M&Fs guide to gaining muscle with
the most essential hormone of all
testosterone.
BY RICK COLLINS
144 Muscle Nutrition
In his continuing critique of If It Fits Your
Macros, Mark Gilbert explains the
importance of eating the right
carbohydrates at the right time.
BY MARK GILBERT
166 Performance Nutrition
Deciphering the latest scientific research
to help you get the most from your
training, diet and supplementation.
BY MARK HOBDEN AND JAMES COLLINS
170 Protein Powder Cookery
How to make protein porridge with a twist.
BY ANNA SWARD
58
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120
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www.muscle-fitness.co.uk
COLUMNS, ETC...
14 Welcome
Lets get serious.
BY JOHN PLUMMER
16 Arnolds Page
Pumping cardio.
BY ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER
18 Edge
The latest in news, science, training
and nutrition.
BY TEAM M&F
174 Dan Hardy Column
Britains only UFC title fighter talks about
eating for health and performance.
BY DAN HARDY
178 Building Muscle
Leading trainer Nick Mitchell despairs
at some common gym mistakes.
BY NICK MITCHELL
180 Bikini Body
Britains premier bikini competitor,
Michelle Brannan, urges women to hit
the weights room.
BY MICHELLE BRANNAN
184 Kings of Strength
Our two experts look at the mistakes that
prevent people getting stronger.
BY ANDY BOLTON AND PAVEL TSATSOULINE
188 UFC Conditioning
Breaking down the exercises British
UFC star Jimi Manuwa uses to get
in shape.
BY RICHARD TIDMARSH
190 Under The Microscope
A purely scientific look at the best
products in the world of sports
supplements. Here we put Applied
Nutritions Critical Workout under the
microscope.
BY TIM N. ZIEGENFUSS, PhD AND JIM STOPPANI, PhD
192 Hot Bod
Victoria Gills body is as equally dazzling
as her brain.
PHOTO BY KEVIN HORTON
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FEATURES
50 Brains and Brawn
WWE superstar David Otunga has never
let anything get in the way of the gym.
BY MATT TUTHILL
58 The Ultimate
Starters Guide
Everything you need to get your new year
started off right.
BY SEAN HYSON
92 Nathalia Melos
Upper Body Blast
In the final part of our three-part series,
Nathalia Melo shares her cable-only
routine for a complete upper body
workout.
BY JOHN PLUMMER
104 Gene Profiling
Personalised training and nutrition
how far can we go?
BY ADRIAN HODGSON
112 Stuntman Fitness
Bobby Holland Hanton talks about
getting in shape to perform Hollywoods
most daring feats.
BY MATT TURNER
112
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WEIDER PUBLICATIONS, LLC
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Editorial articles relating to food supplementation and sports nutrition reproduced in this issue of Muscle & Fitness, are for information
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Muscle & Fitness is distributed on an international basis. To the extent permitted by law, Weider Publications LLC and its affiliates: Weider
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@SCIMX SCI-MX sci-mx.co.uk
the series.

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muscle mass.
Using the latest scientific advances in
muscle building supplementation, the
seriesisformulated
formuscle mass,size and strength.
The series includes a best-selling
mass gain all-in-one, a precision
formulated meal replacement, a
pre-workout for focus and intensity,
a high dose BCAA intra-workout
and more.
WELCOME
N
ow, more than any other
time of year, is when people
commit to getting t.
If youre new to Muscle &
Fitness and were tempted by our Ultimate
Starters Guide then thanks for checking
us out. I hope you stay with us throughout
2014 and beyond.
We like to think were Britains best
tness publication and certainly the most
serious. You wont nd reviews of the
latest hair products or tips on how to get
better sex here: just page after page of
information and inspiration on how to
get tter and stronger in 2014.
Our expert writers know more about
strength and conditioning, weight
NOWS THE TIME
TO GET SERIOUS
training and nutrition than any other
magazine so if youre interested in these
subjects, stick around and consider
buying a subscription as your gift to
yourself for 2014. Once you invest in
somethingand what is more precious
than your health?youre more likely
to stick with it.
If youre a regular reader you might
recognise this months cover star, Steve Cook.
Steve is one of the biggest names in
world tness. He was a hit at last years
Bodypower expo in Birmingham and
placed eighth at the inaugural Olympia
mens physique showdown last September.
Mens physique is revolutionising tness
and bodybuilding. Our November cover
star Ryan Terry recently became Britains
rst mens physique pro, as reported in
that months issue.
There probably arent many readers
who wouldnt want a body like Steves
or Ryans. The two guys recently met for a
shoulder workout, which well feature
next month.
In the meantime, enjoy the magazine
and we hope to become a regular
companion on your tness journey in
2014 and beyond. M&F
John Plummer
Editorial Director
editorial@weideruk.com
14
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Yours in Iron,
From left: Joe Weider,
Frank Zane, and
Arnold get cardio and
some California sun
at the same time.
PUMPING
CARDIO
NEVER FORGET THAT YOUR HEART IS THE
MOST IMPORTANT MUSCLE OF ALL
A: If you grew up in Austria in the 1960s as
I did, or trained at Golds Venice in the 1970s
as I also did, there was no such word as cardio.
When you wanted to lose fat, you cut back
on the amount of food you were eating,
particularly carbohydrates. And some of us,
one of the biggest killers of men worldwide,
everyone should make it a goal to have a healthy
heart, and that means exercising as much as it
does following a healthy diet.
I embraced cardio training when my
Holly wood career took off. I didnt have time
to train for hours as I used to, so I needed a way
to burn extra calories and work my heart in
shorter, more efcient workouts. These days,
I combine cardio and weight training in the
same session.
I begin on an exercise bike or elliptical (I dont
want to terminate my knees on a treadmill).
After ve minutes at an easy pace, I go at the
hardest pace I can maintain for 30 seconds,
then I back off to an easy pace for 30 seconds. I
repeat these intervals for 10 minutes, then begin
my weight workout. This gets me warmed up
and gets cardio out of the way early. Otherwise,
I might be tempted to skip it after lifting. Apart
from this, Ill hike for up to an hour when time
allows, and sometimes I ride my bike.
No matter what, I make sure to get some kind
of cardiovascular work in every day. If youre
interested in being as lean as possible and living
a long, healthy life, I suggest you do the same.
Q: How much cardio do you do,
what kind, and how do you t
it in with your weight training?
Justin Cordray
like Ken Waller and Frank Zane and me, liked
to run on the beach or ride a bicycle around
town now and then because we knew it was
healthy and it seemed to help you lose a little
extra weight before a contest. But the idea of
training your heart, specically, was largely
foreign to us.
Looking back, I wish I had done more
dedicated cardiovascular training, not just for
its benecial effect on the waistline but for the
heart itself. With cardiovascular disease being
Arnold Schwarzenegger
16
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BRITISH WEIGHTLIFTING
IS CELEBRATING NEWS OF
A 45 PER CENT INCREASE
IN THE NUMBER OF
ADULTS TAKING PART IN
THE SPORT.
WEIGHTLIFTING
BOOM
T
he gure is contained in the latest survey
released by the Sport and Recreation Alliance,
which represents 320 UK governing bodies.
Weightlifting clubs experienced the
largest increase in adult participation of any sport
in the survey, while the number of junior weight-
lifters is also growing, with 32 per cent more young-
sters taking part.
British Weight Lifting, the governing body for
Olympic weightlifting and Paralympic powerlifting,
said the survey results reinforced the message that
weightlifting is fun and good for you.
BWL is incredibly pleased to see a signicant
increase in the number of club senior and junior
members, said British Weight Lifting chief executive
Ashley Metcalfe.
While the survey only reects responses from a
percentage of our afliated clubs, the positive rise is
in line with increases in memberships, competition
attendances, and school participation which have been
increasing annually over the last four years.
The cost of being a member of a weightlifting club
is one of the lowest of any sports, with the Sport and
Recreation Alliance survey showing an annual cost
of just 86 for adults and 14 for juniors.
International British
lifter Darius Jokarzadeh
Olympic Games
weightlifter Jack Oliver
18
MUSCLE&FITNESS
Sarah Davies performs
the snatch
Welsh lifter
Gareth Evans
Evans hoists some
heavy weights
MUSCLE&FITNESS
19
D
oing one thing well
was always ne
with Rob Orlando.
Seven years ago he
was making a name for himself
on the amateur strongman
circuit, frequently placing in
the top three. But weighing in
at 231 pounds at only 5'8" didnt
feel right. He was growing out
of size 38 jeans and needed a
size 50 jacket. Attending a
CrossFit seminar with Greg
Glassman made Orlando
realise, I was far from
being in shape.
In the years since, he has
thrown himself at CrossFit,
placing as high as 15th in the
CrossFit Games in 2010. Today,
at age 39, he has shed the
unnecessary weight and tips the
scales at 189. Most impressively,
though, his concerns over
diminished strength proved
to be overblown. In the past
year, Orlandoour resident
CrossFit experthas deadlifted
610 pounds, squatted 510,
standing strict-pressed 255,
and performed a 165-pound
one-arm barbell snatch
(pictured).
You can decide whether or
not CrossFit is for you, but
Orlandos story is important
for trainees everywhere:
if you dont work on what
youre bad at, youll never
be the best version of yourself
you can be. Every month, this
magazine presents a number
of fundamentally different, yet
effective, training concepts. If
theres one thing we know for
sure, its that the broader your
horizons are, the more complete
youll be.
REDEFINE
YOUR LIMITS
ROB ORLANDO
A competitive strongman and CrossFit
athlete, Orlando is the owner of Hybrid
Athletics in Stamford, CT. hybridathletics.net
EDGE CROSSFIT
TRAINING
ROB ORLANDO WAS ALWAYS
STRONG. WHEN HE DIVERSIFIED
HIS TRAINING HE ONLY GOT
STRONGERAND FITTER.
20
MUSCLE&FITNESS

ONE-ARM
SNATCH
If you have a strong two-arm
snatch, you can do the one-arm
snatch, Orlando says. Start with
an empty bar, and grip it dead
centre. Add weight gradually
and give yourself plenty
of room to drop it if
you need to.
J
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MUSCLE&FITNESS
21
FACTS
Toes to bar will build both
explosive core strength
and endurance, and can be
practised anywhere
you have a pull-up bar.
Shoot for three or
four sets of 10 the
next time you
train abs.
EDGE CROSSFIT PHYSIQUE
TRAINING
J
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I
f your ab training still consists of
chasing some arbitrary number
like the old-school idea of 100-
or 200-plus daily reps of various
exercisesthen the time has come
for you to rethink that approach.
Volume alone wont carve out
your abs. And even if youre not
stuck in an outdated mind set, you
can still reap the benets of adding
toes to bar to your workouts.
If youve ever stopped for a few
minutes to watch the CrossFit
Games, then youve probably seen
it: an athlete hanging straight down
from a pull-up bar and swinging his
feet up to touch the bar for multiple
reps. Calling this move dynamic
sells it shortit not only places
incredible demands on your core
muscles, it also builds your grip,
arm, and shoulder strength.
The move is trickier than it
looks, though, so be sure to follow
these tips for proper set-up and
execution.
TOES
TO BAR
BUILD A SIX-PACK
MADE OF IRON
WITH THE ULTIMATE
ABS MOVE OF
ELITE CROSSFITTERS
BY NATE FORSTER
GRIP
Place your
hands slightly
wider than shoul-
der width, wrapping
your thumbs for a
secure gripwhen
you kick your feet
up, you dont want
to kick your hands.
FLEX Squeeze
both your butt
and abs, creating
a hollow-body
position where your
feet are slightly in
front of your torso.
With these muscles
flexed, your bodys
ready to swing.
KIP Kipping
generates
momentum, taking
your body from the
hollow position to
an arc or Superman
position. Open your
shoulders, squeeze
your butt, then drive
with your hips.
TRANSITION
To transition
from backswing
to upswing, simply
drive your knees
towards your el-
bows, then extend
your legs, kicking
your feet towards
the bar as they rise.
DOWN-
SWING
As soon as your
momentum to-
wards the bar ends,
pull back into an
arc and squeeze
your butt to load
your hips for the
next rep.
Toes to
Bar in
5 Steps
1 2 3 4 5
22
MUSCLE&FITNESS
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TRAINING
EDGE EXERCISE SPOTLIGHT
M
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H
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BY JOE WUEBBEN
THE ANTERIOR DELTS MAY BE SMALL, BUT SOMETIMES
THEY REQUIRE YOUR UNDIVIDED ATTENTION
INCLINE BARBELL
FRONT RAISE
WHERE IT HITS
Anterior (front) deltoids
WHEN TO DO IT
Late in your shoulder workout,
after compound movements
like overhead presses and
upright rows.
HOW MANY
24 sets, 812 reps
T
he devil is in the details, and this holds as true for the
deltoids as for any other muscle group. Overhead pressing
should make up the foundation of your shoulder work,
but achieving a well-rounded set of delts requires
addressing all three heads (anterior, middle, posterior). When
youre sporting a vest, the detail and striations in the anterior deltoids
(or lack thereof ) are just as visible as the width and thickness of the
middle regions. So give the front side of your shoulders some love
once or twice a week by completely isolating them. This incline
barbell front raise is a great way to start doing just that.
Lie
facedown
on an incline
bench set to
45 degrees,
holding a light
barbell.
Place
your
hands shoulder-
width apart
and use an
overhand grip.
Start with
the bar
in front of
your chest,
arms extended
towards the floor.
DO IT
Raise the bar
until its parallel
to the floor. Hold
for a beat, then
slowly lower it.
SET-UP
Delt
Zone
Follow these
instructions
for total
isolation of
your front
deltoids
STEADY
Dont throw the weight
aroundbe sure to raise
and lower it under control,
holding the contraction
at the top for a
beat to get that
deep burn.
24
MUSCLE&FITNESS
EDGE INSTANT MUSCLE
TRAINING
M
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U
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BY JIM SMITH
Y
oure not going to like this one. We have a way to build
muscle fast, but it doesnt let you go heavy, it burns
like hell, and itll leave you sore for days.
Still want to try it? Its called intra-set isometrics,
and it means holding the contracted position of a rep for time,
interspersed with normal speed reps. Sprinkle it into your back
workouts as described belowjust be prepared for some pain.
BACK IN
ACTION
INTRA-SET ISOMETRICS
CAN BUILD MUSCLE FAST
OTHER
OPTIONS
intra-set isometrics
also work well for
these muscle groups
CHEST
On the dumbbell bench press,
hold the weights at the
bottom for five seconds. Let
the weight stretch your pecs
squeeze as you hold, then press
up for five reps. Repeat.
LEGS
Perform leg presses and hold
the bottom position for five
seconds. Dont go below
where your knees are bent
90 degrees. Now press up
for five reps. Repeat.
How to Do It
I Set up to perform a
wide-grip seated row, and row
the weight to your sternum.
Hold for five seconds, then
perform five normal reps. Hold
the last one for another five
seconds. Repeat the process
four times total, until youve done
four five-second holds and four
mini sets of five. After all this (the
entire set should take about a
minute to complete), you can
set the weight down.
I The point is time under
tension. The longer your
muscles work, the more the
body gets the message that
it had better build them up to
handle the stress. Of course,
time isnt the only considera-
tionotherwise, all marathon
runners would have big legs.
Thats where tension comes in.
Combine long sets with
moderate loads and youll get
your muscles growing fast.

MIX AND
MATCH
Try doing intra-set isometrics
for back as your second
exercise after a heavy
bench press, overhead
press, or weighted
pull-up.
26
MUSCLE&FITNESS
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BY SEAN HYSON
D
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FLY LIKE
AN EAGLE
THE SPREAD-EAGLE JACKKNIFE
WORKS THE ABS AND THE HIPS
M
ost ab exercises try to take the
hip exors out of the equation
so that the abs have to work
without assistance. But
ignoring the hip exors can lead to injury
if you lift heavy, run, or play sports. The
spread-eagle jackknife allows you to
strengthen both the abs and the hips
without sacrificing development in
either area. But be warned: this is an
advanced move.
Having your legs spread apart makes it
difcult to sit up, and that forces the abs
and hip exors to engage to raise your
torso. Strong hip exors help your
hamstrings stabilise heavy squats and
deadlifts, and they also enhance running
speed and explosiveness.
If raising your legs off the oor is too
difcult, its OK to do this move as just a
torso sit-up. You can also secure your feet
inside the support beams of a power rack,
or have a partner hold them down for
more stability. For a greater challenge, do
spread-eagle jackknifes (or sit-ups) while
holding a medicine ball overhead.
How to
Do It
Lie on your
back on
the floor with
your legs spread
to form a V
shape and your
arms extended
behind your
head.
Sit up
explosively
while simultane-
ously raising your
legs and hips off
the floor. As you
come up, reach
your hands
between your legs.
TIP
Perform the spread-
eagle jackknife at the
end of a lower-body
day. Aim for 24
sets of 10.
TRAINING
EDGE POWER BODYBUILDING
TRAINING
EDGE POWER BODYBUILDING
DEAD
SIMPLE
P
ower bodybuilding transcends
lifting. Its a philosophy. Any
workouts I prescribe on this
page need more than the
right maths to work properly.
The caveat to all my programmes is always
the same: unless youre looking for a war
when you go into the gym and youre ready
to attack the iron, it wont work.
This is doubly true for the off-season
deadlift programme Ive got for you this
month. Youre going to deadlift twice a week
for four weeks, working up to 80% of your
new target PB each time. After a deload
in the fth week, in which youll do some
light lifting or other recreational physical
activity, youll be primed to hit your new
PB in Week 6.
In addition to requiring a warriors
mentality, this programme demands that
you eat a lot and get plenty of sleep to ensure
proper recovery. Bear down and get after it.
A 100-pound strength gain is just a few short
weeks away.
THIS STRAIGHTFORWARD
DEADLIFT PLAN
WILL ADD 100 POUNDS
TO YOUR MAX IN SIX WEEKS
BY MIKE OHEARN
THE DONT
LIST
I Dont add
extra sets.
I Dont do extra
cardio.
I Dont stay up
late at night.
I Dont try to
max out any
other lifts during
this period.
DAY 2
% OF SAMPLE
EXERCISE SETS REPS 1RM WEIGHT
DEFICIT
DEADLIFT*** 2 10 135, 225
1 3 50 300
2 3 60 360
4 2 65 390
DEADLIFT 2 4 50, 60 300, 360
2 3 70 420
5 3 80 480
GOOD
MORNING 5 5
*Pull the weight to just above your knees.
**A top-half deadlift set on the pins of a power rack.
***Perform a normal deadlift standing on a four-inch box.
DAY 1
% OF SAMPLE
EXERCISE SETS REPS 1RM WEIGHT
DEADLIFT 2 10 135, 225
2 4 50, 60 300, 360
2 3 70 420
5 3 80 480
BOTTOM-HALF
DEADLIFT* 2 4 50, 60 300, 360
5 4 70 420
RACK PULL** 1 4 60 360
2 4 70 420
2 3 80 480
4 2 90 540
HYPER-
EXTENSION 5 10
Six-Week Max-Out
THE KEY POINTS
Days 1 and 2 must be two days apart.
Use percentages of your new desired
one-rep max (1RM), not your existing max.
The sample weights are for a lifter who
can deadlift 500 and wants to hit 600.
Always use 135 and 225 during the
warm-up sets. Record every weight you use
in Week 1. Add 10 pounds to every working
set each week through to Week 4. Take Week
5 off from deadlifting, then test in Week 6.
MUSCLE&FITNESS
29
EDGE RATE MY WORKOUT
TRAINING
LESS IS MORE
P
A
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L

Y
T
H
J
A
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STREAMLINE YOUR
WORKOUT FOR YOUR BEST
RESULTS EVER
Jimbos NEW WORKOUT
Jimbos OLD WORKOUT
Jimbo let us tweak his back workout.
Deadlift
I
Sets: 5
Reps: 5
Dumbbell Row
I
Sets: 35
Reps: 812
Lat Pull-down
I
Sets: 35
Reps: 812
Back Extension
I
Sets: 35
Reps: 1215
Dumbbell Row
I
Sets: 35
I
Reps: 812
Lat Pull-down
I
Sets: 35
I
Reps: 812
Deadlift
I
Sets: 3
I
Reps: 10
Back Extension
I
Sets: 35
I
Reps: 1215
C
- M&F-
RATING:
BY SEAN HYSON
LAT
PULLDOWN
Dont pull the bar to your
midchest. Bring it to your
collarbone. Doing this
will protect your
shoulders.
OUR ADVICE:
Youre not doing your exercises in the optimal
order. Even if you use straps, your hands and
forearms will be exhausted by the time youre
ready to deadlift (dead, indeed). This limits
your intensity, so you should start your
workout with deadlifts. As the toughest
move of the day, its best to hit it while youre
fresh and train it heavier. Unless youre an
advanced lifter who can maintain perfect
form despite fatigue, sets of 10 are probably
too many to do safely, and it wont recruit all
the muscle fibres that sets of five will.
30
MUSCLE&FITNESS
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EDGE OVER 40
TRAINING
E
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H
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JUST DO IT
I
f you havent heard the story of CT
Fletcher, visit YouTube and enter his
name in the search bar; its best to hear
him tell it in his own words, provided
youre not offended by excessive cursing.
A brief summary of the version is this:
Fletcher was a world-champion
powerlifter in his younger years. He
lifted like a beast, but also ate one of the
unhealthiest diets ever, consisting of the
same meal at McDonalds every day for
more than 20 years: four Big Macs, four
BY JOE WUEBBEN
STAYING FIT INTO MIDDLE AGE MEANS
NO EXCUSESJUST ASK CT FLETCHER
Train
Your
Mind,
Too
FLETCHERS
SUPER-HIGH-
REP SET:
I One of Fletchers
favourite workouts
entails doing a
200-rep set on
a given exercise,
using a light
weight and
resting when
necessary.
It pumps high
volume but its
also a test of
mental capability,
he says. Its
like running a
marathon, only
on the bench
press. Along the
way, when youre
doing those
200 reps, you
have a lot of
chances for your
mind to give up.
He recommends
using partner rest
if you can find
someone else
dumb enough to
do it with you.
FLETCHERS ADVICE
Know your limitations but dont throw
in the towel. Mind-muscle connection
is also key; he commands his muscles
to grow (pictured).
orders of fries, two milkshakes, and four
personal-sized apple piesa lunch that
topped 5,000 calories. Not surprisingly,
emergency open-heart surgery ensued.
Fletcher nearly expired multiple times,
but he somehow made it through. Now,
at age 54, hes a lean 235 at 5'11",
down from 300-plus during his
powerlifting days. Things are
differentnamely, he makes very few
trips to McDonalds and goes much
lighter in the gym than he used to. But
one thing hasnt changed: his no-excuses
attitude.
I atlined three times on the operating
table, and it took me 18 months to
recover, Fletcher says. But I manage to
get my ass up and go to the gym, so I dont
accept many excuses from the over-40
guys. If I can go do my workouts, you can.
And Im not just an over-40 guyIm over
50. No matter what life throws at you, or
what youre going through or how hard
it gets, its still your motherfin set.
32
MUSCLE&FITNESS
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EDGE BASICS
TRAINING
B
L
A
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E

L
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The power clean is one of the best
movements to increase explosive
power and overall strength. With the
popularity of CrossFit and other types of
cross training, this movement has become
a staple in regular gyms.
The benets are endless, as the clean requires a
simultaneous combination of speed and strength. But its
not a movement you want to step right into and attempt
with a heavy weight. As with many performance- and
Olympic-style movements, technique and repetition are
far more important than the weight as you master each
phase of the movement.
Unlike a squat or deadlift, the power clean has many
phases of movement. This can be both good and bad
good because your body is exerting a tremendous amount
of energy and force, but bad because at any time, if you use
improper technique, the risk of injury goes up.
Because the legs are heavily involved during each phase
of movement, do the power clean first on leg day; you wont
want to do it when youre already tired. In some workouts,
power cleans are actually used as a form of high-intensity
interval training in which you take the weight down
considerably and perform each set for time. But dont try
that until youve mastered the lift.
To do it, grab a loaded barbell on the ground with an
overhand grip slightly wider than shoulder width. Keep
your back at, and explosively stand up and shrug; this
will create momentum. As the bar rises towards your
shoulders, squat underneath it and rotate your wrists so
that your elbows are pointing forward so you catch the
bar in a quarter squat position. Thats one rep. Whenever
possible, youll want to work with bumper plates to avoid
damaging the oor should you drop the bar.
CLEANING
HOUSE
GAIN POWER, STRENGTH, AND
SIZE IN ONE EXPLOSIVE MOVE
BY MIKE MCERLANE


Ive noticed a lot more people
in the gym are doing power
cleans, and all of them seem
as if theyre in pretty good
shape. I would love to start
incorporating them into my own plan.
What exactly is the benefit, and how
do I fit them into my programme?
JAMES CARD
The Workout
Incorporate power cleans into your leg routine
as the first exercise, like this:
EXERCISE SETS X REPS
Power Clean 3x5
Back Squat 3x68
Leg Curl 3x1012
Leg Press 3x810
THE CATCH
The bar shouldnt come
crashing into your
collarbones. Control the
bar at all times. The
catch should occur
without impact.
34
MUSCLE&FITNESS
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PUSHING THE BOUNDARIES OF THE BODYS POWER
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O
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H
E
A
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&

F
I
T
N
E
S
S
WEIDER PRINCIPLE: WHAT IT IS
The regular practice of changing
things in your training programme
using different exercises, set and
rep schemes, rest periods, and
modes of activity. Even changing
seemingly small variables like grip or
the kind of bar used for a particular
exercise can help contribute to
muscle confusion.
WHAT IT DOES
For lack of a better phrase, it keeps
your body guessing. When you do
the same exercises with the same
sets and reps month after month,
year after year, the muscles adapt
to the predictable stimulus and
cease to grow bigger or stronger.
By changing training variables, your
body is challenged to keep up with
the demands placed upon it, and has
no choice but to change.
HOW TO USE IT
Most periodised programmes
follow a particular phase of training
for around 412 weeks before
switching gears. For example, a
hypertrophy phase followed by a
strength phase, where exercises,
volume, and intensity are altered.
Change your programme every
48 weeks but always stick with it
long enough (at least a month) to
see if its effective.
MUSCLE
CONFUSION
EDGE BODYBUILDER
TRAINING
L
ee Haney trained by the
motto of Stimulate, dont
annihilate, and it served as
a reasoned counterpoint to
cries of No pain, no gain! As he
collected a record eight Sandows from
1984 to 1991, Haney quietly did things
his way. He followed the three-on,
one-off system, popular in the
80s, but steered clear of the typical
push-and-pull division of upper body.
Instead, he grouped chest with arms
and back with shoulders, as shown
here. Thus, Haney had a width day
dedicated to the breadth he used to
dominate bodybuilding for nearly
a decade.
LEE HANEY
BORN TO
BE WIDE
BY GREG MERRITT
TRAIN BETTERNOT
HARDERTO REAP
THE REWARDS
CAREER HIGHLIGHTS

8-time Mr Olympia (198491)

