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Biomass gasification technologies for advanced power systems and synfuels

- Status and Present R&D activities in Finland


Esa Kurkela

FINNISH SWEDISH FLAME DAYS Naantali, January 29, 2009

VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

Biomass and waste gasification for boilers and kilns

VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

C FB G ASIFIER

Atmospheric-pressure CFB/BFB gasification for kilns and boilers


UNIFLOW CYC LON E

R EACTOR

850 C

GAS IFICA TION AIR FAN

Commercial lime-kiln gasifiers were constructed in 1980s by Ahlstrm Oy New development by Foster Wheeler in 1990s for boiler applications

900 C RETURN LEG B IOFU EL FE ED

A IR PR EHE ATER

Gasifiers are now offered by


Foster Wheeler Carbona/Andritz Metso Power

H OT L OW CAL ORIF IC G AS (750 - 650 C)

Feasible in size range 15-150 MW Fuel drying is often needed to achieve required flame properties

BO TTO M AS H CO OLING S CRE W

From: Foster Wheeler

VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

Efficient utilisation of wastes and biomass residues in existing power plants


a cost-effective way to reduce CO2 emissions of power plants
in operation since 1998 no commissioning problems 50 high 000 fuel operating flexibility hours gasifier availability > 95 % boiler emissions decreased payback time ca. 8 years

Main boiler 360 MW th

Gasifier feed preparation


From: Foster Wheeler

CFB gasifier of 60MW

VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

Corenso gasifier in Varkaus, Finland


gasification of aluminium containing plastic reject material

complete recycling of liquid cartoons (milk & juice packaging) 50 MW gas to boiler, 2100 t/year aluminium for re-use developed by VTT & Foster Wheeler Energia Oy in 1998 - 2000
Plastic reject material with 10 % aluminium

in operation since autumn 2001


Source: T.Anttikoski, Foster Wheeler Energia Oy

From: Foster Wheeler

VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

Gas cleaning: gas cooling followed by filtration

Bed material/ Ca-based additive

Coal burners
Gas cooler

Fuel feeding

Sorbent

Gas burner

Filter

VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

Fuel: SRF (RDF); Ceramic fabric filter (3M FB-900); Cyclone temperature 700-750oC; filter temperature 395oC)
100,0 90,0 80,0 70,0 % of output 60,0 50,0 40,0 30,0 20,0 10,0 0,0 Na K Cl Al Ca Hg Sn Sb As Cd Pb Bottom ash V Mn Co Filter dust Ni Cu Zn Mo Cr Gas Si Mg

Cyclone dust

VTT data from late 1990s

VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

Demonstration by Lahti Energia Oy (Lahti, Kymijrvi)


- SRF fuelled gasification based WtE plant (CHP) - 2 x 80 MW th gasification & gas cleaning trains - 160 MW th gas fired boiler

Gas boiler
Gasifier Gas cooling Gas cleaning

Flue gas cleaning


Bag house, Ca(OH)2+ activated carbon

Steam turbine
RFD
High pressure steam Natural gas/ oil auxiliary fuel

Electricity, process steam

VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

LahtiStreams IP (Advanced Integrated Waste Management and WtE Demonstration)


( Lahti Energia/FI, VTT/FI, L&T/FI, Dong Energy/DK, FZK/D; total budget 23.5 M) )

- Demonstration of complete advanced waste management chain including: > waste processing > material recovery > SRD/RDF production

> advanced high efficiency WtE plant


> further treatment of ashes -R&D of - waste processing and material recovery - improved hot gas cleaning - advanced ash treatment - new gasification based high efficiency WtE technologies

http://www.lahtistreams.com/

VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

From: Metso Power

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VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

Biomass gasification for High-Efficiency Power

VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

EU-BigPower

Biomass Gasification for High Efficiency Power


October 2005 December 2008 Overall Budget for the project: 2 943 k - Financed in part by EU FP6

Gasification systems
Condens Oy, Finland Carbona Oy, Finland Repotec GmbH, Austria Biomasse Kraftwerk Gssing, Austria (Kokemki & Skive sites)

Power production equipment


GE Jenbacher, Austria MTU CFC Solutions GmbH, Germany

Catalytic Gas Cleaning and filtration


MEL Chemicals, United Kingdom NortaUAB, Lithuania Madison Filter Ltd, United Kingdom

R&D organisations supporting industrial development


VTT - Technical Research Centre of Finland TUV - Technical University of Vienna, Austria CERTH - Centre of Research & Technology Hellas,Greece TKK - Helsinki University of Technology, Finland

VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

Dual Fluidised-Bed Steam Gasification


(Repotec, TUV & Biomasse Kraftwerk Gssing)

