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Noah D. Manring

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri—Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211

Tipping the Cylinder Block of an Axial-Piston Swash-Plate Type Hydrostatic Machine

Tipping the cylinder block within an axial-piston swash-plate type hydrostatic machine is a phenomenon that results in a momentary and sometimes permanent failure of the ma- chine since the fluid communication between the cylinder block and the valve plate is instantaneously lost. The efforts of this research are to identify the physical contributors of this phenomenon and to specify certain design guidelines that may be used to prevent the failure of cylinder block tipping. This research begins with the mechanical analysis of the machine and presents a tipping criterion based upon the centroidal location of the force reaction between the cylinder block and the valve plate. This analysis is followed by the derivation of the effective pressurized area within a single piston bore and the cylin- der block balance is defined based upon this result. Using standard control volume analysis, the pressure within a single piston bore is examined and it is shown that an approximate pressure profile may be used in place of the more complex representation for this same quantity. Based upon the approximate pressure profile a design criterion is presented which ensures that the pressures within the system never cause the cylinder block to tip. Furthermore, if this criterion is satisfied, it is shown that the worst tipping conditions exist when the system pressures are zero and therefore a criterion governing the design of the cylinder block spring is presented based upon the inertial forces that contribute to the tipping failure. S0022-0434 00 00901-1

Introduction

Background. Swash-plate type axial-piston machines are used within hydraulic circuitry for the efficient transmission of fluid power. These machines may be used as pumps which pro- vide hydraulic power to the circuit or as motors which convert hydraulic power into rotating mechanical power at the output of the circuit. Within the last thirty years an increased interest in their application has been observed and research pertaining to the optimal performance of these machines has appeared with more frequency in the literature. The topic of most interest for these machines has been the optimal control of the swash plate for variable displacement pumps as this control effort provides a sig- nificant influence on the dynamic response of the overall hydrau- lic system. Research of this type can be illustrated by the signifi- cant publications of Manring and Johnson 1 , Schoenau et al. 2 , Kim et al. 3 , and Zeiger and Akers 4 . Another area of signifi- cant interest for these machines has been the overall efficiency of power transmission as their inefficiency has historically been a vice for fluid power transmissions compared to other transmission devices. Literature illustrating this interest would include research done by Pourmovahed 5 , Ezato and Ikeya 6 , and McCandlish and Dorey 7 . Though many research efforts have been made in the area of machine control and performance, little academic at- tention has been paid to the machine design characteristic which describe the operating limits of the machine. One such topic per- tains to the internal phenomenon of cylinder block tipping which may occur under various operating conditions.

Machine Description. Figure 1 shows the general configura- tion of an axial-piston swash-plate type hydrostatic machine. The machine consists of several pistons within a common cylindrical block which are nested in a circular array within the block at equal intervals about the x-axis. As shown in Fig. 1, the cylinder block

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems and Control Division for publication in the

JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript

received by the Dynamic Systems and Control Division October 3, 1997. Associate Technical Editor: R. S. Chandran.

is held tightly against a valve plate using the force of the com- pressed cylinder-block spring and a less obvious pressure force which will be described later. A thin film of oil separates the valve plate from the cylinder block which, under normal operating con- ditions, forms a hydrodynamic bearing between the two parts. A ball-and-socket joint connects the base of each piston to a slipper. The slippers themselves are kept in reasonable contact with the swash plate by a retainer not shown in Fig. 1 and a hydrody- namic bearing surface separates the slippers from the swash plate. The swash-plate angle is generally controlled by an external con- trol mechanism but for the purposes of this research will be con- sidered a fixed position. While the valve plate is held in a fixed position, the coupled shaft and cylinder block are driven about the x-axis at a angular speed, , which will also be considered a constant in the follow- ing analysis. During this motion, each piston periodically passes over the discharge and intake ports on the valve plate. Further- more, because the slippers are held against the inclined plane of the swash plate, the pistons undergo an oscillatory displacement in and out of the cylinder block. As the pistons pass over the intake port, the piston withdraws from the cylinder block and fluid is drawn into the piston bore. As the pistons pass over the discharge port, the piston advances into the cylinder block and fluid is

the piston advances into the cylinder block and fluid is Fig. 1 General machine configuration 216

Fig. 1

General machine configuration

216 Õ Vol. 122, MARCH 2000

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pushed out of the piston bore. This motion repeats itself for each revolution of the machine and the basic task of displacing fluid is accomplished. If the discharge fluid is at a higher pressure than the intake fluid the machine is operating as a pump. If the intake fluid is at a higher pressure than the discharge fluid the machine is operating as a motor.

