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6.

i OUALITATIVE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HEAT AND WORk


The Iirst law oI thermodynamics states that a certain energy balance will hold when
a system undergoes a change oI state or a thermodynamic process. But it does not
give any inIormation on whether that change oI state or the process is at all Ieasible
or not. The Iirst law cannot indicate whether a metallic bar oI uniIorm temperature
can spontaneously become warmer at one end and cooler at the other. All that the
law can state is that iI this process did occur, the energy gained by one end would be
exactly equal to that lost by the other. It is the second law of thermodynamics which
provides the criterion as to the probability of various processes.
Spontaneous processes in nature occur only in one direction. Heat always Ilows
Irom a body at a higher temperature to a body at a lower temperature, water always
Ilows downward, time always Ilows in the Iorward direction. The reverse oI these
never happens spontaneously. The spontaneity oI the process is due to a Iinite driv-
ing potential, sometimes called the Iorce` or the cause`, and what happens is called
the Ilux`, the current` or the eIIect`. The typical Iorces like temperature gradient,
concentration gradient and electric potential gradient, have their respective conju-
gate Iluxes oI heat transIer, mass transIer, and Ilow oI electric current. These trans-
Ier processes can never spontaneously occur Irom a lower to a higher potential.
This directional law puts a limitation on energy transIormation other than that im-
posed by the Iirst law.
Joule`s experiments (Article 4.1) amply demonstrate that energy, when
supplied to a system in the Iorm oI work, can be completely converted into heat
(work transIer internal energy increase heat transIer). But the complete con-
version oI heat into work in a cycle is not possible. So heat and work are not com-
pletely interchangeable forms of energy.
When work is converted into heat, we always have
W = Q
but when heat is converted into work in a complete closed cycle process
Q > W
5ccnnd Law nI
Thcrmndynamics
5ccnnd Law nI
Thcrmndynamics
6
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The arrow indicates the direction oI energy transIormation. This is illustrated in
Fig. 6.1. As shown in Fig. 6.1(a), a system is taken Irom state 1 to state 2 by work
transIer W
1 2
, and then by heat transIer Q
2 1
the system is brought back Irom state
2 to state 1 to complete a cycle. It is always Iound that W
1 2
Q
2 1
. But iI the
system is taken Irom state 1 to state 2 by heat transIer Q
1 2
, as shown in Fig. 6.1(b),
then the system cannot be brought back Irom state 2 to state 1 by work transIer W
2
1
. Hence, heat cannot be converted completely and continuously into work in a
cycle. Some heat has to be rejected. In Fig. 6.1(b), W
2 3
is the work done and
Q
3 1
is the heat rejected to complete the cycle. This underlies the work oI Sadi
Carnot, a French military engineer, who Iirst studied this aspect oI energy transIor-
mation (1824). Work is said to be a high grade energy and heat a low grade energy.
1he complete conversion of low grade energy into high grade energy in a cycle is
impossible.
Q
2 1
Q
1 2
Q
1 2
> W
2 1
W
2 1
W
1 2
= Q
2 1
W
1 2
1
(a) (b)
1
2
2
1
1
Fig. .1 ualitative 0istinction between heat anJ Work
6.z CYCLIC HEAT ENGINE
For engineering purposes, the second law is best expressed in terms oI the
conditions which govern the production oI work by a thermodynamic system
operating in a cycle.
A heat engine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle in which there is a net heat trans-
Ier to the system and a net work transIer from the system. The system which ex-
ecutes a heat engine cycle is called a heat engine.
A heat engine may be in the Iorm oI mass oI gas conIined in a cylinder and
piston machine (Fig. 6.2a) or a mass oI water moving in a steady Ilow through a
steam power plant (Fig. 6.2b).
In the cyclic heat engine, as represented in Fig. 6.2(a), heat Q
1
is transIerred to
the system, work W
E
is done by the system, work W
c
is done upon the system, and
then heat Q
2
is rejected Irom the system. The system is brought back to the initial
state through all these Iour successive processes which constitute a heat engine
cycle. In Fig. 6.2(b) heat Q
1
is transIerred Irom the Iurnace to the water in the boiler
to Iorm steam which then works on the turbine rotor to produce work W
1
, then the
steam is condensed to water in the condenser in which an amount oI heat Q
2
is
rejected Irom the system, and Iinally work W
p
is done on the system (water) to
pump it to the boiler. The system repeats the cycle.
The net heat transIer in a cycle to either oI the heat engines
Q
net
Q
1
Q
2
(6.1)
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Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c '
Q
2
Q
2
W
p
W
T
Q
1
H O
2
H O
2
Vapour
Boiler
Condenser
Sea, River or
Atmosphere
Pump
Furnace
Turbine
(a)
(b)
W
E
W
C
System
Q
1
Fig. .2 C;cle heat Lnqine
{a) heat Lnqine C;cle PerjormeJ b; a CloseJ S;stem unJerqoinq Iour
Successive Lnerq; lnteractions witb tbe SurrounJinqs
{b) heat Lnqine C;cle PerjormeJ b; a SteaJ; Ilow S;stem lnteractinq
witb tbe SurrounJinqs as Sbown
and the net work transIer in a cycle
W
net
W
1
W
P
(6.2)
(or W
net
W
E
W
C
)
By the Iirst law oI thermodynamics, we have
cycle

Q
cycle

W
\ Q
net
W
net
or Q
1
Q
2
W
1
W
P
(6.3)
Figure 6.3 represents a cyclic heat engine

in the
Iorm

oI

a

block diagram indicating the various
energy interactions during a cycle. Boiler (B),
turbine (1), condenser (C), and pump (P), all
Iour together constitute a heat engine. A heat
engine is here a certain quantity oI water under-
going the energy interactions, as shown, in cy-
clic operations to produce net work Irom a cer-
tain heat input.
The Iunction oI a heat engine cycle is to pro-
duce work continuously at the expense oI heat
input to the system. So the net work W
net
and
W
T
W
P
Q
2
Q
1
H O( )
2
l
H O
2
H O
2
H O(g)
2
P
C
B
T
Fig. .3 C;clic heat Lnqine witb
Lnerq; lnteractions
RepresenteJ in a Block
0iaqram
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heat input Q
1
reIerred to the cycle are oI primary interest. The efficiency oI a heat
engine or a heat engine cycle is deIined as Iollows:
h
Net work output oI the cycle
Total heat input to the cycle

W
Q
net
1
(6.4)
From Eqs (6.1), (6.2), (6.3) and (6.4),
h
W
Q
net
1

W W
Q
1 P
-
1

Q Q
Q
1 2
1
-
h 1
Q
Q
2
1
(6.5)
This is also known as the thermal efficiency oI a heat engine cycle. A heat engine
is very oIten called upon to extract as much work (net) as possible Irom a certain
heat input, i.e. to maximize the cycle eIIiciency.
6. ENERGY RE5ERVOIR5
A thermal energy reservoir (TER) is deIined as a large body oI inIinite heat
capacity, which is capable oI absorbing or rejecting an unlimited quantity oI heat
without suIIering appreciable changes in its thermodynamic coordinates. The
changes that do take place in the large body as heat enters or leaves are so very slow
and so very minute that all processes within it are quasi-static.
The thermal energy reservoir TER
H
Irom which heat Q
1
is transIerred to the
system operating in a heat engine cycle is called the source. The thermal energy
reservoir TER
L
to which heat Q
2
is
rejected Irom the system during a
cycle is the sink. A typical source is
a constant temperature Iurnace
where Iuel is continuously burnt, and
a typical sink is a river or sea or the
atmosphere itselI.
A mechanical energy reservoir
(MER) is a large body enclosed by
an adiabatic impermeable wall ca-
pable oI storing work as potential en-
ergy (such as a raised weight or
wound spring) or kinetic energy
(such as a rotating Ilywheel). All
processes oI interest within an MER
are essentially quasi-static. An MER
receives and delivers mechanical en-
ergy quasi-statically.
Figure 6.4 shows a cyclic heat engine exchanging heat with a source and a sink
and delivering W
net
in a cycle to an MER.
W
P
W
T
W
net
MER
CHE
Q
1
Q
2
B
C
T P
TER
(Source)
H
TER
(Sink)
L
Fig. .4 C;clic heat Lnqine {ChL) witb
Source anJ Sink
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Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c
6.q kELVIN-PLANCk 5TATEMENT OF 5ECOND LAW
The eIIiciency oI a heat engine is given by
h
W
Q
net
1
1
Q
Q
2
1
Experience shows that W
net
Q
1
, since heat Q
1
transIerred to a system cannot be
completely converted to work in a cycle (Article 6.1). ThereIore, h is less than
unity. A heat engine can never be 100 eIIicient. ThereIore, Q
2
~ 0, i.e. there has
always to be a heat rejection. To produce net work in a thermodynamic cycle, a heat
engine has thus to exchange heat with two reservoirs, the source and the sink.
The Kelvin-Planck statement oI the second law states: It is impossible for a heat
engine to produce net work in a complete cycle if it exchanges heat only with bod-
ies at a single fixed temperature.
II Q
2
0 (i.e. W
net
Q
1
, or h 1.00), the heat engine will produce net work in a
complete cycle by exchanging heat with only one reservoir, thus violating the
Kelvin-Planck statement (Fig. 6.5).