1982
IFBB World Championships heavyweight
winner; NPC Nationals overall champ
(age 22)
PRO TIP
Dont train
shoulders before you
train back; this will only
rob strength from
important lifts
like pulldowns
and rows.
Haneys Width Routine
EXERCISE SETS REPS
BACK
Front Pulldown 4 810
Barbell Row 4 810
Seated
Cable Row 4 810
One-arm
Dumbbell Row 4 810
EXERCISE SETS REPS
SHOULDERS
Standing
Military Press 45 610
Dumbbell
Side Lateral 4 810
Bentover Rear
Lateral 4 810
Upright Row 3 610
Behind-the-
back Shrug 3 610
TIP SHEET
I Haney often hit back
and shoulders separately
on the same day. When
doing them in the same
workout, cut down on sets
to conserve energy.
I You can alternate back
and shoulder exercises.
Just make sure rear delts
are worked last.
I Do more pulldowns and
pull-ups for upper lats and
more laterals and upright
rows for medial delts.
36
MUSCLE&FITNESS
EDGE FOOD OF THE MONTH
S
T
O
C
K
F
O
O
D
SQUID
J
ust 100 grams of this funky-looking seafood contains
16 grams of protein and only 92 calories , which
puts it on par (nutritionally speaking) with options
like tilapia and lobster. Its full of selenium, a mineral
that helps keep your immune system in check; copper (95% of your
DV), which helps the skin heal from wounds; and vitamin B12,
which keeps nerves and red blood cells healthy.
Squid tastes similar to scallops, so if youre a seafood junkie
you shouldnt be surprised by its avour. Look for clear eyes
when youre buying it, as with any sh, and there shouldnt be
a shy smell.
When you cook it, you want it tender, not chewythrow it in
rapidly boiling water for a minute and then dump it into ice water. BY CHRIS GIBLIN
PER SERVING
(RECIPE SERVES 4)
CALORIES

214
PROTEIN

18 G
FAT

14 G
CARBS

5 G
IT MAY LOOK WEIRD,
BUT THIS MOLLUSC
IS A POWERFUL
MUSCLE BUILDER
CALAMARI
SALAD
INGREDIENTS
450 g calamari,
sliced
2 tbsp coconut oil
Salt and pepper
Garlic powder

DRESSING
1 tbsp coconut oil
90 g olives
1 spritz lemon
1 spritz lime
Parsley for garnish
DIRECTIONS
For the salad: Coat
calamari with oil
and season to taste
with spices. Add to
a frying pan and
cook over medium
heat until squid
turns opaque.
For the dressing:
Add all ingredients
to a shaker cup and
shake until mixed
well. Drain dressing
over cooked squid
and serve.
38
MUSCLE&FITNESS
EDGE ROBERT IRVINE
BY CHEF ROBERT IRVINE
CUP OF
WONDER
QUICK TIP
The cannellini beans add
fibre and the parmesan cheese
adds a small amount of fat.
Both of these combine to
increase your sense of
satiety, and helps a little
of this soup go a
long way.
PASTA E FAGIOLI THATLL FILL
YOU UP AND FUEL YOUR GAINS
INGREDIENTS
4 tbsp olive oil
240 g onions,
chopped
120 g sliced
carrots (-inch
half-moon shape)
100 g chopped
celery
3 litres low-
sodium chicken
stock
720 g tinned
cannellini beans,
drained and rinsed
150 g roasted red
pepper, diced
65 g minced garlic
Salt and freshly
ground black
pepper
700 g cooked
chicken, shredded
560 g rough,
chopped red
tomatoes
15 g fresh parsley
leaves, finely
chopped
350 g fusilli
115 g grated
parmesan cheese
2 tbsp fresh
oregano leaves,
finely chopped
6 fresh basil
leaves, rolled
and sliced
Youll
Need:
Be sure to Like
the Chef Robert
Irvine Official Page
on Facebook and
visit chefirvine.com
for additional
recipes, cooking
tips, and more.
CHEF IRVINE
Preparation:
Makes 10 Servings
1) In a soup pot, heat the olive oil over
medium heat until hot.
2) Add the onions, carrots, and celery,
searing the veggies until the carrots
have browned, 23 minutes.
3) Reduce the heat to medium low,
then add the stock, beans, red pepper,
garlic, and salt and pepper. Simmer
until the veggies and beans soften.
4) Add the chicken, tomatoes, and
parsley and allow the soup to cook
until the tomatoes have softened.
Finally, reduce the heat to low and add
the pasta, cheese, oregano, and basil.
Cook 2030 more minutes.
CALORIES

570
PROTEIN

44 G
FAT

10 G
CARBS

77 G
NUTRITION INFO
Per serving
N
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K

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old-weather months stink for a lot of reasons. You usually
have to bundle up to go outside and allow for more time to
warm up once you get to the gym. Cravings for comfort
food go through the roof, too, and youll yearn for stuff like
French onion soup and a big hunk of bread, impulses that, if you were
to act on them, could wreck all your efforts in the gym. My philoso-
phy is to create suitable replacements for these cravings
recipes that satisfy your taste buds, ll your belly, and work with your
training goals. This pasta e fagioli is just what the doctor ordered for
the winter blues. Its loaded with one of the best sources of protein you
can get, chicken breast, and the carbs from the pasta make it ideal for
the post-workout window.
40
MUSCLE&FITNESS
HANG CLEANS
34,110 KG/MONTH
ONE-ARM KETTLEBELL SWINGS
773,357 KG/YEAR
RYAN BADER
MMA LIGHT HEAVYWEIGHT
ONE-ARM DUMBBELL SNATCHES
3,334 KG/WEEK
UPPER CUTS THROWN
576,000/YEAR
DO THE WORK.
PROWLER PUSH
65 MILES/YEAR
DEADLIFTS
511,652 KG/YEAR
BODY BLOWS RECEIVED
25,200/MONTH
BURPEES
600/MONTH
DIAGONAL MEDICINE BALL SLAMS
680 KG/WEEK
INTRODUCING MONSTER PROTEIN


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COMBINING THESE
SUPPLEMENTS
AFTER WORKOUTS
HELPS SPEED
MUSCLE GROWTH
Take whey protein
The best way to support muscle growth
after workouts is to take in a whey protein
supplement as soon as possible. The faster
you get whey protein into your system, the
more quickly it will help reverse the catabolic
(muscle-breakdown) process that follows
intense weight training, helping to promote
anabolism (muscle growth).
While whey is particularly beneficial after
workouts, its also a great protein source at
other times of dayespecially when your
tank is on empty, such as when you wake
up in the morning.
Take BCAAs
Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) enter
your body and bypass your liver, which means
they get to work faster than other amino
acids to help repair muscle tissue damaged
during workouts. They also boost the release
of insulin, an anabolic hormone that helps
drive nutrients, amino acids, carbs, and
creatine into muscle cells. This is important
after workouts, to help prevent muscle
breakdown.
Combine protein with
digestive enzymes for better
absorption
Consuming a high-protein diet helps
maximise muscle buildingbut your body
cant synthesise protein it doesnt absorb. By
taking in digestive enzymes that help break
down protein, you increase the amount of
protein that enters your body, and also help
speed up the rate at which this protein is able
to be used for repair and growth.
Look for the digestive enzymes that
target protein absorption; these include
such enzymes as elastase, pepsin, trypsin,
and bromelain.
Take a premium blend of
proteins for best results
Not all proteins are created equal, so its
important that you take a look at the types of
protein that are found in your supplements.
Look for whey protein concentrates, which
are very high in protein but contain small
amounts of dietary fats and bioactive
compounds. Whey protein isolates are often
even higher in protein than concentrates,
which makes them a good balance to
concentrates. Milk protein isolates contain
both whey and casein, delivering both
slow- and fast-digesting proteins.
Protein is crucial for muscle
building, but the type, timing,
and amount of protein are
also important factors for
maximising results.
Fast-digesting whey protein
gets to work more quickly than
other sources, which is crucial
after workouts. Also, certain
amino acids work faster than
others. Digestive enzymes
help, too, as they break proteins
down so theyre absorbed
more efciently in the body.
Heres what you need to do
to get the most out of these
powerful muscle builders.
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MUSCLE&FITNESS
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The EFECTIV team is
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So keep your eyes peeled for the new
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MASS in 2014.
Amino Injection Matrix (AIM) is a
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Stacked with added glutamine, citrul-
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The company claims it is the UK's rst
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Co-founder Nick Smith says: I think the
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Visit www.efectivnutrition.com
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THE NEW RULES OF
PERFORMANCE
NEWS
EDGE
44
MUSCLE&FITNESS
J
A
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Q
U
E
S

R
O
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S
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U
W
W
orlds Strongest Man
Brian Shaw will be
appearing at Europes
Strongest Man in Britain
this year as a special guest.
The American wont be competing but
premier ticket holders will get the chance
to meet the 6 ft 8 ins, 440 lbs phenomenon.
The contest, which Lithuanian
Zydrunas Savickas won last year, will
take place for a third consecutive year at
Headingley Stadium, Leeds.
Last years line-up was like a whos who
STRONGMAN SHOWDOWN
RETURNS TO LEEDS
of strongman with many of the biggest
names in the world taking part, including
Vytautas Lalas, Laurence Shahlaei,
Terry Hollands and Hafor Bjornsson.
This years competitor list should be just as
good.
Shaw and Savickas have shared the
Worlds Strongest Man trophy for the last
ve years so this will give British fans a
rare chance to see the two dominant
strongmen of this era.
This will be the third year the event has
been held in Leeds. On the previous two
occasions it attracted 5,000-plus crowds
and coverage on Channel 5 and Eurosport.
Europes Strongest Man is part of the
Giants Live series of qualifying events for
the Worlds Strongest Man, which gets
underway this spring.
Promoter Darren Sadler, who plans to
make his own strongman comeback this
year, says the event will take place in June
although the exact date is still being
nalised.
Tickets are available at
europestrongestman.com
Brian Shaw, World's Strongest
Man 2011 and 2013
Zydrunas Savickas, World's Strongest Man 2009,2010 and 2012
NEWS
EDGE
46
MUSCLE&FITNESS
T
his year is likely to see gym
members go back to basics by
shunning high-tech gadgets
in favour of time-saving, tried
and tested workouts.
That is the view of Lee Matthews,
health and fitness expert at health club
Fitness First.
He predicts exercise will be speedy,
intense and straight to the point in 2014.
People become bored of the same old
classes and workout methods, says
Matthews.
Here are three types of training that
he says will be hot in the months ahead.
FITNESS TRENDS IN
2014
1 HIGH-INTENSITY
INTERVAL TRAINING
Regular Muscle & Fitness readers will be
familiar with the advantages of training
intensely for short periods of time with
little rest. But the rest of the world is still
waking up to them. Besides the tness
benets of HIIT, it suits busy lives. The
main feature of high-intensity interval
training is that it can be done in 30 minutes
or less, says Matthews.
2 BODYWEIGHT TRAINING
Matthews believes 2014 will see the old
displace the new. High-tech gadgets are
getting pushed to one side, he says. Instead
people will turn to exercises that use their
bodies as resistance. Simple circuits
involving push-ups, press-ups and planks
will typify the minimalist, old-school
approach to working out.
3 GROUP PERSONAL
TRAINING
People still want personal service from
trainers but they increasingly want to share
their experiences. They not only have the
motivation from the trainer but from either
their friends or other gym attendees too,
he says. Group training appeals to trainers
too because it enables them to offer their
services creatively.
To buy a copy of the M&F Guide to HIIT go
to www.muscle-tness.co.uk./books M&F
PEOPLE WILL TURN
TO EXERCISES THAT
USE THEIR BODIES
AS RESISTANCE
K
R
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E
,

J
O
H
A
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S
E
N
P
H
O
T
O
D
I
S
C
MUSCLE&FITNESS
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Photographs By Jim Wright
Written By Matt Tuthill
From Harvard Law to WWE Wrestler, David Otunga has become
one of the biggest names in sports entertainment while landing
himself the kind of woman most guys only dream about.
And he owes it all to putting his training above everything else.
AND

50
MUSCLE&FITNESS
David brought his personal
arm blaster to the seta
testament to his belief in the
results it delivers. His biceps
support that belief nicely.
MUSCLE&FITNESS
51
#ASKOTUNGA Otunga is active on social
media and spends huge chunks of time
answering fitness and bodybuilding
questions from fans. Hit him up on Twitter:
@DavidOtunga under the above hashtag
for a chance to interact. People ask me all
kinds of crazy stuff, but I always respond to
the fitness questions, he says. I could talk
about that all day.
utumn 2003: A Saturday afternoon near Cambridge, Massa-
chusetts and David Otunga is on the street outside Olympia
Sports, taking his new squat rack and weight bench out of the
box, and carefully arranging the pieces to t into his black 1999
Honda Accord two-door coup.
Hes trying to move quickly because he needs to get
it back into his Harvard dorm room before dark to avoid
the suspicions of campus security. After some careful consid-
eration he solves the puzzle. By the time he loads the last piece,
the drivers seat is the only empty space: the boot doesnt quite
close, theres a leg extension attachment hanging out of the
back passenger window, the cloth seats are about to tear under
the stress of the weight plates, and theres less than inch between the rear tyres and
the wheel wells. But dammit, it ts.
And then it hits him.
Oh he says, trailing of, looking back at Navi, his girlfriend at the time,
standing on the pavement. He quickly tries to cover and act as if he knew what he
was doing. You can drive back and Ill wait here! he announces. Navi glares at him.
He knows damn well shes not going to unload it by herself.
He drops the act. Okay, Im really sorry, but Ill be right back. Say 20, 30 minutes,
tops. An hour and half later, he returns. They dont talk much on the drive back, but
he doesnt notice. Hes too psyched at the prospect of being able to lift however he
wants, whenever he wants. The potential nes and the pissed-of girlfriend, hes
decided, are worth the reward.
A
A
A
David Otunga has built a life thats an extension of this mentality. Fitness,
for him, is not a part of the whole, but the central focus from which the rest
of his considerable success has grown. He is a living rebuttal to the stereotype
of the dumb jock; a brains-and-brawn Renaissance man who could have
chosen whichever life path appealed to him the most. Instead, hes chosen
them allhes a lawyer, an actor, and a WWE Superstar. His ance, Jennifer
Hudson, has the versatility gene, too, being one of the few women to have
won both an Academy Award and a Grammy.
You could argue that his success began the moment he decided to leave the
big-time Chicago law rm where he worked as a litigator after graduating
from Harvard Law. A child of the 80s who grew up in Elgin, Illinois, as the
youngest of three kids, David had always idolised powerful physiques
wrestlers like the Ultimate Warrior and Hulk Hogan, and action heroes like
Arnold Schwarzenegger and Sylvester Stallone. No matter how much his
academic success seemed to steer him one way, though, he could never shake
the idea that he wanted to follow in the footsteps of those childhood heroes,
ultimately deciding that the courage of conviction was more important than
having his life plan actually mapped out. When he walked into his bosss ofce
to announce these plans, he was laughed at. Hard.
You cant blame him. I had nothing lined up, he says. He thought I was
going to another rm, but I had no prospects.
No ones laughing now. Not after he went on to become a WWE
Superstarthis, after having to scheme his way into a developmental
contract with no experience whatsoever, his only selling point being a
good physique and a unique storyline. His acting career, never a given
for any wrestler, no matter how charismatic he might be in the ring, is
starting to take off as well, thanks to a role in last years The Call alongside
Halle Berry.
52
MUSCLE&FITNESS

TRICEPS KICKBACK
Hold a dumbbell in your left hand, bend at the hips,
and brace yourself with your right hand against your
right knee. Your left upper arm should be parallel to
the floor. Lift the weight to extend your arm until its
straight. Slowly return to the start. Complete equal
reps with both arms.

HANGING KNEE RAISE


Hang from a pull-up bar, or brace your upper arms in
a pair of leg raise straps (pictured). Lift your knees
towards your chest and lower them back down from
three anglesstraight on, pointing to the left, then
pointing to the right (pictured). Complete the same
number of reps from each angle.
But according to Otunga, his successboth in academics
and entertainmentbegan long before he took that leap-of-
faith career change, probably on the day he rst picked up a
dumbbell. He made the connection early on that brainpower
and muscle power were not divergent pursuits as so many
people see them, but symbiotic. The physiques he idolised
were never just bodies, but vessels of power that can enable
one to tackle all of lifes challenges.
Training gave me condence, and it still does, Otunga
says. Without that condence, I dont know what I would
be doing. It shaped who I became as a man. I dont know if
I would have even got into Harvard without it. Fitness gave
me discipline. It structured my days.
To that end, the squat rack in the dorm room was a
necessity, not a luxury. Hemenway Gym on the Harvard
campus was ratty and the health club down the street
wasnt much better. Besides, when his mind started racing
at one in the morning, he wanted to be able to bang out a
few sets of incline presses. He still found time to seek
out good gyms for real, hardcore training sessions; the
impromptu lifts in his room were more about taking the
edge off. To the kids who used a bong to do the same, it
looked strange, but he never had an issue with being a
lone wolf.
I would keep going back and forth, he says. Im one of
those people who are usually kind of restless. Having that
rack was a r eally, really important variable for studying. It
helped a lot.
In the WWE ring, Otungas character wants you to know
where he went to school. As it was for wrestling legend
Lanny the Genius Poffo before him, Otunga uses his
intellect as a weapon, and rubbing his intelligence in
peoples faces is the endgame of acquiring knowledge. He
uses his physique in the same fashion, entering the ring with
a smug, condescending grin plastered on his face, re-enact-
ing classic Schwarzenegger posing routines and looking
down his nose at the inferior physiques of his opponents.
All the while, his highlight montage plays in the background,
the sign for Harvard Law fading in and out between shots of
him posing, pinning opponents, and generally appearing
self-satised in a tank top and a bow tie.
I love playing the character that I play because hes so
different from how I am in real life, Otunga says. People
see my character as a leech. He just sidles up to whoevers in
power. He syphons anything he can off them. I have a lot of
fun with that.
He gets excited when talking about his lifehis family, his
career, his future prospects. But to really see him light up,
just ask him about his training programme. The minutiae of
his sets and reps are afforded the same kind of energy that
most people reserve for stories about their kids rst steps.
Then I do six sets on the arm blaster, he says, excitedly.
That really gets the pump going.
Like, THE arm blaster? The kind that Arnold used?
The very same, he says. If your gym doesnt have one,
you really should buy one. Theyre not that expensive.
MUSCLE&FITNESS
53

DUMBBELL ROW
With your right knee and
right hand on a flat bench,
hold a heavy dumbbell in
your left hand. Row the
dumbbell to your ribs
without twisting your
body or using momentum.
The move should be
initiated by retracting
your shoulder blade.
Complete the same
number of reps on
each side.

WIDE-GRIP
PULL-UP
Grasp a pull-up bar with
a wide grip; this will put
your hands well outside
shoulder width. Engage
your lats to pull your
body up. Dont kip, or use
momentum, as the goal
is lat development, not
calorie expenditure.

ARNOLD PRESS
Sit on a bench with a back
support and hold a pair
of dumbbells at shoulder
level in front of you with
your palms facing your
shoulders. Press the
weights straight up,
rotating your arms as you
go so that your palms are
facing away in the finish
position.

WEIGHTED
DECLINE SIT-UP
Lie down on a decline
bench and hold a weight
plate or heavy dumbbell
(pictured) against your
chest. Engage your abs
to sit all the way up
without curling your
spine forward. Hold it
for a beat at the top, then
slowly lower back to the
start position, keeping
your abs engaged the
whole time to control
the movement.
June 2006: Otunga has just graduated from Harvard Law. A day after the
ceremony, he hops on a ight back to Chicago with Navi. As soon as he sits in
his seat, he cracks open an issue of Muscle & Fitness he had picked up in the
airport. He can feel Navi staring at him. He turns slowly.
Yes?
When are you going to stop? Navi is incredulous.
Stop what?
This gym stuff. Think about where you just came from. You just
graduated from Harvard Law School and all you care about is the gym
and these stupid bodybuilders, and looking like this, and your whey protein
shakes.
Well, why would I stop?
Because where is that going to get you?
Theres silence for a minute. Then:
What if I asked you to choose between me and the gym? she asks.
You wouldnt do that. I love the gym, and I love you. You wouldnt make
me choose.
Theres my answer, she says.
Five days later, they broke up, but not before Navi got in one last dig:
All this working out, reading this stuff, and obsessing over it, its never
going to do anything for you, so you might as well try being a lawyer.
54
MUSCLE&FITNESS
DAVID OTUNGAS TRAINING SPLIT
How to do it: David Otunga designed his own training programme, a classic five-day body-part training
split utilising techniques like strip sets and old-school training implements like the arm blaster (a
supportive device that ensures strict motion on curls). If you dont have an arm blaster, substitute preacher
curls or shop for one online. Take no more than 60 seconds rest between all but the heaviest setsless if
you can during lighter, high-volume moves. You can add cardio on rest days or after weight training.
Otunga trains abs on each day of this programme before lifting weights. He picks a different
exercise each time and does 5 sets of 1520 reps. Some of his favourites are hanging leg raises,
hanging knee raises, and weighted decline sit-ups.
DAY I: BACK
EXERCISE SETS REPS
Wide-grip Pull-up * 100
Close-grip Pulldown 5 812
Bentover Barbell Row 5 812
Dumbbell Row 3 1012
Deadlift 6 10, 8, 6,
4, 2, 1
*As many sets as needed to reach 100 reps.
Otunga uses 710 sets.

DAY II: CHEST
EXERCISE SETS REPS
Incline Bench Press 1* 1015
4 10, 9, 8, 7**
Dumbbell Flye 5 10
Dumbbell Bench 5 812
Cable Crossover 4 20, 16,
12, 10
Dip 1 Failure
4*** 812
*Performed as warm-up.
**Perform 7 reps, then do 34 strip sets, reaching
failure.
***Add a 45-pound plate to a dip belt.

DAY III: LEGS
EXERCISE SETS REPS
Squat 3* 10
5 10, 8, 7, 6, 5
Walking Barbell Lunge 4 20 steps
Leg Extension 5 812
Donkey Calf Raise 5 15, 12,
10, 10, 10
Seated Calf Raise 5 812
*Performed as warm-up.

DAY IV: REST

DAY V: SHOULDERS
EXERCISE SETS REPS
Barbell Military Press 5 812
Arnold Press 5 812
Lateral Raise 1 20
4 812
Front Raise 1 20
4 812
Rear Pec-deck Flye 5 1015
Upright Row 5 812

DAY VI: ARMS
TRICEPS
EXERCISE SETS REPS
Close-grip Bench 4 812
Cable Pressdown 4 1015
D-handle Unilateral
Reverse Pulldown 4 1012

BICEPS
EXERCISE SETS REPS
Arm Blaster Curl 1 20
5 12, 10,
8, 6, 5
Hammer Curl 5 1012
Standing Cable Curl 5 1012
Crossover Station
Double Biceps Curl 5 1015

DAY VII: REST
They saw each other once after that,
and when Otunga relays the story, he
almost sounds sympathetic. Almost.
I was signing autographs in this
gym, and of all the places, shes there
working out, he says. Theyve got a
big picture of me up there, and every-
ones crowded around because of what
I do in the gym. There were too many people, so we never
spoke. I didnt need to say anything. We said it all with a
glance. That was it.
In 2007, during Otungas stint on the U.S. reality show
I Love New York 2, he was nishing up a press tour when the
interviewer dropped a bomb on him.
He said, I want you to meet my friend, so I passed your
number along to her, Otunga recalls. I said, Whoa, dude,
this is so unprofessional. This isnt cool. But all he says is,
Well, shes going to be calling you any minute.
When the phone rang, the girl on the other end of the line
was Jennifer Hudson. They hit it off immediately, and now
have a 4-year-old son together, and are engaged to be married.
Central to their chemistry is the fact that even when Otunga
gets home from a long road trip and heads straight to the gym,
the nagging never comes.
She would never ask me not to go to the gym, Otunga says.
Just as I would never get in the way of her going to the studio.
Besides, he addsand here he smirks as he would after
blindsiding an opponentwhen she saw me on TV, and these
are her exact words, she said, That is the most beautiful man
I have ever seen.
So I probably wouldnt have her without the gym, he
laughs. I can always count on the gym. Its always there
waiting for me.
Along with everything that comes with it. M&F
Otunga now weighs in at
a slim 230 pounds but
trained heavier during law
school, tipping the scales
at 250 while boasting a
515-pound bench press.
Today, he eats clean to stay
in shape for the non-stop
schedule of the WWE.
I dont even cheat much
because I dont get that
much joy out of it.
56
MUSCLE&FITNESS
ULTIMATE
STARTERS
GUIDE
BY
SEAN HYSON
PHOTOGRAPHS BY
DUSTIN SNIPES
58
MUSCLE&FITNESS
AVOID NEWBIE MISTAKES
TO BUILD MUSCLE,
GAIN STRENGTH AND
LOSE
YOUR
GUT
IN 6 WEEKS!
NOBODY LIKES
BEING THE NEW
GUY. We know,
because we were
in your shoes once:
feeling like every-
ones watching you
and taking note of
how weak you are; not
having a clue how to do
an exercise but being even more
embarrassed to ask for help; and
wondering if the music is that bad
in every gym. (FYI, it is.)
Yes, it sucks being a gym newbie, and
thats why we recommend you dont stay
one for long. The sooner you learn the
basics, the faster youll graduate to the
ranks of seasoned lifters. We can help
you make up ground and see results in
as few as six weeks. The following pages
cover all your questions about training,
nutrition, and everything else.
Welcome to the brotherhood of iron.

WHAT WORKOUT
SHOULD I DO?
As a rank beginner, it doesnt
matter much what your goal
is. Whether you ultimately
want to be jacked, ripped, or
just lose 20 pounds, you need
to build a base of strength
first. Strong muscles are
more efficient and better
coordinated, and they lay the
foundation for all the other
fitness goals.
I always do full-body
workouts if a client is coming
in two to four times per
week, says Ben Bruno,
a personal trainer whos
worked with everyone from
average Joes to pro athletes
and celebrities. The main
thing for beginners is to learn
the exercises, and training
full body gives you more
exposure to each lift.
In other words, if you
squat, press, and deadlift on
Monday, you can do it again
on Wednesday and Friday.
On the other hand, if you did
chest work on Monday, legs

WHAT SHOULD I
EXPECT IN A GYM?
Were not going to lie: gyms can be
weird places. Be prepared to see eccentric
people behaving in ways that would get them
locked up anywhere elsemaking loud noises,
wearing revealing clothing, and performing
exercises youre not sure are really exercises.
The important thing is not to let it throw you.
Chances are youre not the weirdo in the gym.
If you think its the other guy whos bench-
pressing in a three-piece suit, youre probably
right (trust your instincts).
Most people training in commercial health
clubs have no more idea of how to work out than
you probably do, even if theyve been at it for
years. If someone offers you a tip on how to do
an exercise, take it with a grain of salt (and look
up the answer here).
There arent as many eyes on you as you
probably think, andtrust usno ones going
to make fun of you or push you off a bench. The
best thing you can do is go in your first day with
a plan of how youll train, knowing the correct
form on the exercises you want to perform, and
get it done to the best of your ability.
Tuesday, shoulders Wednes-
day, etc., it would take longer
for you to repeat an exercise
or train the same muscle
group. This is fine for
experienced guys and
bodybuilders whose work-
outs are more intense and
require more recovery time,
but as a beginner, youre
better off repeating exer-
cises to learn them faster.
Beginners can go up in
weight pretty much every
time they touch the weights,
Bruno says. If Lifter A
benches once a week and
goes up five pounds every
workout, hell go up 50
pounds in 10 weeks. If Lifter
B benches three times per
week, hell go up 75 pounds in
the same amount of time. In
the beginning, gains are
linear like that. As a newbie,
you probably cant appreci-
ate what adding 75 pounds
to your bench by March
would do for your physique.
Trust us when we say, good
things, and know that more
60
MUSCLE&FITNESS
BEGINNERS
CAN GO UP
IN WEIGHT
PRETTY
MUCH EVERY
TIME THEY
TOUCH THE
WEIGHTS.
DEADLIFT
SETS: 3 // REPS: 6
Stand with your feet about hip-width apart. Bend your hips
back to reach down and grasp the bar so your hands are just
outside your knees. Keeping your lower back in its natural
arch, drive your heels into the floor and pull the bar up along
your shins until youre standing with hips fully extended and
the bar in front of your thighs.
MUSCLE&FITNESS
61
advanced guys would kill to
be able to make progress
like that again.

WHAT ARE THE
BEST EXERCISES?
Compound movements
i.e., lifts that work muscle at
more than one joint. For
instance, the bench press,
squat, and chin-up are all
compound movements. The
bench press and chin-up
both involve action at the
shoulders and elbows, while
the squat requires flexing
and extending the hips and
knees. Because more joints
and muscles are involved
with compound lifts, you can
use heavy weights when you
train with them, and that
causes a rush of muscle-
building hormones that
make your whole body grow.
You dont get this same
effect when performing
isolation lifts, in which only
one joint is significantly
involved. Curls, leg exten-
sions, and lateral raises all
fall under this umbrella, and
while theyre perfectly good
exercises, theyre less
efficient than compound
moves, so they have to make
up a smaller percentage of
your training at this stage.
Isolation exercises wont
hurt your progress, Bruno
says, but theyre not going
to help much at the beginner
level. Still, if you want to
throw a few sets of curls in
at the end of your workout,
thats your prerogative.

HOW MANY
EXERCISES
SHOULD I DO?
Three to five is ideal, and no
more than six. Dont over-
complicate your training:
make a short list of really
effective lifts (see What are
the best exercises?) and
get good at them. Begin-
ners dont have the work
capacity to give their all to a
bunch of exercises, Bruno
says. After the first few,
makes you lazy. You
certainly dont want to rest
so long that you cool off and
lose focus, but dont try to
push yourself so fast that
your technique suffers and
you burn out too early.
Tougher, more complex
exercises like deadlifts
require more resttwo
minutes or so. Less tech-
nique-intensive lifts like
week (whatever you have
time for). If you train three
days, youll do Workout 1
twice the first week and
Workout 2 just once. The
next week, youll do
Workout 2 twice. Remem-
ber, since theyre full-body
workouts, you wont go long
without training a particular
muscle group even if you do
only one of each workout in
lunges or curls can be done
with around 60 seconds
rest.

HOW SHOULD I
PLAN MY WORK-
OUTS FOR A WEEK?
The 121 split works
great. This means you have
two workouts, Day 1 and 2,
and you alternate them for
three or four sessions per
TOUGHER, MORE COMPLEX
EXERCISES LIKE DEADLIFTS
REQUIRE MORE RESTTWO
MINUTES OR SO.
LAT PULLDOWN
SETS: 4 // REPS: 8
Sit at a lat pulldown station and grasp the bar with a wide
grip. Initiate the pull by contracting your lats.
theyre spent, so they half-ass
the rest. Thats how bad form
is ingrained.
An effective full-body
workout needs to consist of
only one pushing exercise,
one pulling exercise, and one
lower-body move. With those
three movement patterns,
you essentially work every
muscle in the body.

HOW LONG
SHOULD I REST
BETWEEN SETS?
Rest as long as you feel you
need to in order to perform
the next set with intensity
(i.e., the same weight you
used for the last set or the
same number of reps). Lifting
isnt aerobic training, so dont
think sitting down to rest
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your muscles over it, pausing
on spots where you feel
tenderness. The foam roller
acts as a sort of massage
to work knots out of your
muscles and enhance
blood flow, and it improves
flexibility right away.
From there, Bruno recom-
mends stretching your pecs
(chest), lats (back), hip flexors
(the front of your hip), hip
rotators (sides of your hips),
and calves. Do two or three
stretches per side for 30
seconds each. If youre really
short on time, you can build
flexibility training into your
workout. For instance,
between sets of deadlifts, you
can bend over and touch your
toes, then squat down (called
a toe-touch squat). Repeat for
up to 10 reps, continue your
rest period, and then do
another set of deadlifts. Youll
get more mobile and warmer
each set until youre ready to
do your hardest set.
One caveat here: dont do
static stretcheswhere you
hold a stretched position for
timebetween sets of an
exercise that uses the same
muscles. For instance, you
wouldnt want to stretch your
pecs between sets of bench
presses, as this may tempo-
rarily weaken these muscles,
hurting the quality of later
sets. However, its a good
idea to stretch out the lower
body while working the upper
body, and vice versa.

HOW MANY
SETS AND REPS
SHOULD I DO?
At the beginner stage, you
need to think of your sets as
what Bruno describes as
form rehearsals. Youre not
ready to load the bar with a
ton of weight and grind out a
max, nor is it appropriate to
test your endurance by doing
high-rep sets. Three to four
sets of six to 12 reps lets you
practise an exercise without
accumulating so much
strain or fatigue that you
risk getting hurt. Spend one
or two sets warming up
adding weight gradually
and then push hard on the
last one or two.

WHAT KIND
OF CARDIO
SHOULD I DO?
The perfect blend is a mix
of steady state (like walking
or light jogging) and high-
intensity interval training,
alternating bouts of intense
work with periods of rest or
a lighter pace. When you
have 30 minutes or more to
train, steady-state exercise
is a good choice. It strength-
ens the heart and burns up
calories primarily from your
stored fat.
The quicker option is
interval training, which can
be effective in almost any
amount of time from a few
INTERVAL TRAINING SPEEDS
UP YOUR METABOLISM
FOR DAYS AFTERWARDS.
SIT-UP
SETS: 4 // REPS: 8
Lie on the floor with your knees bent and feet flat on the floor. With your hands behind your head
or in front of your chest, sit up all the way, keeping your back flat and your eyes to the ceiling.
a seven-day stretch. You
should rest a day between
each workout.

HOW DO I
WARM UP?
It depends on how much
time you have. Ideally, youd
go into the gym and walk on
a treadmill for five minutes
or skip until you break a
sweat. Then youd go
through a series of mobility
exercisesleg swings, arm
circles, and similar moves
that take you through the
range of motion youre going
to use on your exercises.
Then youd do a few
stretches for tight areas
like the hips and pecs, pick
up the weights and do a few
light sets to find your
groove, and get to work.
But the truth is, few people
have time for all that, and
we suspect youre among
them. To keep it simple,
follow this rule: never start
lifting cold. Find a way to
start sweating, whether its
with calisthenics or a quick
jog. The foam rollera long
cylinder of dense foam your
gym probably has parked in
a cornercan be great for
warm-ups. Lie on it and roll
64
MUSCLE&FITNESS
especially when an exercise
or workout is new to you. The
exact cause isnt fully agreed
upon by exercise scientists,
but its thought to be the
result of the microtears
that lifting creates in your
muscles (healing these tears
builds the muscles up bigger).
I think people need to
work through soreness,
Bruno says. Stick with
the programme; it will get
better. Nevertheless, you
can manage soreness. On
days between workouts,
you can pedal a bike to
encourage blood flow, or
use a foam roller.

WHAT KIND OF
SHOES SHOULD
I WEAR TO THE GYM?
I would recommend not
wearing toe shoes if you
want to make friends at the
gym, Bruno says. I like a
flat-soled shoe. Funky-
looking minimalist pumps
are popular but can cause
ankle and knee problems if
you arent ready for them.
Shoes with squishy soles
dont provide a firm base.

WHAT ABOUT
GLOVES AND
A BELT?
Belts support your spine
when lifting very heavy loads,
but at your stage of the
game, you should be training
your core to provide that
stability. No self-respecting
lifter wears gloves.

WHEN DO I
KNOW IM NOT A
BEGINNER ANY MORE?
Bruno says that when
you can bench-press your
body weight for one rep,
deadlift your body weight
for five reps, and perform
at least five chin-ups, youre
welcome to change your
routine and try some more
advanced training. The
amount of time it takes
for you to hit these bench-
marks is completely
individual, so dont rush
or compare yourself with
others. Progress at your
own pace.
minutes up to 30. Many
combinations of intervals
work, but start off with a
work-to-rest ratio of one
to two. So you could run
hard on the treadmill for
30 seconds, and then
back off to a walk for 60
seconds. Over time, you
can play with the length
of your work and rest
periods. All cardio machines
can be used
for interval training,
along with punch bags,
skipping ropes, and many
body-weight exercises.
Be creative. Interval
training speeds up your
metabolism for days
afterwards, so even if your
sessions are short, they can
burn plenty of fat.
You could do five to 10
minutes of interval training
after you lift, Bruno says, or
up to 20 minutes if done on
a separate day. Try to keep
steady-state cardio
separate from your lifting. If
you do it right after weight
training, you interfere with
the hormonal changes that
take place as a result of
lifting, which can reduce the
quality of your workout.

HOW DO I DEAL
WITH SORENESS?
Sore muscles are a natural
side effect of training,
DEADLIFT
SETS: 3 // REPS: 6
BENCH PRESS
SETS: 4 // REPS: 8
Grasp the bar just outside shoulder
width and arch your back so theres
space between your lower back and
the bench. Pull the bar out of the rack
and lower it to your sternum, tucking
your elbows about 45 degrees to
your sides. When the bar touches
your body, drive your feet hard into
the floor and press the bar back up.
CHIN-UP OR
LAT PULLDOWN
SETS: 4 // REPS: 8
REVERSE LUNGE
SETS: 3 // REPS: 12
Stand with your feet hip width apart,
holding a dumbbell in each hand.
Step forwards with one leg and
lower your body until your rear
knee nearly touches the floor
and your front thigh is parallel
to the floor.
SIT-UP
SETS: 3 // REPS: 12
SQUAT
SETS: 3 // REPS: 6
SEATED CABLE ROW
SETS: 4 // REPS: 8
Attach a straight or lat-pulldown bar
to the pulley of a seated row station.
Sit with your feet against the foot
plate and knees slightly bent.
Keeping your lower back flat, bend
forwards at the hips to grasp the bar
and row it to your sternum,
squeezing your shoulder blades
together.
OVERHEAD PRESS
SETS: 4 // REPS: 8
Set the bar up in a squat rack or cage
and grasp it just outside shoulder
width. Take the bar off the rack and
hold it at shoulder level with your
forearms perpendicular to the floor.
Squeeze the bar and brace your abs.
Press the bar overhead, pushing your
head forwards and shrugging your
traps as the bar passes your face.
LEG CURL
SETS: 3 // REPS: 12
Lie chest down on a leg curl machine
and line your knees up with
the axis of rotation. Bend your knees
and curl the pad to your hamstrings.
SIDE PLANK
SETS: 3 // REPS:
HOLD AS
LONG AS POSSIBLE
Lie on one side and rest your forearm
on the floor. Bridge your hips up off
the floor and brace your abs so your
weight is supported by your forearm
and the edge of your foot.
DAY 1
DAY 2
SQUAT
SETS: 3 // REPS: 6
Squeeze your shoulder blades together and
nudge the bar out of the rack. Step back and
stand with your feet shoulder width apart
and your toes turned slightly outwards. Take
a deep breath and bend your hips back
and then bend your knees to lower
your body as far as you can without
losing the arch in your lower back.
KEEP STEADY-STATE CARDIO
SEPARATE FROM LIFTING.
MUSCLE&FITNESS
65
IF YOUR GOAL IS TO GAIN
MUSCLE SIZE AND MAXIMISE
STRENGTH, CONSUME 1418
CALORIES PER POUND OF
YOUR BODY WEIGHT.

WHAT FOODS
SHOULD I EAT?
The answer to this shouldnt
surprise you: healthy food!
And food thats as close to
its natural state as possible.
You need to begin thinking
of food in terms of the
macronutrients it provides,
and try to separate the
foods you get those nutri-
ents from so theyre easier
to keep track of (more on
this below). Your protein
needs should be met by
chicken breasts; whole eggs
(and egg whites, for pure
protein); lean cuts of beef;
fish; turkey; and protein
powder. Your carbohydrates
can come from potatoes,
sweet potatoes, rice (white
or brown), oats, fruits, and
vegetables. As for fat,
most of it will come as a
by-product of your protein
foods, but you can also
derive fat from avocados,
nuts, nut butters, seeds, and
a small amount of oil such
as coconut or olive.

HOW MUCH
SHOULD I EAT?
Get ready to start keeping
track of calories and
macro nutrients. You dont
need to be meticulous, but
you do need to be consist-
ent. If your goal is to gain
muscle size and maximise
strength, consume 1418
calories per pound of your
body weight. For fat loss,
go with 1012 calories per
pound. Yes, these are ranges
and not exact numbers
youll need to experiment
a bit and find the number
thats right for you. Start
on the lower end of the
spectrum for muscle gain
and the higher end for fat
loss, so that changes can be
made gradually, and adjust if
you arent gaining or losing
weight after two weeks.
When bulking up or
slimming down, your protein
and fat intake should be very I
S
T
O
C
K
P
H
O
T
O
66
MUSCLE&FITNESS
similar. Eat 11.5 grams of protein per
pound of your body weight and 0.4 gram
of fat per pound. Carbohydrates have
the greatest effect on body weight due
to their impact on insulin, a hormone
that alternately causes muscle or fat
gain depending on the timing and
composition of your meals. For this
reason, the amount of carbs you eat will
vary greatly depending on your goal.
To gain size, you should consume two
grams of carbs per pound of your body
weight. Be prepared to gain some fat
along with the muscle, as more carbs
mean higher insulin levels and more
potential for fat storage. To lose
fat, consume one gram of carbs
per pound. So what does it all
mean? If youre a 180-pound
guy who wants to put on
muscle, you might start your
mass-gain diet by eating
approximately 2,700
calories per day. This would
consist of 180 grams of
protein, 360 grams of carbs,
and 70 grams of fat. If the
same guy wants to trim fat,
he would eat 180 grams
of carbs instead of 360 to
start with.

I DONT WANT TO
COUNT ALL THESE
NUMBERS. IS THERE AN
EASIER WAY TO ESTIMATE
CALORIES AND GRAMS?
Absolutely. First, just focus on the
grams you need to consumethe
calories will fall into place accordingly,
provided you arent slathering your
food in sauces, dressings, and other
seasonings. (Learn to flavour your
meals more simply.) 115 g meat or
fish is about 25 grams of protein, says
Nate Miyaki, a nutrition consultant who
works with bodybuilders to prepare for
TWO TABLESPOONS OF NUT BUTTER
TOTALS 1520 GRAMS OF FAT;
135 G OF RAW NUTS OFFERS
ROUGHLY 70 GRAMS.
I
S
T
O
C
K
P
H
O
T
O
contests. Thats the size of a pack of
cards. 230 grams, of a starch food
(potatoes, rice) is about the size of a
cricket ball, or a clenched fist, and
thats equal to 50 grams of carbs.
One piece of fruit is about 25 grams
of carbs, says Miyaki, unless its a
melon. Non-starchy vegetables,
including all greens, do not need to
be counted.
As we mentioned above, most of your
dietary fat will come via your protein
foodsa 115 g portion of meat or fish
has as many as five grams of fat
but you can eat fat-rich foods
sparingly. Two tablespoons of
nut butter totals 1520 grams
of fat, and 135 g of raw nuts
offers roughly 70 grams.
A tablespoon of any oil is
15 grams of fat.
You may be interested
to know that foods that
have a high fat content
arent limited because
fat is unhealthy or
inherently fattening.
Physique-conscious
eaters need only be
wary of them because
of the calories they pack
(nine per gram as opposed
to carbs and protein,
which offer only four).
Because fat is so calorific,
it can make you overshoot
your calorie range in no
time, and crowd out the
other nutrients in your diet.
Nevertheless, if you have
trouble gaining weight,
one of your strategies might
be to increase your fat intake,
which will add considerable calories.
As far as saturated fat goes, its used
by the body to create testosterone,
so dont be afraid to have a lean
steak or burger on a regular basis.
MUSCLE&FITNESS
67
can sustain a healthy
eating plan is by building
some leniency into it.
Plan to have one or two
cheat meals per week,
Miyaki says. These are
meals when you can eat
whatever and as much as
you like, but as soon as you
finish, youre done. Dont let
it go on all day. Incorporat-
ing booze, pizza or what-
ever treats you enjoy will
keep you on track long-
termnot loathing the
process. Dont give up any
food you love indefinitely,
says Miyaki.
We like a 2-to-1 ratio of
carbs to proteinsuch as
another 50 grams of carbs
and 25 grams protein. A
protein shake would be
ideal at this time because it
digests quickly, getting the
nutrients to the muscles
fast when they need them
most to begin the recovery
process. However, whole
food can work as well. If
youre short on money,
Miyaki says one or two
pieces of fruit provides
enough carbs to stop your
muscles from breaking
down, and will jump-start
growth. You can pair fruit
with a lean serving of
protein, such as white fish.
One more point to make
here: by workout we mean
weight training. You dont
need to follow any specific
menu before or after a
cardio session. In fact, as
with weight workouts done
in the morning, youll burn
more calories from fat if you
avoid eating before a cardio
session.

CAN I EVER CHEAT
ON MY DIET?
Of course. The only way you
BREAKFAST
250 ml black coffee
3 scrambled eggs
4 50 g unsweetened,
porridge with
cinnamon
LUNCH
75 g grilled salmon
L arge raw salad with
2 tbsp olive oil and
vinegar
4 00 g sweet or 125 g
baked potato
SNACK
M eal-replacement shake
with 50 g protein,
25 g carbs, 5 g fat
POST-WORKOUT
25 g whey protein
1 banana
DINNER
1 75 g baked chicken
breast
5 00 g cooked jasmine
rice or 250 g boiled
potato
1 55 g steamed
broccoli
DESSERT
2 tbsp almond butter
with one scoop
chocolate casein
powder and water (to
make a pudding)
INCORPORATING
BOOZE, PIZZA AND
WHATEVER TREATS
YOU ENJOY WILL
KEEP YOU ON
TRACK LONG-TERM.
YOUR
MENU
A sample
eating plan for a
180-pound man
who wants to
gain muscle

WHAT SHOULD
I EAT BEFORE
A WORKOUT?
Let the timing of your
workout determine this. If
youre training first thing
in the morning, youre
welcome to have
nothing but water
beforehand. Black coffee
is fine, too, and may
actually increase the
amount of fat you burn in
the session. Assuming you
had dinner the night before,
your body will still be flush
with amino acids (com-
ponents of protein) and
stored carbs, so theres no
immediate need to fuel your
training any further. In fact,
eating carbs right before
can limit the fat you burn
during a session. On the
other hand, if youre training
in the afternoon or evening,
you can have some protein
and carbs an hour or more
before the workout to
power you through it;
25 grams protein and up to
50 grams carbs is fine.

WHAT SHOULD
I EAT AFTER
A WORKOUT?
A 2006 study in the
European Journal of
Applied Physiology gave
male subjects one of the
following to consume after
weight training: a 6% carb
solution, six grams of amino
acids, a combination of
both, or a placebo. Those
drinking the carb and amino
acid shake experienced
greater muscle gains than
any of the other groups,
which the researchers
concluded was because the
concoction did the most to
reduce muscle protein
breakdown after training.
The exact amount of
protein and carbs you
should eat is a subject of
debate, but most nutrition-
ists agree that consuming
some is better than none.
68
MUSCLE&FITNESS


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HIGHER
STANDARD
THE RIGHT SUPPS, ON TIME
Supplementation can be a head-spinning topic for the beginner, so were boiling it
down to the basics. There are three crucial times youll want to
supplement to ensure proper muscle recovery for gains in size and strength. They are:
PRE-WORKOUT
Lifters used to be mainly concerned
about what supplements they took
after a workout, placing minimal
emphasis on how to fuel up before-
handcounting on a whole-food meal
an hour before to suffice. But when
youre looking to maximise strength,
focus, and energy for an intense
training session, you need something
more. It takes several different ingre-
dients to accomplish this. The major
ones are: citrulline, which has been
shown to boost training intensity
and strength in part due to its role in
synthesising nitric oxide; caffeine,
for its ability to enhance energy and
mental focus; and beta-alanine, a
potent ingredient that helps increase
muscle strength and size in hard-
training individuals. Putting these
into your body in the 3060 minutes
before workouts sets the stage for
not only a productive training session
but also optimal muscle recovery and
regeneration in the hours after you
leave the gym.
BEFORE BED
Whey pretty much dominates the
protein market these days, but its
not the only one you should be taking.
Outside of the post-workout window,
a slower digesting protein makes
more sense. One such instance is at
bedtime, when you want to give your
muscles a steady supply of protein for
an extended fast. Another time you
may want a slow protein is when your
workout is still several hours away,
particularly if youre concerned about
not being able to eat a meal in that
span. And, of course, on non-training
days, a slower-digesting protein
makes an excellent complement to
whole-food meals. Enter casein, a
milk protein with a much slower rate
of digestion than whey, which can
provide your muscles with a steady
trickle of amino acids that will fuel
them for hours. But dont discount
casein completely around workouts;
multiple studies have shown favour-
able results when its mixed with whey
in a post-workout shake. M&F
POST-WORKOUT
Youve just completed a knockdown,
drag-out training session. Now what?
The natural answer is whey protein,
because it digests rapidly; and thats
correct. But theres more to it than
that. What type of whey you ingest is
important, too. Whey protein isolate
is the purest form available, so thats
what you should be looking for. Youll
also need a few more amino acids
post-workout than just those found in
the whey. Branched-chain amino acids
(BCAAs)the three of them being
leucine, isoleucine, and valinewill
greatly assist in igniting protein
synthesis in the damaged muscle
fibres to start the recovery process.
Glutamine, another amino acid,
further supports recovery and
enhances immune system function.
When you flood your system with
whey isolate and the right aminos,
you immediately put a stop to muscle
breakdown. Blend with a banana
for fast-acting carbsand let the
muscle-building begin.
70
MUSCLE&FITNESS
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USE AN OLD-SCHOOL TRAINING
TECHNIQUE TO BOOST MUSCLE SIZE WITH THIS
EIGHT-WEEK PROGRAMME
BY
KEVIN LILLY //
PHOTOGRAPHS BY
KAREEM BLACK
GIANT
SETS
GIANT
GAINS
FOR
72
MUSCLE&FITNESS
dumbbell
row
Brace yourself against
a flat bench with one
arm, and hold a
dumbbell in the other.
Think of your working
arm and lat as a crane;
the arm is just a cable
while the lat is the
motor. You want most
of the work being done
by the motor.
I
ts easy to imagine Joe Weider as having been supremely satised when he came up with
the name Giant Set. Joe was big on buzzwords, and giant was the perfect descriptor of
a training technique that would help turn a skinny young man into a fully grown young man.
Joe thought the concept of the giant set made perfect sense, too: overload a single muscle
group with four or more exercises done consecutively to maximise blood ow to the area
and spark new muscle gains. He documented the practice, making the giant set one of his Weider
Principles, and he used the technique himself over and over, then advised bodybuilders on
employing it. Signicant size was added by all, and the giant set has been utilised by gym rats for
at least the past 50 years.
GIANT SET
WORKOUTS
PROGRAMME
NOTES
Do the three weekly
lifting workouts on whatever
days you prefer. That said, taking
one day off between workouts is
recommendedi.e., a Monday,
Wednesday, Friday training
schedule.
Perform a 15-minute
stair-stepper or incline
treadmill warm-up for all three
workouts.
Allow 7590 minutes for
each training session. Take
full advantage of the allotted
time to recover between sets.
Its very important that every set
is done with 100% energy.
If youre concerned about
adding excess body fat
(particularly during the winter
season), 3040 minutes of
low-intensity cardio can be
added to off days.
Here we give the giant set a makeover, but
the goal remains the same: hypertrophy, and
lots of it. This eight-week programme will
not only help you pack on size but will also
promote fat-burning and give your
cardiovascular system a boost. Rest assured,
giant sets are just as relevant and effective
today as they were many decades ago when
Joe Weider rst stumbled upon them.
With winter in full swing and the
uncontrollable urge for stodgy foods kicks
in, theres a good chance youll be eating a lot
in the next few months. So, now is the time
to take advantage of the additional calories
and set a short-term goal of size and
strength. Your training will consist of three
days of resistance training per week, with
hypertrophy as top priority.
The training programme will follow this
simple equation: High Volume + Short
Rest = Size. Stubborn muscle growth is
a problematic issue that all trainers and
trainees come face-to-face with at some
point. This programme forces the muscles
to either get big or go home. It takes the
old-school volume approach and combines
it with the latest scientic studies to
create the ideal eight-week hypertrophy
programme.
Giant sets will be performed for all large
muscle groups (chest, back, shoulders,
quads) using the standard four exercises.
(Giant sets for smaller body parts like
biceps, triceps, or calves would be overkill.)
The sequence of four exercises within each
giant set will be this: a power move, a
strength move, a stabilisation move, a
size/shape move.
This order of movement patterns will cut
various new micro-tears into the muscle
bres, allowing them to grow with proper
rest and nutrition.
The progression of exercises through each
giant set has a lot to do with joint movement.
Take the chest giant set in Workout 2 as an
example. With plyo push-ups, three major
joints (wrists, elbows, shoulders) are going
through a big range of motion. On incline
presses, it will be two jointsthe elbows and
shoulders. On yes, just the shoulders are
going through a full range of motion. Finally,
the isometric plank involves no joint
movement, only muscle contraction.
Lets focus for a moment on the power
moves, which will lead off every giant set.
Generating power requires the most
energy, so putting these movements at the
beginning of the set will ensure that 100%
effort is given. On back giant sets, the
power moves will be hang cleans and
power shrugs. These may not seem like
direct back exercises, but both are pull-
dominant moves that heavily involve the
major muscles of the back.
The power moves will also spark the
metabolism to promote fat burning. In fact,
this volume-based programme as a whole
will ignite a strong metabolic effect. Itll also
increase athleticism and a unique type of
cardiovascular capacity. I have used this
and other programmes just like it for
hypertrophy goals as well as off-season
training for contact-sport athletes.
So get going on your giant sets to build
some serious size and turn up the heat on
your metabolism. Train hard. Train smart.
WORKOUT 1:
BACK,
BICEPS,
CALVES,
ABS
BACK
GIANTSET1
EXERCISE REPS
HANG CLEAN 6
WIDE-GRIP PULL-UP
(assisted if necessary) 1012
DUMBBELL PULLOVER 10
DUMBBELL STIFF-LEG
DEADLIFT/SHRUG COMBO 8
I Complete three giant sets total,
resting three minutes between
each giant set.
I Rest 15 seconds between each
exercise within circuits.
BACK
GIANTSET2
EXERCISE REPS
POWER SHRUG 10
SEATED CABLE ROW 10
DUMBBELL ROW 10
PLATE-RESISTED
GOOD MORNING 10
I Complete three giant sets total,
resting three minutes between each
giant set.
I Rest 15 seconds between each
exercise within circuits.
BICEPS/CALVES/
ABS
CIRCUIT1
EXERCISE REPS
CABLE CURL 10
STANDING
SINGLE-LEG
CALF RAISE 10 PER LEG
WEIGHTED
OBLIQUE CRUNCH 10 PER SIDE
I Complete the circuit three
times, resting two minutes
between circuits.
I Rest 15 seconds between each
exercise within circuits.
74
MUSCLE&FITNESS
BICEPS/CALVES/
ABS
CIRCUIT2
EXERCISE REPS
HAMMER CURL 8
SMITH MACHINE
CALF RAISE 12
HANGING LEG RAISE 1520
I Complete the circuit three
times, resting two minutes
between circuits.
I Rest 15 seconds between each
exercise within circuits.
MED BALL
PUSH-UP
Get into a push-up
position with both
hands on a med
ball. The space
between your
hands should be
shaped like a
diamond. Keep
your back flat
throughout.
MUSCLE&FITNESS
75