Objectives. Figure 1 and the previous discussion have de- scribed the normal operation of an axial-piston swash-plate type hydrostatic machine; however, what may not be obvious from this discussion is that the cylinder block will tend to lift or tip away from the valve plate during various operating conditions. This phenomenon results in a momentary and sometimes permanent failure of the machine since the fluid communication between the cylinder block and the valve plate is instantaneously lost. The efforts of this research are to identify the physical contributors of this phenomenon and to specify certain design guidelines that may be used to prevent the failure of cylinder block tipping. This re- search begins with the mechanical analysis of the machine and presents a tipping criterion based upon the centroidal location of the reaction force between the cylinder block and the valve plate. This analysis is followed by the derivation of the effective pres- surized area within a single piston bore and the cylinder block balance is defined based upon this result. Using standard control volume analysis, the pressure within a single piston bore is exam- ined and it is shown that an approximate pressure profile may be used in place of the more complex representation of this same quantity. Based upon the approximate pressure profile, a design criterion is presented which ensures that the pressures within the system never cause the cylinder block to tip. Furthermore, if this criterion is satisfied, it is shown that the worst tipping conditions exist when the system pressures are zero and therefore a criterion governing the design of the cylinder block spring is presented based upon the inertial forces that contribute to the tipping failure.

Governing Equations

Cylinder Block Free-Body-Diagram. The free-body- diagram of the cylinder block is shown in Fig. 2. This diagram illustrates the reaction between the cylinder block and the shaft

F

and F p n , the reaction between the valve plate and the

cylinder block (F v ), the reaction between the cylinder block and the spring (F sp ), and the pressure force within the nth cylinder bore (A b P n ). By summing the forces that act on the cylinder block in the x-direction and setting them equal to zero the follow- ing governing equation results:

, and T , the reaction between the nth piston and piston

bore F p n

y

sh

, F

sh

y

z

z

N

0 F sp F v

n 1

A b P n ,

(1)

where A b is the effective pressurized area within a single piston bore of the cylinder block and will be discussed later. Similar to Eq. 1 , the forces acting on the cylinder block in the y- and z-directions may be summed and set equal to zero as follows:

-directions may be summed and set equal to zero as follows: Fig. 2 Cylinder block free-body-diagram

Fig. 2

Cylinder block free-body-diagram

Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control

Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control and Fig. 3 Piston-slipper assembly free-body-diagram 0 0 F

and

Fig. 3

Piston-slipper assembly free-body-diagram

0

0

F

F

y

sh

z

sh

N

n 1

N

n 1

F

F

y

p n

z

p n

,

(2)

.

(3)

Summing the moments acting on the cylinder block about the origin of the y- and z-axis and setting them equal to zero yields the following results:

and

N N

0 F

z

sh

l s

n 1

z

F p n

l n F v E z

n 1

A b P n r sin n ,

N N

0 F

y

sh

l s

n 1

y

F p n

l n F v E y

n 1

A b P n r cos n ,

(4)

(5)

where E y and E z locate the centroid of the valve-plate reaction force, F v .

Piston-Slipper Assembly Free-Body-Diagram. The forces acting on a single piston-slipper assembly are shown in Fig. 3. These forces result from the pressure within the nth piston bore (A p P n ), the equal and opposite reaction of the cylinder block

and F p n , and the net reaction

between the nth slipper and the swash plate (F sw n ). Summing the forces acting on the nth piston-slipper assembly in the x-direction and setting them equal to the time rate-of-change of linear mo- mentum for the entire assembly in this direction yields the follow- ing result:

against the nth piston F p n

y

z

tan 2 sin n F sw n cos A p P n , (6)

where M is the total mass of the piston-slipper assembly and is the shaft speed of the machine. Similar to Eq. 6 , the governing equations of translational motion for the assembly in the y- and z-directions are given by

Mr 2 cos n F p n , (7)

Mr

y

and

Mr 2 sin n F sw n sin F p n .

z

(8)

If it is assumed that the center-of-mass for the piston-slipper as- sembly is located within the vicinity of the piston-slipper ball- joint it may be shown that the time rate-of-change of angular momentum for the piston-slipper assembly about the origin is equal to zero for constant swash-plate angles and shaft speeds. Summing the moments acting on the assembly about the z-axis and setting them equal to zero yields

0 F sw n cos A p P n r cos n F p n l n . (9)

y

MARCH 2000, Vol. 122 Õ 217

Symmetry Considerations. Since the piston bores are spaced evenly about the shaft axis in a circular array within the cylinder block, it may be shown that the following simplifications arise due to symmetry:

N

n 1

N

sin n

n 1

N

cos n

n 1

sin n cos n 0

N

n 1

N

sin 2 n

n 1

cos 2 N 2 .

(10)

Tipping Criterion.

The cylinder block will tip away from the

valve plate when the radial location, E 2 y E z 2 , of the valve-plate reaction force, F v , exceeds the radial perimeter of the outer most point of potential contact on the cylinder block. This dimension,

ˆ which equals R b o for the design

or radial perimeter, is given by R

shown in Fig. 2 and the tipping criterion is expressed mathemati- cally as

E E y

2 E z 2 R .

ˆ

(11)

Piston Pressure

Figure 4 shows a piston as it operates within its bore where the volume of fluid within the bore is taken as the control volume of study. The pressure outside the piston bore, P b , is shown to vary with time to simulate the fact that as the cylinder block rotates about the x-axis, this pressure repeatedly changes from the dis- charge pressure, P d , to the intake pressure, P i . The discharge area of the piston bore, A o , is also shown to vary with time to model the transition regions on the valve plate where the slots provide a variable opening into each port. The pressure-rise-rate equation for the control volume shown in Fig. 4 may be derived based upon the conservation of mass and the definition of the fluid bulk modulus. This result is given by

dP

dt

V

Q

dV

dt

.

(12)

If it is assumed that the flow in and out of the piston bore occurs at a high velocity and thus a high Reynolds-number the flow rate Q may be modeled using the classical orifice equation given by

Q sign P b P C d A o 2 P b P ,

(13)

where the ‘‘sign’’ function takes on the value 1 depending upon the sign of its argument, C d is the orifice discharge-coefficient, and P b is the boundary pressure outside the control volume either P i or P d . The instantaneous volume of the nth piston-bore may be determined from geometry and is given by

V V o A p r tan sin . (14)

For a constant speed machine dt d / . Using this result with Eqs. 12 , 13 , and 14 , the pressure rise-rate within a single piston chamber may be written as

rise-rate within a single piston chamber may be written as Fig. 4 Schematic of a piston-bore

Fig. 4

Schematic of a piston-bore control volume

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a piston-bore control volume 218 Õ Vol. 122, MARCH 2000 Fig. 5 A numerical pressure-profile for

Fig. 5 A numerical pressure-profile for the nth piston exhibit- ing essentially no overshoot or undershoot in the transition

regions

dP

d V o A p r tan sin sign P b P C d A o

2 P b P

A p r tan cos .

(15)

Equation 15 is a nonlinear, first-order, differential equation that must be solved numerically. Figure 5 shows a typical numeri- cal result of Eq. 15 . Note that both pressure, P, and port area, A o , are plotted in this figure. As shown in Fig. 5, the typical numerical solution to Eq. 15 demonstrates rather uninteresting behavior for the pressure, P. As the piston bore passes over either the intake port or the discharge port of the valve plate, the port area, A o , remains at a maximum constant. Within these regions, the pressure within the nth piston-bore also appears to remain fairly constant i.e., P P i or P d . The two ports on the valve plate are bridged by transition regions where A o goes from a maximum value to a minimum value, slowly grows within the

transition slot, and then quickly returns to the original maximum

value. As the nth piston-bore passes over the transition regions, the pressure changes almost linearly from one port pressure to the other. Figure 6 shows another result of this study where the pressure drop between ports has been reduced. Figure 6 represents a run using one sixth of the discharge pressure of Fig. 5. From Fig. 6 it can be seen that a lower pressure drop between ports tends to create significant pressure spikes within the transition regions of the valve plate. The reason for this peculiarity is strictly a result of the volumetric compression and expansion within the chamber. In the first case, the chamber volume decreases at a rate faster than the fluid can squeeze out through the port. If the boundary pres- sure is not sufficiently large compared to the starting pressure, volumetric compression of the fluid will cause the pressure within the piston bore to overshoot the approaching boundary condition.

piston bore to overshoot the approaching boundary condition. Fig. 6 ing overshoot and undershoot in the

Fig. 6

ing overshoot and undershoot in the transition regions

A numerical pressure-profile for the nth piston exhibit-

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Approximate pressure-profile. The magnitude of the discharge pressure is referenced from the magnitude of the

Approximate pressure-profile. The magnitude of the

discharge pressure is referenced from the magnitude of the intake pressure.