Biomass-CHP-Plant-Gssing, 2 MWe + 4.5 MW heat


from: Repotec and TUV

Gasification CHP Plant, Denmark


As result of Carbonas domestic and international R&D cooperation
BIOMASS

SKIVE PROCESS DIAGRAM


GAS FILTER TAR REFORMER GAS SCRUBBER FLY ASH 2x10 MWth 2 BOILERS

6 MW POWER 12 MW DISTRICT HEAT

TO STACK

GASIFIER

DISTRICT HEATING 12 MWth

WATER POWER 3x2 MWe 3 GAS ENGINES BOTTOM ASH GAS COOLERS

AIR/STEAM

GAS BUFFER TANK

BFB GASIFIER

WOOD PELLETS

FLARE

2 GAS BOILERS

3 GAS ENGINES

3 GAS ENGINES

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VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

Novel power plant: 1.8 MWe + 3.3 MW heat


Supplier: Condens Oy Kokemki, Finland
Tar reformer Scrubber

Novel gasifier

Gas cooler and Filter

Gas engines

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VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

Large-scale Power with Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle - IGCC


Fluidised-Bed Gasification at 20 bar, 800-950 oC Gas filtration at 400 - 600 oC Combined Gas Turbine and Steam Turbine Process Developed and demonstrated in 1990s
Electric efficiency up to 42 - 48 % Requires large-scale > 50 MWe Best global potential for CO2 reduction New R&D on hot gas filtration by VTT in EU-BiGPower project in 2007-08 New demonstration projects when?
Biomass IGCC Demonstration Plant, Vrnamo, Sweden

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VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

Biomass gasification for liquid biofuels and green chemicals

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VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

Production of Biomass-Derived Synthesis Gas


Initial step - two main approaches
Main technical challenge: prehandling, feeding of biomass Biomass Gasifier
1200 C +

Raw synthesis gas to cooling, clean-up and conditioning

Typically: oxygen-blown entrained-flow gasifier

Main technical challenge: reforming of gas Reformer Biomass Gasifier


e.g. 900 C 1200 C + (thermal) or e.g. 900 C (catalytic)

Raw synthesis gas to cooling, clean-up and conditioning

Typically: fluidised-bed gasifier, either oxygenblown or indirectly heated (twin bed)

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VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

Synthesis Gas from Biomass


VTTs UltraClean Gas project (1.1.2004-31.5.2007)
VTT,TKK, Foster Wheeler, Neste Oil, Andritz, Vapo, PVO, UPM, StoraEnso, M-real, Botnia pressurised gasification followed by catalytic reforming 500 kW Process development Unit studies for 150 400 MW plants integrated to pulp and paper industry
PFB GASIFIER
To slip stream testing facilities Gas cooler

Bed material Additive Fuel feeding equipment

CATR

Pressure control valve

Kemiras peat ammonia plant in 1990

Heating elements

FILTER Oxygen Steam Air Nitrogen Ash removal Bed removal

Heating elements

Furnace

VTTs 500 kW PDU for syngas and ultraclean fuel gas

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VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

Integration of FT-synthesis plant to pulp and paper mill


Paper & pulp
Pulp and paper mill Energy to drying Gasification and gas treatment fuel gas + steam

Process steam & power

power plant

Wood, straw energy crops, peat, RDF

Biomass handling and drying

synthesis -gas

bark, forest residues, other biomass

FT-synthesis & upgrading steam & oxygen

WoodDiesel

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VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

Efficiencies with Industrial-Heat Production


Efficiency = 100 x [LHV-energy of main product + high-grade byproduct energy - {electricity / 0.4}] / [LHV-energy of as-received feedstock]

100 Overall Efficiency, % 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40


FT CH3OH SNG H2 Primary energy out Main product (Electricity in) / 0.4

Feedstock drying: from 50 % moisture to 30 % with secondary heat; from 30 % to 15 % with by-product steam
From: McKeough & Kurkela, NWBC, Stockholm 2008

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VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

SYNTHESIS GAS FROM BIOMASS


FROM R&D TO INDUSTRIAL SUCCESS
(road map made in VTTs UCG project in 2006)

Biorefineries at pulp and paper mills and at large CHP plants


- diesel production: 70 -150 000 tons/plant - by-product heat for process steam or district heating - high overall efficiency

First synfuel production plant


Peat ammonia plant Oulu/Finland Biomass/waste gasification for power (Lahti, Corenso, Vrnamo, Kokemki) - 200-250 MW feed capacity - 105 000 tons/a diesel fuel - 3 % Finnish transport fuel - start-up in 2012-14

Industrial demonstration: 15 MW
- replacement of oil/gas - start-up in 2009

New applications
- fuel cells, 2nd gen. IGCC - hydrogen or methane - renewable chemicals

1985

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

Synthesis gas R&D in Europe and USA in 1980s

R & D on hot filtration and catalytic gas cleaning

Further R&D VTT-UCG Optimised syngas R&D & PDU-scale development


- process optimisation - waste gasification - hydrogen technologies

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VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