PLATE-
RESISTED
GOOD
MORNING
Hold a plate
behind your head
and bend at the
hips until your
upper body is
parallel to the
floor with your
back flat.
THE TRAINING PROGRAMME
WILL FOLLOW THIS
SIMPLE EQUATION:
HIGH
VOLUME +
SHORT
REST = SIZE
ABOUT THE MODEL
Name: Michael Giliotti
Lives: Staten Island, New York
Height: 5'7"/170 cm
Weight: 195 Ibs /88.5 kg
Favourite Body Part to Train: In all
honesty, I play no favourites.
Favourite Exercise: Squats. One of few
exercises to hit over 75% of your body.
Website: mikegiliottifitness.com
Instagram: @atrainingedge
Twitter: @atrainingedge
Facebook: facebook.com/atrainingedge
About Me: Fitness has made me who I am
today, inside and out. And for that, Im truly
blessed I found something so fulfilling and
rewarding in my life. Without it, I dont know
where I would be.
Favourite Quote: You dont know me.
You dont know anything about me. You
dont know what Im made of or just how
much I am capable of. You dont know
where I come from or where Im heading.
You know nothing of my highs and lows.
You dont know how strong, how resilient,
or how passionate I am. You havent
got a clue of the effort I put into it every
day. You dont know my personal life.
And you may not even know my name.
But you will.
76
MUSCLE&FITNESS
F
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Y
A
V
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E

O
N

A
L
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O
R
D
E
R
S

T
O

T
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E

U
K
TIME TO #GETONIT
PhD Growth Stack
Growth Factor Mass 2.1kg
& Greens pH-7 330g
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24 HOURS A DAY 7 DAYS A WEEK
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Value . Service . Advice
TRICEPS
STRAIGHTSETS
EXERCISE SETS REPS REST
DEAD-STOP
TRICEPS
EXTENSION 3 15* 2 MIN.
MED BALL
PUSH-UP 3 TO FAILURE 1 MIN.
*On every fifth rep, hold the bottom position
for 20 seconds.
CHEST
GIANTSET
EXERCISE REPS
PLYO PUSH-UP 10
INCLINE DUMBBELL PRESS 10
FLAT BENCH DUMBBELL FLYE 10
ISOMETRIC
PLANK HOLD 30-60 SEC.
I Complete three giant sets total, resting three
minutes between each giant set.
I Rest 30 seconds between each exercise
within giant sets.
SHOULDER
GIANTSET
EXERCISE REPS
PUSH PRESS 8
SEATED HALF ARNOLD PRESS 10
STANDING DUMBBELL LATERAL RAISE* 8
BENTOVER REAR-DELT PLATE RAISE 10
I Complete four giant sets total, resting three
minutes between each giant set.
I Rest 30 seconds between each exercise.
*Hold the top position of each rep for a one-
thousand-one count.
WORKOUT 2:
PECS, DELTS, TRICEPS
dumbbell
pec flye
Choose weights
that allow you to
move your hands in
a wide arc. Getting
a good stretch in
your pecs with
each rep is more
important than
using very heavy
weight that will
force you to cheat.
78
MUSCLE&FITNESS
LEGS
GIANTSET1
EXERCISE REPS
DUMBBELL JUMP SPLIT SQUAT 8 PER SIDE
DEADLIFT 8
LEG EXTENSION 15*
BODY-WEIGHT JUMP SPLIT SQUAT 6 PER SIDE
LEGS
GIANTSET2
EXERCISE REPS
DUMBBELL JUMP SQUAT 10
LEG PRESS (Narrow Stance) 10
CROSSOVER LUNGE 8 PER LEG
LEG EXTENSION 10
ABS/CALVES
SUPERSET
EXERCISE SETS REPS REST
DECLINE SIT-UP 3 20 -
SUPERSET WITH
SEATED CALF RAISE 3 20 1 MIN.
I Go four times through each giant set, resting
four minutes between each giant set.
I Rest 30 seconds between each exercise within
giant sets.
*After 15 reps, do one dropset of 15 reps with
50% of the starting weight.
WORKOUT 3:
LEGS,
CALVES,
ABS
CROSSOVER
LUNGE
With each step, your
front foot should
cross the midline
of your body. Since
youll have to work
to keep your
balance, your legs
will get more work
than they would
during a set of
traditional walking
lunges. M&F
MUSCLE&FITNESS
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Protein Powders
Pre-Workout
AII-In-Ones
Mass Gainers
Weigbt Loss
No Mnmum 5pend DD Text and Ema Devery Updates mazng 5peca ers Every Month
82
MUSCLE&FITNESS
A
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TESTOSTERONE IS A CONTROVERSIAL HORMONE
AND THE BIOLOGICAL MARKER FOR MANLINESS ITSELF.
WHY YOU NEED IT, HOW YOU CAN BOOST IT,
AND WHAT CHOPPING WOOD HAS TO DO WITH IT.
BY
RICK COLLINS
THIS IS A
TEST
(STORY)
MUSCLE&FITNESS
83
M
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T-BOOST
EXERCISE:
MILITARY
PRESS
Compound
exercises like the
standing military
press have been
shown in clinical
studies to have
a positive effect
on testosterone
levels.
T
estosterone: T is the He Hormone responsible for,
amongst other things, promoting muscle growth and
bone mass in men. The typical guys body makes only about
6 milligrams of T daily, mostly in the testes. As we get older,
our bodies gradually make less of it. Testosterone levels
peak during our teen and early adult years, then decrease about one
per cent a year after age 30. But beyond normal ageing, there also
seems to be a mysterious generational decrease in T; the men of
today simply have less than they used to.
Research published in the Journal of Clinical
Endocrinology & Metabolism spanning three
decades found that when the testosterone of
same-aged American men were compared,
the men of the 1980s had higher-average
T levels than the men of the 90s, and the men
of the new century have on average the least
testosterone of all. Fading levels of this natural,
anabolic hormone dont bode well for any
guy seeking to build or retain a beach-worthy
body. Thats because T regulates fat distribu-
tion and promotes muscle size and strength.
It also plays a role in maintaining healthy sex
drive, sperm count, bone density, red blood
cell count, and may even play a protective role
against arthritis and Alzheimers. Low levels
of it are associated with all sorts of health
problems, including heart disease, obesity,
diabetes, and depression.
So, boosting your T levels within the normal
range makes perfect sense. But scientists are
just beginning to understand what makes
T rise. Numerous studies have shown
associations between highly competitive
endeavours like sports and T levels. Winners
of competitions show increased T levels,
and losers show decreased levels. But new
research from the University of Missouri
qualifies the existing science: T levels increase
after winning a competition against strangers
or enemiesbut not after beating a friend.
The finding suggests that these hormonal
reactions are part of how we evolved as
a cooperative species, and undermines
the theory that T production is a simple
biological response to a situational demand
for aggressiveness.
Now a surprising new study adds further
nuance to the role of T. The study, published
in the September 2013 issue of Evolution and
Human Behaviour, found that chopping wood
to clear land for planting produces even more
testosterone than playing competitive sports.
The researchers examined a group of 63 male
Tsiman forager-farmers, aged 16 to 80, in
the Bolivian Amazon. Researchers from the
University of California, Santa Barbara, sam-
pled the saliva of the group after they played
soccer, and after they chopped down trees
to clear the jungle for planting crops. They
found that one hour of tree chopping yielded
a 48.6% increase in salivary testosterone. The
increase after playing soccer was only 30.1%.
The results applied regardless of age or health.
Should guys who are looking to boost their
T levels throw on annel shirts and head off
with axes to the forest? Not necessarily. The
takeaway from the study isnt about becom-
ing a lumberjack but rather further rening
our views of what testosterone is about. This
study backs up a mounting body of science
refuting the notion that testosterone is a lone
wolf hormone all about aggression. Scientists
84
MUSCLE&FITNESS
now believe that T is really about striving for
and maintaining social status. In animals with
primitive social systems, that search is expressed
by aggression. But among primates like us, the
dominance of higher status is often achieved
through pro-social behaviours including leader-
ship and heroic altruism.
So, T is a healthy and socially productive
hormone that also happens to make you more buff
on the beach. While scientists have yet to map out
how intermittent surges of T may cumulatively
impact muscle growth over time, its reasonable
to think that the more short-term spikes of this
anabolic hormone you can crank up, the better.
What can you do to optimise your He Hormone
into the higher end of the normal bell curve? Here
are eight ways to do it:
PERFORM COMPOUND MOVEMENTS
Research shows that multijoint movements
like the bench press, deadlift, and squat
are better at boosting testosterone than
single-joint exercises like leg extensions
and triceps kickbacks.
LIFT HARD AND HEAVY High-repetition
sets may give you a great pump, but they
dont boost your testosterone as much as intense
sets in the repetition range of 5 to 10. Go as heavy
as you can while maintaining form, and be sure
to lower the weights slowly and under control
to extend the time the muscles are under tension
before exploding the weight back up.
T-BOOSTING
SPLIT ROUTINE
DAY 1
BENCH PRESS
5 sets
10, 10, 8, 6, and 5 reps
MILITARY PRESS
4 sets
10, 8, 6, and 5 reps
WEIGHTED DIP
3 sets
10, 8, and 6 reps
SQUAT
5 sets
10, 10, 8, 6, and 5 reps
STANDING CALF MACHINE
3 sets
10, 8, and 8 reps
Slow down the negative (eccentric) part of each
repetition.
Rest 1 to 2 minutes between sets.
M
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T-BOOST
EXERCISE
You dont need
to overload your
calves with a ton
of reps to make
them grow. Try
low reps with
heavy weight for
maximum growth
and maximum
T-boost.
86
MUSCLE&FITNESS
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DONT OVERTRAIN Research has found
that endurance athletes like cyclists and
triathletes have lower T levels than average
guys. Overtraining can drop your T levels.
If your workouts are longer than an hour,
cut them back. And while there are benets
to both high-intensity interval training and
steady-state cardio, dont overdo it.
EAT ENOUGH FAT The popularity of
low-fat diets has plummeted as research has
continued to support the importance
of healthy dietary fats. Without a specic
medical directive to the contrary, dont be
afraid of fats in your diet. Research suggests
that T levels head south on low-fat diets.
Aim to get 30% of your daily calories from
fats. Be sure to get plenty of monounsaturated
fats and adequate saturated fat to give your
body the building blocks it needs to make T.
Olive oil, avocado, and almonds are all great
sources.
SLEEP SIX TO EIGHT HOURS T levels
increase during sleep to a maximum around
the time of awakening then decrease during
the day. One study found that shift workers
with sleep and fatigue problems had lower
T levels than those without the problems,
and researchers at the University of Chicago
Medical Centre found that young men who
slept fewer than ve hours a night for one
week had 1015% lower T levels.
HAVE SEX Without a doubt, T is crucial
for a healthy sex life. Low T is associ-
ated with low sex drive and poor sexual
functioning, and raising your T levels will
help big time in the bedroom. Having sex
temporarily spikes T levels. But how much
sex is recommended for maintaining high
T levels? In a study involving young men
tested over a two-month span, research-
DAY 2
DEADLIFT
5 sets of
10, 8, 8, 6, and 5 reps
UNDERHAND CHIN-UP
4 sets
10, 8, 6, and 5 reps (substitute under-
hand lat pull-down if unable to complete
4 sets of at least 5 chin-ups each)
BARBELL ROW
5 sets
10, 10, 8, 6, and 5 reps
GLUTE-HAM RAISE
3 sets
10, 8, and 6 reps (substitute stiff-leg
deadlifts if necessary)
AB MACHINE CRUNCH
3 sets
10, 8, and 8 reps
Slow down the negative (eccentric) part of
each repetition.
Rest 1 to 2 minutes between sets.
T-BOOSTING
SPLIT ROUTINE
M
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BARBELL ROW
Keep your back
flat throughout this
exercise; rounding it
risks serious injury.
ers found that periods of more frequent
sexual activity were associated with higher
T levels within an individual subject. But
when all the subjects in the group were
compared, the T levels of the less sexu-
ally active subjects were higher than the
more sexually active ones, indicating more
research is needed.
GET YOUR VITAMIN D Research shows
that vitamin D is crucial to T production.
Whether you get it from the sun, from
food sources such as salmon, tuna, and
eggs, or from a vitamin D3 supplement,
be sure to get enough. Researchers at the
Medical University of Graz, Austria, found
that T levels increased when men with
vitamin D deciencies were given
supplemental D.
CONSUME ADEQUATE ZINC Zinc
deciency has been linked to signicant
decreases in T levels. If youre decient
in zinc, taking supplemental zinc will
help maintain your T levels. Do you like
shellsh? Ounce for ounce, oysters are the
richest dietary zinc source. Dont overdo
it, though, as excessive zinc is toxic.
In addition to these points, try the split
routine we provide here for four weeks,
alternating between the two workouts and
training every other day. No need to become
a lumberjack, though a game of tennis could
helpbut only if your opponent is the snarky
guy at the ofce looking to steal your promo-
tion, and only if you kick his ass!
88
MUSCLE&FITNESS
USE
COMPOUND
MOVES
Compound moves
have been shown
to increase serum
T-levels more than
isolation moves,
and heavy squats
are one of the
best for maximising
muscle stimulation
throughout the
body.
T
o maximise muscle-building, you not only need to
train hard and eat rightyou also need ideal levels of
testosterone. In fact, this quintessential male hormone
is crucial for many benecial functions, including
boosting strength, enhancing sex drive, increasing metabolic rate,
and encouraging your body to use stored fat for energy, which helps
to keep body fat low. When you dont have ideal levels of testosterone,
you may notice that your body lags in one or more of these areas.
To keep your T-levels at their prime, consider adding the following
supplements to your regime.
D-ASPARTIC ACID
BOOSTS ENERGY AND
TESTOSTERONE.
Good for those with low
testosterone levels or those who
generally feel sapped of energy,
D-aspartic acid, an amino acid,
has become a popular supple-
ment for muscle-gaining. When
testosterone levels are low,
D-aspartic acid helps to improve
mood, focus, and sexual energy.
It works by encouraging Leydig
cells, which inuence your
testicles to increase both
testosterone and sperm
production. While your
pituitary gland also produces
D-aspartic acid, you may get
even greater benets by
supplementing this amino acid.
FENUGREEK BOOSTS
TESTOSTERONE AND
INSULIN RELEASE.
Fenugreek is another great
testosterone-boosting supple-
ment. This one comes from an
herb found in southern Europe
and western Asia, and it also
increases libido as well as
testosterone levels. In addition,
fenugreek encourages insulin
release, which helps refuel
muscles after intense weight-
training sessions. Fenugreek is
regulated by the liver, which
means that it balances and
controls the amount of
testosterone in your system
so you dont get an overload,
spilling over to unwanted
hormones, including oestrogen
and dihydrotestosterone
(DHT). As a side note: many
pharmaceutical forms of
testosterone are unregulated
by your liver, and are absorbed
directly into your body.
FORSKOLIN BURNS
BODY FAT AND RAISES
T-LEVELS.
As mentioned above, these two
benets are interconnected
having higher levels of
testosterone helps your body
use stored fat for fuel. In fact,
Coleus forskohlii, a herb used
in ayurvedic medicine, has
been incorporated into many
fat-burning supplements.
Forskolin boosts testosterone
by activating adenylate cyclase,
an enzyme that increases cAMP
(a compound related to ATP
and important for intracellular
signalling). In addition, forskolin
boosts the activity of Leydig
cells, which help produce
testosterone in the presence of
luteinising hormone. Research
has shown that supplementing
forskolin not only increases
testosterone but also burns body
fat compared to placebo. M&F
T-TIME
MUSCLE&FITNESS
89
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O N
ATHALIA MEL
UPPER BODY
BLAST
PART 3
FOLLOW THE 2012 BIKINI OLYMPIA
CHAMPS CABLE-ONLY WORKOUT
BY JOHN PLUMMER
PHOTOGRAPHY BY KEVIN HORTON
92
MUSCLE&FITNESS
MUSCLE&FITNESS
93
But you might be surprised
by how little time she spends
maintaining her waist-up physique.
Melo typically trains upper body
just twice a week, doing shoulders,
chest and triceps on one day and
back and biceps on another.
Here she has devised a
complete upper body workout
that you can throw into your
routine every now and then
to shake things up.
Every exercise can be
performed on a cable
machine. It shows
you dont need a
lot of space or machinery to do an effective
upper body workout, says Melo.
It is a great way to get a good and
intense workout if you go to a super busy
gym... you just stay there on the cable
machine and dont have to wait around
for the machines you need to use.
I do a lot of supersets and it is not
very time efcient to be walking
around the gym from one machine
to the other.
The Brazilian-born, Belfast-
based bikini star is quick to point
out that what works for her might
not work for everyone. I
have been weightlifting
for over 15 years, she
says. Therefore, I
already have a good
amount of muscle
development.
Everyone is
different.
So, dont take
the following as
gospel but do give
it a whirl and see
if it works for you.
Perform all the
exercises listed and
keep the rest
periods brief.
Unless youre a
powerlifter you
dont need 90
seconds
rest between
sets, says
Melo.
I
ts all very well having some of the
best glutes in the business but if
you want to get to the top
in fitness you need an
upper body to match.
Fortunately, Nathalia
Melo has an upper body
worthy of her bottom
half: flat stomach,
sculpted shoulders,
and triceps that
wouldnt wobble
if you shook them
all day.
94
MUSCLE&FITNESS
NATHALIA
MELOS
UPPER
BODY BLAST
WORKOUT
SHOULDERS
REVERSE
CABLE FLYE
MELO SAYS: This one really
hits the rear delts. I just grip the
cableI dont use handles
because that would switch the
emphasis to middle back. If you
use dumbbells it is too easy to
swing your body. This is stricter.
SETS/REPS: 4 X 15
96
MUSCLE&FITNESS
TRICEPS
REVERSE-GRIP PUSHDOWNS
MELO SAYS: For this I break the exercise down into three move-
ments. I start by doing 7 reps from the top position to half way down,
then I do 7 from half way down to the bottom position and then I finish
by doing 7 full extensions. A lot of people dont do the full range of
movement so if you break it down you know you are working the whole
triceps. I occasionally superset this with a biceps exercise.
SETS/REPS: 5 X 21
98
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CABLE OVERHEAD PULLDOWNS TO SIDE
MELO SAYS: Stand with your left side near the cable machine, and with your right arm pull down the cable
over your head, trying to keep your arm at a 90 degree angle at the bottom of the movement. Your palm
should face down, towards your head.
SETS/REPS: 4 X 15
CABLE BICEPS CURLS
MELO SAYS: I do 7 reps from the bottom position to half way up, then 7 from the half way position to the top
and then 7 full curls to ensure I get the full range of movement.
SETS/REPS: 5 X 21
BICEPS
BACK
CHEST
CORE
If you missed parts 1 and 2 of
this three-part series, you can
buy back issues in print at
www.weidermailorder.com/
4-backissues or as a digital edition
at https://dig.muscle-fitness.eu
ONE-LEGGED
PRESS-UP
MELO SAYS: This isnt
specifically an upper body
exercise but you may wish to
include it because it works your
chest and core and is good for
your glutes as well. Because
youre not using two legs you
have to work harder to balance,
which really works your core.
Sometimes I do it on a Bosu ball.
SETS/REPS: 4 X TO FAILURE,
ALTERNATING LEG
TRAINING SPLIT
Monday Quads and glutes
Tuesday Shoulders, chest and triceps
Wednesday Hamstrings and glutes
Thursday Back and biceps
Friday Glutes
STANDING CABLE PRESS
MELO SAYS: Bring the handles together and lock your fingers then
press out. This is a good chest exercise for variety. I dont need a lot of
chest development so I usually train it with shoulders and triceps. I
might only do this exercise or I might superset it with cable flyes.
SETS/REPS: 4 X 15
MUSCLE&FITNESS
101
PERSONALISED TRAINING AND NUTRITION
HOW FAR CAN WE GO?
ADRIAN HODGSON
CONSIDERS TO WHAT EXTENT
Scientific advances mean we now know a lot about how
the body adapts to training. Yet we still hear people
saying they cant grow muscle, cant gain weight, or
cant lose body fat.
Consequently, personal trainers and nutritionists
are now tailoring programmes to suit individuals by
advocating specific types of training and using body
composition measurements to identify areas for
improvement.
Some nutrition programmes are even based on
biochemical markers to identify nutritional areas that
require specific attention.
Apps and other software are also available, allowing
users to log their training, count calories burned and
track their food intake to get a daily breakdown of
macro- and micronutrient intake.
All these services allow people to follow highly
personalised programmes designed to help them
achieve specific training, fitness, and competition goals.
But while this can help to maximise the possibility of
optimal adaptation to training, research suggests
some people may not actually respond to certain types
of exercise at all.
1
This is down to their genes.
Genes control not only how we look, feel and work,
but also how we respond to exercise and nutrition. The
big question among scientists is whether we will reach
a stage where we can provide personalised training
advice based on the genes a person possesses.
CAN BENEFIT TRAINING AND NUTRITION
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A QUICK SCIENCE LESSON
Before we dive into talking about genes
its worth outlining why they are important
in controlling training adaptations.
Muscle adaptations occur due to new
proteins being made and old proteins
being broken down through exercise and
nutrition.
2

The adaptions not only include
increasing muscle size but also making
endurance muscle fibres (type I) and
building new machinery within muscles
that controls metabolism of fat, carbs
and protein.
The interaction between exercise and
nutrition controls signals within the
muscle which kick-start the production
of new proteins. All proteins are made
from a different set of amino acids.
The arrangement of amino acids within
a protein is decided by information in
our DNA.
DNA is made up of lots of coded
information, some of which is used to
make specific sets of genes. Therefore,
the genes someone possesses (their
genotype) ultimately control which
proteins are formed. This then controls
how they adapt to exercise and nutrition
(their phenotype).
There are approximately 20,000 genes
that define us as humans.
3
But there is
huge variation in these genes between
people due to environmental, social, and
lifestyle factors. The variation is due to
subtle changes in the coded information
in our DNA (polymorphism). This is often
referred to as a single nucleotide
polymorphism (SNP). Staggeringly, there
are over 10 million SNPs, which means a
lot of gene variation.
3
TO RESPOND, OR
NOT TO RESPOND?
Approximately 10% of the population
seem not to respond to exercise training.
1

They dont see improvements to aerobic
capacity (VO2 max), number of mitochon-
dria (energy batteries in our muscles),
muscle growth, improvements to exercise
performance, or a reduction in their
chances of developing diabetes.
In contrast, some individuals experience
up to 60% growth in muscle mass in
12 weeks even when weight training and
nutrition is strictly controlled.
1,4
THERE ARE APPROXIMATELY 20,000
GENES THAT DEFINE US AS HUMANS.
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MUSCLE&FITNESS
This doesnt mean you should give up
exercise or ease off training and stop
eating well. Its far too early for us to
identify who is a non-responder. Instead,
this research highlights the importance of
genes in determining sporting success as
well as improvements to health, which
may be a way of identifying a more
personalised approach to prescribing
training and nutrition programmes.
PERSONALISATION
BASED ON OUR GENES
Over the last 30 years, the study of genes
from blood, saliva, and muscle samples
has allowed SNPs to be characterised
by a process called genomics.
The aim of genomics is to link genes
and genetic variations with adaptations
to exercise and nutrition.
This, along with other information such
as the biochemical analysis of metabo-
lites in the blood (metabolomics) or
proteins found in muscle (proteomics),
gives a complete picture of how the
body responds to exercise and nutrition.
In theory, this could be used to give the
most personalised training and dietary
advice possible.
Approximately 12 years ago Dr Hugh
Montgomery and colleagues from
University College London identified one
gene thought to play a role in exercise
performance.
5
Known as the ACE
(angiotension I-converting enzyme) gene,
it controls certain hormones and human
metabolism.
Variation in the ACE gene has pre-
viously been associated with training
performance, such as endurance and
strength-based exercise.
6
It seems one
variation of the ACE gene (I allele) occurs
in endurance athletes, whereas another
variation (D allele) occurs in short
duration sprint performance.
6
Interestingly, while this appears to be
true in Caucasians, it is not the case in
other ethnic groups.
7,8
Its also impossible
to say whether one variation of the ACE
gene will make you a great athlete in one
sport or in another; its merely an
association, not a true effect.
Another gene that is often talked about
is the ACTN3 (alpha-actinin-3) gene,
which is found in the fast twitch muscle
fibres (type IIb) usually found in athletes
from strength- and power-based sports
like sprinting, powerlifting or rugby.
6

Two variants of ACTN3 appear in the
population: R and X.
9
In one study,
Caucasian men with the R variant of
ACTN3 were found to have better sprint
performance.
9,10
However, as with the
ACE gene, this is not seen in African
individuals.
8

