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Permutations and Combinations Multiplication Principle:

-- Section 8.6 --

Let E1 and E2 be two events. E1 can be performed in a1 ways. E2 can be performed in a2 ways. Event E1 followed by event E2 can be performed in a1 a2 ways. An Ordered arrangement of objects P(n,r) = t e n!mber of perm!tations of n objects ta"en r at a time. An Un-Ordered arrangement of objects #(n,r) = t e n!mber of combinations of n objects ta"en r at a time.

Permutation:

Combination:

#lic" ere for $actorial% &erm!tations and #ombinations calc!lator

Lets say ' people (Andy% Betty% and Clark) compete in a r!nning race. (ow many diffe o!tcomes are possible)
This a permutation because order is important. There 6 different outcomes possible.

1st Place Andy Andy Betty Betty Clark Clark Sol e

2nd Place Betty Clark Clark Andy Andy Betty Step


Permutation Formula Take 3 objects from 3 objects

3rd Place Clark Betty Andy Clark Betty Andy Spot C!eck

P(n% n) = n*

+o! can also view t is problem as '* = ' , 2 , 1 = -. . at is% ow many different ways can ' objects be arrangement) . ere are ' c oices for t e first spot. . at leaves 2 c oices left for second spot. After t e first 2 spots are c osen% t ere is 1 left for t e 'rd spot.

/ people are standing in a line. (ow many different o!tcomes are possible) 01ol!tion2

3n ow many ways can yo! select a committee of ' people from a gro!p of 12 members)
This is a combination because the 3 person committee are not ordered.

Sol e
Combination Formula

Step

You can cancel the 9!'s

C(12% ') = 224

220 different 3 people committees

3n ow many ways can yo! select a committee of 5 people from a gro!p of 14 members) 01ol!tion2

3n ow many ways can yo! select a committee of ' people from a gro!p of 12 members) . e committee members consist of a c airperson% treas!rer and a secretary.
This is a permutation because the 3 person committee is ordered because each person has a position. For example !nd" # Chair$ Betty - Treasurer$ Clark - %ecretar" is different from !nd" # Treasurer$ Betty - Chair$ Clark - %ecretar"

Sol e

Step
Permutation Formula You can cancel the 9!'s

P(12% ') = 1'24

!20 different 3 person committees

3n ow many ways can yo! select a committee of 5 people from a gro!p of 14 members) . e committee members consist of a c airperson% treas!rer% officer% and a secretary. 01ol!tion2

A women as 5 blo!ses% ' s"irts and and / pairs of s oes. Ass!ming t e woman does not care w at s e loo"s li"e% ow many different o!tfits can s e wear) Sol e Step &se the 'ultiplication Principle # Click here 5 , ' , / = -4
%he has ( ) 3 ) * + ,- different outfits.

License plates for cars ave to be !ni6!e. 3f a license plate contains c aracters consisting of 2 letters followed by 5 digits example: 782'/5%
o o

ow many different license are possible) ow many different license are possible if letters were allowed to repeated b!t n!mbers are not allowed to be repeated) 01ol!tion2