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HKIPhO Training Class Mechanics Assignment 2 Solution

(1)

A person standing on the top of a hill throws out simultaneously at all horizontal directions small stones with identical initial speed vo. Describe the distribution of the stones at a later time t. If the slope of the hill is 45 o at all directions how long will it ta!e for the stones to reach the ground"
r = x $ + y $ = vo t 1 gr $ z = gt $ z = $ $ $v o

Ans# (i)

(ii) %he stones hit the ground when z & r


($)

r =

$ $v o $v = vo t t = o g g

%wo straight rods l1 and l2 are put on a piece of paper as shown in the figure. %he point of crossing of the two rods is denoted by A. %he angle between the two rods is (see figure). 'uppose l1 starts to roll along the paper with speed ( 1 what is the (elocity (speed and direction) of which point A tra(els" )ow about if l2 also rolls with speed ($ (see figure)" l$ l1 A v$

v1

v1 (i)A mo(es along l$ with speed sin . l$ v$

u1

l1

v
u$

v1

v = u1 + u$ * v *$ =* u1 *$ + * u$ *$ $ cos * u1 ** u$ * . v * u1 *= 1 sin (ii) v v $ + v $ $v v cos * u $ * = $ * v *$ = 1 $ $ 1 $ sin sin

(+)

An airplane flies horizontally with speed vo from left to right at height h from the ground. A cannon launches a shell to hit the airplane when the airplane is e,actly abo(e the cannon. -hat is the minimum initial (elocity of the shell for it to hit the airplane" -here will the shell hit the airplane if the initial (elocity is twice the minimum (elocity" .et the (elocity be v and the angle the cannon ma!es with the horizontal be .

v cos( )t = vo t

1 v sin( )t gt $ = h. $

(i) -hen v is minimum the ma,imum height the shell goes is h at this point

(v sin( )) $ v sin( ) = gt =h $ g (elocity is zero i.e.


$ gh = v sin()
$ v = vo + $ gh

vo = v cos()

$ v = $ vo + $ gh cos( ) =

vo
$ $ vo + $ gh

v sin( ) = $

(ii) %here are two solutions for t


t =
$ $ +vo + 0 gh +vo + / gh

+ $ vo + $ gh 4

at positions x = vo t .

(4)

A tennis ball tra(elling with speed vo is hit by a rac!et mo(ing with speed v1. -hat is the ma,imum speed of the ball after being hit" (All speeds are measured relati(e to the ground.) -hat assumption did you ma!e in sol(ing this problem" 1a,imum speed & vo + $v1 . Assumptions# elastic collision and mass of rac!et 22 mass of ball.

(5) A boat tra(els in still water with speed v. )ow long will it ta!e for the boat to ma!e a round trip across a ri(er of width w if the water flows with speed u along the ri(er" )ow about if the round trip is made to a point on the same side of the ri(er at a distance w and bac!"
v cos( )t = $ w v sin( ) = u t = $w v u$
$

(i)
t= w w $vw + = $ u + v u v v u$ .

(ii)

(/) An inclined plane with inclined angle and mass M is placed on a frictionless table. A piece of wood with friction coefficient 3 tan is put on the inclined plane (see figure). A horizontal force F acts on the system as shown in the figure. -hat is the range of magnitude of F where the piece of wood can remain stationary on the inclined plane" m F

%he acceleration of the system due to F is


f = N m * g sin N = m( g cos +

M
F M +m .

a=

F cos * M +m where N & 4ormal force

F sin ) M +m

'ol(ing the e5uations we find


( M + m) g tan tan + F ( M + m) g 1 + tan 1 tan

(6)

A light string passes through a system of $ pulleys mounted at e5ual height as shown in the figure. %he ends of the string are mounted with weights m1 & 4 !g and m$ & $ !g respecti(ely. An ob7ect with weight M is mounted between the $ pulleys. -hat is the range of (alues of M where the system remains at static e5uilibrium"

m1 M

m$

8onsider the force balance condition on the string abo(e mass M. m1 g sin 1 = m$ g sin $ m1 g cos 1 + m$ g cos $ = Mg m1 = $m$ $ sin 1 = sin $ (1) and 4 cos1 + $ cos $ = M ($)
o o 4otice 1 $ < 9: 9: > $ > 1 (from (1)).

1 4 1 sin $ $ + $ cos $ = M 4 (1) ; ($)

1 is ma,imum when $ = : M ma, = /kg 1 is minimum when Alternati(ely you can analyse the problem using triangle ine5ualities. %he idea is that the three balancing forces form a triangle. m1 + m$ > M m1 + M > m$ m$ + M > m1
$ $ m1 > M $ + m$

$ = 9: o M min = 4

+ = $ +kg 4

1 $

(0) A bullet with mass m and tra(els with (elocity v hits an ob7ect on ground with mass M and stays inside the ob7ect. )ow far will the ob7ect mo(e if the coefficient of friction between the ob7ect and the ground is "
mv + M (:) = ( m + M )v f v f = mv m+M

8onser(ation of momentum Assume the friction force is constant & (m + M ) g . %he mass stops when
v f = gt

%herefore the total distance tra(els &

vf (

vf

vf 1 1 mv $ g ( ) $ = ( ) $ g $ g m + M .

(9) A piece of metal plate with length L and mass M is put on ground. %he coefficient of friction between the ground and the metal plate is . A person with mass m runs from one end of the metal plate to the other end and stops suddenly. 'uppose the coefficient of friction between the person and the metal plate is < with < 22 . -hat is the ma,imum distance the metal plate will mo(e along the direction where the person runs" %he person should run with the ma,imum speed possible without ma!ing the metal plate mo(e. In this case the metal plate felt two frictional forces f e5ual in magnitude and opposite in direction where f = (m + M ) g . An e5ual (in magnitude) reaction force acts on the person. %herefore the acceleration of the $L ( m + M ) g
a . -hen the people m person is %he total time this force acts is stops suddenly the plate with mo(e forward together with the person with total

a=

momentum& m(at ) = m

$ La = ( m + M )v f

1 1 m g ( m + M ) m = ( ) $ $L = L m m +M . %he total distance tra(els & $ g $g m + M

v$ f