GENES CONTROL NOT
ONLY HOW WE LOOK,
FEEL AND WORK,
BUT ALSO HOW WE
RESPOND TO EXERCISE
AND NUTRITION.
GETTY I MAGES/I STOCKPHOTO
DEFINITIONS
Genotypethe genetic make-up of
a person that controls physical
characteristics.
Phenotypethe physical character-
istics of an individual that are
controlled by genes.
DNAthe code found in all cells that
gives the genetic information for
development and function.
Polymorphismthe variation in
genes found in individuals, which
differs significantly in the population.
108
MUSCLE&FITNESS
Single gene profiling is an interesting
approach to discovering how genes
influence exercise adaptations.
However, the ACE and ACTN3 genes
do not explain exercise performance
or phenotypes throughout the whole
population because many of the
studies are limited to a small number
of people.
Additionally, exercise alters many
metabolic and physiological pathways in
the body, all of which will be influenced by
many different genes in the muscle and
other tissues. Therefore, its impossible to
put such emphasis on one gene that only
gives 1% of the information.
More recently, molecules known as
microRNA (miRNA), which are coded by
our genes, have been shown to regulate
the production of new proteins in the
muscles and brain in response to
exercise and nutrition. Indeed, miRNAs
appear to regulate metabolism and
improvements to health, and also to
control muscle protein synthesis.
1
Furthermore, according to a study
by Professors Stuart Phillips and Jamie
Timmons, it is possible miRNAs can
influence how much muscle grows in
response to exercise and nutrition.
11
Using a large number of male recruits,
Phillips and Timmons demonstrated that
those in the lowest 20% of responders
to muscle growth following a 12-week
training and nutrition programme
expressed a different type of miRNA
compared to those with a higher
response.
11
This shows the complex interaction
between genes and miRNA influencing
adaptations to training. Further research
is required to identify which miRNA are
selective in regulating muscle growth
following resistance training.
Adrian Hodgson is a doctoral researcher at
the University of Birmingham, specialising
in nutrition for optimal performance and
training adaptations. He has worked with
elite and amateur athletes in a variety
of sports and is employed by Glanbia
Performance Nutrition as a performance
nutritionist for Optimum Nutrition. For references to this article go to www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/scientific-references
CONCLUSION
Genomics is a fruitful and interesting
area of research that could allow for
more personalised training and
nutrition advice. For now, however, it
remains in its infancy. It is likely that
hundreds of genes may be responsible
for controlling adaptations to exercise
and diet, not just one single gene.
Research is under way to create
databases of genes from thousands of
individuals to identify the genes that do
work in unison in response to exercise or
nutrition. This will help to form a more
complete picture, but who knows where
well be in 10 years time? M&F
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS THE IMPORTANCE
OF GENES IN SPORTING SUCCESS AND
IMPROVEMENTS TO HEALTH.
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STUNTMAN
FITNESS
BOBBY HOLLAND HANTON TALKS ABOUT GETTING IN SHAPE
TO PERFORM HOLLYWOODS MOST DARING FEATS
Unlike Batman and James Bond, Hanton is
one of the lm industrys unsung heroes.
As a stuntman, hes doubled for the likes
of Daniel Craig, Christian Bale and Chris
Hemsworth, winning three Screen Actors
Guild Awards along the way.
Hanton keeps himself in enviable
shape all year round, but doubling for
some of Hollywoods best physiques
often requires rigorous training. When
it came to preparing for Thor that meant
gaining a whole 10 kg so when the Norse
god sends someone ying with a mighty
swing of Mjlnir the audience isnt
focusing on the fact that his arms have
deated between scenes.
We caught up with Hanton recently
to discuss how he trains for what is
probably one of the coolest and most
dangerous jobs in Hollywood.
BY MATT TURNER
obby Holland Hanton has played major onscreen roles in some
of the biggest blockbusters of recent years. Hes chased
villains across rooftops in Quantum of Solace, been the
hero Gotham deserves in The Dark Knight Rises, and
smashed skulls in Thor: The Dark World. Despite all that,
youve probably never heard his name.
MUSCLE & FITNESS: When did you
decide to become a stuntman?
BOBBY HOLLAND HANTON: I was
doing live stunt shows and commer-
cials from the age of 19. After having
had a taste of stunts doing adverts I
wanted to see if I could try my hand
at stunts in movies. My first film job
was Quantum of Solace, doubling for
Daniel Craig. Ive been doing it for
about five years now.
M&F: Thats not a bad rst job. What
has been the best lm to work on?
BHH:The Dark Knight Rises was
certainly an amazing experience,
just due to the cast, the locations,
the team I was working with
particularly my stunt coordinator
and obviously donning the bat cowl
and bat suit. Id say thats definitely
up there, but very close behind is
Thor: The Dark World and Quantum
of Solace. Those three movies were
obviously huge.
M&F: Do you have a favourite stunt?
BHH: Climbing out of a prison as Bruce
Wayne on The Dark Knight Rises, I had
to do a 100-foot high descender fall and
smash headrst into a wall. Thats
certainly up there. Then theres the
rooftop scene from Quantum of Solace.
We were 100-160 feet up in the air,
jumping from rooftop to rooftop in
Siena. Again on Quantum of Solace, I
did a balcony jump with no wires or
cables, leaping from one balcony to
another. That was about 6.5-7 m, three
storeys up, at night.
112
MUSCLE&FITNESS
BOBBY HOLLAND HANTON
Date of Birth: 26th April 1984
Birthplace: Portsmouth
Lives: Surbiton, Surrey
Height: 6 ft 1 in / 185 cm
Weight: 187 lbs / 85 kg
Career Highlights: Working with the people
Ive been able to work with and in the places
Ive been able to go. More importantly than
that, just being able to do what I love.
Ambition: That my career keeps progressing
in the way its going.
Training Advice: Get your eight hours sleep.
If you can get a 15-20 minute nap during the
day that helps a lot too. In my experience its
always 80% diet.
Sponsors: Dove Men+Care and
Nuffield Health Gym. Bobby is
also an ambassador for the
charity Poppys Path.
Contact: Bobby is on Twitter
@BobbyHanton
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M&F: You dont have any trouble with
heights then!
BHH: No! Id say jumping about at
height is probably my forte.
M&F: Whats been the toughest lm
to train for?
BHH: Thor has denitely been the
hardest, to date at least. Thats just
because Chris Hemsworth is naturally
so big. Hes massive! I have to wear
two-inch lifts just to match him in
height. I was training twice a day, six
days a week for six months to match his
physique. I tried to schedule a little rest
so maybe one of those days Id only train
once and Sunday would be a complete
rest day. But by the time you start
shooting its quite difcult to nd the
time to train and shoot, let alone rest.
I had to do a lot of upper body work.
My background is gymnastics so I used
to condition by doing chins, dips,
press-upsall stuff with just your own
body weight thatll help build size. Then
obviously hes got naturally big arms and
shoulders, which, due to the costume,
were on display a lot of the time so that
was something I really had to work on.
M&F: You added a good inch or so to
your arms. How did you train to put
on all that size?
BHH: We did a lot of biceps curls and
preacher curls to really isolate the
biceps. Then, with a partner, wed also
do a pyramid. It was kind of like a prison
workout with a scaffold bar. Youd do
one curl yourself, pass it to your partner
and theyd do one and pass it back. Then
youd do two and pass it back and so on,
CLIMBING OUT OF A PRISON AS
BRUCE WAYNE ON THE DARK
KNIGHT RISES I HAD TO DO A 100-
FOOT HIGH DESCENDER FALL AND
SMASH HEADFIRST INTO A WALL
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Siena by rooftop: Bond has never
been one for walking tours
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up to 10 reps and then back down again.
That was a good workout. Then wed
maybe go into high reps of 20-25 kg
dumbbell curls.
M&F: Did you do much cardio?
BHH: Yes, but mainly sprints. I wasnt
going out running long distances; I
mostly did short circuits. Long runs
dont work for me personally anyway. It
was more about keeping the heart rate
up. Id do short sprints on a running
machine with an incline or decline,
sprinting for maybe one or two minutes
and then getting back into the circuit.
M&F: How was the diet?
BHH: It was very, very strict. It was
high protein, high good fats and high
good carbs. I was eating regular
amounts every two hours, not lling
myself up but just eating enough to
carry on and keep the size on.
Eating a high protein breakfast
within half an hour of waking
was very important, as was
getting eight hours sleep. It
becomes difcult to t all that
around shooting but its just
something youve got to work
with and adapt to.
M&F: How did training to
double for Christian Bale
and Daniel Craig differ
to training for Thor?
BHH: Christian and
Daniel are both closer
to my height and have
smaller builds than
Chris. Daniel was
very slender on
Quantum of Solace
so I didnt have
to work quite as
hard weight-
wise. I did a lot
more short
circuits and
swimming to
help keep lean
muscle mass. It
was similar
with Christian,
hes slightly
bigger but,
CHRIS HEMSWORTH IS MASSIVE.
I TRAINED TWICE A DAY, SIX
DAYS A WEEK FOR SIX MONTHS
TO MATCH HIS PHYSIQUE
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STUNTMAN CV
Again teams up with Hemsworth for
Ron Howards Heart of the Sea, and
doubles for Channing Tatum on the
Wachowskis Jupiter Ascending, both
due out later this year.
Lands his first role as a stuntman, doub-
ling for Daniel Craig in Quantum of Solace.
The stunt team is nominated for a Taurus
World Stunt Award for best high work.
Doubles for Jake Gyllenhaal as Dastan
in Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time
and works on Christopher Nolans box
office smash Inception. Wins the first of
three Screen Actors Guild Awards for
outstanding performance by a stunt
ensemble for Inception.
Doubles for Ryan Reynolds Green Lantern
in the DC Comics superheros first big
screen appearance. Wins his second SAG
Award for Harry Potter and the Deathly
Hallows Part 2.
Lands another dream role, doubling for
Christian Bales Batman in The Dark
Knight Rises. Wins his third SAG Award,
this time for Skyfall.
Doubles for Chris Hemsorth on Thor: The
Dark World. Adds 1.5 inches to his arms
and 2 inches to his chest and shoulders
to match Hemsworth for size.
2008
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
again, I tried to keep away from weights.
I still did some isolation work but more
with my own weight: chins, dips,
press-ups, cardio and sprints.
M&F: How long will you normally
spend working on a lm?
BHH: The Dark Knight Rises for me was
eight and a half to nine months. We have
a lot of rehearsal periods and then when
were shooting were on the whole time.
Basically, were doing at least 12 hours a
day, six days a week, the whole time
were on a lm. Its a long time. Generally,
well get Sundays off but there are times
when we have to work them as well. If
we arent shooting on unit one well be
rehearsing or shooting with unit two.
M&F: You mentioned smashing
headrst into a wall. Do you get much
time to recover from a particularly
demanding stunt like that?
BHH: It depends on the schedule and
what youre shooting or rehearsing the
next day. Sometimes youre doing stunts
back-to-back days so it just depends.
M&F: Have you had any major
injuries?
BHH: Touch wood, nothing major so
far. I had a fairly bad back injury while I
was lming Green Lantern, doubling for
Ryan Reynolds, but nothing serious. We
try to take as much care of ourselves as
we can. Its the nature of the beast that
the job is fairly dangerous, but we use
rehearsal time to eliminate as much
of the risk as possible and obviously
youve got a great team around you.
M&F: Youve worked on a few super-
hero lms. Are there any others on
your wish list?
BHH: Id love to work on Superman and
Spiderman, theyd be great to add to my
collection. There are also a few directors
Id love to work with, like the Coen
Brothers, Quentin Tarantino, Ben
Afeck and David Fincher.
M&F: Some people might recognise
you from the Ford B-MAX advert
where you dive through the car into
a swimming pool. What was it like
doing that?
BHH: It was very different! It was a bit hairy
a couple of times but it was great. We did it
for real: rst without the car and then with
the car, on ankle cuffs. Theres a behind-the-
scenes video on YouTube. It was a great job
and a fantastic experience. M&F
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On the set of the Ford B-MAX
advert. Hanton dived 17m
through a car, again
demonstrating his
aerial prowess.
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only use the best!
I ONLY USE THE BEST!
IFBB PRO
BICEPS
ATTACK YOUR
ARMS FROM
EVERY ANGLE
WITH THIS
DIVERSE BICEPS
ROUTINE
DOUBLE-ARM HIGH-CABLE CURL DUMBBELL PREACHER CURL INCLINE DUMBBELL CURL STANDING BARBELL CURL
For a workout that hits the
biceps from all angles,
we called upon competitive
bodybuilder Ryan Sullivan.
His routine employs
dumbbells, a barbell, and
cables and puts the upper
arms in various positions:
in front of the torso with
preachers, behind it with
incline curls, at the sides
with barbell curls, and, to
finish, the arms elevated
and parallel with the floor
via high-cable curls. Such
variety will help ensure that
both heads of the biceps get
maximum stimulation to
grow bigger and stronger.
Using appreciable resist-
ance helps, too, but only
if proper form is upheld.
Using massive amounts
of momentum is a great
way to train your ego, not
your biceps, Sullivan says.
THE ROUTINE
TIPS
I
Keep your elbows
pointed straight
out to the sides
throughout the set;
dont let them
move forwards.
I
For a stronger
contraction, at the
top of each rep, turn
your palms so they
face behind you and
squeeze.
STRAIGHT-UP
BY
JOE WUEBBEN
PHOTOGRAPHS BY BRIAN KUHLMANN
DOUBLE-ARM
HIGH-CABLE
CURL
Attach handles to high
pulleys on either side of a
cable crossover station.
Stand in the middle of
the station, grab the
handles, and begin with
your arms extended to
the sides to form a T.
Keeping your body
and upper arms still, bend
both elbows to curl
the handles towards your
head as far as possible.
Squeeze for a count at the
top, then return to the
start position.
SETS
2
REPS
1518*
*On the last set, superset with
standing barbell curls for 68 reps.
120
MUSCLE&FITNESS
I
Perform a
warm-up set of
dumbbell preacher
curls prior to your
working sets.
THE BASICS
TIPS
DUMBBELL
PREACHER
CURL
Sit down on a
preacher bench
holding a pair of
dumbbells. Extend
your arms against
the pad, but dont
lock them out.
Curl the weight up
slowly. Squeeze
your biceps hard
for a beat once
youve reached the
top, then slowly
lower the dumbbells
back to the starting
point until you
feel a stretch.
On the last set,
do 21s: the first
seven reps are
for the top half only,
the next seven are
for the bottom half,
and the final seven
are full reps.
I
Rest 4590
seconds between
sets. The less you
rest, the more
intense the next
set will be.
I
For the 21s, youll need to use a
lighter weight than you did on the
previous working set.
I
Dumbbell preacher curls can
also be performed one arm at a
time to increase the focus on
each individual biceps muscle.
SETS
3
REPS
1012, 21
MUSCLE&FITNESS
121
INCLINE
DUMBBELL
CURL
Adjust an incline
bench to 4560
degrees and lie
face-up on it with
your feet on the
floor. Hold a pair of
dumbbells with your
arms hanging straight
down and palms
facing forward.
Keeping your
shoulders, back, and
upper arms fixed
perpendicular
to the floor, curl the
dumbbells towards
your shoulders.
Squeeze hard at the
top before returning
to the start.
TIPS
I
On the last working
set, youll be doing
two dropsets, but
dont overdo it.
These are not
burnout sets,
says Sullivan. You
want only 45 reps
maximum with
each drop.
I
When using
dumbbells, its best
to keep your little
finger level with your
thumb while curling.
When they are level,
your biceps will be
contracted the
most.
SETS
3
REPS
1012*
*On the last set, do 2 drop sets
of 45 reps each, using a small
increment for each drop.
122
MUSCLE&FITNESS
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STANDING
BARBELL CURL
Stand holding a barbell with a shoulder-
width grip, arms extended, and knees
slightly bent. Keeping your elbows at
your sides, bend them to curl the
weight as high as you can. Squeeze your
biceps for a count at the top, then slowly
return the bar to the start position. On
your last working set, drop the weight by
about 50%, and perform the first eight
reps with a grip outside shoulder width,
the next eight with the standard grip used
for the first two working sets, and the last
eight with a grip inside shoulder width. If
your gym has the bar for it, experiment
with a neutral grip (shown above). M&F
TIPS
I
Varying the grips
will ensure that you
give attention to
the inner and outer
portions of the
biceps, Sullivan says.
I
More experienced
trainees should avoid
overextending the
elbows or resting
at the top of the
motion. This is by no
means a free pass to
do that half-rep
garbage . Its a way to
keep the tension on
the biceps at all
times and really
work them hard.
WORKOUT ORDER
1) DB Preacher Curl // 2) Incline DB Curl // 3) Barbell Curl // 4) High-cable Curl
SETS
3
REPS
1012, 24
124
MUSCLE&FITNESS
WORKOUTS
WINNING
B Y J O E W U E B B E N
P H O T O G R A P H S B Y
B I L L C O M S T O C K
THREE 2013 OLYMPIA
CHAMPIONS
SHARE THE ROUTINES
THAT HELPED
THEM GRAB
THE TOP PRIZE
AND SOLIDIFY
THEIR LEGACIES
IN THE
SPORT OF
BODYBUILDING
MUSCLE&FITNESS
127
Phil Heaths
Back/Traps
Workout
EXERCISE SETS REPS
Front
Pulldown 34 1015
Underhand
Barbell Row 34 1012
High-pulley
Row 34 1012
T-bar Row 4 12
Seated
Cable Row* 7 1012
Pullover 3 1520
Shrug 3 1520
*Performed with 2030 seconds rest.
PHIL
HEATH
W
hat everyone saw onstage at the 2013 Mr Olympia was the final product.
What very few people witnessed was the work that went into creating
the most muscular, symmetrical, detailed physiques on the planet
the countless hours in the gym, and the strict discipline in following a mass-
gaining diet in the off-season and a restrictive leaning-out plan for up to four
months before competition. Phil Heath, James Flex Lewis, and Mark Anthony Wingson have
displayed such dedication for years, and in the following pages, each of these champions
offers one gym workout thats helped him reach the pinnacle of physique competition.
W
ith a trio of O wins
(201113) and no sign of
letting up, Phil Heath has
established his own bodybuilding
era, just as Jay Cutler, Ronnie
Coleman, and Dorian Yates
(among others) did before him.
All great champions of the past
displayed dominance onstage, and
Heath is no exception. To win an
Olympiaor even to place in
the top sixone needs to have a
great back, with superior width,
thickness, and detail. Developing
this requires smart yet exhaustive
training in the gym year after year,
which Heath has done ever since
turning pro. Heres a sample
back workout he used in his
pre-Olympia prep.
THREE-TIME MR. OLYMPIA
128
MUSCLE&FITNESS
JAMES FLEX
LEWIS
BACK-TO-BACK MR.
OLYMPIA 212 WINNER
W
inning an O title in body-
buildings 212 division might
seem less exacting than
going up against the heavyweights, but
it could actually be worse. First, the
212 eld is loaded with elite athletes.
Second, IFBB judges are looking for
the same muscle density and freaky
body parts as in the open division, so
these guys dont get a break simply
because theyre smaller. Flex Lewis
defended his Olympia 212 title by
displaying a symmetrical physique
with no apparent weaknesses and
a pair of legs that put him over the top.
Below is one of Lewis typical quad
workouts.
Flex Lewis
Quad Workout
EXERCISE SETS REPS
Leg Extension* 34 1525
Leg Press
(conventional
stance) 67 3050
Leg Press
(wide stance) 3 1520
Sissy Squat 34 1520
Bulgarian
Split Squat 3 1520
*Plus 23 warm-up sets.
130
MUSCLE&FITNESS
wE ARE l00Klh0 F0R RETAllER8! CAll U8 0h. O127 987 4G81 FACEB00K. www.FACEB00K.C0N/8ClTECUK
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WWW.MUSCLEARMYCOMICS.COM
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EXERCISE SETS REPS
Dumbbell Pullover 4 15
Flat Bench
Dumbbell Press* 4 15, 15, 13, 10
Incline Smith
Machine Press* 4 15, 15, 13, 10
Incline Dumbbell Flye 3 15
Seated Cable Flye 3 15
Hammer Strength
Dip Machine 4 15
Plyo Push-up 7 10
*Dropset performed on last set.
T
he rst-ever mens physique
Olympia crown went to an
athlete whos no stranger in
the tness industry. Mark Anthony
Wingson will always be known as
one of the physique divisions rst
superstars, a distinction now set in
stone with an O title under his belt.
Despite having a body thats not quite
as big as a professional bodybuilders,
Wingson puts just as much time in the
gym as guys like Heath and Lewis, and
it shows. For the physique competitor,
aesthetics are always a top priority,
so the chest, arms, and abs need to be
virtually awless to perform at the
sports highest level. Heres one of
Wingsons favourite chest routines for
building size and enhancing detail. M&F
Mark Anthonys
Chest Workout
MARK
ANTHONY
WINGSON
OLYMPIA PHYSIQUE
CHAMPION
132
MUSCLE&FITNESS
Watch the video that accompanies this
article at muscle-fitness.co.uk/headhunter
134
MUSCLE&FITNESS
GET
FIGHTER
FIT IN
2014
PART TWO OF STRENGTH AND
CONDITIONING EXPERT PAUL READS
12-WEEK BODY MAKEOVER
BY
JOHN PLUMMER
PHOTOGRAPHY BY
DUNCAN NICHOLLS
MUSCLE&FITNESS
135
Paul Read, a senior lecturer in strength
and conditioning at St Marys University
College, London has devised a programme
that does precisely that. MMA ghter Nick
Chapman, seen here demonstrating the
exercises at his Fight Science gym in
Aldershot, uses this very programme
during his ght camps.
Chapman also does specic MMA
training but weve left out those bits to
focus purely on the strength and condi-
tioning side. So theres nothing here about
takedowns or chokeholds but you will be
out of breath from all the pufng and
panting. By the end, however, you will be
ghting t.
Part one, last month, focused on the rst
two phases. The rst phase, base condi-
tioning, prepares the body for tougher
phases to come and phase two focuses
on strength. Now its time to focus on the
third phase, which aims to cultivate power.
M
ost people
would agree
that mixed
martial artists
are amongst the ttest athletes
on the planet. Those that
wouldnt probably havent
tried it.
So what better way to whip
your butt into shape by the
time the daffodils appear than
by following a 12-week MMA
ght camp programme?
12 WEEK PERIODISATION PLAN
WEEK NUMBER 1-3 4-6 7-9 10-12
TRAINING PHASE BASE CONDITIONING GENERAL PREP SPECIFIC PREP COMPETITION PREP
GYM BASED Corrective / Build Capacity Strength / Strength Speed Speed Strength / Power Power Endurance
TRAINING EMPHASIS Unilateral Work Weightlifting & Derivatives Weightlifting & Derivatives Complexes
Strength-Aerobic Method Basic Strength Ballistics Specific Complex Training
Low-Intensity Plyometrics Accommodating Resistance Moderate / High-Intensity Plyometrics with
Plyometrics specific landing positions
Moderate Intensity Plyometrics Cluster Sets Strength Maintenance
Complex Training
Strength Maintenance
METABOLIC CONDITIONING General Conditioning Cardiac Power Anaerobic Capacity Specific Work Capacity
(1xp/wk) (1xp/wk) (1xp/wk) (1xp/wk):
Lactic Explosive
Repeats: Technique
Under Fatigue Drills
136
MUSCLE&FITNESS
CONDITIONING
CONDITIONING TIME PER WORK REST/ REPS
METHOD SET INTERVALS RECOVERY
ROWING 6mins 20s @ max effort 20s 9
HEAVY BAG PUNCHING, 2 mins 15s hard punching
KICKING AND KNEES 15s 4
AIRDYNE 6 mins 30s @ 10% lower
than max effort 15s 8
PAD COMBINATIONS 4 mins 15s @ max effort
(TO INCLUDE KICKS) 15s 8
ROWING 6 mins 45s @ 15% lower
than max effort 15s 6
PAD COMBOS OR HEAVY 3 mins 15s @ max effort
BAG PUNCHING AND KICKS 15s 6
NOTES: Week 1 use 2 minutes rest between sets, week 2 use 90s rest and week 3 use 60s rest
In the pad/bag intervals include some defensive work to mirror the demands of the fight.
PHASE 3: DEVELOPING POWER
YOUR GOALS
Exercise Programme: Phase three uses
a lot of Olympic lift derivatives, including
power cleans and hang split snatches,
which promote explosive strength, speed
and speed strength. Olympic lifts demand
high power outputs and the ability to
absorb eccentric forces during the catch
phase of the lift. Ensure you are procient
with the Olympic lifting technique before
beginning this programme.
HANG
SPLIT
SNATCH
138
MUSCLE&FITNESS

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2
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1
3
the series.
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THE EXERCISES
PROGRAMME A
EXERCISE SETS REPS
A1. Power clean 4/5/4 3*
B1. Barbell step-up 4/5/3 4 each side
contrast with
Single-leg bench jump 4/5/3 4 each side
B2. Bench throw 4/5/3 5
(10 incline)
C1. Single arm 4/4/3 4 x 60
dumbbell carry >100 m
NOTES:
* Perform as a cluster set resting 30 seconds
between reps
> Indicates aiming to increase the distance each
week
Perform exercises B1 and B2 as a superset,
resting 10 seconds between each exercise
Select load where technical failure occurs if
another rep was performed
Where more than 1 set range is recommended
indicates required number of sets each week.
PROGRAMME B
EXERCISE SETS REPS
A1. Hang Split 4/5/4 3*
Snatch
B1. Front Squat 4/4/3 3 + 3
contrast with
Countermovement 4/4/3 3 + 3
jump
C1. Dumbbell row 4/4/3 4 each side
(explosive)
D1. Split stance cable 4/4/3 3 push
push/pull with weight + 3 pull
shift superset each side
NOTES:
* Perform as a cluster set resting 30 seconds
between reps
Perform exercises B1 and B2 as a superset,
resting 10 seconds between each exercise
Select a load where technical failure occurs if
another rep was performed
Where more than 1 set range is recommended
indicates required number of sets each week.
Contrast exercises have been used
i.e., front squat paired with a counter-
movement jump, because this has been
shown to lead to higher power outputs
than isolated strength training alone
(Adams, 1992).
The programme includes cluster
sets of the Olympic lifts (power clean
and hang split snatch). This is because
using an inter-rep rest period (i.e.
when performing a set of three reps you
would rest 30 seconds between reps)
has been shown to increase the power
output of the set compared to tradi-
tional set structures (Haff et al., 2003).
Begin by warming up with some
mobility drills such as bench hip
thrusters and Romanian deadlifts
and also do some plyometrics, such as
SINGLE ARM
DUMBBELL
CARRY
140
MUSCLE&FITNESS
Follow the fourth and
final phase of Paul
Reads 12-week
conditioning programme, which focuses
on power endurance.
NEXT MONTH
Demonstrations of some of these exercises are available on the video that accompanies
this feature. Visit muscle-fitness.co.uk/headhunter
If you missed part one of this series you can buy last months magazine in print at
www.weidermailorder.com/4-backissues or in digital format at https://dig.muscle-fitness.eu.
REFERENCES:
Adams K, et al. The effect of six weeks of
squat, plyometric and squat-plyometric training
on power production. Journal of Applied Sports
Science Research, 6:36-41, 1992.
Baker, D. Cross training workouts: using high
intensity energy-system conditioning for injured
athletes. Professional Strength and Conditioning
Journal, 2012.
Haff GG, et al. Effects of different set
configurations on barbell velocity and
displacement during a clean pull. Journal of
Strength & Conditioning Research, 17: 95-103,
2003.
scissor footwork and drop jumps. These
plyometric drills will have progressed
from phases 1 and 2 and the emphasis
should be on very short ground contact
times during jumping drills and whole
body explosive movements, such as
various forms of medicine ball throws.
Conditioning: Conditioning during this
phase has been adapted from Baker
(2012) and involves varying the rest
ratios and intensity to mimic the
demands of a ght. Performing tech-
niques under fatigue further simulates
the demands of a ght. Please note that
this conditioning protocol is extremely
physically demanding. If you are
currently at a lower level of tness
adjust the work to rest ratios and reduce
the number of work sets or exercises
accordingly.
How To Do It: Choose one of the
three options, depending on when
it best suits you to train. Option 2
is the most difcult option for more
advanced trainers.
Then do the exercises, and the
conditioning workout, described
below.
OPTION 1
MONDAY: Programme A
TUESDAY: Rest
WEDNESDAY: Conditioning
THURSDAY: Rest
FRIDAY: Programme B
SATURDAY: Rest
SUNDAY: Rest
OPTION 2
MONDAY: Programme A
TUESDAY: Programme B
WEDNESDAY: Conditioning
THURSDAY: Rest
FRIDAY: Programme A
SATURDAY: Programme B
SUNDAY: Rest
OPTION 3
MONDAY: Programme A or Programme B
TUESDAY: Conditioning
WEDNESDAY: Rest
THURSDAY: Programme A or
Programme B (whichever you didnt
do on Monday)
FRIDAY: Conditioning
SATURDAY: Rest
SUNDAY: Rest M&F
FRONT
SQUAT
MUSCLE&FITNESS
141
MUSCLE
NUTRITION
STEVE TOWNSEND WWW. STOWNSEND. COM
IN HIS CONTINUING CRITIQUE OF IF IT FITS
YOUR MACROS, MARK GILBERT EXPLAINS
THE IMPORTANCE OF EATING THE RIGHT
CARBOHYDRATES AT THE RIGHT TIME
The If It Fits Your Macros diet
strategy dictates that as long as you
get the right ratio of protein, fat and
carbs (your macronutrients), youll
achieve your physique goals.
My previous articles on this subject
have discussed how the lack of detail
about the best types of macro- and
micronutrients to eat, and when,
highlight that IIFYM wont yield
optimum results.
Last month I focused on how
consuming the wrong types of fat
can be disastrous for your health and
physique, and discussed how to choose
varieties that improve body composi-
tion and health. This month well do the
same with carbohydrates.
CARBOHYDRATES
As with other macro categories,
different types of carbs can have
varying effects on metabolism,
hormones, body fat, lean muscle, and
health. They also contain different
nutrients and are digested and
metabolised differently. But lets start
with the basics:
Carbs consist of sugars and complex
carbs.
Sugars comprise mono- and disac-
charidesa single sugar, for example
glucose, or two sugars attached
together, for example sucrose, which
is a glucose attached to a fructose.
Complex carbs are polysaccharides
(several sugars attached together).
Fibre is a complex carb that contrib-
utes few calories, helps to control
appetite and has multiple health
benefits.
Empty v Nutrient-Dense
Sugars dont contain any other
nutrients. They are what nutritionists
call empty calories because they have
no nutritional value other than supply-
ing energy.
Complex carbs, such as bread,
vegetables, and fruit, on the other
hand, contain varying amounts of
beneficial nutrients. The ones with the
highest payloads are called nutrient-
dense carbs. So right off the bat, if
youre just trying to hit a certain carb
intake, by choosing too many sugars
youre flirting with nutrient deficiency.
Myth Busting
Serious gym-goers know that sugars
are absorbed quickly and are only really
appropriate post-workout or during
long workouts, or if trying to increase
calorie intake and that complex carbs
are digested slowly.
They also know eating fast or
high-GI carbs will increase insulin
levels and cause carbs to be stored as
fat, and that because complex carbs
are digested slowly they dont have
these untoward effects on insulin.
For the most part this is all correct,
but there are some very important and
interesting exceptions to these
sugar-versus-complex-carbs rules.
Firstly, some complex carbs actually
have a GI that is the same as, or higher
than sugar. GI is a measure of the
speed and extent to which blood
glucose levels rise in response to
eating something.
A brief perusal of the GI tables
shows certain types of rice, potatoes,
parsnips, breads and maltodextrin
have the same kind of effect on the
bodys blood sugar as eating pure
glucose.
1
Secondly, the body doesnt store
substantial amounts of carbs as fat.
2,3