Fig. 7

In the second case, the chamber volume increases at a rate faster than the fluid can enter the piston bore. If the boundary pressure is not sufficiently small compared to the starting pressure, the pres- sure within the piston bore will undershoot the approaching boundary pressure. In either case, the pressure relaxes itself back to the appropriate boundary condition once sufficient flow is per- mitted by an increase in discharge or intake area. Figures 5 and 6 show two different characteristics of the pres- sure within the piston bore. While both of these characteristics are real, it should be noted that the profile of Fig. 6 is encountered much less often than that of Fig. 5. In other words, the more uninteresting result is the more common. For this reason, it has become popular in industry to represent the pressure profile of the piston using the schematic of Fig. 7. This schematic emphasizes that the piston sees a constant pressure as it passes directly over either port and that it undergoes a transition in pressure as it passes over the slots on the valve plate. This transition occurs through some average angular-distance which is noted in Fig. 7 as . The angular distance, , is referred to as the pressure carry-over angle on the valve plate. Since Eq. 15 is complicated to solve, it is sometimes conve- nient to express the pressure within the nth piston bore using a discontinuous though much simpler expression. This expression assumes that the pressure remains constant as the piston passes over either the intake or discharge ports and that the pressure transition between ports occurs linearly over the range of the pres- sure carryover angle, . This expression is written as

P n

P

d

P d m n /2

P i

P i m n 3 /2

where m ( P d P i )/ .

3 /2 n /2

/2 n /2

/2 n 3 /2

3 /2 n 3 /2 ,

(16)

Effective Pressurized Area

In the previous analysis an effective pressurized area within a single piston-bore, A b , was used to provide a pressure force that clamped the cylinder block onto the valve plate. In general, this force is a result of the effective pressurized area inside the piston bore minus the effective pressurized area outside the piston bore. Figure 8 illustrates both of these pressurized areas. To calculate the effective pressurized area outside the piston bore, one must consider three regions of the diametrical land on the cylinder block: an outer region, a center region, and an inner region. See Fig. 8. The pressurized area inside the piston bore is simply the area of a single piston, A p . To determine the effective pressurized area of a single piston bore it is assumed for calculation purposes that all piston bores are pressurized to the same level, P n . In this analysis the fluid-film thickness between the cylinder block and the valve plate, h, is

Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control

h , is Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control Fig. 8 A schematic of the

Fig. 8 A schematic of the pressure-profile on the cylinder block near the valve plate.

considered to be constant and the governing fluid equation is as- sumed to be the radial version of the static one-dimensional Rey- nolds equation given by

dr h 3 dP

d

dr

r

0,

(17)

where r is now a general radial dimension away from the center- line of the cylinder block and P is the fluid pressure at this loca- tion. Using this equation and the boundary conditions given by

and P b o (r R b o ) 0, it can be shown that the

pressure in the outer region of the diametrical land is given by

P b o (r r b o ) P n

P b o P n 1

ln r/r b o

o .

ln R b o /r b

(18)

Similarly, using Eq. 17 and the boundary conditions given by

in-

side region of the diametrical land on the cylinder block may be expressed

P b i (r r b i ) 0 and P b i (r R b i ) P n the pressure within the

P b i P n

ln r/r b i

ln R b i /r

b i .

(19)

By integrating Eqs. 18 and 19 over the entire area of their respective boundaries, adding the pressurized force acting on the center region of the diametrical land, and subtracting the force of each pressurized piston bore, the net pressure force acting on the cylinder block is given by

2

b o P b o rdr 2 r b i

r b o

R

R b i P b i rdr P n r b o R b i

2

2

P n NA p

2

R b o

r b 2

2

R b i

P n

2

o

r b i

2

ln R b o /r b o P n 2

ln R b i /r b i P n NA p ,

(20)

where N is the total number of piston bores within the cylinder block. It can now be seen that Eq. 20 must equal NA b P n , where A b is the effective pressurized area within a single piston bore. This quantity may then be expressed

A b A p

R b o

2N ln R b o /r b o

2

r b

o

2

2

R b i

2

r b i

.

ln R b i /r b i

(21)

The result of Eq. 21 must be used to calculate the pressure clamping force within a single bore; however, it is more common in industry to talk about the cylinder-block balance, B b , rather than the effective pressurized area of a single piston bore, A b . These two quantities are related as follows:

,

where typical values for B b range between 0.90 and 1.00.