Such

a heat

engine

is

called

a

perpetual

motion
machine of the second kind, abbreviated to PMM2. A PMM2 is impossible.
A heat engine has, thereIore, to exchange heat with two thermal energy
reservoirs at two diIIerent temperatures to produce net work in a complete cycle
(Fig. 6.6). So long as there is a diIIerence in temperature, motive power (i.e. work)
can be produced. II the bodies with which the heat engine exchanges heat are oI
Iinite heat capacities, work will be produced by the heat engine till the temperatures
oI the two bodies are equalized.
t
1
Q
1
W
net
= Q
1
Q
2
= O
H.E
Source at t
1
Sink at t
2
Q
1
W
net
Q
2
H.E
Fig. .5 A PHH2 Fig. . heat Lnqine ProJucinqNet
Work in a

C;cle

b; Lxcbanqinq
heat

at Two 0ijjerent
Temperatures
6.j CLAU5IU5' 5TATEMENT OF THE 5ECOND LAW
Heat always Ilows Irom a body at a higher temperature to a body at a lower tem-
perature. The reverse process never occurs spontaneously.
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Clausius` statement oI the second law gives: It is impossible to construct a de-
vice which, operating in a cycle, will produce no effect other than the transfer of
heat from a cooler to a hotter body.
Heat cannot Ilow oI itselI Irom a body at a lower temperature to a body at a
higher temperature. Some work must be expended to achieve this.
6.6 REFRIGERATOR AND HEAT PUMP
A refrigerator is a device which, operating in a cycle, maintains a body at a tem-
perature lower than the temperature oI the surroundings. Let the body A (Fig. 6.7)
be maintained at t
2
, which is lower than the ambient temperature t
1
. Even though A
is insulated, there will always be heat leakage Q
2
into the body Irom the surround-
ings by virtue oI the temperature diIIerence. In order to maintain body A at the
constant temperature t
2
, heat has to be removed Irom the body at the same rate at
which heat is leaking into the body. This heat (Q
2
) is absorbed by a working Iluid,
called the reIrigerant, which evaporates in the evaporator E
1
at a temperature lower
than t
2
absorbing the latent heat oI vaporization Irom the body A which is cooled or
reIrigerated (Process 41). The vapour is Iirst compressed in the compressor C
1
driven by a motor which absorbs work W
C
(Process 12), and is then condensed in
the condenser C
2
rejecting the latent heat oI condensation Q
1
at a temperature higher
than that oI the atmosphere (at t
1
) Ior heat transIer to take place (Process 23). The
condensate then expands adiabatically through an expander (an engine or turbine)
producing work W
E
, when the temperature drops to a value lower than t
2
such that
heat Q
2
Ilows Irom the body A to make the reIrigerant evaporate (Process 34).
Such a cyclic device oI Ilow through E
1
C
1
C
2
E
2
is called a refrigerator. In a
Atmosphere
t
1
Condenser
Evaporator
Body A
t
2
(a) (b)
Body
at
A
t
2
Expander
Compressor
Refrigerant
Atmosphere
at t
1
3
2
4
1
3
4
2
1
C
1
C
2
E
2
E
1
W
E
W
C
W
E
W
C
Q
2
Q
2
Q
2
Q
1
Q
1
Q
2
E
2
C
2
E
1
C
1
Fig. .7 A C;clic Rejriqeration Plant
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Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c !
reIrigerator cycle, attention is concentrated on the body A. Q
2
and W are oI primary
interest. Just like eIIiciency in a heat engine cycle, there is a perIormance parameter
in a reIrigerator cycle, called the coefficient of performance, abbreviated to COP,
which is deIined as
COP
Desired eIIect
Work input

Q
W
2
\ |COP|
reI

Q
Q Q
2
1 2
-
(6.6)
A heat pump is a device which, operat-
ing in a cycle, maintains a body, say B
(Fig. 6.8), at a temperature higher than
the temperature oI the surroundings. By
virtue oI the temperature diIIerence,
there will be heat leakage Q
1
Irom the
body to the surroundings. The body will
be maintained at the constant temper-
ature t
1
, iI heat is discharged into the
body at the same rate at which heat
leaks out oI the body. The heat is ex-
tracted Irom the low temperature reser-
voir, which is nothing but the atmo-
sphere, and discharged into the high
temperature body B, with the expen-
diture oI work W in a cyclic device
called a heat pump. The working Iluid
operates in a cycle Ilowing through the
evaporator E
1
, compressor C
1
, condenser C
2
and expander E
2
, similar to a reIrig-
erator, but the attention is here Iocussed on the high temperature body B. Here Q
1
and W are oI primary interest, and the COP is deIined as
COP
Q
W
1
\ |COP|
H.P.

Q
Q Q
1
1 2
-
(6.7)
From Eqs.

(6.6)

and

(6.7),

it is Iound that
|COP|
H.P.
|COP|
reI
1 (6.8)
The COP oI a heat pump is greater than the COP oI a reIrigerator by unity. Equation
(6.8) expresses a very interesting Ieature oI a heat pump. Since
Q
1
|COP|
H.P.
W
|COP
reI
1| W (6.9)
Q
1
is always greater than W.
Fig. .8 A C;clic heat Pump
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For an electrical resistance heater, iI W is the electrical energy consumption,
then the heat transIerred to the space at steady state is W only, i.e. Q
1
W.
A 1 kW electric heater can give 1 kW oI heat at steady state and nothing more. In
other words, 1 kW oI work (high grade energy) dissipates to give 1 kW oI heat (low
grade energy), which is thermodynamically ineIIicient.
However, iI this electrical energy W is used to drive the compressor oI a heat
pump, the heat supplied Q
1
will always be more than W, or Q
1
~ W. Thus, a heat
pump provides a thermodynamic advantage over direct heating.
For heat to Ilow Irom a cooler to a hotter body, W cannot be zero, and hence, the
COP (both Ior reIrigerator and heat pump) cannot be inIinity. ThereIore,
W ~ 0, and COP .
6.) EOUIVALENCE OF kELVIN-PLANCk AND CLAU5IU5
5TATEMENT5
At Iirst sight, Kelvin-Planck`s and Clausius` statements may appear to be uncon-
nected, but it can easily be shown that they are virtually two parallel statements oI
the second law and are equivalent in all respects.
The equivalence oI the two statements will be proved iI it can be shown that the
violation oI one statement implies the violation oI the second, and vice versa.
(a) Let us Iirst consider a cyclic heat pump P which transIers heat Irom a low
temperature reservoir (t
2
) to a high temperature reservoir (t
1
) with no other eIIect,
i.e. with no expenditure oI work, violating Clausius statement (Fig. 6.9).
Hot Reservoir at t
1
Cold Reservoir at t
2
W = 0
W
net
= Q Q
1 2
Q
1
H.P.
P E
Q
1
Q
1
Q
2
H.E.
Fig. .9 !iolation oj tbe Clausius Statement
Let us assume a cyclic heat engine E operating between the same thermal
energy reservoirs, producing W
net
in one cycle. The rate oI working oI the heat
engine is such that it draws an amount oI heat Q
1
Irom the hot reservoir equal to that
discharged by the heat pump. Then the hot reservoir may be eliminated and the heat
Q
1
discharged by the heat pump is Ied to the heat engine. So we see that the heat
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Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c #
pump P and the heat engine E acting together constitute a heat engine operating in
cycles and producing net work while exchanging heat only with one body at a single
Iixed temperature. This violates the Kelvin-Planck statement.
(b) Let us now consider a perpetual motion machine oI the second kind (E)
which produces net work in a cycle by exchanging heat with only one thermal en-
ergy reservoir (at t
1
) and thus violates the Kelvin-Planck statement (Fig. 6.10).
t
1
t
2
W = Q
1
Q
1
H.E.
P
(E)
PMM2
H.P.
Q
1
+ Q
2
Q
2
= 0 Q
2
Fig.

.10 !iolation oj tbe Kelvin-Planck Statement
Let us assume a cyclic heat pump (P) extracting heat Q
2
Irom a low temperature
reservoir at t
2
and discharging heat to the high temperature reservoir at t
1
with the
expenditure oI work W equal to what the PMM2 delivers in a complete cycle. So E
and P together constitute a heat pump working in cycles and producing the sole
eIIect oI transIerring heat Irom a lower to a higher temperature body, thus violating
the Clausius statement.
6.8 REVER5IBILITY AND IRREVER5IBILITY
The second law oI thermodynamics enables us to divide all processes into two
classes:
(a) Reversible or ideal process.
(b) Irreversible or natural process.
A reversible process is one which is per-
Iormed in such a way that at the conclusion oI
the process, both the system and the surround-
ings may be restored to their initial states, with-
out producing any changes in the rest oI the uni-
verse. Let the state oI a system be represented by
A (Fig. 6.11), and let the system be taken to state
B by Iollowing the path AB. II the system and
also the surroundings are restored to their initial
states and no change in the universe is produced,
B
A
y
x
Fig. .11 A Reversible Process
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then the process AB will be a reversible process. In the reverse process, the system
has to be taken Irom state B to A by Iollowing the same path BA. A reversible
process should not leave any trace or relic behind to show that the process had ever
occurred.
A reversible process is carried out infinitely slowly with an infinitesimal gradi-
ent, so that every state passed through by the system is an equilibrium state. So a
reversible process coincides with a quasi-static process.
Any natural process carried out with a Iinite gradient is an irreversible process.
A reversible process, which consists oI a succession of equilibrium states, is an
idealized hypothetical process, approached only as a limit. It is said to be an asymp-
tote to reality. All spontaneous processes are irreversible.
Time has an important eIIect on reversibility. II the time allowed Ior a process to
occur is inIinitely large, even though the gradient is Iinite, the process becomes
reversible. However, iI this time is squeezed to a Iinite value, the Iinite gradient
makes the process irreversible.
6.j CAU5E5 OF IRREVER5IBILITY
The irreversibility oI a process may be due to either one or both oI the Iollowing:
(a) Lack oI equilibrium during the process.
(b) Involvement oI dissipative eIIects.
6.j.i Irreversibi|ity due to Lack of Equi|ibrium
The lack oI equilibrium (mechanical, thermal or chemical) between the system and
its surroundings, or between two systems, or two parts oI the same system, causes a
spontaneous change which is irreversible. The Iollowing are speciIic examples in
this regard:
(o) Heot Tronsjer through o linite Temperoture ijjerence A heat trans-
Ier process approaches reversibility as the temperature diIIerence between two bod-
ies approaches zero. We deIine a reversible heat transIer process as one in which
heat is transIerred through an inIinitesimal temperature diIIerence. So to transIer a
Iinite amount oI heat through an inIinitesimal temperature diIIerence would require
an inIinite amount oI time, or inIinite area. All actual heat transIer processes are
through a Iinite temperature diIIerence and are, thereIore, irreversible, and greater
the temperature diIIerence, the greater is the irreversibility.
We can demonstrate by the second law that heat transIer through a Iinite tem-
perature diIIerence is irreversible. Let us assume that a source at t
A
and a sink at t
B
(t
A
~ t
B
) are available, and let Q
A B
be the amount oI heat Ilowing Irom A to B
(Fig. 6.12). Let us assume an engine operating between A and B, taking heat Q
1
Irom A and discharging heat Q
2
to B. Let the heat transIer process be reversed, and
Q
B A
be the heat Ilowing Irom B to A, and let the rate oI working oI the engine be
such that
Q
2
Q
B A
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Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c %
Q
A B
Q
2
Q
1
W
net E
Source A, t
A
Sink B, t
B
Q
B A
Q
2
Q
1
W
net
Source A, t
A
Sink B, t
B
E
Fig. .12 heat Transjer Fig. .13 heat