Even when researchers have fed
people huge amounts of carbs and
carefully observed how they are
metabolised, only a tiny amount gets
converted to fat (less than 10%).
2,3

Spiking insulin actually curtails fat
burning (oxidation) and tips the balance
towards storage rather than oxidation.
2
Finally, there is one significant
exception to the general rule that
sugars have a high GI and boost
insulinthe apparently innocent
but potentially evil fructose.
144
MUSCLE&FITNESS
WHEN DIETING, YOU SHOULD
ALWAYS CUT OTHER DIETARY
CARBS BEFORE CUTTING
POST-WORKOUT CARBS
M
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C

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E
I say apparently innocent because
of its low GI, which is less than 20
compared to glucoses 100.
1
Many people, therefore, promote
fructose as a good means of controlling
insulin levels and of avoiding the
associated negative consequences.
Indeed, the European Union seems to
have accepted that being low GI is
enough to allow positive health claims
promoting fructose!
I say potentially evil because
fructose causes a substantial rise in
blood triglycerides and doesnt curtail
hunger as much as other sugars.
4,5
Just as importantly for gym-goers, it
doesnt restore muscle glycogen levels
nearly as effectively as other sugars
and carbs.
6
Again, thinking its as simple as
hitting your macro targets could leave
you with uncontrollable hunger and no
energy when it comes time for your
10-rep personal best!
Super Carbs
Now that weve cleared up some
important exceptions to the accepted
wisdom of the glycaemic index and
seen how carbs really lead to gains
in body fat, lets look at some other
special carbs most people following
IIFYM might ignore.
Foods such as brown/wholegrain
rice, brown and rye bread, beans,
lentils, oats, wholegrain cereals, nuts,
seeds, peas and most vegetables are
good sources of fibre. For health and
hunger control, without overdoing
things, have 25-45 g of fibre daily
depending upon calorie intake and
body size.
Everyone is familiar with fibre and
the positive effects it has on health,
hunger, and digestion, but theres
actually more to it than that.
Besides providing very few calories,
fibre is an essential nutrient for the
production of gut bacteria. Many
readers probably know the human body
is home to billions of bacteriaparticu-
larly in the gutand that its important
to have a healthy mix.
One of the effects of fibre is to tilt
the balance of these bacteria towards
a healthy profile and research suggests
the most beneficial type of fibre for
achieving this profile is FOS (fructo-
oligosaccharides).
7
FOS is a prebiotic (not to be confused
with probiotics, the bacteria that can
be introduced to the gut through food
and supplements), which is a superfood
for good bacteria.
Ill cover this in detail in a future
article, but the overall effect of FOS is
to increase numbers of good bacteria,
forcing down the numbers of bad
bacteria.
The take-home message here is that
this new bacterial profile, which can be
fostered by FOS, may be associated
with lower body fat levels.
8
FOODS SUCH AS BROWN/WHOLEGRAIN RICE, BROWN AND RYE BREAD, BEANS,
LENTILS, OATS, WHOLEGRAIN CEREALS, NUTS, SEEDS, PEAS AND MOST
VEGETABLES ARE GOOD SOURCES OF HIGH FIBRE
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IRON CRE3

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It may sound like a bit of a stretch but
there is a growing body of research on
the subject and it appears this could be
one of the major methods of treating
obesity in years to come.
Waxy maize starch is another special
carb. It is a type of powdered complex
carb supplement, which isnt necessar-
ily maize (corn-based). It can be from
corn, barley or potato. Being a highly
branched starch means digestive
enzymes break it down incredibly fast,
so that it doesnt sit in the gut long but
gets rapidly emptied from the stomach,
absorbed into the blood and cranks up
insulin and carbohydrate storage as
glycogen to a significantly greater
extent than other high-GI carbs. The
clinically-tested version (Vitargo) has
been shown to have faster absorption,
increase insulin more and replenish
glycogen to a greater extent than other
carbs. Dextrose and maltodextrin are
arguably almost as good, and more
than adequate, as post-workout carbs.
Everything else comes down to the old
classic eat your fruits and vegetables.
Besides their beneficial effect on gut
bacteria (thanks to their fibre content),
fruits and vegetables contain phytochem-
icals (plant chemicals). These can have a
variety of effects on health but can also
affect the hormone profile, fat loss, neuro-
muscular signalling, recovery, and repair.
Low-starch vegetables are also very
nutrient-dense and have very few
calories per gram. They, therefore,
provide unmatched nutrition per
calorie, while keeping insulin levels and
appetite to a minimum. Good examples
of low-starch vegetables include
cucumber, lettuce, celery, peppers,
beans, broccoli, cauliflower, leeks,
sprouts, cabbage, and most other
green vegetables.
How to Use Carbs
A surprising number of experienced
lifters dont always get this right.
We need carbs after exercise to
restore lost glycogen. This will fuel
future workouts, provide energy for the
repair process and stimulate insulin
secretion, which decreases protein
breakdown caused by heavy resistance
training.
9,10
Insulin also increases
uptake of amino acids and creatine into
the muscles.
10
Notice I said insulin decreases protein
breakdown, not that it increases protein
synthesis. The effect of post-workout
insulin has been a source of controversy
ever since a study was published
showing that carbs/insulin arent
required to get maximum muscle growth
from post-workout protein.
11
Ive read tons of expert opinions on
the subject since but most have missed
the point. The established effect of
insulin is to inhibit muscle breakdown
after exercise, not to increase protein
synthesis.
9

By preventing the post-workout
departure of amino acids from the
muscles, insulin tilts the muscle-build-
ing equation towards anabolism and
away from catabolism (although at
extremely high levels, insulin does
increase protein synthesis, but these
levels cant be safely achieved by any
reasonable means).
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For references to this article go to www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/scientific-references
Mark Gilbert has a B.Sc. in nutrition
and is an ISSN-certified sports
nutritionist. Hes been involved in the
sports nutrition industry for 20 years
and is a director of MuscleGenes.com
and FitnessInventor.com
Your post-workout meal should be
your highest in carbs and GI. Use
0.8 g per kg of bodyweight in your
post-workout shake as a starting point
and adjust this amount up or down
depending on your goals and fat loss
or muscle-gaining results. But when
dieting, you should always cut other
dietary carbs before cutting post-
workout carbs.
Pre-workout, have a moderate-carb
meal three to five hours before you hit
the gym (closer to five if youre cutting
and closer to three if bulking). Remem-
ber, its the food you eat between
30 minutes and five hours before your
workout that actually provides fuel
for your training.
If youre trying to gain muscle
or struggle to put on weight, add
25-30 g of dextrose/glucose to 6 g
of essential amino acids just prior
to lifting. This causes the highest
possible increase in intra-workout
Carbs consist of a massive variety
of plant-based foods, which can be
nutrient-dense or empty calories.
Some are appropriate only post-work-
out and some are appropriate as part
of all other meals.
Hopefully this article has debunked
a few myths and cleared up insulins
role in causing fat gains and prevent-
ing muscle breakdown after exercise.
It has also discussed a few special
carbs and covered the basics of pre-
and post-workout carbs.
Most importantly, weve seen that
carbs arent just a source of energy,
but have a huge array of effects on the
body that must be properly consid-
ered and implemented if your goal is
to maximise your health, performance
and appearance. M&F
protein synthesis demonstrated in
scientific research. Skip the carbs if
youre trying to cut fat.
For other meals, choose non-starchy
fruits and vegetables to make up
about a third of each meal and adjust
starchy and (if desired) sugary carbs
upwards until youre making gradual
gains. Gradually adjust downwards
to burn fat.
If you dont include a substantial
amount of vegetables and some fruit
with most meals you risk creating one
of the micronutrient deficiencies we
discussed a few months ago. Youll
also miss out on the other healthy
benefits of these foods, such as fibre
and phytochemicals.
CARB CONCLUSION
As with fats, there are numerous
reasons, when it comes to carbs, why
you shouldnt aim to simply hit your
macros.
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES CONTAIN PHYTOCHEMICALS. THESE CAN HAVE A VARIETY
OF EFFECTS ON HEALTH BUT CAN ALSO AFFECT THE HORMONE PROFILE, FAT LOSS,
NEUROMUSCULAR SIGNALLING, RECOVERY, AND REPAIR K
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If youve missed any of the Muscle Nutrition series, you can get printed back issues at www.weidermailorder.com/4-backissues
or digital back issues at https://dig.muscle-fitness.eu/
150
MUSCLE&FITNESS
BY GREG MERRITT
THE WEIDER PRINCIPLES
FLUSHING
HOW TO TURB0-BOOST YOUR MUSCLE PUMP
TO FUEL GREATER GAINS
The late, great Joe Weider was always ahead of the curve. Take his
flushing principle. OK, it wasnt aptly named, and its directiveswhich
well discuss shortlyare far from cutting edge. But the concept of
increasing your muscle pump to increase muscle gains remains distinctly
modern. There is today a whole industry of nutritional supplements and
training programmes focused on blood volumisation. When Joe Weider
was first publishing articles about flushing several decades ago, the
contention that the pump could aid growth and wasnt merely a
temporary ego boost was frequently scoffed at. But, as always, the
father of modern bodybuilding was leading a revolution in workout
science. This month we salute one of the most enduring tenets of
that revolution. Get ready to pump up the volume.
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153
THE WEIDER
FLUSHING PRINCIPLE
The basic instructions for flushing now
seem quaint. Work each body part with
multiple exercises before moving on to
another body part in order to maximise
your pump. Of course, this is now the
standard method of training. In fact,
many bodybuilders employ a split that
only stresses one body part per
workout. But before the 1960s,
bodybuilders typically trained every
body part in every workout. And for a
couple of decades after that, diverse
workout splits combined routines for
different body parts, such as alternat-
ing a chest exercise with a back
exercise. Flushing, as the original
principle described it, was a way of
focusing ones attention and energy on
one area at a time in order to boost the
blood flow to that area.
That was then, this is now. There are
many ways to boost your muscle pump,
and most of them are spelled out in
INCLINE BARBELL PRESS
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MUSCLE&FITNESS
The ever-changing world of
sports nutrition is a landscape
of peaks and valleys, one that
is littered by an assortment of
rocks, boulders, pebbles and
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that claim to hold the keys to
building muscle, managing
weight and optimizing athletic
performance. Finding a diamond
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you did see a diamond you would
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B4 is a performance driven
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Its a combination of mind
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It will change the way you train,
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Every component of this formula
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These ingredients make B4 the
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More specically, emerging
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Psoralea corylifolia (seed) This
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In simple terms, this means that
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Canavalia gladiata (seed)
Research show that the
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stimulatory activity. Researchers
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the research indicates that
concentrated research-grade
Canavalia gladiata (seed) extract
may help to enhance levels of
reduced glutathione at the same
time that it decreases levels of
MDA (malondialdehyde).
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B4 is a prototype of the new
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It attacks the problem like no
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THESE PRODUCTS ARE NOT INTENDED TO
DIAGNOSE, TREAT, CURE OR PREVENT ANY
DISEASE.
When combined with a proper exercise and
nutrition regimen. Statements based on early-
stage independent 3rd party in vivo and / or in
vitro model scientic research data ndings for
individual ingredients.
1
Duane B. is a member of Team BPI who received
complimentary products in exchange for his
testimony.
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THE BLUEPRINT
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B4 formulated to help
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B4 provides the energy
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IT WILL CHANGE
THE WAY YOU TRAIN,
THE WAY YOU
MANAGE WEIGHT,
THE WAY YOU LOOK.
ADVERTISEMENT
other Weider Principles. Supersets,
giant sets, descending sets, and burns
are a few of the blood volumisation
techniques. Increasing your reps and/
or decreasing your rest periods is
another way of inflating your muscles
with a blood infusion. Mr Olympia Phil
Heath follows a low-rest protocol on
the final exercise for a body part as
part of the FST-7 training system.
Experiment with different methods and
be aware of how rep schemes, rest
periods, and pre-workout nutrition
affect your pumps.
FLUSHING ROUTINE
The flushing routine shows you how to
combine sets mostly in the valuable
812 range with a final pump-boosting
flurry of high-rep, low-rest sets. You
begin with incline presses pyramided
from 126 reps. Go progressively
heavier on each set. Then move on to
flat flyes and decline presses in the
812 range. Finally, end with two
supersets, combining high-rep cable
crossovers with high-rep Hammer
Strength machine presses. The first
three exercises let you focus on
progressive strength gains. Try to get
more reps or use more weight each
workout. The final two supersets make
certain your pecs are pumped with
nourishing blood at the end of your
workout.
FLUSHING CHEST ROUTINE
EXERCISE SETS REPS
INCLINE BARBELL PRESS 4 126
FLAT DUMBBELL FLYE 4 1012
DECLINE DUMBBELL PRESS 4 812
CABLE CROSSOVER 2 1525
SUPERSET WITH
HAMMER STRENGTH PRESS 2 1525
DECLINE
DUMBBELL
PRESS
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CHECK OUT OUR OTHER 200+ PRODUCTS AS WELL!
USE PRODUCT IN CONJUNCTION WITH A SENSIBLE TRAINING AND NUTRITION PROGRAM!
*THIS STATEMENT HAS BEEN SCIENTIFICALLY PROVEN AND AUTHORIZED BY THE EUROPEAN FOOD SAFETY AUTHORITY.
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ADVANTAGES
Here are the PLUSES of using flushing

INCREASED GROWTH PROSPECTS An elevated


muscle pump increases the blood flow to muscles,
which, in turn, rushes in the oxygen, hormones, and
nutrients you need to repair muscles and fuel
growth.

WORKOUT RESCUE Lets say youre having a bad


workout. Your energy is low, and youre falling short
of your usual strength levels. You can still reap
significant benefits by ending the routine with a
late flurry of pump-inducing sets.
DISADVANTAGES
There are two POTENTIAL PITFALLS to maximising
your muscle pump

MISPLACED FOCUS For optimum muscle growth,


most of your sets should be in the 8- to 12-rep
range and focused on progressive strength gains. If
your only emphasis is on blood volumisation, youll
avoid the ideal sets and rest. For this reason, its
generally best to focus on higher reps, shorter
rests, and other pumping techniques only near
the end of your routine.

POOR BAROMETER Though pumps are valuable,


how much your muscles inflate is an inadequate way
of measuring workout success. Focus instead on
strength gains and overall exertion.
FRESH TAKE
Over the past decade, there has been
an increased emphasis on supplements
that increase the bodys production of
nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide allows
blood vessels to widen and, in turn,
allows more blood to flow to the
working muscles and increase the
pump. For this benefit, take an NO
supplement 30 minutes before each
workout. Additionally, drink a protein
shake with fast-digesting carbs, whey
isolate, and creatine immediately after
your workout when the increased blood
flow created by your muscle pump will
rush the nutrients in your shake to the
muscles you just worked, aiding
recovery and growth. M&F
158
MUSCLE&FITNESS
TRAINING
TALK
BY JOHN PLUMMER
PHOTOGRAPHY BY MATT MARSH
M
ost people are familiar with
the superstars of strongman
guys like ydrnas Savickas,
Brian Shaw and Terry
Hollands. But below these behemoths in
the open weight class category, who often
weigh closer to 400 lbs than 300 lbs, are
a plethora of weight class champions.
James Ward is the best in Europe.
MUSCLE&FITNESS: How did you get
into strongman?
JAMES WARD: I took part in lots of
sports growing up. I captained the college
rugby team to a national final and played
youth football for a semi-professional
club. I enjoyed training in the gym more
than anything though, and took up
bodybuilding, which is what I did before
turning to strongman.
M&F: What prompted you to compete?
JW: A work colleague and training partner
at the time who is a strength and
conditioning coach noticed I was quite
strong and offered to coach me if I
decided to go into strongman. I took him
up on his offer and havent looked back
since.
M&F: Tell us about your first
competition.
JW: My training was going well after
changing from bodybuilding to strongman
so I decided to enter southern Englands
strongest man under-90 kg, to see how
I compared with other strongmen in my
weight category. It was held at a gym
called Strength-Tec in Portsmouth in April
2010. There were about 14 competitors.
I won the event, which qualified me for
Englands strongest man under-90 kg
in Morecambe a few months later.
M&F: How has your career progressed?
JW: Since I started in 2010 in the
under-90 kg weight class Ive worked
from regional qualifiers to international
titles. I won Europes Strongest Man
under-90 kg last year and have qualified
for the first Worlds Strongest Man
under-90 kg in May 2014 in Finland.
My titles include:
Southern Englands Strongest Man
under-90 kg 2010
Englands Strongest Man under-90 kg
2010, 2011
Britains Strongest Man under-90 kg
2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013
Europes Strongest Man under-90 kg
2012 and 2013
M&F: Do you ever compete in open
weight contests?
JW: I competed in an open weight
competition in 2011. I did myself proud
and finished 5th out of about 20. Its
something I want to do more and will do
in the future.
M&F: How many strongman weight
categories are there?
JW: At the moment there are four
weight categories: under-80 kg,
under-90 kg, under-105 kg and open.
The classes are important for the
progression of the sport. They allow
smaller guys to get a foot on the ladder
and work their way up. Some good
under-105 kg competitors have gone
on to be successful in open weight
competitions. They might not have had
the chance if they didnt get to compete
at a lighter bodyweight first. Two names
from England that spring to mind are
Graham Hicks and Darren Sadler, who
both competed at under-105 kg and
went on to represent England at Worlds
Strongest Man.
M&F: How could readers benefit from
your type of training?
JW: I mainly focus on strength training,
which is beneficial to any particular sport.
Looking back, when I was bodybuilding I
didnt do as many strength phases as
I should have. I think I would have
increased my muscle mass if I had done
a six-week strength phase every four
months.
M&F: How does strongman training
differ from bodybuilding training?
JW: When I was bodybuilding it was all
high reps of 12 to 15 with short breaks
between sets. My workouts would be over
in an hour and Id train every day. For
strongman the weights are more intense
but you get longer breaks between sets
and the reps are lower, 3 to 6. I dont train
every day but I do a lot of rolling and
stretching of my muscles on my days off
for recovery.
M&F: Describe a typical weeks
training.
JW: My programme changes depending
on competitions coming up but it
basically looks like this:
Monday:
Warm-up, stretch and mobility, explosive
exercises (dumbbell snatch, power
cleans or box jumps), deadlifts (using
different volume and intensity depending
on where I am in my programme), grip
work and conditioning, which is normally
interval training using strongman
equipment.
Wednesday:
Warm-up, stretch and mobility, explosive
exercises (same as Monday), back squat
(using either an axle or a standard
Olympic bar), front squat, lunges and
conditioning (same as Monday).
LUTONS JAMES WARD IS ONE OF THE STRONGEST
SUB-200 LBS MEN IN THE WORLD
SHOULDERING THE LOAD
160
MUSCLE&FITNESS
Friday:
Warm-up, stretch and
mobility, explosive
exercises (as above),
push-press (either on
standard bar axle or
log), strict military
press, and assistance
work on triceps
(weighted dips or
triceps extensions).
Saturday:
Warm-up, stretch
and mobility,
farmers walk
(carrying a weight in
each hand for distance),
yoke (carrying weight on
shoulders for distance), tyre flip,
giant dumbbell press, and Atlas
stones.
M&F: Which aspects of training do
you enjoy the most and the least?
JW: I enjoy training statically the most.
Its always been my strong point. I like
the progression each week and trying
to reach maximal targets. There isnt
much about training I dont like. Its one
of the reasons the sport is better than
anything Ive done before. If I had to
choose a least favourite aspect, it
would probably be conditioning. I
normally do it at the end of a session
and its normally not as straight forward
as getting on a treadmill.

M&F: What do you do for conditioning?


