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Compiled by. Rohib Adrianto Sangia NIM. 137835102 rohib_sangia@yahoo.com


Gerry Knowles: A Cultural History of the English Language The old English period is the era when English has been spoken in Britain since early fifth century and the spoken by three tribes Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, replace Celtic language. The Middle English period the many scholars were interested to increase in fixing a Standard English pronunciation even though the French was dominating. The modern English starts when the introduction of printing, the investigating of changes and language details. English elements such as vocabulary, expressions, and idioms come from a wide range of source, but basically the grammar is come from Germanic and has been modified by French and Latin. The seventeenth-century revolutions and worldwide expansions had made English language as polite part of nation in the effort of maintaining the power. Language also plays important role in categorized as prestigious or non-prestigious and have been significant difference of people with the power. Language changed is facilitated by the development of new technology with the effect is distribution of the power. Language has been improving as long as the improvement of society and follow the momentum, but as the product of civilization, there are many missing link in tracing its origin. The language describes the achievement of individual or group of society which most people recognized. From the end of the eighth century to the eleventh, the people of England were in close contact with invaders and settlers from Denmark and Norway. The Danes and Norwegians are referred together by several names, including Norsemen or Northmen. The generic term now used for their language is Old Norse, although this term can refer specifically to Norwegian. When the events were first recorded, the dominant group with whom the people of England came into contact was the Danes, and as a result Anglo-Saxon writers use the term Dane in a generic sense. A more romantic term is the Vikings, which rises up the image of raiders intent on looting, pillage and murder. In view of their geographical origin, they are also called Scandinavians, but this term ignores the fact that Finland is also part of Scandinavia even though Finnish is not a Germanic language. English and French remained in close contact for over 300 years. When English recurred as the written language of England, and as the spoken language of the upper classes, it was deeply influenced in many different ways by French. These influences were to prove permanent. A significant change was provided by the outbreak in 1337, in the reign of Edward III, of the extended period of war fare between England and France known as the Hundred Years War. The separation of English and French was not confined to language, and covered other areas of culture. Until this time, for example, English architecture had generally followed French architecture; English perpendicular architecture of the fifteenth century is independent of the French flamboyant style. Latin in the medieval period was the language of a European culture which united religion and scholarship, and which was supported by the powers of church and state. Latin had been the language of power for over a thousand years, and as it gradually reduce to English, many of the features and trappings of Latin were recreated in English. Inkhorn terms represented the beginnings of the process of creating Latinate English, the kind of English that was to become the new language of power in England. At the end of the sixteenth century, writers expressed great pride in the English language. In later times writers and romantics were to look back on this period as the golden Page 2

age of the English language. The scholars who celebrated the greatness of the English language used at the court of Queen Elizabeth had nothing to say about the businessmen who were printing and selling their books, or about the practical needs of readers. In the long run, the practice of printers was to have a much greater effect on the way English texts were produced than the theoretical writings of scholars. After 1660, texts quite suddenly begin to look remarkably modern. In fact language historians sometimes identify the period from Caxton to the death of Shakespeare in 1616 as a separate period, early Modern English. Texts written in this earlier period have for the modern reader certain strangeness and unfamiliarity about them. It is not so much in the words themselves-although these will have unfamiliar spellings and will be used in unfamiliar senses-nor is it in the grammar. It is in the way people express themselves, and how they take for granted that texts should be constructed. After 1660, words are still used in unfamiliar senses and still have unfamiliar spellings, but the texts as a whole are much more straight forward for the modern reader and easier to understand. It can be concluded that the revolutionary decades were an important period of linguistic transition. By the nineteenth century, English had become the language of a worldwide empire, and it was beginning to be influenced by its worldwide context. The spread of English by native-speaker settlers to places such as Australia and New Zealand is remarkably parallel to the development of Old English and American English. English was introduced as a second language in places such as India, China and other countries of the east. Here the early English traders encountered ancient civilizations which they recognized as at least as advanced as their own. Within a generation of the invention of the computer, the computer industry was established on a global scale, using English as its language. As the computer culture has expanded into large-scale databases, electronic mail (e-mail) and so on, the expansion of English has followed, and the technology is so designed that the user needs to interacting English. As we all agree from this book, it gives us lot information, how Englishmen maintain their language as well as their power. The history has proved how English as the language the successor from some the great ancient civilization Greek and Roman. This book has clearly explain, the maintaining and the development of English as a language to people of the world, faced with many problem and opportunity which has been well done passed by the side who take in charge and concerns for this language. The other things that interesting are how this language is self-transform and development all the times. The scholars are very excited with English and use them in many aspects of life. This reason is one of the factor how this language development rapidly. From the literature which gives people opinion until amusing the people around the world. Another thing which is dominant in spreading English language around the world is the power. Power from the British people around the world has changed the face of civilization before and after. With their politics, the British Empire has injected their culture to the in lander all around the countries, which are connected with the British power. I believe that English language is a product of culture and civilization of world now days. But we can predict the future accurately, but we can see the reality from the civilization before, everything will not last forever. The question is when it will be replaced