Transjer

Tbrouqb
Tbrouqb a Iinite a Iinite Temperature
Temperature

0ijjerence 0ijjerence is lrreversible
(Fig. 6.13). Then the sink B may be eliminated. The net result is that E produces
network W in a cycle by exchanging heat only with A, thus violating the Kelvin-
Planck statement. So the heat transIer process Q
A B
is irreversible, and Q
B A
is not
possible.
(b) Lock oj Pressure Lqui/ibrium within the lnterior oj the 5ystem or be-
tween the 5ystem ond the 5urroundings When there exists a diIIerence in
pressure between the system and the surroundings, or within the system itselI, then
both the system and its surroundings or the system alone, will undergo a change oI
state which will cease only when mechanical equilibrium is established. The re-
verse oI this process is not possible spontaneously without producing any other
eIIect. That the reverse process will violate the second law becomes obvious Irom
the Iollowing illustration.
(c) lree Lxponsion Let us consider an insulated container (Fig. 6.14) which is
divided into two compartments A and B by a thin diaphragm. Compartment A con-
tains a mass oI gas, while compartment B is com-
pletely evacuated. II the diaphragm is punctured,
the gas in A will expand into B until the pres-
sures in A and B become equal. This is known as
Iree or unrestrained expansion. We can demon-
strate by the second law, that the process oI Iree
expansion is irreversible.
To prove this, let us assume that Iree expansion
is reversible, and that the gas in B returns into A
with an increase in pressure, and B becomes evacu-
Gas
Diaphragm Insulation
Vacuum
A B
Fig. .14 Iree Lxpansion
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& Fng|nee|ng |henocynon|c
ated as beIore (Fig. 6.15). There is no other
eIIect. Let us install an engine (a machine,
not a cyclic

heat

engine)

between

A

and

B,

and
permit

the

gas

to

expand

through

the engine
Irom A to B. The engine develops a work
output W at the expense oI the internal en-
ergy oI the gas. The internal energy oI the
gas (system) in B can be restored to its initial
value by heat transIer Q ( W) Irom a source.
Now, by the use oI the reversed Iree expan-
sion, the system can be restored to the initial
state oI high pressure in A and vacuum in B.
The net result is a cycle, in which we observe
that net work output W is accomplished by exchanging heat with a single reservoir. This
violates the Kelvin-Planck statement. Hence, Iree expansion is irreversible.
The same argument will hold iI the compartment B is not in vacuum but at a
pressure lower than that in compartment A (case b).
6.j.z Irreversibi|ity due to Dissipative Effects
The irreversibility oI a process may be due to the dissipative effects in which work
is done without producing an equivalent increase in the kinetic or potential energy
oI any system. The transIormation oI work into molecular internal energy either oI
the system or oI the reservoir takes place through the agency oI such phenomena as
Iriction, viscosity, inelasticity, electrical resistance, and magnetic hysteresis. These
eIIects are known as dissipative eIIects, and work is said to be dissipated.
(o) lriction Friction is always present in moving devices. Friction may be re-
duced by suitable lubrication, but it can never be completely eliminated. II this
were possible, a movable device could be kept in continual motion without violat-
ing either oI the two laws oI thermodynamics. The continual motion oI a movable
device in the complete absence oI Iriction is known as perpetual motion of the third
kind.
That Iriction makes a process irrevers-
ible can be demonstrated by the second law.
Let us consider a system consisting oI a Ily-
wheel and a brake block (Fig. 6.16). The
Ilywheel was rotating with a certain rpm,
and it was brought to rest by applying the
Iriction brake. The distance moved by the
brake block is very small, so work transIer
is very nearly equal to zero. II the braking
process occurs very rapidly, there is little
heat transIer. Using suIIix 2 aIter braking
and suIIix 1 beIore braking, and applying
the Iirst law, we have
Q
1 2
E
2
E
1
W
1 2
Engine
Heat
source, t
A
W
B
Q = W
Fig. .15 SeconJ

law

0emonstrates
tbat

Iree

Lxpansion

is
lrreversible
System boundary
Flywheel Brake block
F
Fig. .1 lrreversibilit; Jue to
0issipative Ljject like
Iriction
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:18 AM 128
Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c '
0 E
2
E
1
0
\ E
2
E
1
(6.10)
The energy oI the system (isolated) remains constant. Since the energy may exist in
the Iorms oI kinetic, potential, and molecular internal energy, we have
U
2

mV
2
2
2
mZ
2
g U
1

mV
1
2
2
mZ
1
g
Since the wheel is brought to rest, J
2
0, and there is no change in P.E.
U
2
U
1

mV
1
2
2
(6.11)
ThereIore, the molecular internal energy oI the system (i.e., oI the brake and the
wheel) increases by the absorption oI the K.E. oI the wheel. The reverse process,
i.e., the conversion oI this increase in molecular internal energy into K.E. within the
system to cause the wheel to rotate is not possible. To prove it by the second law, let
us assume that it is possible, and imagine the Iollowing cycle with three processes:
2H?AII ) Initially, the wheel and the brake are at high temperature as a result oI
the absorption oI the K.E. oI the wheel, and the Ilywheel is at rest. Let the Ilywheel
now start rotating at a particular rpm at the expense oI the internal energy oI the
wheel and brake, the temperature oI which will then decrease.
2H?AII * Let the Ilywheel be brought to rest by using its K.E. in raising weights,
with no change in temperature.
2H?AII + Now let heat be supplied Irom a source to the Ilywheel and the brake,
to restore the system to its initial state.
ThereIore, the processes A, B, and C together constitute a cycle producing work
by exchanging heat with a single reservoir. This violates the Kelvin-Planck state-
ment, and it will become a PMM2. So the braking process, i.e. the transIormation
oI K.E. into molecular internal energy, is irreversible.
(b) Podd/e-Whee/ Work Tronsjer Work may be transIerred into a system in
an insulated container by means oI a paddle wheel (Fig. 6.17) which is also known
as stirring work. Here work transIerred is dissipated adiabatically into an increase
in the molecular internal energy oI the system. To prove the irreversibility oI the
process, let us assume that the same amount oI work is delivered by the system at
the expense oI its molecular internal energy,
and the temperature oI the system goes down
(Fig. 6.18). The system is brought back to its
initial state by heat transIer Irom a source.
These two processes together constitute a
cycle in which there is work output and the
system exchanges heat with a single reser-
voir. It becomes a PMM2, and hence the dis-
sipation oI stirring work to internal energy is
irreversible.
Insulation
System
W
Fig. .17 AJiabatic Work Transjer
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:18 AM 129
! Fng|nee|ng |henocynon|c
Adiabatic
Diathermic
Heat
source
W Q W =
Fig. .18 lrreversibilit; 0ue to 0issipation oj Stirrinq Work into lnternal Lnerq;
(c) Tronsjer oj L/ectricity through o Resistor The Ilow oI electric current
through a wire represents work transIer, because the current can drive a motor which
can raise a weight. Taking the wire or the
resistor as the system (Fig. 6.19) and writ-
ing the Iirst law
Q
1 2
U
2
U
1
W
1

2
Here both W
1 2
and Q
1 2
are negative.
W
1 2
U
2
U
1
Q
1

2
(6.12)
A part oI the work transIer is stored as an
increase in the internal energy oI the wire
(to give an increase in its temperature), and
the remainder leaves the system as heat. At steady state, the internal energy and
hence the temperature oI the resistor become constant with respect to time and
W
1 2
Q
1 2
(6.13)
The reverse process, i.e. the conversion oI heat Q
1 2
into electrical work W
1 2
oI the same magnitude is not possible. Let us assume that this is possible. Then heat
Q
1 2
will be absorbed and equal work W
1 2
will be delivered. But this will become
a PMM2. So the dissipation oI electrical work into internal energy or heat is irre-
versible.
6.io CONDITION5 FOR REVER5IBILITY
A natural process is irreversible because the conditions Ior mechanical, thermal
and chemical equilibrium are not satisIied, and the dissipative eIIects, in which
work is transIormed into an increase in internal energy, are present. For a process to
be reversible, it must not possess these Ieatures. II a process is perIormed quasi-
statically, the system passes through states oI thermodynamic equilibrium, which
may be traversed as well in one direction as in the opposite direction. If there are no
dissipative effects, all the work done by the system during the performance of a
process in one direction can be returned to the system during the reverse process.
A process will be reversible when it is perIormed in such a way that the system
is at all times infinitesimally near a state of thermodynamic equilibrium and in the
absence of dissipative effect of any form. Reversible processes are, thereIore, purely
ideal, limiting cases oI actual processes.
W
Q
I
I
Resistor (system)
Fig. .19 lrreversibilit; 0ue to
0issipation

oj

Llectrical
Work

into

lnternal Lnerq;
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:18 AM 130
Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c !
6.ii CARNOT CYCLE
A reversible cycle is an ideal hypothetical cycle in which all the processes consti-
tuting the cycle are reversible. Carnot cycle is a reversible cycle. For a stationary
system, as in a piston and cylinder machine, the cycle consists oI the Iollowing Iour
successive processes (Fig. 6.20):
(a) A reversible isothermal process in which heat Q
1
enters the system at t
1
re-
versibly Irom a constant temperature source at t
1
when the cylinder cover is in
contact with the diathermic cover A. The internal energy oI the system increases.
From First law,
Q
1
U
2
U
1
W
12
(6.14)
(Ior an ideal gas only, U
1
U
2
)
Sink, t
2
Source, t
1
System Adiabatic
W
P
W
E
Adiabatic cover ( ) B
Diathermic cover ( ) A
Q
2
Q
1
Fig. .20 Carnot heat LnqineStationar; S;stem
(b) A reversible adiabatic process in which the diathermic cover A is replaced
by the adiabatic cover B, and work W
E
is done by the system adiabatically and
reversibly at the expense oI its internal energy, and the temperature oI the system
decreases Irom t
1
to t
2
.
Using the Iirst law,
0 U
3
U
2
W
2 3
(6.15)
(c) A reversible isothermal process in which B is replaced by A and heat Q
2
leaves the system at t
2
to a constant temperature sink at t
2
reversibly, and the inter-
nal energy oI the system Iurther decreases.
From the Iirst law,
Q
2
U
4
U
3
W
3 4
(6.16)
only Ior an ideal gas, U
3
U
4
(d) A reversible adiabatic process in which B again replaces A, and work W
p
is
done upon the system reversibly and adiabatically, and the internal energy oI the
system increases and the temperature rises Irom t
2
to t
1
.
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:18 AM 131
! Fng|nee|ng |henocynon|c
Applying the Iirst law,
0 U
1
U
4
W
4 1
(6.17)
Two reversible isotherms and two reversible adiabatics constitute a Carnot cycle,
which is represented in p-v coordinates in Fig. 6.21.
W
P
Q
1
Rev. adiabatics
2
3
4
v
Rev. isotherm ( ) t
2
Rev. isotherm ( ) t
1
1
p
Q
2
W
E
Fig.

