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Exemple de SUBIECTE pentru EXAMENUL de METODICA

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What factors would you consider when choosing a listening or reading material to use in class? The level the material addresses to Whether the author of the book is Romanian (for translation exercises) i de-astea What characteristics do listening and reading tasks need to show? The reading tasks must be realistic in terms of both language use and pupils abilities. They should also be flexible and varied. Most listening texts you use in the classroom should be based on either genuinely improvised, spontaneous speech, or on a fair imitation of it. How can you ensure that your pupils will acquire a tolerant attitude and they will be sensitive to various manners of speaking? I will tell them that our learners are frequently exposed to American usage via television, the cinema and other aspects of the mass media, and many children pick up an American accent from watching cartoons. But the choice between a British or an American accent remains an open question, and most often it is the individual choice of each learner. Mention three techniques that can be used to assist pupils in learning pronunciation. Checking that the pupils can hear and identify the sounds, intonation, rhythm or stress, respectively. You give the pupils instructions to initiate and mimic, to make such and such a sound, without further explanation. Using special games and exercises for speech training that entail the use of words or sentences to practice particular sounds, sequences of sounds, stress patterns, rhythm, intonation. Mention a few techniques used in correcting pronunciation. International Phonetic Alphabet Techniques Technology-Aided Techniques: Using hardware, such as a head set with a microphone, and software, you can practice and correct your English pronunciation with or without the help of a native speaker. Conversation Techniques: One of the best ways of improving your pronunciation is to practice and practice often. Conversation groups allow great forums for pronunciation, not only because you spend time speaking in English but also because you are speaking English in a "real life" scenario.

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What procedure can you use for teaching minimal pairs? A minimal pair is a pair of words that are exactly the same, except for one sound, e.g. bit and beat, cap and cat, etc. The use of such pairs is the basis for teaching pupils to distinguish and perceive the differences. A procedure for the use of minimal pairs involves three stages of pupil training. Stage I You ask the pupils to indicate when the sound changes in a string such as: bit, bit, bit, beat, beat, bit, etc. The pupils will have to shout out or show hands when they hear a change. It is important that the pupils identify the sound not only in isolation, but also in sentences, in both stressed and unstressed positions. You can give them examples such as The ship is old, the sheep is old, the sheep is old, etc. Stage II The simplest way to train the pupils to identify which sound is which is to write each word of the minimal pair on the board, with a number by the side: 1) bit 2) beat You give the word at random and the pupils shout out which number goes with it. This exercise should also be done with the sounds in different environments, and with the word in different parts of the sentence. Stage III You can say the number or hold up a picture, and the pupils say the word. This can also be done in groups with one pupil saying one of the words (in context as well as in isolation) and the others have to identify it by number or by picture. In this variant, you will be monitoring and providing the pupils with feedback on their accuracy and progress.

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What is meant by knowing a word? Knowing the most frequent uses of the word, not only the stress, the spelling or its most common use. Explain the difference between active and passive vocabulary. The active vocabulary consists of words that are available for everyday use and come to mind easily should the need to use them arise. The words in passive vocabulary are the words that are recognised when we stumble upon them, however, they dont come to mind right away when we need to use them in a conversation. What vocabulary items are learnt more easily? The lexical items that: have clear, easily comprehensible meanings; can be linked to other items through meaning or sound association; are taught and reviewed for brief periods in several different parts of the lesson; have personal or emotive significance. How useful are dictionaries? Can they create any problems? Training in the use of dictionaries is essential. In addition to learning the symbols and what information a dictionary can and cannot offer, learners may need extra practice for words with many entries. Furthermore, learners need to be taught to use all the information in an entry before making conclusions about the meaning of a word. Is also recognised that there are potential problems. Sensible use of a good dictionary

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can lead to learner autonomy; that is, the learner will be able to continue learning outside the classroom. Over-reliance on the dictionary, on the other hand, can slow down the learning process. The meanings of many words can be guessed form the context in which they occur, and if pupils automatically reach for the dictionary every time they come across a new word, they are denying themselves genuine learning opportunities. 11. 12. What is the difference between the inductive and the deductive strategies? Cic tim What are the main stages of a grammar lesson? Presentation In the presentation stage you introduce the new grammatical structure. You should decide whether this is o be done deductively (by formal presentation and study of a rule), or inductively (by offering examples of use from which the rule can be worked out). Focused practice In this stage, you give the pupils practice in manipulating the specific structure with no other distractions, such as the need to communicate. Communicative practice In this stage, the pupils put a new structure to use in a variety of communicative activities. The tasks that you select for this stage should incorporate information gaps, in which one participant has information that the other does not. The speaker must have a choice of what to say and how to say it. Finally, there should be feedback from the partner or listener. This will affect what the speaker says, and thus prevent a rehearsed conversation. Teacher feedback and correction You should give feedback throughout the lesson, to ensure that the new structure is being used properly. However, during communicative practice, it is important that the flow of communication should not be interrupted, as at this stage the pupils should concentrate on meaning. Errors should be noted and dealt with later. What considerations does the teacher need to address before correcting an error made by a pupil during a classroom activity? Is the activity controlled or communicative? Is the error frequent or infrequent? Is the error global* or local*? Is it a mistake/slip or a competence error? Is the error linguistic or behavioural/sociolinguistic? What are the steps of error analysis? identifying the error; reconstructing; classifying; explaining possible causes of the error. What is the difference between inter-lingual and intra-lingual errors? Interlingual errors caused by interference of the native language with English. Intralingual errors common with all students of English, no matter what their native language is.

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Explain what is meant by placement, diagnostic and progress testing. 1. Placement testing, i.e. finding out what level the pupil has reached in comparison with an objective scale of competence, in order to put him/her in a suitable class; 2. Diagnostic testing, i.e. finding out what the pupil needs; 3.Progress/achievement testing, i.e. finding out what the pupil has learnt. What rules must the teacher follow when designing a test? Four main issues concern us in assessing a test: validity reliability scorability administrability What can a teacher do to ensure the reliability of the test s/he is designing? What can you do in order to make sure that your tests are reliable? a) