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GSM and IS-95 (aka cdmaOne) are the two most prevalent mobile communication technologies.

Both technologies have to solve the same problem: to divide the finite RF spectrum among multiple users. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access - underlying technology used in GSM's 2G) does it by chopping up the channel into sequential time slices. Each user of the channel takes turns to transmit and receive signals. In reality, only one person is actually using the channel at a specific moment. This is analogous to time-sharing on a large computer server. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access - underlying technology used in GSM's 3G and IS-95's 2G) on the other hand, uses a special type of digital modulation called spread spectrum which spreads the voice data over a very wide channel in pseudorandom fashion. The receiver undoes the randomization to collect the bits together and produce the sound. As a trivial comparison imagine a cocktail party, where couples are talking to each other in a single room. The room represents the available bandwidth. In GSM, a speaker takes turns talking to a listener. The speaker talks for a short time and then stops to let another pair talk. There is never more than one speaker talking in the room, no one has to worry about two conversations mixing. In CDMA, any speaker can talk at any time; however each uses a different language. Each listener can only understand the language of their partner. As more and more couples talk, the background noise (representing the noise floor) gets louder, but because of the difference in languages, conversations do not mix. Advantages of 2G GSM * GSM is mature; this maturity means a more stable network with robust features. * Less signal deterioration inside buildings. * Ability to use repeaters. * Talktime is generally higher in GSM phones due to the pulse nature of transmission. * The availability of Subscriber Identity Modules allows users to switch networks and handsets at will. * GSM covers virtually all parts of the world so international roaming is not a problem. [edit] Disadvantages of 2G GSM * Pulse nature of TDMA transmission used in 2G interferes with some electronics, especially certain audio amplifiers. 3G uses W-CDMA now. * Intellectual property is concentrated among a few industry participants, creating barriers to entry for new entrants and limiting competition among phone manufacturers. * GSM has a fixed maximum cell site range of 35 km, which is imposed by technical limitations. [1] [edit] Advantages of IS-95 * Capacity is IS-95's biggest asset. It can accommodate more users per MHz of bandwidth than any other technology. * IS-95 has no built-in limit to the number of concurrent users. * IS-95 uses precise clocks that do not limit the distance a tower can cover. [2] * IS-95 consumes less power and covers large areas so cell size in IS-95 is larger. * IS-95 is able to produce a reasonable call with lower signal (cell phone reception) levels. * IS-95 uses soft handoff, reducing the likelihood of dropped calls.

* IS-95's variable rate voice coders reduce the rate being transmitted when speaker is not talking, which allows the channel to be packed more efficiently. * Has a well-defined path to higher data rates. [edit] Disadvantages of IS-95 * Most technologies are patented and must be licensed from Qualcomm. * Breathing of base stations, where coverage area shrinks under load. As the number of subscribers using a particular site goes up, the range of that site goes down. * Because IS-95 towers interfere with themselves, they are normally installed on much shorter towers. Because of this, IS-95 may not perform well in hilly terrain. * IS-95 covers a smaller portion of the world, and IS-95 phones are generally unable to roam internationally. * Manufacturers are often hesitant to release IS-95 devices due to the smaller market, so features are sometimes late in coming to IS-95 devices.

Feature of GSM:GSM is together to other technologies and evolution of wireless mobile telecommunication that provide high speed circuit-switched data (HSCSD) GPRS is enhancing the data rate for GSM evolution (EDGE) and universal mobile telecommunication and service (UMTS). Security issue:GSM security issues such as theft of service, legal and privacy interception continue to raise signification interest in the General Service for Mobile community. Advantages: GSM is more suitable network with robust pitfall. Low signal inside the building and house. The subscriber globally creates much better in network effect for GSM handset makers carries and end users. It can be use repeaters. A customer has been better voice quality and low cost amount in alternatives to making cells like (sms) etc. It is easy to implement. International roaming is not a big problem. GSM allow network operation to after roaming service so that customer can use whole over the world. Disadvantages: Many of the technology are patented and should be license from qualcomm. When customers using particular sites going up and the range of he sites goes down. Manufactures are not release IS-95 devices due to the lack of the big market and it come in late in market. IS-95 is normally installed in small tower. Gsm has fixed max call sites range up to 35 km that is very limited.

Differentiate between GSM and CDMA

GSM - GSM uses multiple frequencies. - Uses TDMA and FDMA for accessing signals. - The voice rate is 9.6 KBPS. - Uses less bandwidth. CDMA - CDMA uses single frequency as carrier. - The voice rate is 14.4 KBPS. - CDMA power control to access method is better as Phased Locked Loops are used. - Follows soft handoff, hence call handling is more efficient