.21 Carnot C;cle
Summing up Eqs. (6.14) to (6.17),
Q
1
Q
2
(W
1

2
W
2 3
) (W
3 4
W
4 1
)
or
cycle

Q
net

cycle

W
net
A

cyclic

heat

engine

operating

on

the

Carnot

cycle

is

called

a

Carnot

heat engine.
For a steady Ilow system, the Carnot cycle is represented as shown in Fig. 6.22.
Here heat Q
1
is transIerred to the system reversibly and isothermally at t
1
in the heat
exchanger A, work W
1
is done by the system reversibly and adiabatically in the
turbine (B), then heat Q
2
is transIerred Irom the system reversibly and isothermally
at t
2
in the heat exchanger (C), and then work W
p
is done upon the system reversibly
and adiabatically by the pump (D). To satisIy the conditions Ior the Carnot cycle,
there must not be any Iriction or heat transIer in the pipelines through which the
working Iluid Ilows.
Flow
Flow
Sink, t
2
Heat exchanger ( ) A
Heat exchanger ( ) C
Turbine ( ) B Pump ( ) D
t
2
W
P
W
T
Source, t
1
System
boundary
t
1
t
1
t
1
t
2
t
2
Q
2
Q
1
W W W
P net
= -
t
= Q Q
1 2
-
4
Fig. .22 Carnot heat LnqineSteaJ; Ilow S;stem
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 132
Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c !!
6.iz REVER5ED HEAT ENGINE
Since all the processes oI the Carnot cycle are reversible, it is possible to imagine
that the processes are individually reversed and carried out in reverse order. When
a reversible process is reversed, all the energy transIers associated with the process
are reversed in direction, but remain the same in magnitude. The reversed Carnot
cycle Ior a steady Ilow system is shown in Fig. 6.23. The reversible heat engine and
the reversed Carnot heat engine are represented in block diagrams in Fig. 6.24. II E
is a reversible heat engine (Fig. 6.24a), and iI it is reversed (Fig. 6.24b), the quan-
tities Q
1
, Q
2
and W remain the same in magnitude, and only their directions are
reversed. The reversed heat engine $ takes heat Irom a low temperature body, dis
charges heat to a high temperature body, and receives an inward Ilow oI network.
The names heat pump and refrigerator are applied to the reversed heat engine,
which have already been discussed in Sec. 6.6, where the working Iluid Ilows
through the compressor (B), condenser (A), expander (D), and evaporator (C) to
complete the cycle.
Flow
Flow
System
boundry
Heat exchanger ( ) A
Heat exchanger ( ) C
Turbine
( ) B
Pump
( ) D
W
P
W
T
t
1
t
1
t
1
t
2
t
2
Q
2
Q
1
t
2
t
2
t
1
Fig. .23 ReverseJ Carnot heat LnqineSteaJ; Ilow Process
W
P
W
P W
T
W
T
D D E
E
C C
A A
B B
t
1 t
1
t
2
t
2
(a) (b)
Q
1
Q
1
Q
2
Q
2
W W W = -
net T P
W W W = -
net T P
Fig. .24 Carnot heat Lnqine anJ ReverseJ Carnot heat Lnqine
Sbown in Block 0iaqrams
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 133
!" Fng|nee|ng |henocynon|c
6.i CARNOT'5 THEOREM
It states that of all heat engines operating between a given constant temperature
source and a given constant temperature sink, none has a higher efficiency than a
reversible engine.
Let two heat engines E
A
and E
B
operate between the given source at temperature
t
1
and the given sink at temperature t
2
as shown in Fig. 6.25.
Q
1A
Q
2A
Sink t
2
Source, t
1
Q
2B
E
A W
A
W
B
E
B
Q
1B
Fig. .25 Two C;clic heat Lnqines L
A
anJ L
B
0peratinq between tbe Same
Source anJ Sink, oj wbicb L
B
is Reversible
Let E
A
be any heat engine and E
B
be any reversible heat engine. We have to
prove that the eIIiciency oI E
B
is more than that oI E
A
. Let us assume that this is not
true and h
A
~ h
B
. Let the rates oI working oI the engines be such that
Q
1A
Q
1B
Q
1
Since h
A
~ h
B
W
Q
A
A 1
~
W
Q
B
B 1
\ W
A
~ W
B
Now, let E
B
be reversed. Since E
B
is a reversible heat engine, the magnitudes oI
heat and work transIer quantities will remain the same, but their directions will be
reversed, as shown in Fig. 6.26. Since W
A
~ W
B
, some part oI W
A
(equal to W
B
) may
be Ied to drive the reversed heat engine $
B
.
Since Q
1A
Q
1B
Q
1
, the heat discharged by $
B
may be supplied to E
A
. The source
may, thereIore, be eliminated (Fig. 6.27). The net result is that E
A
and $
B
together con-
stitute a heat engine which, operating in a cycle, produces net work W
A
W
B
, while
exchanging heat with a single reservoir at t
2
. This violates the Kelvin-Planck statement
oI the second law. Hence the assumption that h
A
~ h
B
is wrong.
ThereIore h
B
h
A
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 134
Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c !#
Q
1A
Q
2A
Sink, t
2
Source, t
1
Q
2B
E
A B
E
W
A
W
B
Q
1B
Q
2A
Q
1 = A
Q
1 = B
Q
1
Q
1
Sink, t
2
E
A
E
B
W
A
W
A
W
B
W
B
Q
2B

Fig. .2

L
B
is ReverseJ Fig.

.27 L
A
anJ

$
B
toqetber

!iolate tbe
K-P Statement
6.iq COROLLARY OF CARNOT'5 THEOREM
The eIIiciency oI all reversible heat engines operating between the same tempera-
ture levels is the same.
Let both the heat engines E
A
and E
B
(Fig. 6.25) be reversible. Let us assume
h
A
~ h
B
. Similar to the procedure outlined in the preceding article, iI E
B
is reversed to
run, say, as a heat pump using some part oI the work output (W
A
) oI engine

E
A
,

we

see
that

the

combined

system

oI

heat

pump

E
B
and

engine

E
A
, becomes a PMM2. So h
A
cannot be greater than h
B
. Similarly, iI we assume h
B
~ h
A
and reverse the engine E
A
, we
observe that h
B
cannot be greater than h
A
.
ThereIore h
A
h
B
Since the eIIiciencies oI all reversible heat engines operating between the same
heat reservoirs are the same, the efficiency of a reversible engine is independent of
the nature or amount of the working substance undergoing the cycle.
6.ij AB5OLUTE THERMODYNAMIC TEMPERATURE 5CALE
The eIIiciency oI any heat engine cycle receiving heat Q
1
and rejecting heat Q
2
is
given by
h
W
Q
net
1

Q Q
Q
1 2
1
-
1
Q
Q
2
1
(6.18)
By the second law, it is necessary to have a temperature diIIerence (t
1
t
2
) to obtain
work Ior any cycle. We know that the eIIiciency oI all heat engines operating be-
tween the same temperature levels is the same, and it is independent oI the working
substance. ThereIore, Ior a reversible cycle (Carnot cycle), the eIIiciency will de-
pend solely upon the temperatures t
1
and t
2
, at which heat is transIerred, or
h
rev
f (t
1
, t
2
) (6.19)
where f signiIies some Iunction oI the temperatures. From Equations (6.18) and
(6.19)
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 135
!$ Fng|nee|ng |henocynon|c
1
Q
Q
2
1
f (t
1
, t
2
)
In terms oI a new Iunction F
Q
Q
1
2
F(t
1
, t
2
) (6.20)
II some Iunctional relationship is assigned between t
1
, t
2
and Q
1
/Q
2
, the equation
becomes the deIinition oI a temperature scale.
Let us consider two reversible heat engines, E
1
receiving heat Irom the source
at t
1
, and rejecting heat at t
2
to E
2
which, in turn, rejects heat to the sink at t
3
(Fig. 6.28).
Q
2
t
2
Q
1
Heat reservoir, t
1
Heat reservoir, t
3
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q
3
E
1
E
3
E
2
W
1
W
3
W
2
Q Q
1 2
-
Q Q
1 3
-
Q Q
2 3
-
=
=
=
Fig. .28 Tbree Carnot Lnqines
Now
Q
Q
1
2
F(t
1
, t
2
);
Q
Q
2
3
F(t
2
, t
3
)
E
1
and

E
2
together

constitute

another

heat

engine

E
3
operating between t
1
and t
3
.
\
Q
Q
1
3
F(t
1
, t
3
)
Now
Q
Q
1
2

Q Q
Q Q
1 3
2 3
/
/
or
Q
Q
1
2
F(t
1
, t
2
)
F t t
F t t
( , )
( , )
1 3
2 3
(6.21)
The temperatures t
1
, t
2
and t
3
are arbitrarily chosen. The ratio Q
1
/Q
2
depends
only on t
1
and t
2
, and is independent oI t
3
. So t
3
will drop out Irom the ratio on the
right in equation (6.21). AIter it has been cancelled, the numerator can be written as
f(t
1
), and the denominator as f(t
2
), where

f is another unknown Iunction. Thus
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 136
Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c !%
Q
Q
1
2
F(t
1
, t
2
)
f
f
( )
( )
t
t
1
2
Since f (t) is an arbitrary Iunction, the simplest possible way to deIine the abso-
lute thermodynamic temperature 1 is to let f (t) 1, as proposed by Kelvin. Then,
by deIinition
Q
Q
1
2

1
1
1
2
(6.22)
The absolute thermodynamic temperature
scale is also known as the Kelvin scale. Two
temperatures on the Kelvin scale bear the
same relationship to each other as do the heats
absorbed and rejected respectively by a
Carnot engine operating between two reser-
voirs at these temperatures. The Kelvin tem-
perature scale is, thereIore, independent oI the
peculiar characteristics oI any particular sub-
stance.
The heat absorbed Q
1
and the heat rejected
Q
2
during the two reversible isothermal pro-
cesses bounded by two reversible adiabatics
in a Carnot engine can be measured. In deIin-
ing the Kelvin temperature scale also, the triple point oI water is taken as the stan-
dard reIerence point. For a Carnot engine operating between reservoirs at tempera-
tures 1 and 1
t
, 1
t
being the triple point oI water (Fig. 6.29), arbitrarily assigned the
value 273.16 K,
Q
Q
t