JW: My conditioning work has to be
specific to what I do. I wouldnt benefit
from spending an hour on a treadmill or a
bike. I do high-intensity interval training,
which in my sport can be anything from
barrel runs, tyre flips, sledge hammer or
sled drags. Depending on the weight of
the implements, Ive found 30 seconds
maximum effort followed by one minutes
rest is most beneficial
M&F: Describe a days eating.
JW: A normal day would look a bit
like this:
9:00 Bran flakes and protein shake
11:00 Protein shake with supplements
13:00 Tuna pasta and vegetables
16:00 Protein shake
19:00 Chicken, rice and vegetables
21:00 Protein shake and supplements
JAMES WARD
DATE OF BIRTH:
2ND DECEMBER 1984
BIRTHPLACE:
LUTON
LIVES:
LUTON
HEIGHT:
5 FT 9 INS (175 CM)
WEIGHT:
198 LBS (90 KG)
CAREER HIGHLIGHT:
WINNING EUROPES STRONGEST
MAN UNDER-90 KG IN 2012
AMBITION:
TO WIN THE WORLDS STRONG-
EST MAN UNDER-90 KG
TRAINING ADVICE:
LISTEN TO YOUR BODY AND
DONT SKIP THE HARD WORK
SPONSORS:
USN
I DO HIGH-INTENSITY
INTERVAL TRAINING,
WHICH CAN BE
BARREL RUNS,
TYRE FLIPS,
HITTING A TYRE
WITH A SLEDGE
HAMMER OR
SLED DRAGS
AMY PORTER IS THE BRITISH ATHLETIC FITNESS
CHAMPION. HERE SHE EXPLAINS WHAT IT ENTAILS
BY JOHN PLUMMER
PHOTOGRAPHY BY KEVIN HORTON
TRAINING TALK
CHIN-UP QUEEN
W
ho says students are
lazy? Amy Porter, 26,
is one of the fittest
women in the country
and she can prove it.
Porter is the UK athletic fitness
champion. Athletic fitness competitions
are judged partly by the quality of
physique and partly by physical tests,
which include chins, dips and rowing.
MUSCLE&FITNESS: Whats
your athletic background?
AMY PORTER: Im in my fourth year at
Durham University studying accounting
and finance. In my second year I tried for
the rowing squad and got in but I found
that I liked the lifting side more than the
rowing.
M&F: How did you discover athletic
fitness contests?
AP: I saw one at a bodybuilding com-
petition in Bedford last year. At the time
I wanted to have a go at bodyfitness but
I thought this category was more suitable
for me.
M&F: What do athletic fitness
contests entail?
AP: First you do as many chins as you can
in 90 seconds. Then you get 90 seconds
rest, then you have to row as far as you
can on a machine in 90 seconds. You then
get another 30 seconds to compose
yourself before performing as many dips
as possible. The last round is presenta-
tion of the symmetry of the physique. You
wear a black bikini and perform quarter
turns. You dont have to be big or lean
just symmetrical.
M&F: How many chins and dips
can you do?
AP: At the British finals I did 16 chins
but the judges only allowed 13 because
I didnt fully lock out my arms on the first
three. For dips I did 21. The rules are very
strict on what they allow. The arms must
be fully locked out for both exercises or
the reps are not counted.
M&F: Whats the definition of
a proper chin?
AP: You have to use an overhand grip no
more than a metre wide and go from a full
hanging position to bringing your chin up
over the bar. Most people in the gym dont
do anything like the full range of move-
ment. You are allowed one three-second
rest in the 90 seconds.
M&F: Whats the definition of
a proper dip?
AP: You have to start with your arms
fully locked out straight then go down
so the top of your shoulder is lower than
the top of your elbow joint. Again, you
are only allowed one three-second rest
during the 90 seconds, if you rest any
longer youre finished.
M&F: How quickly did you progress?
AP: When I started training for these
events I couldnt even do one proper
pull-up. After 16 weeks I could do 16.
I put a pull-up bar above my bedroom
door and every time I go in and out of my
room I do pull-ups. I even have a belt
hanging from it that hits me in the face
if I dont do them so that reminds me.
When I started I could only do 1 or 2
proper dips.
M&F: Do you enjoy the performance
or aesthetic side of competing?
AP: I like the performance side. I like
being able to outwork people in the gym.
The first time I did 15 chins in my gym a
bloke couldnt believe it. When I go to the
university gym the fresher men tend to
vacate because they get intimidated!
M&F: What do you do in a typical week?
AP: I train six days a week. I do two
bodyweight sessions, usually Monday
and Wednesday. I do mainly pull-up
work. I also do plyometric jumping. On
Tuesday and Thursday I do weights. On
Tuesday I do squats, incline presses,
lunges, bench presses, weighted dips
and weighted pull-ups, bentover rows
and high-endurance deadliftsthe last
time it was 20 reps at 85 kg with 30
seconds rest for 3 sets. Deadlifts help
you get power for rowing because they
work muscles that support the pull.
Saturday is also a bodyweight session.
I also use the rower and row a 500 m
sprint 3 times with 30 seconds rest
in between but I keep it at stroke
rate of 24. I do pull-ups pretty much
every day.
M&F: What impact has doing so many
chins and dips had on your physique?
AP: I put two inches on my back in eight
weeks just from doing chins and my
biceps look like they have doubled in size.
The only supplements I take are L-carni-
tine, L-arginine and whey protein so it
must have something to do with my
training. My body fat was 25% when
I started, now its about 11%.
M&F: What do you eat when preparing
for a contest?
AP: I follow a strict bodybuilding diet
consisting of 100 g of steak, chicken
or fish every 2 to 3 hours with 100 g of
vegetables. I carb cycle for the last seven
weeks. I have four low days of 100 g of
sweet potato or bananas and then have a
high day of 200 g of sweet potatoes and
bananas. The body fat drops off when I
started carb cycling.
The last week of diet consists of seven
meals a day, high in proteinchicken,
beef, and tunawith broccoli or cucum-
ber. Breakfast is 5 eggs with a whole
avocado and a handful of nuts if Im
hungry. I drink between 5-7 litres of water
a day. I dont dehydrate, as I need to
perform pull-ups and dips.
M&F: Who is suited to these contests?
AP: CrossFitters would do well and so
would rowers because rowing training
includes lots of pull-ups. Anybody with
good endurance could adapt to it.
162
MUSCLE&FITNESS
I DO PULL-UPS
PRETTY MUCH
EVERY DAY
AMY PORTER
DATE OF BIRTH:
3RD FEBRUARY 1987
BIRTHPLACE:
SUNDERLAND
LIVES:
NEWCASTLE
HEIGHT:
5 FT 6 INS (169 CM)
WEIGHT:
141 LBS (64 KG)
CAREER HIGHLIGHT:
UKBFF ATHLETIC FITNESS
CHAMPION 2013
AMBITION:
TO BE WORLD CHAMPION
TRAINING ADVICE:
INCORPORATE AS MANY
PULL-UPS AND DIPS AS
YOU CAN INTO YOUR
TRAINING.
CONTACT:
ON FACEBOOK @ AMY
TINK PORTER
TRAINING TALK
REVENGE MISSION
ROSS PEARSON WILL BE LOOKING FOR BLOOD
WHEN THE UFC RETURNS TO BRITAIN NEXT MONTH
BY STEVE MITCHELL
PHOTO COURTESY OF THE UFC
S
ince winning the 2009 series
of The Ultimate Fighter, Ross
Pearson, 29, has become one
of the UKs longest serving
UFC fighters.
Hes amassed a record of 15 wins, six
defeats and one no contest, which came
in his last bout with Melvin Guillard.
Referee Marc Goddard stopped the
fight after the American connected with
an illegal knee to the head while Pearson
was still on the mat. The injury resulted
in 36 stitches and a rematch is due to
take place at the UFCs next show in
London on 8th March.
I owe Guillard 40 stitches, says
Pearson. Im not looking for a takedown,
submission or wrestling for 15 minutes,
I am just looking to knock him out.
We only fought for a minute and a
half before the referees stoppage but
I feel I put my dominance on the fight.
I think he now respects my stand up
so the rematch will be more tactical.
M&F caught up with Pearson to
discuss how hes training to ensure he
serves up revenge when the two meet
again.
MUSCLE&FITNESS: How did you get
into martial arts?
ROSS PEARSON: I started with
taekwondo at six years old and moved on
to judo and then amateur boxing. When
I was about 16 or 17 a few of my older
friends were doing MMA and invited me
to train with them. I fell in love with it.
M&F: Your big break was The Ultimate
Fighter reality series in 2009. How
was that experience for you?
RP: It was probably one of the craziest
experiences of my life. I was still young,
had never been to America before and
there I was getting to fulfil my dream of
fighting in the UFC. I loved the whole
experience.
M&F: What was it like going back to
TUF as a coach in 2012?
RP: It was amazing to be asked to go
back and see how much I had pro-
gressed in such a short time. I could see
myself in those guys, having been in
their shoes only a few years ago so it
was a little bit humbling.
M&F: What strength and conditioning
work do you do during fight camp?
RP: My training is split into phases. I
start off with a strength phase, which
consists of big strength movements:
heavy squats, heavy bench presses
and dips. We develop that with low reps
and heavy weights. After the strength
phase I move into a power endurance
phase, which is similar to the strength
phase in that we still do big lifts but
theres an explosive movement
alongside it. For example, well do a big
squat followed by plyometric jumps or
weighted chin-ups followed by
medicine ball slams.
The final four to six weeks of fight
camp is pure conditioning. Well do
fight circuits, sprints, shuttles, Tabata
workouts, etc. Five, five-minute rounds
of non-stop work, lowering the rest
periods to 30 seconds and just
powering through the pain and fatigue
barrier. Ill do everything from bear
crawls to burpees, pull-ups to tyre flips.
Its just repetitive conditioning bursts.
M&F: Whats the value of weight
training in MMA?
RP: Its massively important. You need
to be able to maintain your strength
throughout a fight; youve got to be as
strong in the 14th minute as you are in
the first, if not stronger. If youre in a
submission hold and need to get out,
you need strength as well as technique.
Without the strength you wont be able
to do so.
M&F: Describe a typical training week.
RP: It would look something like this:
Monday: 6am sprints. 10am jiu-
jitsu. 6pm pads. It could be Thai boxing
pads, kickboxing pads or traditional
boxing pads.
Tuesday: 10am sparring. This covers
everything from kickboxing to takedowns.
6pm drills.
Wednesday: 10am wrestling. 6pm
strength and conditioning. Depending
on how far we are into fight camp will
determine whether we do power
endurance or conditioning.
Thursday: 10am jiu-jitsu. 6pm pads
and bag work.
Friday: 10am sparring, which includes
both boxing and wrestling.
Saturday: 10am strength and
conditioning.
Sunday: Rest day
M&F: Which aspects of training do you
enjoy the most and least?
RP: The most enjoyable has to be
striking. I love learning new tricks, new
punches and kicks. At the end of the
day I am a stand-up fighter and love to
see what works in MMA, which is very
different to striking in a traditional
boxing fight. Least enjoyable has to be
sprints! Theyre the worst once you
start but the most satisfying when
completed.
M&F: What do you eat on an average
training day?
RP: I usually start the day with
porridge oats, scrambled eggs and
turkey bacon. Just before training I
will have an apple. Immediately after
morning training I have a protein shake
and then maybe salmon, broccoli and
rice. Between that and the next
training session I have another shake
or oats bar. After the next training
session, its steak, chicken or turkey
with rice and vegetables. Before bed
I have another protein shake.
M&F: What supplements do you take
and how do you feel they benefit you
as a fighter?
RP: I have branched chain amino acids,
fish oils, krilljust the essentials. I try to
get most of my requirements through
food. I like eating too much! M&F
164
MUSCLE&FITNESS
THE FINAL WEEKS OF
FIGHT CAMP ARE
JUST ABOUT
POWERING THROUGH
THE PAIN AND
FATIGUE BARRIER
ROSS PEARSON
DATE OF BIRTH:
26TH SEPTEMBER 1984
BIRTHPLACE:
SUNDERLAND
LIVES:
DIVIDES TIME BETWEEN
AUSTRALIA, ENGLAND AND
TRAINING CAMP IN SAN DIEGO
HEIGHT:
5 FT 8 INS (173 CM)
WEIGHT:
155 LBS (70 KG)
CAREER HIGHLIGHT:
KNOCKING OUT GEORGE SOTIRO-
POULOS, THE AUSTRALIAN COACH
FOR THE ULTIMATE FIGHTER
SERIES IN DECEMBER 2012
AMBITION:
TO BECOME UFC CHAMPION
TRAINING ADVICE:
ALWAYS GIVE 100% DEDICATION
AND BE MENTALLY FOCUSED
SPONSORS:
ROCKSTAR ENERGY DRINK, BODY-
SCIENCE SPORT SUPPLEMENTS,
SMUGGLING DUDS, SWEET
SWEAT AND TRX
CONTACT:
TWITTER:
@ROSSTHEREALDEAL
FACEBOOK:
ROSS PEARSON
To read more on Ross Pearson go to:
www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/therealdeal
DECIPHERING THE LATEST SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
TO HELP YOU GET THE MOST FROM YOUR TRAINING,
DIET AND SUPPLEMENTATION
BY MARK HOBDEN AND JAMES COLLINS
PERFORMANCE
NUTRITION
M
A
T
T

M
A
R
S
H
BETA-ALANINE + SODIUM
BICARBONATE = ENHANCED
BUFFERING CAPACITY?
Beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate
may enhance performance in high-
intensity disciplines, such as rowing
and track cycling.
Both of these supplements act by
buffering hydrogen ions and thus
reducing the acidity and mechanical
fatigue of the muscles. More specifi-
cally, beta-alanine is an intracellular
(inside the cells) buffering agent and
sodium bicarbonate is an extracellular
(outside the cells) buffering agent.
Researchers at Nottingham Trent
University have previously investigated
the effects of both beta-alanine and
sodium bicarbonate in athletic popula-
tions. Their latest study, led by Dr Ruth
Hobson and Dr Craig Sale, focused on the
effects of combining these two buffering
agents on exercise performance.
Interestingly, their findings indicate
there might be additional performance
benefits to combining the two supple-
ments, rather than taking either one
separately.
MAIN FINDINGS
I Beta-alanine supplementation
was very likely to be beneficial
to 2,000 m rowing performance.
I Sodium bicarbonate was likely to
be beneficial to 2,000 m rowing
performance.
I The additional effect of combining
sodium bicarbonate with beta-ala-
nine was categorised as possibly
BETA-ALANINE
SUPPLEMENTATION WAS
VERY LIKELY TO BE
BENEFICIAL TO 2,000 M
ROWING PERFORMANCE
beneficial to 2,000 m rowing
performance.
I Blood lactate, pH, bicarbonate
and base excess were increased
following sodium bicarbonate
supplementation.
SIGNIFICANT METHODOLOGY
Twenty well-trained rowers supple-
mented with a placebo or beta-alanine
(6.4 g per day) for 28 days. At the
beginning and end of the supplementa-
tion period they completed a 2,000 m
performance time trial on a rowing
machine.
On day 30, the rowers completed a
final 2,000 m time trial, this time involving
pre-exercise supplementation (four hours
and two hours before exercise) with either
a placebo with maltodextrin, a placebo
with sodium bicarbonate, beta-alanine
with maltodextrin or beta-alanine with
sodium bicarbonate.
Blood samples were collected before
exercise, immediately after exercise, and
five minutes after exercise.
TAKE-HOME MESSAGE
Combining beta-alanine and sodium
bicarbonate may enhance intracellular
and extracellular buffering capacity and
mediate improvements in performance
in high-intensity sports, such as rowing.
It should be noted, however, that
responses to these two buffering agents
are highly individual and while some may
experience a performance boost, others
may not. Furthermore, a potential side
effect of sodium bicarbonate is gastro-
166
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intestinal distress. Indeed, one rower in
the study reported severe symptoms.
Gym-goers should trial buffers
independently at first to assess
tolerance and performance in training.
Subsequently, athletes may wish to
experiment with combining the two
in training.
The recommended dose is 6.4 g per
day of beta-alanine for at least four
weeks (to load muscle carnosine
content), combined with 0.3 g per kg
of bodyweight of sodium bicarbonate
two hours before exercise.
The preferred mode of ingestion
is either capsules or by mixing with
a sports drink. Fluid intake is key to
avoiding osmotic diarrhoea.
REFERENCE
Hobson RM, Harris RC, Martin D, Smith P, Macklin
B, Gualano B, Sale C (2013) Effect of -Alanine,
with & without Sodium Bicarbonate, on 2000m
Rowing Performance. International Journal of
Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism [Epub
ahead of print]
TRAINING AT HIGH
ALTITUDE? PLAN YOUR
FUEL ACCORDINGLY
Year round, mountain ranges across the
globe are a hive of activity. Winter sports,
such as skiing and snowboarding, are
ever popular, as are other adventure
sports, such as mountain biking,
paragliding, rock climbing and trekking.
Mountains are also warm-weather
training venues for endurance athletes,
who visit high altitude locations in order
to promote physiological adaptations by
training in hypoxia (a reduced availability
of oxygen in the air). This strategy aims
to improve the oxygen-carrying
capacity of the blood through the
increased production of red blood cells.
An interesting new study, published
in the European Journal of Applied
Physiology, has explored the impact of a
high-carbohydrate versus a high-protein
meal on physiological responses at rest
and during exercise at altitude.
Consuming a high-carbohydrate meal
before exercise increased the amount of
oxygen bound to red blood cells during
exercise. This has potential implications
for those undertaking physical activity at
altitude, especially athletes in training.
MAIN FINDINGS
I The type of meal (high-protein versus
high-carbohydrate) had no effect on
the amount of oxygen bound to red
blood cells at rest. However, during
exercise in hypoxia the amount of
oxygen bound to red blood cells was
maintained 3.1% better following a
high-carbohydrate meal.
I Ventilation and CO2 production
were elevated during exercise in
hypoxia after the high-carbohydrate
meal compared to high-protein meal.
I As expected, glucose oxidation was
higher following the high-carbohy-
drate meal compared to the
high-protein meal.
I Meal type did not affect subsequent
heart rate variability.
SIGNIFICANT METHODOLOGY
Eleven healthy, active males com-
pleted the study, which involved a
preliminary testing session followed
by two main experimental trials.
Each trial consisted of the consump-
tion of breakfast (either high-protein or
high-carbohydrate), then a 60-minute
rest in normal oxygen conditions,
followed by a 15-minute rest in hypoxic
conditions (60% VO2max).
Both breakfast meals had the same
calorific value, with the high-carb meal
providing 99.4 g carbs and 17.5 g
protein and the high-protein meal
providing 48 g carbs and 66.6 g protein.
Measurements included blood oxygen
levels, ventilatory parameters, substrate
oxidation, interstitial glucose con-
centrations and heart rate variability.
TAKE-HOME MESSAGE
At high altitude, the majority of individuals
should aim to consume a high-carb meal
90-120 minutes before key training
sessions. Carbs play an important role in
topping up muscle glycogen stores and
providing fuel for a workout.
Furthermore, as evidenced by the
current study, the provision of carbs
may help maintain the oxygen-carrying
capacity of blood during exercise at
altitude, thus improving oxygen
delivery to the working muscles.
Breakfast foods such as oats, milk,
bread, fruit and fruit juice are good
sources of carbs.
In contrast, for low to moderate
intensity training sessions, athletes may
wish to experiment with training following
a higher-protein, lower-carb meal.
Theoretically, this may increase the
physiological stress of exercise and,
therefore, enhance the adaptive
response. This strategy is not advis-
able before high-intensity workouts
where a reduced carbohydrate intake
could compromise exercise intensity
and/or performance.
High protein (and low-carb) breakfast
options include omelettes, scrambled
eggs, Greek yogurt and low-fat cottage
cheese. M&F
REFERENCE
Charlot K, Pichon A, Richalet JP, Chapelot D (2013)
Effects of a high-carbohydrate versus
high-protein meal on acute responses to hypoxia
at rest and exercise. European Journal of Applied
Physiology 113:691-702
Performance Nutrition is a London-
based consultancy that supports elite
and recreational athletes. Director
James Collins is a sport and exercise
nutritionist and head nutritionist for
Arsenal FC. For more information visit
www.theperformancenutritionist.com
Mark Hobden is head of research &
development at Performance Nutrition.
He is currently completing a doctorate in
nutrition at the University of Reading,
where he sits on the committee of the
Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic
Research. Mark has degrees in sports
biology and sport and exercise nutrition.
He has previously worked for the
Gatorade Sports Science Institute, the
Porsche human performance team at
Silverstone and in professional rugby.
J
O
H
N
E
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168
MUSCLE&FITNESS
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HOW TO MAKE PROTEIN PORRIDGE
ANNA SWARD PROVIDES TWO PORRIDGE
RECIPES WITH A TWIST
PROTEIN
A
N
N
A

S
W
A
R
D
When people start experimenting with
protein powder, nine times out of ten
they start by mixing it with porridge.
Thats how I started too. And I loved it,
especially on cold winter mornings.
People also start making protein
porridge because it is incredibly easy. You
can also have fun being creative. Add a few
twists, a few extra ingredients and youve
got a brand new bowl of morning bliss.
If youre following a gluten-free or
dairy-free diet you can still enjoy protein
porridge by using gluten-free oats or
substituting the oats for buckwheat
flakes or quinoa flakes.
To then make it dairy-free, use almond
milk or another milk substitute (such as
coconut or hemp milk) and a vegetable
powder, such as vanilla pea protein
powder instead of whey.
Below are two of my favourite ways of
making protein porridge: with cinnamon
and bananas, and with chocolate. Play
around with the basic blueprint by adding
your own favourite ingredients, too.
Ive included a few ideas for
inspiration in the notes to
each recipe.
CINNAMON AND BANANA
PROTEIN PORRIDGE
INGREDIENTS
50 g oats
200 ml milk (I use coconut milk but any
will do)
1 scoop vanilla whey protein powder
1 tsp cinnamon
banana, sliced
DIRECTIONS
Put the milk and oats in a pan and bring
them to the boil then simmer until the
mixture reaches your desired consistency.
Transfer the mix to a bowl, let it cool
and add the whey. Its important to add
the whey AFTER the porridge is cooked
rather than when its in the pan because
you dont want to cook the wheynot
because itll get damaged by the heat, but
because cooking it can cause the mix to
curdle and the porridge can lose its
creaminess.
Add the sliced banana, sprinkle with
cinnamon, and its
ready.
NOTES
Consider adding chopped pineapple,
coconut flakes, or chopped peaches.
You could also add nutswalnuts and
chopped almonds go particularly well
with this combo.
NUTRITIONAL BREAKDOWN
(per bowl) 400 kcals, 30 g protein,
49 g carbs and 9 g fat
SPICY
CHOCOLATE
PROTEIN PORRIDGE
INGREDIENTS
50 g oats
200 ml milk
1 scoop chocolate whey protein powder
12 g cocoa powder
1 tsp cinnamon
tsp red chilli powder (optional)
DIRECTIONS
Put the milk and oats in a pan and bring
the mix to a boil. Simmer until it reaches
your desired consistency.
Transfer the mix to a bowl, let it cool
and then add the whey, cocoa powder,
spices and, if youre using it, the chilli
powder. You can use chocolate, vanilla,
or even a more unusual flavour, such as
chocolate orange whey.
NOTES
You can add a scoop of protein ice cream
to the porridge to make it more of a
dessert. Vanilla protein ice cream is
especially magical here. You could then
add a square of melted dark chocolate
on top for the ultimate bowl of protein
yumminess! You can also try adding some
chopped pecans or macadamia nuts.
NUTRITIONAL BREAKDOWN
(per bowl) 392 kcals, 30 g protein,
42 g carbs and 10 g fat
Annas Protein Pow! cookery book is available
from www.weidermailorder.com
170
MUSCLE&FITNESS
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A MONTHLY Q&A COLUMN THAT GETS RIGHT TO THE
HEART OF YOUR MOST ASKED QUESTIONS ON DIET
& SUPPLEMENTATION
COMPILED BY PHIL LEARNEY
NUTRITION
MADE EASY
calories over a seven-day period. Its
the same average number of calories
over a week but results in adjustments
in the bodys reaction on a daily basis.
Q: Ive been hearing a lot about the
benefits of saturated fats. Why
should I eat them and what are
good sources?
A: Saturated fat has been going
through a real resurgence recently.
Thats largely because a lot of myths
and assumptions about fats, particu-
larly saturated fats and cholesterol,
are now being dismissed or at least
better understood.
In fact, saturated fats and choles-
terol can have countless health
benefits. The brain is composed largely
of fatty acids present in saturated fat
and cholesterol so diets devoid of fats
actually compromise brain function.
The perceived link between satu-
rated fats and cardiovascular disease
is probably what has caused its bad
reputation. However, evidence now
seems to suggest the relationship
between saturated fats and risk of
cardiovascular disease isnt as strong
as first thought.
Numerous epidemiological studies
have identified a substrate called
lipoprotein(a), or Lp(a), as a risk factor
for coronary heart disease and strokes.
The only known way to lower this
substrate is by consuming healthy
saturated fats. A healthy ratio of
saturated fats can help raise the bodys
HDL (good cholesterol) levels, which
aids the body in disposing of the bad
variety.
Cholesterol is particularly important
to the bodys metabolism. In both
males and females, large groups
of enzymes called cytochrome
p450 convert cholesterol into the
hormone pregnenolone. Pregnenolone
is the precursor to all steroid hormones
such as oestrogen, testosterone and
vitamin D.
Saturated fats and cholesterol also
influence cell permeability. Hormones
such as insulin rely on them to open cells
and allow absorption after digestion.
Its clear then that saturated fats
play a key role in the diet, but that
Q: Is putting on fat while bulking
really necessary?
A: Absolutely not! Nutrition for size is
all about finding tolerance and maximal
turnover levels from both a calorific
and macronutrient perspective. Its a
very fine line, however, as there are no
definite means of working out these
levels. Furthermore, as the physique
changes, the levels do too.
Many competitive bodybuilders bank
on the fact that bulking is less compli-
cated if they just take in a huge excess
of both calories and nutrients.
Naturally, this means body
fat goes up, often
excessively.
The issue I have with this approach is
that when we consume large amounts,
or indeed small amounts of nutrients or
calories, independent systems either
up- or down-regulate, creating either
a level of resistance or sensitivity to
nutrients or calories.
If we capitalise on these hormonal
adjustments it puts us in a position
where we can continue to develop lean
tissue while remaining comparatively
lean. If we dont, we just get fat.
An approach I use with almost all
competitors and athletes when bulking
is to gradually increase intake
until body fat increases.
This sets a
baseline and
consistent
amount of
calories
someone
can tolerate.
Taking this
number and
manipulating
the average over
a training or
nutritional cycle of
calories, carbs, proteins and fats
allows us to bring up lean tissue
effectively while maintaining a level
of conditioning.
Remember, consuming 2,000
calories a day has a very different
effect to consuming 1,500/2,000/
2,500/1,500/2,000/2,500/2,000
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Phil Learney is a respected strength
and conditioning expert with 20 years
experience. He is a coach, writer
and speaker with an open-minded,
results-based approach. He is
director of education for Ultimate
Performance and teaches
extensively across the UK.
Read about phil learney online at
www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/phillearney
immunoglobulin E, which could
potentially cause oedema or localised
swelling between cells or even in the
circulatory system. This can then
affect the condition or appearance
of an athlete even when theyre lean
enough to see their abs.
For many, yogurt and cheese are still
viable options because the fermenta-
tion process used in producing them
largely breaks down the lactose from
the milk.
In most cases it is a trial and error
thing. In my view, milk is something we
dont require in adulthood. The need for
calcium, milks main selling point, is a
little exaggerated with vitamin D
appearing to play a larger role in the
use of calcium and bone health.
I avoid milk with almost all my
physique clients simply because its
a risk food and something we dont
require if nutritional bases are covered
in the rest of the diet. However, I may
include other dairy products depending
on an individuals reaction to them. M&F
doesnt mean youve got free rein to
stuff yourself with bacon and cheese.
Saturated fats arent all created
equally. There are actually four
typeslauric acid, stearic acid,
palmitic acid and myristic acid.
Several of these also contain MCTs
(medium chain triglycerides), which
are metabolised differently to other
fats. This allows them to be used as
a readily available energy source.
One of the most important things
to consider when consuming
saturated fats is the quality of the
source. Meat from animals that have
been fed a largely natural diet yields
better and healthier saturated fats.
Palmitic acidfound in butter and
eggsand myristic acidfound in
beef, butter, cheese and milkare
best when they come from grass-fed
cows and free-range chickens.
Remember, fats also store toxins,
hence the importance of quality fats.
Stearic acid is found in dark
chocolate and beef. The good news
here is that stearic acid appears to
have no effect on blood cholesterol.
Finally, lauric acid is found in
coconut oil. This, alongside the
palmitic-containing butter, also
contains MCTsthe fuel powerhouse
when it comes to fats. These are
increasingly becoming a part of
athletic perfor-
mance diets.
All the
sources listed
above are
great, but cheese and milk are
probably the most innocuous. In small
quantities, the others would also help
to improve overall health.
Q: I want to get a six-pack. Should
I cut out milk and yogurt?
A: It depends. As with all foods the
issue lies in our ability to take them
from their ingested form and turn them
into something useful. When trying to
develop an optimal and lean physique
small alterations in the turnover and
digestion of food can make a huge
impact.
The potential problem with dairy
products is largely to do with an
impaired ability to digest lactose, the
form of sugar found in dairy.
Lactasean enzyme produced in
the lining of the small intestineis
responsible for breaking down lactose.
It is estimated that 65% of the human
population has a reduced ability to
break down lactose after infancy due
to decreasing activity within the gene
that instructs the body to produce
lactase.
This can be seen at an allergy,
sensitivity or intolerance level,
intolerance meaning lacking the
enzyme while an allergy or sensitivity
brings the immune system into play.
Any food the body flags as a
foreign molecule will create
an immune response. This
causes the release of
an antibody called
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DAN
HARDY
IN HIS EXCLUSIVE MUSCLE & FITNESS COLUMN,
BRITAINS BEST UFC FIGHTER TALKS ABOUT
EATING FOR HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE
BY DAN HARDY
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I get asked a lot of questions but one
more than any otherwhat do you eat?
The problem is, I dont adhere to any
mainstream diet so explaining myself
is never easy.
Im predominantly vegan but not
entirely. I seldom have animal products
and when I do theyre of the best quality:
beef is grass-fed, fish is wild-caught,
eggs are free-range and soya-free.
I usually have one animal product a
week, sometimes more, often less. All
produce is ideally organic and locally
grown and I never have dairy or pork.
I have not drunk alcohol for 13 years
and dont use any medicines or painkillers
besides natural herbal remedies.
Sometimes I fast for a day and drink
apple cider vinegar or try another cleansing
method. Other times I eat continuously. It
really depends how I feel.
DIETING FOR MMA
I never liked the planning part of a diet. It
always seemed so tedious and unneces-
sary. As I progressed through my athletic
career my eating habits shifted several
times.
I used to have steak and broccoli for
breakfast and two apples before bed. I
had cheat days where I would binge on
cookies and pizza then drop my calorie
intake right down for the rest of the week.
I always chose something fairly drastic
and never consistently stuck to it.
I gradually began paying less attention
to my diet plan and started focusing on
making good decisions at each meal.
I am surrounded by people that
regularly diet and I like to pick their
brains. Often I pick up interesting tips
and tweak my own diet.
Its important to remember that what
you consume has a multitude of effects
on your body. We all know the obvious
ones, such as caffeine and alcohol but
what about the more subtle ones? For
example, dairy products dry my skin and
make it itchy. Many people probably have
this problem and have no idea why.
Over the years I have tried increasing
and decreasing foods and eliminating
things altogether. This has helped me
figure out what effect various foods
have on my health and performance.
Ive found that too many animal products
make me sluggish. Ive learned not to
overtax my digestive system and give it
time off.
So instead of eating what you think is
right, try eating what you feel is right. This
is where discipline is required to know
honestly the difference between what
you want and what you need.
Enjoy food because its what your body
needs to thrive, not just because it tastes
nice. Think about it more as fuel than
reward and you will begin making better
decisions immediately.
The next step is to do some research
but dont start with healthy diet searches
on Google. Learn about what you eat
now.
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If you discover something is damaging,
remove it from your daily options. Find an
alternative. We are fortunate to have
access to a huge variety of products
which allows us this freedom.
Also, note how your body is working.
Do you feel strong and alert, and full of
energy? Or are you lethargic at times?
The answers are often found in your
diet so attack one thing at a time and
experiment until you have your answer.
It is possible to fill your diet with foods
that help your body grow and repair and
which arent a chore.
The body will thrive if it has the right
tools for the job and I guarantee there are
plenty of empty calories in most peoples
diets that are counter-productive to
wellness. As Hippocrates said, Let food
be thy medicine.
WHAT I EAT
Here is a rundown of my diet. It changes
daily but the food products are fairly
consistent.
Mornings generally start with a shake
consisting of coconut water or fresh
juice, a banana, mixed frozen berries,
mango, peach, spinach and kale. I add a
couple of grams of creatine, a scoop of
BCAAs and a scoop of berry-flavoured
vegan protein. Sometimes I add flax oil
or nuts if I need extra healthy calories,
or a few drops of chlorophyll if Im doing
heavy conditioning.
I snack mainly on trail mix (dried fruit,
nuts and grains) throughout the day and
often make a large cup of orange, carrot
and ginger to keep in the fridge.
Lunch depends on training. Remember,
lions dont hunt on a full stomach. I like
my heavier meals when I have time to
relax afterwards so food before training
is limited to small portions of easily
digestible stuff.
If my week includes an animal product I
have it after my most strenuous day along
with plenty of greens to aid digestion and
to prevent my body from becoming too
acidic.
I like to have a supply of things I can
pick up and eat so that I dont reach for
cookies when Im feeling lazy. Therefore
hummus is always in stock, along with
raw carrots, cucumber, and rice chips.
I also usually have at least one soup
ready to heat up: something like lentil and
bean or mushroom and kale is perfect
after a winter hike or run.
My evening meal is usually a large salad
of mixed greens, cucumber, avocado,
strawberries, sunflower, flax and chia
seeds, macadamia nuts, kelp, and
nutritional yeast. It also includes a basic
balsamic vinegar with a little extra virgin
olive oil.
I also like to make a quinoa salad with
a mixture of peppers, tomato and onion.
Sometimes I throw in a few raisins or
olive slices.
I like to have cucumber salad in my
fridge at all times. It consists of cucum-
ber, cherry tomatoes, red onion, and dill
mixed with apple cider vinegar. Very
cleansing for your body.
MY SUPPLEMENTS
I have a cupboard full of supplements.
My daily ones include L-arginine, fish oil,
B vitamins, spirulina and CoQ10. I also
usually have a standard multivitamin to
make up for any shortcomings in my diet.
I like green tea for weight management
and a pre-training energy boost. But dont
over-rely on caffeine and stimulants for
energy: use food instead.
I sporadically use milk thistle or
dandelion root to cleanse my system.
Glucosamine sulphate and other joint
health supplements are always in my
cupboard and used intensely for short
periods, usually when Im recovering
from an injury or training particularly
hard.
Doing such a damaging sport means I
always have something to heal and repair.
I never like to use any kind of painkiller
because I like to feel the injury. It keeps
me present and focused on getting better
and makes me aware of potential
damage, which I would be oblivious to
if I couldnt feel it.
Nutrition can do astounding things to
your body. Learn to listen and hear what
your body is asking for and question
whether something you are eating will
help you be better tomorrow.
The biggest thing about dietary changes
isdont wait until Monday! Now is the time
to act. There is no reason to hold off
positive changes in your life. M&F
THE BIGGEST THING
ABOUT DIETARY
CHANGES IS DONT
WAIT UNTIL
MONDAY. NOW IS
THE TIME TO ACT
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BUILDING
MUSCLE
For those who dont know my back-
ground, Ive always led a blessed
existence when it comes to my training
environment. I started out in a gym
owned by former British Mr Olympia
competitor Tony Emmott. Then, when I
was 16, I went to the stomping ground of
Ian Harrison, another Olympia competi-
tor and Britains youngest ever IFBB pro,
and former Mr Universe Basil Francis. At
18 I braved the legendary Muscleworks
Gym in east London.
Now I run my own gyms where I have
carte blanche to train how I want, when
I want. The music is mine, the exercise
selection is mine, and if I want to make a
noise theres no one there to tell me off.
Not what people expect of high-end
personal training gyms in Mayfair or
Hong Kong, but thats why UP is just
that little bit different.
Recently, Ive had a rude awakening.
Last year I relocated my family to Spain,
and while preparing to open the latest
UP gym in Marbella, Ive been working
out in a commercial gym.
I wont go through the usual com-
plaints; the equipment is actually pretty
good and its never all that busy. In fact,
my workouts have been great because
Im no longer training at work with all the
attendant distractions that creates.
What I am experiencing though, and
at times its hard to stay silent, are the
mistakes many genuinely well-meaning
people make with their workouts.
What makes it even more aggravating
LEADING TRAINER
NICK MITCHELL DESPAIRS
AT SOME COMMON GYM
MISTAKES
is that they are often perpetrated by
personal trainers. Rather than let this
turn into a diatribe against my industry, I
want to use this months column to set a
few things straight if youre confused or
falling into some of the common pitfalls
people in ivory towers like myself often
miss entirely.
1 STRETCHING
Statically stretching the muscle you are
working on between sets is not a good
idea. Yes, I know some massive body-
builders have done it in the past; I used to
do it myself as a not-so-massive body-
builder, but that doesnt make it any
less wrong.
Think about what you do to a muscle
when you stretch it: youre trying to make
it more pliable and extend the range of
motion. Do you do this by increasing
tension or by releasing tension? The
latter, of course.
Do you want a more relaxed muscle
while training? No. Stretching a muscle
relaxes the nervous system, the opposite
of what we want when resistance
training, and contrary to popular belief, it
can make you more susceptible to injury.
That doesnt mean stretching is bad; its
often the missing element in many mens
training regimes. But not all stretching is
the sameyou need to learn the time and
place for it.
I was inspired to write about stretching
when I saw a trainer having his weight
loss client stretch her quads between
sets of leg extensions. This is daft. Shell
be weaker and more prone to injury. The
best time to do passive stretching is post-
workout or, even better, at home in the
evening as a form of relaxation.
Should she have been stretching at all
between sets of leg extensions? You may
be surprised to know that in certain
circumstances, she should.
For example, if she was training only
quads she could arguably get a positive
benefit from stretching her hamstrings
between sets of leg extensions.
Hamstrings are the antagonist muscle
to the quadriceps. If they are tight they
pull at the quads, making it harder to
extend at the knee joint. A better range in
your hamstrings will directly translate to
TRAIN LIKE A WEAK AND FEEBLE
SPECIMEN AND YOU WILL
FOREVER REMAIN THAT WAY
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Nick Mitchell owns Ultimate Performance
gyms in London and Hong Kong. He is a
former bodybuilder whose clients include
IFBB pros Ben Pakulski and Michelle
Brannan. For more information visit
www.nickmitchell.com
better range and increased weight on leg
extensions.
The complicating factor here would
be what exercises were due to follow
the leg extensions. Pretty much all
compound movements for quads will
also engage the hamstrings so my advice
would be to only go down this route if leg
extensions are your final movement.
Its worth distinguishing between
static and active stretching. None of the
negative components above apply if you
keep tension high and stretch under
load.
A big stretch on an incline flye isnt
going to make you weaker or more injury
prone during your chest workout.
Interestingly enough, what can happen
if you pair opposing muscle groups such
as chest and back and superset incline
flyes with chin-ups is that the stretch
component of the flye will open up your
pecs allowing you to get a greater range
of motion on your chin up (think chest up
to the bar rather than chin tucked over).
In the long run thatll lead to better
development and a structurally more
balanced and healthier body.
2 SPOT ME BRO
Good spotting is an art form and most
people in the gym are not artists. Unless
you train in a gym where youre surrounded
by competent trainees, pick movements
that dont demand you have a spotter. If
my recent observations are anything to go
by, the risk is far too high and 19 times out
of 20 the spotter detracts from the set
rather than enhancing it.
3 WEIGHT SELECTION
This is clearly a massive problem for
the average gym-goer. Either ego gets
in the way and weights are hoisted with
back-breaking momentum, or the load is
so light the only thing being stimulated is
the sense of wonder anyone can think
such unchallenging training will force
the body to adapt.
Its really very simple. If 12 reps is
your goal and you hit those 12 reps with
perfect form, then next time up the
weight a little.
This is not a training secret of the pros,
but it seems to be something many
people fail to grasp.
Progressive overload is key to training
progressyou must do more than you did
before to keep making gains.
4 USELESS MOVES
Side bends with a single dumbbell. Does
anyone honestly still do such an out-
dated exercise? Apparently they do. In
fact, if you train at my current gym, and
are female, you spend at least 20% of
your workout doing them with a weight
lighter than your house keys.
Theres a time and place for a huge
array of exercises but due to limited time
and training experience, most people just
need the basics.
If you want to develop your obliques
heavy deadlifting and overhead pressing
will do a quicker and more functional job
than side bends. If you want to trim your
sides, as most of these women do, get the
idea of exercise spot reduction firmly out
of your brain and engage in demanding
compound movements that will stimulate
larger muscles, the nervous system, and
metabolism all in one.
It is possible to build a great physique
with just your bodyweight, a chin-up bar,
dips and a single barbell (with weights).
If more people realised this, both men
and women, there would arguably be a
massive increase in striking gym
physiques. If you dont believe me try this
extremely simple workout.If its too easy,
drop me a line on Twitter (@UPFitness)
and Ill buy you a protein shake:
Back Barbell Squat: 4010 tempo / 10
reps with 12 rep max
NO REST
Chin-up: 4010 tempo / 10 reps with
12 rep max
NO REST
Standing Overhead Press: 4010
tempo / 10 reps with 12 rep max
NO REST
Dips: 4010 tempo / 10 reps with
12 rep max
2-3 minutes rest / 4 cycles / Keep
weight constant throughout the
workout
5 KNOWLEDGE
The ugly stepsister of the previous point
is not knowing what an exercise is
actually for or what its supposed to
stimulate.
If youre unsure what a specific
movement is all about dont suffer in
silence or make a guess. In the age of
smartphones and the internet the answer
is never more than 30 seconds away.
Once you know what an exercise is
supposed to target youre still only
halfway there, though. Then you need
to engage your brain to engage your
muscles in the right manner. That takes
practicerepeated effort to be precise
but if youve no clue beyond slavishly
following the person you saw use the
machine before you, youre setting
yourself up for failure.
Use your brain in your workout and
literally see, and play with, all the angles.
6 THE CONCEPT
OF EFFORT
Sorry ladies, while men are also guilty of
this, you are the worst culprits. The pice
de rsistance Ive seen lately was a woman
doing what looked like 10 sets of 10 reps
of leg extensions with two plates and
three-four minutes rest between setsall
while carrying her Prada handbag.
Come on peopledont forget that you
only get what you train for. Train like a
weak and feeble specimen and you will
forever remain that way. If you want to
become an animal you need to train like
an animal. M&F
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BIKINI
BODY
BRITISH IFBB BIKINI PRO
MICHELLE BRANNAN
GIVES FIVE TIPS FOR A
FITTER 2014
PHOTOS BY SIMON HOWARD
W
hy should women lift
weights? Its a question
that still comes up time
and time again and is a
subject I am passionate about.
Despite a growing number of women
realising the benefits of weight
training, the vast majority continue to
believe its a men-only preserve.
The fear is that weight training will
turn women into mass monsters but
more calories you burn at rest,
speeding up your metabolism and
making it easier to stay lean. I under-
stand most women dont want huge
muscles but a layer of lean tissue will
not only add shape to your body but will
also turn it into a fat burning machine.
All too often women can be found
running on the treadmill, doing
endless hours of cardio. What is the
problem with this? Im an advocate of
cardiovascular training because it has
many health benefits and helps burn
calories but without resistance
training, it wont help your bodys lean
tissue percentage.
Doing cardio without weights usually
means you wont have much muscle,
which in turn means you will burn less
calories at rest compared to someone
with more muscle. Therefore, youll
have to eat less to stay lean.
The human body is expert at
adaptation and maintaining homeo-
stasis. The more exercise you do,
the more you can do, which means
your body will get used to whatever
you do. Your body doesnt want you
to burn out or collapse on the floor
so it learns to become more efficient
during exercise or sport.
DANGERS OF RUNNING
In simple terms, if you run for 30
minutes a day, over a period of time
that 30 minutes will become easier and
you will get better at dealing with the
energy expenditure. You will probably
also start to see less progress.
Many women then reduce their calorie
intake to combat this so they end up
eating less, slowing the metabolism
and losing muscle because everything is
used as fuel to survive and nothing is left
for growth and repair.
The key to resolving this situation
is resistance training. That doesnt
mean abandoning cardio completely or
drastically increasing calories. You just
need to ensure there is no severe
calorie deficit. Once you start weight
training, your basal metabolic rate will
slowly rise and you can add more
calories.
Another key benefit of weight
training, apart from fat loss, is shape.
the fact is it wont bulk women up.
Females are not genetically geared
towards muscle mass, mainly due to
a lack of testosterone.
Some women do put on more muscle
than others but how much can be
controlled by calorie intake. If you eat
too much, you will generally get bigger
in size regardless of weight training.
Lean tissue actually helps burn
calories. The more muscle you have the
THE FEAR IS THAT
WEIGHT TRAINING
WILL TURN WOMEN
INTO MASS
MONSTERS BUT
THE FACT IS IT
WONT BULK
WOMEN UP
180
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When using weights you can actually
sculpt the body, to a certain extent, to
the way you want it.
When I started weight training I
thought I wanted rounder glutes,
shapely legs, a small waist and nice
shoulder caps. Ive been training
consistently ever since. If you look at
pictures of me when I started I had very
flat glutes and quite skinny legs. Now
Ive added more curves to my frame
with lean tissue. Im now complimented
on my body much more and have even
won a few bikini shows.
It isnt just about aesthetics. The
health benefits include reducing the
risk of osteoporosis and improving
strength and balance.
Once you decide to start weight
training, the next challenge is to work
out how to go about it.
If its new to you its best to seek
professional advice, not only to make
sure you achieve the look you want but
also to prevent injury. Ask your local
gym to give you an induction session
to show you around. Most gyms will
do this free of charge for members.
You could also hire a personal trainer
to advise you and teach you proper
technique. Having a plan written for
you is sometimes the confidence-
booster you need to get started. Some
people feel much more confident if
they know they are following an
experienced trainers plan.