B b A p A b A p

2NA p ln R b o /r b o

R b o

r b

o

2

2

2

R b i

2

r b i

ln R b i /r b i

(22)

MARCH 2000, Vol. 122 Õ 219

Design Considerations

General.

Using the results presented in Eqs. 1 10 , it may be shown that the instantaneous radial distance of the valve-plate

reaction force relative to the centerline of the shaft is given by

E

N

n 1

A b P n r cos n 2

N

n 1

N

A p tan 2 A b P n r sin n

n 1

A p P n tan l s N Mr 2 2 tan 1 tan 2 2

2

N

F sp

n 1

A b P n

.

(23)

To evaluate Eq. 23 , the instantaneous results of Eq. 15 must be used to determine the pressure within each piston chamber of the machine. If an average result for Eq. 23 is desired, the summation signs may be replaced by (N/2 ) 0 and the expressions to the right may be integrated with respect to n while using Eq. 16 to approximate the pressure within the nth piston chamber. This average result is given by

2

E N

¯

A p tan 2 A b P d P i

2

N

r N

2

A p P d P i tan l s N Mr 2 2 tan 1 tan 2 2

2

A b P d P i r 2

F sp N

2

A b P d P i

.

(24)

P i r 2 F sp N 2 A b P d P i . (24)
P i r 2 F sp N 2 A b P d P i . (24)

To evaluate the tipping conditions of the cylinder block, these results should be used with Eq. 11 .

Pressure Criterion. For safety purposes it is important to design a cylinder block that never allows for tipping due to a sudden rise in pressure. By taking the limit of Eq. 24 as P d or P i goes to infinity, and using the result of Eq. 11 it can be shown that the pressure criterion may be satisfied if

2r

2

tan 1 B b

l s

1

tan 2 1 B b

r 2

ˆ

R .

(25)

Clearly, if l s and are zero, Eq. 25 is satisfied since the location of the valve-plate reaction will never exceed the piston pitch ra- dius, r, as the pressure goes to infinity. If l s remains zero, it may still be shown that reasonable values of will not cause the cyl- inder block to tip either. On the other hand, large values of l s may create problems and therefore this parameter should be designed as close to zero as possible. Physically speaking, the dimension l s describes the difference between the location where the cylinder block wants to carry the shaft load and where it actually does. The location of the desired load carrying point is given by the origin of the coordinate system in Fig. 2. This origin is defined by the point at the intersection of the shaft centerline and the plane which intersects each piston-slipper ball-joint and must necessarily lie outside the main body of the cylinder block. For this reason cyl- inder blocks utilize a block hub which extends over the desired load carrying point on the shaft i.e., the origin of the coordinate system in Fig. 2 . A gross illustration of violating this principle would be to place the cylinder-block/shaft connection at the other end of the cylinder block which is near the valve plate. While this would provide an adequate means for exerting torque on the cyl- inder block about the shaft centerline, it would provide an inad- equate means for resisting the side load between the cylinder block and the shaft. This design would result in a large value for l s which would most likely violate Eq. 25 and create a large pressure moment about the y-axis. For a design of this type the cylinder block would tip away from the valve-plate as the working pressures increased.

Inertia Criterion. If Eq. 25 is satisfied, it can been shown that the cylinder block will never tip due to increased pressures within the system. Furthermore, it may also be shown that in- creased pressures for a design of this type will actually resist

220 Õ Vol. 122, MARCH 2000

cylinder block tipping and therefore the worst tipping condition will occur when the pressures are zero. By neglecting the pressure terms in Eq. 24 or Eq. 23 and utilizing the tipping criterion of Eq. 11 it is clear that the centrifugal inertia moment of each piston-slipper assembly remains and that this tipping effect in- creases quadratically with the speed of the machine. Rearranging the terms of the tipping criterion for a nontipping cylinder block for the zero pressure condition yields the following design con-

straint for the cylinder-block spring:

F sp NMr 2 max

2

tan 1 tan 2

ˆ

2R

,

(26)

where max is the maximum operating speed of the machine. It should be emphasized that the machine may run successfully at speeds which exceed max provided that a sufficient pressure is maintained within the system to resist the inertial component.