1
1
t
\ 1 273.16
Q
Q
t
(6.23)
II this equation is compared with the
equations given in Article 2.3, it is seen that
in the Kelvin scale, Q plays the role of ther-
mometric property. The amount oI heat sup-
ply Q changes with change in temperature,
just like the thermal emI in a thermocouple.
That the absolute thermodynamic tem-
perature scale has a deIinite zero point can
be shown by imagining a series oI revers-
ible engines, extending Irom a source at 1
1
to lower temperatures (Fig. 6.30).
Since
1
1
1
2

Q
Q
1
2
Q
Q
t
T
t
T
E W
net
273.16K =
Fig. .29 Carnot heat Lnqine witb
Sink at Triple Point oj
Water
Q
1
Q
2
Q
2
Q
3
Q
3
Q
4
Q
4
T
1
T
2
T
3
T
4
E
1
E
2
E
3
W
1
W
2
W
3
Q Q
1 2
-
Q Q
2 3
-
Q Q
3 4
-
=
=
=
Fig. .30 heat Lnqines 0peratinq in
Series
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 137
!& Fng|nee|ng |henocynon|c
\
1 1
1
1 2
2
-

Q Q
Q
1 2
2
-
or 1
1
1
2
(Q
1
Q
2
)
1
Q
2
2
Similarly
1
2
1
3
(Q
2
Q
3
)
1
Q
3
3
(Q
2
Q
3
)
1
Q
2
2
1
3
1
4
(Q
3
Q
4
)
1
Q
2
2
and so on.
II 1
1
1
2
1
2
1
3
1
3
1
4
..., assuming equal temperature intervals
Q
1
Q
2
Q
2
Q
3
Q
3
Q
4
...
or W
1
W
2
W
3
...
Conversely, by making the work quantities perIormed by the engines in series equal
(W
1
W
2
W
3
...), we will get
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
3
1
3
1
4
...
at equal temperature intervals. A scale having one hundred equal intervals between
the steam point and the ice point could be realized by a series oI one hundred Carnot
engines operating as in Fig. 6.30. Such a scale would be independent oI the working
substance.
II enough engines are placed in series to make the total work output equal to Q
1
,
then by the Iirst law the heat rejected Irom the last engine will be zero. By the
second law, however, the operation oI a cyclic heat engine with zero heat rejection
cannot be achieved, although it may be approached as a limit. When the heat re-
jected approaches zero, the temperature oI heat rejection also approaches zero as a
limit. 1hus it appears that a definite :ero point exist on the absolute temperature
scale but this point cannot be reached without a violation of the second law.
Also, since Q
2
0, the isothermal process at 1
2
0 would also be adiabatic
rendering Carnot cycle ambiguous.
Thus any attainable value oI absolute temperature is always greater than zero.
This is also known as the 1hird Law of 1hermodynamics which may be stated as
Iollows: It is impossible by any procedure, no matter how ideali:ed, to reduce any
system to the absolute :ero of temperature in a finite number of operations.
This is what is called the Fowler-Guggenheim statement oI the third law. The
third law itselI is an independent law oI nature, and not an extension oI the second
law. The concept oI heat engine is not necessary to prove the non-attainability oI
absolute zero oI temperature by any system in a Iinite number oI operations.
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 138
Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c !'
6.i6 EFFICIENCY OF THE REVER5IBLE HEAT ENGINE
The eIIiciency oI a reversible heat engine in which heat is received solely at 1
1
is
Iound to be
h
rev
h
max
1
Q
Q
2
1
.
0
/
1

rev
1
1
1
2
1
or h
rev

1 1
1
1 2
1
-
It is observed here that as 1
2
decreases, and 1
1
increases, the eIIiciency oI the re
versible cycle increases.
Since h is always less than unity, 1
2
is always greater than zero and positive.
The COP oI a reIrigerator is given by
(COP)
reIr

Q
Q Q
2
1 2
-

1
1
1
2
Q
Q
-
For a reversible reIrigerator, using
Q
Q
1
2

1
1
1
2
|COP
reIr
|
rev

1
1 1
2
1 2
-
(6.24)
Similarly, Ior a reversible heat pump
|COP
H.P
.|
rev

1
1 1
1
1 2
-
(6.25)
6.i) EOUALITY OF IDEAL GA5 TEMPERATURE AND kELVIN
TEMPERATURE
Let us consider a Carnot cycle executed by an ideal gas, as shown in Fig. 6.31.
The two isothermal processes ab and cd are represented by equilateral hyper-
bolas whose equations are respectively
pJ nR q
1
and pJ nR q
2
For any inIinitesimal reversible process oI an ideal gas, the Iirst law may be written
as
d
-
Q C
v
dq pdJ
Applying this equation to the isothermal process ab, the heat absorbed is Iound to
be
Q
1
pdJ
J
J
a
b


nR
J
J
J
a
b
q
1

dJ nRq
1
ln
J
J
b
a
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 139
" Fng|nee|ng |henocynon|c
Reversible
Reversible
Adiabatics
Isotherms
a
q
2
q
1
p
d
v
Q
2
Q
1
W
C
W
E
c
b
Fig. .31 Carnot C;cle oj an lJeal 6as
Similarly, Ior the isothermal process cd, the heat rejected is
Q
2
nRq
2
ln
J
J
c
d
\
Q
Q
1
2

1
2
ln
ln
J
J
J
J
b
a
c
d
(6.26)
Since the process bc is adiabatic, the Iirst law gives
C
v
dq pdJ
nR
J
q
dJ
1
2
1
nR
q
q

C
v

dq
q
ln
J
J
c
b
Similarly, Ior the adiabatic process da
1
2
1
nR
q
q

C
v

dq
q
ln
J
J
d
a
\ ln
J
J
c
b
ln
J
J
d
a
or
J
J
c
b

J
J
d
a
or
J
J
b
a

J
J
c
d
(6.27)
Equation (6.26) thus reduces to
Q
Q
1
2

q
q
1
2
(6.28)
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 140
Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c "
Kelvin temperature was deIined by Eq. (6.22)
Q
Q
1
2

1
1
1
2
II q and 1 reIer to any temperature, and q
t
and 1
t
reIer to the triple point oI water,
q
q
t

1
1
t
Since q
1
1
t
273.16 K, it Iollows that
q 1 (6.29)
The Kelvin temperature is, thereIore, numerically equal to the ideal gas tempera-
ture and may be measured by means oI a gas thermometer.
6.i8 TYPE5 OF IRREVER5IBILITY
It has been discussed in Sec. 6.9 that a process becomes irreversible iI it occurs due
to a Iinite potential gradient like the gradient in temperature or pressure, or iI there
is dissipative eIIect like Iriction, in which work is transIormed into internal energy
increase oI the system. Two types oI irreversibility can be distinguished:
(a) Internal irreversibility
(b) External irreversibility
The internal irreversibility is caused by the internal dissipative eIIects like Iriction,
turbulence, electrical resistance, magnetic hysteresis, etc. within the system. The
external irreversibility reIers to the irreversibility occurring at the system boundary
like heat interaction with the surroundings due to a Iinite temperature gradient.
Sometimes, it is useIul to make other distinctions. II the irreversibility oI a pro-
cess is due to the dissipation oI work into the increase in internal energy oI a sys-
tem, or due to a Iinite pressure gradient, it is called mechanical irreversibility. II the
process occurs on account oI a Iinite temperature gradient, it is thermal irrevers-
ibility, and iI it is due to a Iinite concentration gradient or a chemical reaction, it is
called chemical irreversibility.
A heat engine cycle in which there is a temperature diIIerence (i) between the
source and the working Iluid during heat supply, and (ii) between the working Iluid
and the sink during heat rejection, exhibits external thermal irreversibility. II the
real source and sink are not considered and hypothetical reversible processes Ior
heat supply and heat rejection are assumed, the cycle can be reversible. With the
inclusion oI the actual source and sink, however, the cycle becomes externally irre-
versible.
SolveJ Fxumplev
Exanp1e 6.1 A cyclic heat engine operates between a source temperature of
800C and a sink temperature of 30C. What is the least rate of heat refection per
kW net output of the engine?
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 141
" Fng|nee|ng |henocynon|c
5KJE For a reversible engine, the rate oI heat rejection will be minimum
(Fig. 6.32).
Q
1
Q
2
W = Q Q =
1 2
1 kW
T
1
= 1073 K
Source
Sink
= 303 K T
2
HE
Fig. .32
h
max
h
rev
1
1
1
2
1
1
30 273
800 273
+
+
1 0.282 0.718
Now
W
Q
net
1
h
max
0.718
\ Q
1

1
0 718 .
1.392 kW
Now Q
2
Q
1
W
net
1.392 1 0.392 kW
This is the least rate oI heat rejection.
Exanp1e 6.2 A domestic food free:er maintains
a temperature of 15C. 1he ambient air tempera-
ture is 30C. If heat leaks into the free:er at the
continuous rate of 1.75 kJ/s what is the least power
necessary to pump this heat out continuously?
5KJE Freezer temperature,
1
2
15 273 258 K
Ambient air temperature,
1
1
30 273 303 K
The reIrigerator cycle removes heat Irom the
Ireezer at the same rate at which heat leaks into it
(Fig. 6.33).
For minimum power requirement
Q
1
2
2

Q
1
1
1
Q
2
Q
1
Ambient air T
1
= 303 K
Freezer T
2
= 258 K
Q
2
= 1.75 kJ/s
R
W
Fig. .33
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 142
Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c "!
\ Q
1

1 75
2 8
.
.
303 2.06 kJ/s
\ W Q
1
Q
2
2.06 1.75 0.31 kJ/s 0.31 kW
Exanp1e 6.3 An ideal gas cycle is represented by a rectangle on a p-J diagram.
If p
1
and p
2
are the lower and higher pressures, and J
1
and J
2
, the smaller and
larger volumes, respectively, then (a) calculate the work done per cycle, (b) indi-
cate which parts of the cycle involve heat flow into the gas. (c) Show that
h
2 1
2 1 2 1
1
p J

p p J J
g
g
-
- -
if heat capacities are constant.
5KJE
p
2
p
1
b
a
c
d
p
V
1
V
2
V
Fig. .34
(a) W area oI the cycle (Fig. 6.34)
(p
2
p
1
) (J
2
J
1
) Ans.
(b) Processes ab and bc
Heat absorbed by 1 mole oI gas in one cycle,
Q Q
ab
Q
bc
C
v
(1
b
1
a
) C
p
(1
c
1
b
)
Now, 1
a
1
b