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Ronald Carter: INVESTIGATING ENGLISH DISCOURSE Language, literacy and literature This first part of these investigations is about the English as the learning subject in the school of countries. As carter explains that, the position of the English language learning in the curriculum has been the issued recently. The next investigation is about the new ways in teaching grammar as an element in studying English language. Carter moved his writing in investigating some problems, from the political intervention of English national curricula in England and wales, the importance of literacy development in maintaining the differ of spoken and written English, and the last is questioning the relationship between discourse, literacy and pedagogy. In the discussion of the ideal national curriculum of English language, carter offers some opinion. The first purpose is the study of language should be rooted in texts and contexts. The second is the study of the modern English language must be principled and systematic. The third is the study of the modern English language should be intimately connected with a study of the social and cultural change. Final purpose is the study of modern English language must recognize that the study of literature is central. New-style grammar is functionally oriented, related to the study of texts and responsive to social purposes. It provides a basis for developing in students of English an awareness of and knowledge about language which can be both enriching and motivating as well as relevant to the main parameters of an English curriculum. It will need to be a newstyle grammar teaching, not an old-style grammar teaching. It is unlikely that the return to grammar will restore the kinds of codes and values old-style grammar is believed by many people in authority to symbolize. The Language in the National Curriculum (LINC) materials for England and Wales need to be further adapted in three main ways. First, materials on reading should be developed to exemplify in greater detail what a mixed methods approach to reading entails. Second, supplements to existing units are needed on differences between spoken and written English, particularly in relation to the teaching of punctuation, which depends crucially on the relationship between grammatical structure and the rhythms and contours of speech. Third, more examples are needed to show how literary texts can stimulate enhanced knowledge about language, especially the history of the language, and how greater linguistic knowledge underpins literary appreciation. One of the main theoretical and practical implications is that the term literature is not defined in any exclusive sense. Literary uses of language and the necessary skills for its interpretation go routinely with all kinds of text, spoken and written. Literature exists at many different levels for different people in different communities but it is argued here that literary language is not simply any use of language. The sooner language learners can come to appreciate this central component of language are essentially creative. In the future pedagogies and related tests for literary language development are likely to be all the richer for recognizing this reality. The focus on spoken and written language can, however, is read as symptomatic and as illustrative of the complex relationship between knowledge about language, on the part of teachers and students, and literacy skills. The more we reflect on spoken, written and standard language and on the discourses of society which produce language and views of language the stronger our own frameworks become for analyzing, supporting and Page 4

developing students language and literacy. The more teachers and students know about speech and writing as systems of language organization and language function, the better will they be able to manipulate those systems as users of Standard English. Language and literature can be integrated in the English curriculum; the marriage of language and literature is more likely to be successful if language is viewed as social discourse and if too great a degree of formalism in theory and in analytical practice is eschewed and if a more inclusive principle of text selection is adopted. Investigating the discourses of language and literature study raises seminal questions about the nature of language and the nature of literature; the questions pertain both to theory and to classroom practice. The teaching of language and literature should further develop pedagogies which relate organically to the relevant study and research paradigms. Literary language use has to be defined with reference to sociolinguistic theories of discourse and this chapter does no more than take a small step in that direction. But in the world of English language and literary studies stylisticians have, for better or for worse, always been those prepared to argue for the need for one small step at a time. Teaching of English as a second or foreign language, opportunities should be sought for more extensive and integrated study of language and literature. It is recognized at the same time, however, that to examine the language of the text is to examine only one feature of literary organization and of what makes up a work of literature. Some of the language activities and work with models on the literariness of texts can aid such development, and responses can best develop with increased response to and confidence in working with the language in a variety of integrated activities, with language-based hypotheses and in classes where investigative, student-centered learning is the norm. Stylistics is essentially a bridge discipline between linguistics and literature it is inevitable that there will be arguments about the design of the bridge, its purpose, the nature of the materials and about the side it should be built from. Stylistics as a discipline can be effectively taught at a wider range of levels. A helpful starting point may be to suggest that the practice of stylistics comes about at any point of intersection of the language of a text with the elements which constitute the literariness of that text. The integration of language and literary study for mutual benefit and synthesis at a range of pedagogical levels can develop if the sort of policy for a comparative stylistics is given further consideration and exploration. This book has explained all Carters idea in facing the challenge of discourse of language and literature recently. As the expert, he gives some solution for the current issues of English curriculum policy especially the object of his research both in England and wales. The profession in his articles gives the opportunities to the policy maker in order to improve the English curriculum by integrating the two major disciplines language and literature as the two aspects which can be correlated and collaborated in achieving the goals in English learning. He also pointed the urgency of using Standard English in daily conversation as the important skills for the English learner by differing both spoken and written English. Finally, his works hopefully can be good references for the further theory of modern English learning by the researcher in seeking the better curriculum design not only for the countries which English as the first language but also the countries which English as their second or foreign language.

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