GETTING IN THE
WEIGHTS ROOM
Most women are a little scared of the
weights room when they start. It takes
time to overcome that fear. My advice
on any subject is to do the things you
are most scared of. That includes
training. Just do it.
You will find that not everyone in the
gym will be looking at you; people in there
are training to reach their own goals and
might even feel insecure as well.
I would recommend buying some
new workout gear that makes you feel
comfortable. I like to look good so I
wear make-up to the gym. I dont mean
you have to wear a full face of make-up
but enough to feel good about yourself
might give you the extra confidence
you need.
Theres nothing wrong with feeling
good, making an effort with your
appearance and taking control. If you
dont want people talking to you, wear
headphonesthat way you look
preoccupied. Be friendly and smile,
not everyone is there to chat you up.
Finally, the most important thing
to remember is that results do not
happen overnight. Most womens
ability to build muscle is limited, so
you must be patient and not compare
yourself to others.
Everyone responds differently; some
people will have been training longer
than you and of course men have a
greater genetic capacity for muscle
building.
Be consistent and gradually you will
see changes. If you find a way to enjoy
weight training you will no doubt reap
the rewards. M&F
Michelle Brannan is Britains first IFBB
pro bikini competitor. She won the 2012
British Grand Prix and competed at last
years Bikini Olympia in Las Vegas.
MOST WOMEN ARE A
LITTLE SCARED OF THE
WEIGHTS ROOM WHEN
THEY START. IT TAKES
TIME TO OVERCOME
THAT FEAR
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MUSCLE & FITNESS: What are the three
biggest mistakes you see strength athletes
making in the gym?
PAVEL TSATSOULINE:
1. Failing to understand that strength is
a skill. And a skill must be practised
frequently and to perfection.
2. Failing to cycleperiodically push and
back off. No matter how tough your mind
is, it is your body that calls the shots.
Your nervous and endocrine system will
abruptly pull the plug on your progress
if you fail to back off periodically. Your
glands will run out of hormones and your
nerve cells will become less responsive
to your commands in order to protect
themselves. Cycling is not an opinion;
it is a biological law.
3. Failing to follow the 80/20 principle.
In any human endeavour, including
lifting, most things do not matter or
matter very little. You get 80% of the
results from 20% of your investments
and sometimes the ratio is as skewed
as 90/10 and even 95/5. The most
productive strength exercises are well
known and few in number. Give them all
your effort and stop worrying about
hitting all the angles.
ANDY BOLTON:
1. Lifting with lousy form. Do this and
you will never maximise your true
strength potential and will invite injuries.
STRENGTH EXPERTS ANDY BOLTON AND PAVEL TSATSOULINE
DISCUSS THE MOST COMMON GYM MISTAKES
Lift with great form and you give yourself
a chance to reach your true strength
potential while also minimising the
chance of injury. Simple as that. Yet
most people continually choose to lift
with bad form.
2. Maxing out too frequently. Maxing out
is a great thing to do once every two to
three months to see where your strength
is at. But doing it weekly (or more than
once a week) like many lifters do is
asking for trouble. Maxing out too
frequently is a recipe for many problems,
including: joint pain, lack of motivation,
plateaus, injuries and possibly regres-
sion of strength.
3. Majoring in the minors. The guy who
spends all his time doing curls and
pushdowns is majoring in the minors.
Hes wasting his time on movements that
dont lead to much in the way of strength
gains. On the contrary, the guy who
spends most of his time in the gym
squatting, benching, deadlifting,
overhead pressing and doing the
Olympic lifts is focusing on the right
things and should make great gains.
Bottom line? Choose your lifts wisely.
P
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Focus on the
basics, like
squats.
184
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P
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Andy Bolton is a multiple world champion
powerlifter and world record holder. He was
the first man to deadlift more than 1,000 lbs.
andyboltonstrength.org
Pavel Tsatsouline has trained elite military
forces in Russia and the United States and is
credited as the man who popularised the
kettlebell in the west. For more information
visit: strongfirst.com
Get more tips on improving strength from
Andy Boltons e-books. Go to
muscle-fitness.co.uk/andybolton
M&F: What is the difference between
finding the perfect programme and simply
finding a programme you believe in and
sticking to it?
PT: Andrey Kozhurkin, a Russian coach
who has done 60 strict, dead hang, no
kipping pull-ups in competition, com-
pares reaching a high athletic goal to
climbing a tall mountain. You can take
proven by champions in strength sports.
My advice is to pick a proven pro-
gramme and stick to it. Dont chop and
change. Choose one proven training
method, stick with it and really get to
know it over the course of several
months. This is how youll make your
best strength gains.
M&F: What three pieces of advice would
you give to someone who wants a stronger
squat, bench and deadlift?
PT:
1. Flexibility. Develop flexible hips and
hamstrings to own the perfect position
on the bottom of the squat and the
deadlift. Until then you have no business
loading your squats and deads.
Develop a great arch for the bench
not by jamming the lumbar spine but by
mobilising the thoracic spine. This will
make you stronger by shortening the
bench stroke and will go a long way
towards keeping your shoulders healthy
under heavy loads.
2. Tightness. Master the skill of getting
tight. It is an art form and without it
great strength is impossible.
3. Skill. Learn championship technique
for the big three from a professional
and keep polishing for the rest of your
lifting life.
AB:
1. Master your technique on the squat,
bench and deadlift. This will lead to
faster strength gains and lower your
chances of injury. You know the score!
2. Use a great training programme, not
one you dreamt up on the back of a
napkin.
3. Train in the best possible environment
you canthis means having the right
equipment and the right training
partners. M&F
The deadlift is another
proven strength builder.
a beaten path and reach the summit
slowly but surely, or you can take your
chances and blaze your own trail. There
is a small chance that you will reach the
top quicker, but most likely you will
spend your life circling the base camp,
hopelessly lost...
By now effective training methods
have been firmly established. It is
extremely unlikely that they will be
noticeably improved. Do not waste your
time searching for the new and unique;
look for what has worked time and time
again. My colleague David Whitley, a
master kettlebell trainer with Strong-
First, stresses: Dont get hung up on the
differences in champions training; look
for commonalities.
In other words, do not try to reinvent
the wheel; just follow in the footsteps
of Bolton, Coan, Kravtsov, and so on.
AB: There is no such thing as the perfect
training programme. Every programme
has strengths and weaknesses. But
ultimately, there are plenty of proven
programmes out there; programmes
186
MUSCLE&FITNESS
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UFC CONDITIONING
Richard Tidmarsh is the owner and lead trainer of Reach Fitness
London in Clapham. He also puts rugby internationals through
high-octane functional workouts. Visit www.r4reach.com and
follow him on twitter @RichTidmarsh
RICHARD TIDMARSH, WHO GETS BRITISH UFC STAR JIMI MANUWA IN SHAPE,
CONTINUES HIS SERIES ON THE FIGHTERS KEY EXERCISES
PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVE MITCHELL
TIP
It takes time to get
your timing and the
spacing of your body
around the bar correct,
so dont use too much
weight too soon.
WHAT IT IS: Barbell grappler throw using
the torsonator.
WHY HE DOES IT: Coaches need to
devise programmes that mimic the
demands placed on athletes in their
particular sport. If they dont you are just
training for trainings sake. Many UFC
takedowns are based on a fighters ability
to control his own posture whilst exerting
a huge force on his opponent. This applies
to standing throws and many of the
rolling ground moves that often lead to
submissions. The torsonator, also known
as the landmine, enables Jimi to do this.
HOW TO DO IT: The torsonator has a solid
base into which you insert an Olympic
barbell in a pivot point. This allows
the bar to move in any direction. If your
gym doesnt have a torsonator you can
improvise by wedging an Olympia bar
into a corner of the gym.
Load the bar with the necessary weight
and stand directly in front of it with the
bar high above your head. Lock your arms,
while gripping the top of the barbell with
both hands. With feet shoulder width
apart, drop the barbell to one side
pivoting through the hips so that your
feet twist slightly and the barbell drops
towards your knee. As you reach the
bottom of the movement, keep your chest
up and core tight, slowing the bar before
exerting huge upwards force with your
mid section, back and arms to force the
bar back up and over in a wide arc onto
the opposite knee.
THE BENEFITS: There are very few
muscles not used in this exercise so it
really is one of my favourites for building
functional throwing strength for fighters.
Jimis aim is to develop power and
strength so we do five sets of 12 reps
(six each side). M&F
188
MUSCLE&FITNESS
MARCH 2014 ISSUE
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189
CAPTAIN
JACKED
Zach McGowan
went way
over the top
to train for
the new
U.S. TV
drama series
Black Sails.
GERMAN
BODY
COMP
How to
build
muscle and
burn
fat at the
same time.
We examine the critical active ingredients in various
sports supplements. We award high marks to those
with existing supportive data, real-world results and
innovation in formulation. Here we put Applied Nutrition
CRITICAL WORKOUT under the microscope.
UNDER THE
MICROSCOPE
TAKING A PURELY SCIENTIFIC LOOK
AT THE BEST PRODUCTS IN THE
WORLD OF SPORTS SUPPLEMENTS
BY TIM N. ZIEGENFUSS, PhD
AND JIM STOPPANI, PhD
CREATINE HCL is a highly water-
soluble form of creatine that is
used by athletes who are prone
to stomach distress and bloating
from taking regular creatine mono-
hydrate. Although there are
no human studies demonstrating
that creatine HCL leads to greater
gains in strength, performance
and lean mass when compared to
monohydrate, there is no reason
to expect them to be any less.
Typical users of creatine HCL note
that lower doses can
be used to achieve
the same benefits,
so this is a
potential plus.
Regardless
of the form,
the body uses creatine to build more
muscle mass and strength.
GRADE: ####
REASON: If creatine monohydrate is
king, creatine HCL is the prince
worthy, with a great bloodline, but
unproven (for now).
AGMATINE SULPHATE is a meta-
bolite of L-arginine with several unique
properties of interest to bodybuilders.
First, agmatine appears to reduce the
perception of pain, particularly when
combined with other substances that
reduce pain themselves (caffeine, for
instance). Second, agmatine appears
to improve mood and reduce anxiety.
Third, agmatine may increase appetite
at higher doses (~ 2000 mg). And
finally (and most importantly, per-
haps), agmatine is establishing a
following in bodybuilding circles for
its ability to increase the muscle
pump. Other potential benefits of
agmatine supplementation are
improvements in cardiovascular
health and cognitive function.
GRADE: ####
REASON: While many of the
aforementioned effects need to be
verified in healthy subjects under
experimental conditions, agmatine
appears to be a solid ingredient with
a good safety profile.
ASTRAGIN is a proprietary com-
bination of two herbs, Astragalus
membranaceous and Panax notogin-
seng. In vitro research on AstraGin
has shown it can help increase the
absorption of certain vitamins,
minerals and amino acids. As such,
AstraGin is becoming more common
in many pre-workout formulas,
protein powders, and vitamin/mineral
packs.
GRADE: ###
REASON: In vitro research is a
promising start; follow-up research
in free living gym rats is preferred.
GLUCURONOLACTONE is a
metabolite of glucose that helps
regulate glycogen formation.
Glycogen is the main source of
energy for muscle during high-
190
MUSCLE&FITNESS
##### Outstanding scientific research
on humans available
RATINGS
#### Solid research available; anecdotally
effective
### Not much human research available
but premise is sound
intensity exercise, like weight
training. Glucuronolactone is
commonly found in energy drinks
because it is rapidly absorbed in
the body and appears to increase
alertness and energy. Human studies
on glucuronolactone (in isolation) are
lacking, but the biochemistry behind
this compound is promising with
regard to energy provision, liver
protection and joint health.
GRADE: ###
REASON: A promising ingredient for
energy and alertness; needs more
research in humans to demonstrate
and confirm benefits.
BETA-ALANINE is another critical
supplement to take before workouts,
especially with creatine, as in
CRITICAL WORKOUT. Beta-alanine
is a special kind of amino acid that
forms the molecule carnosine in
muscle fibres. Having higher levels
of carnosine in the muscles allows
them to contract with more strength
and for longer. Research confirms
that athletes taking beta-alanine
make greater gains in muscle
strength, endurance and size. One
study also showed that taking
beta-alanine further improved the
muscle mass gains afforded by
creatine.
GRADE: #####
REASON: Numerous studies and
anecdotal reports support the
benefits of beta-alanine for improving
performance and physique.
CITRULLINE MALATE is the amino
acid citrulline bound to malic acid
(malate). You are probably familiar
with citrulline due to its popularity
in NO boosters. It boosts NO levels
because in the body it gets readily
converted to arginine and then NO.
In fact, there is evidence that taking
citrulline boosts levels of arginine
and NO more than taking arginine
itself does. An increase in NO boosts
blood flow to the working muscles,
which helps to increase energy levels
during the workout. In addition to
this, citrulline blunts fatigue by
aiding in the removal of ammonia
from the body. Malic acid (malate)
is a key component in the citric
acid (Krebs) cycle, which further
enhances energy production during
exercise. Research studies suggest
that supplementing with citrulline
malate significantly enhances
energy production and recovery
rates between bouts of exercise,
which can make a big difference to
your workout stamina.
GRADE: #####
REASON: Impressive research in
humans supports the ability of
citrulline malate to increase NO
levels, boost energy and recovery,
as well as delay fatigue.
VITAMIN B12 is an important B
vitamin and athletes often fail to get
sufficient amounts. B12 is needed
for growing cells that have a high
turnover rate such as muscle tissue
and red blood cells. A lack of B12
often results in anaemia, which can
result in extreme fatigue. Because of
B12s crucial role in the manufacture
of red blood cells, which deliver
oxygen to tissues, supplementation
may enhance the bodys ability to
deliver oxygen and improve athletic
performance.
GRADE: #####
REASON: Very hard to obtain from a
normal diet yet is crucial for energy
production.
VITAMIN B6 is converted to pyri-
doxal-5-phosphate or PLP. PLP is
vital to amino acid and protein
metabolism and also helps in the
breakdown of muscle glycogen to
glucose where working muscles put
glucose to work as energy. One study
showed B6 could increase growth
hormone output with high-intensity
exercise.
GRADE: #####
REASON: Involved in 60 metabolic
reactions in the body, B-6 is crucial. M&F
5
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HOT
BOD
I
ts easy to be so dazzled by
Victoria Gills body that you forget
she has an equally fine brain. Gill,
25, a former stunt cheerleader, finished
third in the bikini fitness class at last
years UKBFF British Champion-
ships. The Doncaster belle,
who is 5 ft 3 ins tall and weighs
108 lbs, has a degree in
psychology and a Masters
degree in international
retailing. Im actually a
bit of a geek, she says. M&F
192
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Deadlift Domination
How to add 30, 50, 100
or more pounds to
your pull in 8 weeks or
less GUARANTEED!
Bands and Chains
Learn exactly how
to use bands and
chains
Supersize Your
Strength
Andys proven
16 week training
programme
Explode Your
Deadlift
Learn how
to master your
deadlift technique
Explode Your Squat
Learn how to
master your squat
technique
A complete guide to
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solution from the
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A comprehensive
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