1
2
p
p
and p
2
J
1
R 1
b
1
c
1
b

2
1
J
J
, 1
b

2 1
p J
R
Q C
v
1
b

1
2
1
p
p

-


C
p
1
b

2
1
1
J
J

-



2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1
p p
p J p p J J
C C
R p J
- -
+


Ans.
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 143
"" Fng|nee|ng |henocynon|c
(c) Q
W
Q

2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1
( ) ( )
p v
p p J J
p J p p J J
C C
R p J
- -
- -
+



( )
2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 2 1
( )
( ) ( )
v p
R p p J J
C J p p C p J J
- -
- + -

1 2
2 1 2 1
p v
v p
C C
J p
C C
J J p p
-
+
- -

1 2
2 1 2 1
1
J p
J J p p
g
g
-
+
- -
Ans.
Exanp1e 6.4 A Carnot engine absorbs 200 J of heat from a reservoir at the
temperature of the normal boiling point of water and refects heat to a reservoir at
the temperature of the triple point of water. Find the heat refected, the work done
by the engine and the thermal efficiency.
5KJE
Q
1
200 J at 1
1
373.15 K
1
2
273.16 K
Q
2
Q
1

2
1
1
1
200
273.16
373.15
146.4 J Ans.
W Q
1
Q
2
53.6 J. Ans.
h
1
W
Q

53.6
200
0.268 Ans.
Exanp1e 6.5 A reversible heat engine operates between two reservoirs at tem-
peratures of 600C and 40C. 1he engine drives a reversible refrigerator which
operates between reservoirs at temperatures of 40C and 20C. 1he heat transfer
to the heat engine is 2000 kJ and the net work output of the combined engine
refrigerator plant is 360 kJ.
(a) Evaluate the heat transfer to the refrigerant and the net heat transfer to the
reservoir at 40C.
(b) Reconsider (a) given that the efficiency of the heat engine and the COP of the
refrigerator are each 40 of their maximum possible values.
5KJE (a) Maximum eIIiciency oI the heat engine cycle (Fig. 6.35) is given by
h
max
1
1
1
2
1
1
313
873
1 0.358 0.642
Again
W
Q
1
1
0.642
\ W
1
0.642 2000 1284 kJ
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 144
Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c "#
Q
1
= 2000 kJ
Q
4
Q
2
W
1
W
2
Q Q W
3 4 2
= +
T
1
= 873 K T
3
= 253 K
W = 360 kJ
T K
2
= 313
HE R
Fig. .35
Maximum COP oI the reIrigerator cycle
(COP)
max

1
1 1
3
2 3
-

253
313 253 -
4.22
Also COP
Q
W
4
2
4.22
Since W
1
W
2
W 360 kJ
\ W
2
W
1
W 1284 360 924 kJ
\ Q
4
4.22 924 3899 kJ
\ Q
3
Q
4
W
2
924 3899 4823 kJ
Q
2
Q
1
W
1
2000 1284 716 kJ
Heat rejection to the 40C reservoir
Q
2
Q
3
716 4823 5539 k1
(b) EIIiciency oI the actual heat engine cycle
h 0.4 h
max
0.4 0.642
\ W
1
0.4 0.642 2000
513.6 kJ
\ W
2
513.6 360 153.6 kJ
COP oI the actual reIrigerator cycle
COP
Q
W
4
2
0.4 4.22 1.69
ThereIore
Q
4
153.6 1.69 259.6 k1
Q
3
259.6 153.6 413.2 k1
Q
2
Q
1
W
1
2000 513.6 1486.4 k1
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 145
"$ Fng|nee|ng |henocynon|c
Heat rejected to the 40C reservoir
Q
2
Q
3
413.2 1486.4 1899.6 k1
Exanp1e 6.6 Which is the more effective way to increase the efficiency of a
Carnot engine. to increase 1
1
, keeping 1
2
constant, or to decrease 1
2
, keeping 1
1
constant?
5KJE The eIIiciency oI a Carnot engine is given by
h 1
1
1
2
1
II 1
2
is constant

.
0
/
1

h
1
1
1
2

1
1
2
1
2
As 1
1
increases, h increases, and the slope

.
0
/
1

h
1
1
1
2
decreases (Fig. 6.36). II 1
1
is
constant,

.
0
/
1

1
1
2
1
-
1
1
1
As 1
2
decreases, h increases, but the slope

.
0
/
1

1
1
2
1
remains constant (Fig. 6.37).
1.0
0
h
T
1
T
2
1.0
0
Slope = 1/T
h
T
1
T
2
Fig. .3 Fig. .37
Also

.
0
/
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
2
1
2
and

.
0
/
1

1
1
2
1
-
1
1
1
1
2
Since 1
1
~ 1
2
,

.
0
/
1

>

.
0
/
1


1 1
1 1
2 1
1 2
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 146
Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c "%
So, the more eIIective way to increase the eIIiciency is to decrease 1
2
. Alterna-
tively, let 1
2
be decreased by D1 with 1
1
remaining the same
h
1
1
1 1
1
2
1
- D
II 1
1
is increased by the same D1, 1
2
remaining the same
h
2
1
1
1 1
2
1
+ D
Then
h
1
h
2

1
1 1
1 1
1
2
1
2
1
+
-
-
D
D

( ) ( )
( )
1 1 1 1
1 1 1
1 2
2
1 1
- +
+
D D
D
Since 1
1
~ 1
2
, (h
1
h
2
) ~ 0
The more eIIective way to increase the cycle eIIiciency is to decrease 1
2
.
Exanp1e 6.7 Kelvin was the first to point out the thermodynamic wastefulness
of burning fuel for the direct heating of a house. It is much more economical to use
the high temperature heat produced by combustion in a heat engine and then to use
the work so developed to pump heat from outdoors up to the temperature desired in
the house. In Fig. 6.38 a boiler furnishes heat Q
1
at the high temperature 1
1
. 1his
heat is absorbed by a heat engine, which extracts work W and refects the waste
heat Q
2
into the house at 1
2
. Work W is in turn used to operate a mechanical refrig-
erator or heat pump, which extracts Q
3
from outdoors at temperature 1
3
and refect
Q
2
(where Q
2
Q
3
W) into the house. As a result of this cycle of operations, a
total quantity of heat equal to Q
2
Q
2
is liberated in
the house, against Q
1
which would be provided di-
rectly by the ordinary combustion of the fuel. 1hus the
ratio (Q
2
Q
2
)/Q
1
represents the heat multiplication
factor of this method. Determine this multiplication
factor if 1
1
473 K, 1
2
293 K, and 1
3
273 K.
5KJE For the reversible heat engine (Fig. 6.38)
Q
Q
2
1

1
1
2
1
\ Q
2
Q
1
1
1
2
1
.
0
/
1

Also h
W
Q
1

1 1
1
1 2
1
-
or W
1 1
1
1 2
1
-
Q
1
W
W
Boiler
Outdoors
House
Q
1
T
3
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q Q W
2 3
= +
T
1
Q
3
T
2
CHE
H.P.
Fig. .38
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 147
"& Fng|nee|ng |henocynon|c
For the reversible heat pump
COP
Q
W
2

1
1 1
2
2 3
-
\ Q
2
1
1 1
1 1
1
2
2 3
1 2
1
-

- Q
1
\ Multiplication Iactor (M.F.)

Q Q
Q
2 2
1
+

Q
1
1
Q
1
1 1
1 1
1
Q
1
2
1
1
2
2 3
1 2
1
1
+
-

-
or M.F.
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1
2
2
2 3 2 1 2
2
1 2 3
- + -
- ( )
or M.F.
1 1 1
1 1 1
2 1 3
1 2 3
( )
( )
-
-
Here 1
1
473 K, 1
2
293 K and 1
3
273 K
\ M.F.
293 473 273
473 293 273
( )
( )
-
-

2930
473
6.3
which means that every kg oI coal burned would deliver the heat equivalent to over
6 kg. OI course, in an actual case, the eIIiciencies would be less than Carnot eIIi-
ciencies, but even with a reduction oI 50, the possible savings would be quite
signiIicant.
Exanp1e 6.8 It is proposed that solar energy be used to warm a large collector
plate. 1his energy would, in turn, be transferred as heat to a fluid within a heat
engine, and the engine would refect energy as heat to the atmosphere. Experiments
indicate that about 1880 kJ/m
2
h of energy can be collected when the plate is oper-
ating at 90C. Estimate the minimum collector area that would be required for a
plant producing 1 kW of useful shaft power. 1he atmospheric temperature may be
assumed to be 20C.
5KJE The maximum eIIiciency Ior the heat engine operating between the col-
lector plate temperature and the atmospheric temperature (Fig. 6.39) as Iollows:
h
max
1
2
1
-
1
1
1
293
363
- 0.192
The eIIiciency oI any actual heat engine operating between these temperatures
would be less than this eIIiciency.
\ Q
min

W
h
max

1
0 192
kJ/s
.
5.21 kJ/s
18,800 kJ/h
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 148
Seconc Low o| |henocynon|c "'
\ Minimum area required Ior the collector plate

18 800
1880
,
10 m
2
Exanp1e 6.9 A reversible heat engine in a satellite operates between a hot res-
ervoir at 1
1
and a radiating panel at 1
2
. Radiation from the panel is proportional
to its area and to 1
4
2
. For a given work output and value of 1
1
show that the area of
the panel will be minimum when
2
1
1
1
0.75.
Determine the minimum area oI the panel Ior an output
oI 1 kW iI the constant oI proportionality is 5.67 10
8
W/
m
2
K
4
and 1
1
is 1000 K.
5KJE For the heat engine (Fig. 6.39), the heat rejected
Q
2
to the panel (at 1
2
) is equal to the energy emitted Irom
the panel to the surroundings by radiation. II A is the area
oI the panel, Q
2
A1
4
2
, or Q
2
KA1
4
2
, where K is a con-
stant.
Now, h
W
Q
1