Conclusion

This research has been aimed at identifying the physics that contribute to the tipping of the cylinder block within an axial- piston swash-plate type machine. In particular, it has been shown that the cylinder block will tip away from the valve plate when the radial location of the valve-plate reaction force exceeds the radial perimeter of the outer most point of potential contact on the cyl- inder block. This tipping criterion is mathematically shown in Eq. 11 . The instantaneous and average radial location of the valve- plate reaction is shown in Eqs. 23 and 24 , respectively. In general, it is noted that two types of phenomena may contribute to the tipping of the cylinder block: 1 pressure forces and 2 cen- trifugal inertia forces. To avoid cylinder block tipping due to pres- sure forces the design criterion of Eq. 25 must be satisfied. This criterion illustrates the importance of the cylinder block hub as its proper location ensures that a pressure moment will not be exerted on the cylinder block about the y-axis. To avoid tipping due to inertia forces, the design criterion of Eq. 26 must be satisfied. This criterion shows that the assembled load of the cylinder block spring must be sufficiently large relative to the inertial compo- nents. This equation provides a guideline for designing the cylin- der block spring and identifies the no-load speed limitations of the machine.

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Nomenclature

A

b effective pressurized area within a single piston bore

A

o discharge flow area

A

p area of a single piston

B

b cylinder block balance

C

d discharge coefficient

E

y location of the valve-plate reaction in the y-direction

E z location of the valve-plate reaction in the z-direction

y

F p n

z

F p n

F

F

F

y

sh

z

sh

nth piston reaction in the y-direction

nth piston reaction in the z-direction

shaft reaction in the y-direction

shaft reaction in the z-direction

sp assembled spring load

F sw n swash plate reaction on the nth slipper

F v valve-plate reaction

h fluid film thickness

l n location of the nth piston reaction

l s location of the shaft reaction

M

mass of a single piston-slipper assembly

m

pressure transition slope

N

total number of pistons

n

counter e.g., the nth piston

P

fluid pressure

P b boundary pressure either P i or P d

P b i pressure across the inner region of the diametrical land

P b o pressure across the outer region of the diametrical land

P d discharge pressure

P i intake pressure

Q

volumetric flow rate

ˆ

R

outermost radial point of contact on the cylinder block

R b i outside radius of the inner region of the diametrical land

Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control

R b o outside radius of the outer region of the diametrical land

r piston pitch radius; radial dimension

r b i inside radius of the inner region of the diametrical land r b o inside radius of the outer region of the diametrical land

T

shaft torque reaction on the cylinder block

t

time

V instantaneous piston volume V o piston volume at zero swash-plate angle swash plate angle fluid bulk modulus pressure carry-over angle rotation dimension about the shaft centerline fluid mass density angular shaft and cylinder block speed

References

1 Manring, N., and Johnson, R., 1996, ‘‘Modeling and designing a variable- displacement open-loop pump,’’ ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 118, pp.

267–271.

2 Schoenau, G., Burton, R., and Kavanagh, G., 1990, ‘‘Dynamic Analysis of a Variable Displacement Pump,’’ ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 112, pp.

122–132.

3 Kim, S., Cho, H., and Lee, C., 1987, ‘‘A Parameter Sensitivity Analysis for the Dynamic Model of a Variable Displacement Axial Piston Pump,’’ Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 201, pp. 235–243. 4 Zeiger, G., and Akers, A., 1985, ‘‘Torque on the Swashplate of an Axial Piston Pump,’’ ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 107, pp. 220–26. 5 Pourmovahed, A., 1992, ‘‘Uncertainty in the efficiencies of a hydrostatic pump/motor,’’ Proceedings of the Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Anaheim, CA. 6 Ezato, M., and Ikeya, M., 1986, ‘‘Sliding Friction Characteristics Between a Piston and a Cylinder for Starting and Low-Speed Conditions in the Swashplate-Type Axial Piston Motor,’’ 7th International Fluid Power Sympo- sium, Bath, England. 7 McCandlish, D., and Dorey, R., 1981, ‘‘Steady-State Losses in Hydrostatic Pumps and Motors.’’ 6th International Fluid Power Symposium, St. Johns’s Colleges, Cambridge, England.

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