The Finnish Development Path NSE Biofuels


National UCG project: budget 4 MEUR, duration 2004 2007

Biomass gasification and gas reforming experiments employing the 0.5 MW process development unit (PDU) at VTT Wide industrial consortium: Foster-Wheeler, Neste Oil, AndritzCarbona, Vapo, PVO, UPM, M-real, Mets-Botnia, Stora-Enso

Demonstration phase now under way:

Demonstration plant under construction at Varkaus, Finland; consortium: Neste Oil and Stora-Enso

Stora Enso / Neste Oil Joint Venture for F-T BTL Diesel Fuel
50/50 Joint Venture NSE Biofuels Oy to first develop technology and later produce next generation renewable diesel crude from wood / forest residues Currently building a 12MW demonstration plant in Stora Ensos Varkaus mill, to be in use spring 2009 Investment decision for a commercial scale plant when the parties have enough experience from the demonstration plant Strong development consortium Joint Venture partners: Testing & research partner: Gasification supplier:
From Neste Oil and Stora Enso

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NSE Biofuels Demo 1 plant in Varkaus, Finland

Biomass Dryer Kuivur i Silo 12 MW Gasifier

Lime kiln

1. Commissioning as air blown lime kiln gasifier 2. Testing period as O2/H2O gasifier, gas cleaning, FT tests 3. Return to lime kiln gasifier 5 MW Gas cleaning and FT

From Neste Oil and Stora Enso

from: Neste Oil and Stora Enso

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8.12.2008

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PRESSURISED GASIFICATION OF BIOMASS


BTLtec 2008

Vrnamo IGCC Demonstration Plant at 1990s FW scope: Gasification plant

from: Foster Wheeler

COMMERCIAL SCALE BTL PRODUCTION PLANT


BTLtec 2008

For BtL applications the size has been set roughly in the range of 100,000 t/a FT-waxes 200 300 MW fuel FW already has draft layout of full-scale gasification plant for synthetic gas production The same biomass gasification concept could be applied for the production of: SNG Hydrogen Methanol Ethanol Electricity by biomass IGCC

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VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

The Finnish Development Path - UPM


National UCG project: budget 4 MEUR, duration 2004 2007

Biomass gasification and gas reforming experiments employing the 0.5 MW process development unit (PDU) at VTT Wide industrial consortium: Foster-Wheeler, Neste Oil, Andritz-Carbona, Vapo, PVO, UPM, M-real, Mets-Botnia, Stora-Enso

Demonstration phase now under way:

Demonstration plant under construction at Varkaus, Finland; consortium: Neste Oil and Stora-Enso Pilot-plant testing at Gas Technology Institute, Chicago, USA; consortium: UPM and Carbona

International Gasification R&D Cooperation


CARBONA with The Gas Technology Institute Chicago, USA
long term exclusive cooperation

pressurized BFB gasification biomass fuels air and oxygen gasification gas cleanup systems for IGCC and BTL

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Current Biofuel activities - BTL


Backbone of UPM's Biofuel initiative
Biomass to liquids development Route: FB-gasification Fischer Tropsch synthesis Product upgrade UPM strengths: Access to raw material Mill integration Close to core business

Current status

Exclusive alliance with Andritz/Carbona Piloting in Gas Technology Institute facility in Des Plaines, IL Commercial scale plant engineering ongoing & EIA initiated Site selection process ongoing Wood supply chain & logistics survey ongoing

from: UPM

Our 2G BTL Concept


Synthetic Biomass Biomass drying drying
H2+CO Gasification FT-synthesis FT Gasification FT-synthesis & purification & up-grading up & purification & up-grading

biodiesel
CnH2n+2

Bark Stumps Residues

Water Water treatment treatment

CHP CHP plant plant


Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, Illinois, US

Paper mill units

Wood Wood sourcing sourcing

Pulp wood Pulp Pulp& &paper papermill mill

Additional units Material flow Energy flow

from: UPM

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VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

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VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

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VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

UCGFUNDA 2008 - 2010 Biomass gasification for synthesis applications


- fundamental studies supporting industrial development projects

VTT, TKK and bo Akademi, total budget 1.5 M Financing by Tekes Biorefine, VTT and private companies
(Carbona, Foster Wheeler, Metso Power, Neste Oil, Stora Enso, UPM & Vapo)

Biomass characterisation for pressurised steam/oxygen-blown


gasification: ash behaviour and reactivity Filter blinding and catalyst deactivation studies Tar reactions in non-catalytic and catalytic processes System studies on BTL-applications and hydrogen production Development of measuring methods for tars and other gas contaminants IEA groups: Biomass thermal gasification and Biomass Hydrogen

VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND

C A R B O N

Oil Coal

G A S C L E A N U P

Syngas

FTsynthesis Hydrogen SNG MetOH

Gasification
Biomass Waste/SRF

SOFC IGCC (Fuel gas) Co-firing Gas engine CHP

Energy

O2

A i r

S t e a m

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