1 1
1
1 2
1
-
or
W
1 1
1 2
-

Q
1
Q
1
1
1
2
2
=
KA1
1
2
4
2
KA1
3
2
\ A
W
K1 1 1
2
3
1 2
( ) -

W
K 1 1 1 ( )
1 2
3
2
4
-
For a given W and 1
1
, A will be minimum when
dA
d1
2
-
W
K
(31
1
1
2
2
41
3
2
) (1
1
1
3
2
1
4
2
)
2
0
Since (1
1
1
3
2
1
4
2
)
2
0, 31
1
1
2
2
41
3
2
\
1
1
2
1
0.75 Proved.
A
min

W
K 1 1 1 ( . ) ( . ) 0 75 0 75
3
1
3
1 1
-

W
K 1
27
256
1
4

256
27
1
4
W
K1
Here W 1 kW, K 5.67 10
8
W/m
2
K
4
, and 1
1
1000 K
Panel
HE
T
2
Q KAT =
2
4
2
Q
1
Q
2
W
T
1
Fig. .39
Chapt-06.p65 4/25/08, 10:19 AM 149
# Fng|nee|ng |henocynon|c
\ A
min

256 1
27 5 67 10 1000
2 4
8 4 4


-
kW m K
W K . ( )

256 10
27 5 67 10 10
3
8 12


-
.
m
2
0.1672 m
2
Summury
A heat engine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle in which there is a net Ilow oI heat
to the system and a net Ilow oI work Irom the system. The system which executes
a heat engine cycle is a heat engine. The eIIiciency oI a heat engine, or oI its
cycle is
h
net
1
W
Q
where Q
1
is the heat transIerred to the system in a cycle, and W
net
is the net work
oI the cycle. This eIIiciency is called thermal eIIiciency.
A heat pump or a reIrigerator is a system to which there is a net Ilow oI work
and Irom which there is a net Ilow oI heat in a cycle.
The second law is stated as Iollows (aIter Kelvin and Planck): It is impossible
Ior a heat engine to produce net work in a complete cycle iI it exchanges heat
only with bodies at a single Iixed temperature.
An equivalent statement (aIter Clausius) Iollows: It is impossible Ior a system
working in a complete cycle to accomplish as its sole eIIect the transIer oI heat
Irom a body at a given temperature to a body at a higher temperature.
A process is reversible iI, aIter the process has been carried out, it is possible
by any means whatsoever to restore both the system and the entire surroundings
to exactly the same states that were in beIore the process. A process that is not
reversible is irreversible. A reversible process is a process that can be undone in
such a way that no trace remains anywhere oI the Iact that the process had
occurred. The causes oI irreversibility oI a process are:
1. Finite potential gradient causing the process like temperature, pressure, con-
centration, etc.
2. Presence oI dissipative eIIects like Iriction in which macroscopic work dissi-
pates into an increase oI internal energy and then heat.
A reversible process would require inIinite time.
A reversible cycle is a cycle composed entirely oI reversible processes. The
classical example is the Carnot cycle which consists oI two reversible isothermal
processes and two reversible adiabatic processes.
No heat engine operating between Iixed temperature levels can be more
eIIicient than a reversible engine operating between the same temperatures. The
eIIiciency oI all reversible heat engines operating between the same temperature
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levels is the same. The eIIiciency oI a reversible heat engine is independent oI
the nature or amount oI the working substance undergoing the cycle. The absolute
thermodynamic scale is deIined by the relation
1 1
2 2
1 Q
1 Q
=
where Q
1
is the heat received Irom a source at 1
1
and Q
2
is the heat rejected to a
sink at 1
2
by a reversible heat engine. The eIIiciency oI a reversible heat engine
receiving heat solely at 1
1
and rejecting heat solely at 1
2
is given by
h
max
h
rev

1 2
1
1 1
1
-
1
2
1
1
1
The COPs oI a Carnot reIrigerator and a Carnot heat pump are
(COP
max
)
ReI

2
1 2
1
1 1 -
, (COP
max
)
HP

1
1 2
1
1 1 -
The absolute thermodynamic temperature scale or the Kelvin scale is equivalent
to the ideal gas temperature scale, and the Kelvin temperature can be measured
by a gas thermometer.
Revlew quevtlonv
6.1 What is the qualitative diIIerence between heat and work? Why are heat and
work not completely interchangeable Iorms oI energy?
6.2 What is a cyclic heat engine?
6.3 Explain a heat engine cycle perIormed by a closed system.
6.4 Explain a heat engine cycle perIormed by a steady Ilow system.
6.5 DeIine the thermal eIIiciency oI a heat engine cycle. Can this be 100?
6.6 Draw a block diagram showing the Iour energy interactions oI a cyclic heat en-
gine.
6.7 What is a thermal energy reservoir? Explain the terms source` and sink`.
6.8 What is a mechanical energy reservoir?
6.9 Why can all processes in a TER or an MER be assumed to be quasi-static?
6.10 Give the Kelvin-Planck statement oI the second law.
6.11 To produce net work in a thermodynamic cycle, a heat engine has to exchange
heat with two thermal reservoirs. Explain.
6.12 What is a PMM2? Why is it impossible?
6.13 Give the Clausius` statement oI the second law.
6.14 Explain the operation oI a cyclic reIrigerator plant with a block diagram.
6.15 DeIine the COP oI a reIrigerator.
6.16 What is a heat pump? How does it diIIer Irom a reIrigerator?
6.17 Can you use the same plant as a heat pump in winter and as a reIrigerator in
summer? Explain.
6.18 Show that the COP oI a heat pump is greater than the COP oI a reIrigerator by
unity.
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6.19 Why is direct heating thermodynamically wasteIul?
6.20 How can a heat pump upgrade low grade waste heat?
6.21 Establish the equivalence oI Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements.
6.22 What is a reversible process? A reversible process should not leave any evidence
to show that the process had ever occurred. Explain.
6.23 How is a reversible process only a limiting process, never to be attained in prac-
tice?
6.24 All spontaneous processes are irreversible. Explain.
6.25 What are the causes oI irreversibility oI a process?
6.26 Show that heat transIer through a Iinite temperature diIIerence is irreversible.
6.27 Demonstrate, using the second law, that Iree expansion is irreversible.
6.28 What do you understand by dissipative eIIects? When is work said to be dissi-
pated?
6.29 Explain perpetual motion oI the third kind.
6.30 Demonstrate using the second law how Iriction makes a process irreversible.
6.31 When a rotating wheel is brought to rest by applying a brake, show that the
molecular internal energy oI the system (oI the brake and the wheel) increases.
6.32 Show that the dissipation oI stirring work to internal energy is irreversible.
6.33 Show by second law that the dissipation oI electrical work into internal energy or
heat is irreversible.
6.34 What is a Carnot cycle? What are the Iour processes which constitute the cycle?
6.35 Explain the Carnot heat engine cycle executed by: (a) a stationary system, and
(b) a steady Ilow system.
6.36 What is a reversed heat engine?
6.37 Show that the eIIiciency oI a reversible engine operating between two given
constant temperatures is the maximum.
6.38 Show that the eIIiciency oI all reversible heat engines operating between the
same temperature levels is the same.
6.39 Show that the eIIiciency oI a reversible engine is independent oI the nature or
amount oI the working substance going through the cycle.
6.40 How does the eIIiciency oI a reversible cycle depend only on the two tempera-
tures at which heat is transIerred?
6.41 What is the absolute thermodynamic temperature scale? Why is it called abso-
lute?
6.42 How is the absolute scale independent oI the working substance?
6.43 How does Q play the role oI thermometric property in the Kelvin scale?
6.44 Show that a deIinite zero point exists on the absolute temperature scale but that
this point cannot be reached without a violation oI the second law.
6.45 Give the Fowler-Guggenheim statement oI the third law.
6.46 Is the third law an extension oI the second law? Is it an independent law oI
nature? Explain.
6.47 How does the eIIiciency oI a reversible engine vary as the source and sink tem-
peratures are varied? When does the eIIiciency become 100?
6.48 For a given 1
2
, show that the COP oI a reIrigerator increases as 1
1
decreases.
6.49 Explain how the Kelvin temperature can be measured with a gas thermometer.
6.50 Establish the equality oI ideal gas temperature and Kelvin temperature.
6.51 What do you understand by internal irreversibility and external irreversibility?
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6.52 Explain mechanical, thermal and chemical irreversibilities.
6.53 A Carnot engine with a Iuel burning device as source and a heat sink cannot be
treated as a reversible plant. Explain.
Problemv
6.1 An inventor claims to have developed an engine that takes in 105 MJ at a tem-
perature oI 400 K, rejects 42 MJ at a temperature oI 200 K, and delivers 15 kWh
oI mechanical work. Would you advise investing money to put this engine in the
market? Ans. No
6.2 II a reIrigerator is used Ior heating purposes in winter so that the atmosphere
becomes the cold body and the room to be heated becomes the hot body, how
much heat would be available Ior heating Ior each kW input to the driving
motor? The COP oI the reIrigerator is 5, and the electromechanical eIIiciency oI
the motor is 90. How does this compare with resistance heating?
Ans. 5.4 kW
6.3 Using an engine oI 30 thermal eIIiciency to drive a reIrigerator having a COP
oI 5, what is the heat input into the engine Ior each MJ removed Irom the cold
body by the reIrigerator? Ans. 666.67 kJ
II this system is used as a heat pump, how many MJ oI heat would be available
Ior heating Ior each MJ oI heat input to the engine? Ans. 1.8 MJ
6.4 An electric storage battery which can exchange heat only with a constant tem-
perature atmosphere goes through a complete cycle oI two processes. In process
12, 2.8 kWh oI electrical work Ilow into the battery while 732 kJ oI heat Ilow
out to the atmosphere. During process 21, 2.4 kWh oI work Ilow out oI the
battery. (a) Find the heat transIer in process 21. (b) II the process 12 has oc-
curred as above, does the Iirst law or the second law limit the maximum
possible work oI process 21? What is the maximum possible work? (c) II the
maximum possible work were obtained in process 21, what will be the heat
transIer in the process?
Ans (a) 708 kJ (b) Second law, W
2

1
9348 kJ (c) Q
2 1
0
6.5 A household reIrigerator is maintained at a temperature oI 2C. Every time the
door is opened, warm material is placed inside, introducing an average oI
420 kJ, but making only a small change in the temperature oI the reIrigerator.
The door is opened 20 times a day, and the reIrigerator operates at 15 oI the
ideal COP. The cost oI work is Rs. 2.50 per kWh. What is the monthly bill Ior
this reIrigerator? The atmosphere is at 30C. Ans Rs. 118.80
6.6 A heat pump working on the Carnot cycle takes in heat Irom a reservoir at 5C
and delivers heat to a reservoir at 60C. The heat pump is driven by a reversible
heat engine which takes in heat Irom a reservoir at 840C and rejects heat to a
reservoir at 60C. The reversible heat engine also drives a machine that absorbs
30 kW. II the heat pump extracts 17 kJ/s Irom the 5C reservoir, determine (a) the
rate oI heat supply Irom the 840C source, and (b) the rate oI heat rejection to the
60C sink. Ans. (a) 47.61 kW; (b) 34.61 kW
6.7 A reIrigeration plant Ior a Iood store operates as a reversed Carnot heat engine
cycle. The store is to be maintained at a temperature oI 5C and the heat trans-
Ier Irom the store to the cycle is at the rate oI 5 kW. II heat is transIerred Irom the
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cycle to the atmosphere at a temperature oI 25C, calculate the power required to
drive the plant. Ans. 0.56 kW
6.8 A heat engine is used to drive a heat pump. The heat transIers Irom the heat
engine and Irom the heat pump are used to heat the water circulating through the
radiators oI a building. The eIIiciency oI the heat engine is 27 and the COP oI
the heat pump is 4. Evaluate the ratio oI the heat transIer to the circulating water
to the heat transIer to the heat engine. Ans. 1.81
6.9 II 20 kJ are added to a Carnot cycle at a temperature oI 100C and 14.6 kJ are
rejected at 0C, determine the location oI absolute zero on the Celsius scale.
Ans. 270.37C
6.10 Two reversible heat engines A and B are arranged in series, A rejecting heat
directly to B. Engine A receives 200 kJ at a temperature oI 421C Irom a hot
source, while engine B is in communication with a cold sink at a temperature oI
4.4C. II the work output oI A is twice that oI B, Iind (a) the intermediate tem-
perature between A and B, (b) the eIIiciency oI each engine, and (c) the heat
rejected to the cold sink. Ans. 143.4C, 40 and 33.5, 80 kJ
6.11 A heat engine operates between the maximum and minimum temperatures oI
671C and 60C respectively, with an eIIiciency oI 50 oI the appropriate Carnot
eIIiciency. It drives a heat pump which uses river water at 4.4C to heat a block
oI Ilats in which the temperature is to be maintained at 21.1C. Assuming that a
temperature diIIerence oI 11.1C exists between the working Iluid and the river
water, on the one hand, and the required room temperature on the other, and
assuming the heat pump to operate on the reversed Carnot cycle, but with a COP
oI 50 oI the ideal COP, Iind the heat input to the engine per unit heat output
Irom the heat pump. Why is direct heating thermodynamically more wasteIul?
Ans. 0.79 kJ/kJ heat input
6.12 An ice-making plant produces ice at atmospheric pressure and at 0C Irom
water. The mean temperature oI the cooling water circulating through the
condenser oI the reIrigerating machine is 18C. Evaluate the minimum electrical
work in kWh required to produce 1 tonne oI ice. (The enthalpy oI Iusion oI ice at
atmospheric pressure is 333.5 kJ/kg). Ans. 6.11 kWh
6.13 A reversible engine works between three thermal reservoirs, A, B and C. The
engine absorbs an equal amount oI heat Irom the thermal reservoirs A and B kept
at temperatures 1
A
and 1
B
respectively, and rejects heat to the thermal
reservoir C kept at temperature 1
C
. The eIIiciency oI the engine is a times the
eIIiciency oI the reversible engine, which works between the two reservoirs A
and C. Prove that
1
1
A
B
(2a 1) 2 (1 a)
1
1
A
C
6.14 A reversible engine operates between temperatures 1
1
and 1 (1
1
~ 1). The
energy rejected Irom this engine is received by a second reversible engine
at the same temperature 1. The second engine rejects energy at temperature
1
2
(1
2
1
1
). Show that (a) temperature 1 is the arithmetic mean oI temperatures
1
1
and 1
2
iI the engines produce the same amount oI work output, and (b) tem-
perature 1 is the geometric mean oI temperatures 1
1
and 1
2
iI the engines have
the same cycle eIIiciencies.
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6.15 Two Carnot engines A and B are connected in series between two thermal reser-
voirs maintained at 1000 K and 100 K respectively. Engine A receives 1680 kJ oI
heat Irom the high-temperature reservoir and rejects heat to the Carnot engine B.
Engine B takes in heat rejected by engine A and rejects heat to the low-tempera-
ture reservoir. II engines A and B have equal thermal eIIiciencies, determine (a)
the heat rejected by engine B, (b) the temperature at which heat is rejected by
engine, A, and (c) the work done during the process by engines, A and B respec-
tively. II engines A and B deliver equal work, determine (d) the amount oI heat
taken in by engine B, and (e) the eIIiciencies oI engines A and B.
Ans. (a) 168 kJ, b) 316.2 K, (c) 1148.7, 363.3 kJ, (d) 924 kJ, (e) 45, 81.8.
6.16 A heat pump is to be used to heat a house in winter and then reversed to cool the
house in summer. The interior temperature is to be maintained at 20C. Heat
transIer through the walls and rooI is estimated to be 0.525 kJ/s per degree tem-
perature diIIerence between the inside and outside. (a) II the outside temperature
in winter is 5C, what is the minimum power required to drive the heat pump?
(b) II the power output is the same as in part (a), what is the maximum outer
temperature Ior which the inside can be maintained at 20C?
Ans. (a) 403 W, (b) 35.4C.
6.17 Consider an engine in outer space which operates on the Carnot cycle. The only
way in which heat can be transIerred Irom the engine is by radiation. The rate at
which heat is radiated is proportional to the Iourth power oI the absolute
temperature and to the area oI the radiating surIace. Show that Ior a given power
output and a given 1
1
, the area oI the radiator will be a minimum when
1
1
2
1

3
4
6.18 It takes 10 kW to keep the interior oI a certain house at 20C when the outside
temperature is 0C. This heat Ilow is usually obtained directly by burning gas or
oil. Calculate the power required iI the 10 kW heat Ilow were supplied by oper-
ating a reversible engine with the house as the upper reservoir and the outside
surroundings as the lower reservoir, so that the power were used only to perIorm
work needed to operate the engine. Ans. 0.683 kW
6.19 Prove that the COP oI a reversible reIrigerator operating between two given tem-
peratures is the maximum.
6.20 A house is to be maintained at a temperature oI 20C by means oI a heat pump
pumping heat Irom the atmosphere. Heat losses through the walls oI the house
are estimated at 0.65 kW per unit oI temperature diIIerence between the inside oI
the house and the atmosphere. (a) II the atmospheric temperature is 10C, what
is the minimum power required to drive the pump? (b) It is proposed to use the
same heat pump to cool the house in summer. For the same room temperature,
the same heat loss rate, and the same power input to the pump, what is the maxi-
mum permissible atmospheric temperature? Ans. 2 kW, 50C.
6.21 A solar-powered heat pump receives heat Irom a solar collector at 1
h
, rejects
heat to the atmosphere at 1
a
, and pumps heat Irom a cold space at 1
c
. The three
heat transIer rates are Q
h
, Q
a
, and Q
c
respectively. Derive an expression Ior the
minimum ratio Q
h
/Q
c
, in terms oI the three temperatures.
II 1
h
400 K, 1
a
300 K, 1
c
200 K, Q
c
12 kW, what is the minimum Q
h
?
II the collector captures 0.2 kW/m
2
, what is the minimum collector area required?
Ans. 26.25 kW, 131.25 m
2
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6.22 A heat engine operating between two reservoirs at 1000 K and 300 K is used to
drive a heat pump which extracts heat Irom the reservoir at 300 K at a rate twice
that at which the engine rejects heat to it. II the eIIiciency oI the engine is 40 oI
the maximum possible and the COP oI the heat pump is 50 oI the maximum
possible, what is the temperature oI the reservoir to which the heat pump rejects
heat? What is the rate oI heat rejection Irom the heat pump iI the rate oI heat
supply to the engine is 50 kW? Ans. 326.5 K, 86 kW
6.23 A reversible power cycle is used to drive a reversible heat pump cycle. The power
cycle takes in Q
1
heat units at 1
1
and rejects Q
2
at 1
2
. The heat pump abstracts Q
4
Irom the sink at 1
4
and discharges Q
3
at 1
3
. Develop an expression Ior the ratio
Q
4
/Q
1
in terms oI the Iour temperatures.
Ans.
Q
Q
4
1

1 1 1
1 1 1
4 1 2
1 3 4
( )
( )
-
-
6.24 Prove that the Iollowing propositions are logically equivalent: (a) A PMM2 is
impossible, (b) A weight sliding at constant velocity down a Irictional inclined
plane executes an irreversible process.
6.25 A heat engine receives halI oI its heat supply at 1000 K and halI at 500 K while
rejecting heat to a sink at 300 K. What is the maximum thermal eIIiciency oI the
heat engine? Ans. 55
6.26 A heat pump provides 3 10
4
kJ/h to maintain a dwelling at 23C on a day when
the outside temperature is 0C. The power input to the heat pump is 4 kW. Deter-
mine the COP oI the heat pump and compare it with the COP oI a reversible heat
pump operating between the reservoirs at the same two temperatures.
Ans. 2.08, 12.87
6.27 When the outside temperature is 10C, a residential heat pump must provide
3.5 10
6
kJ per day to a dwelling to maintain its temperature at 20C. II the
electricity costs Rs 2.10 per kWh, Iind the minimum operating cost Ior each day
oI operation. Ans. Rs 208.83
6.28 A reversible power cycle receives energy Q
H
Irom a reservoir at temperature 1
H
and rejects Q
C
to a reservoir at temperature 1
C
. The work developed by the power
cycle is used to drive a reversible heat pump that removes Q
C
Irom a reservoir at
1
C
and rejects energy Q
H
to a reservoir at temperature 1
H
. (a) Develop an expres-
sion Ior the ratio Q
H
/Q
H
in terms oI the temperatures oI the Iour reservoirs. (b)
What must be the relationship oI the temperatures 1
H
, 1
C
, 1
C
and 1
H
Ior
H
H
Q
Q

to
exceed a value oI unity?
Ans. (a)
( )
( )
H H H C
H H H C
Q 1 1 1
Q 1 1 1
-
=
-
, (b)
C H
C H
1 1
1 1
<

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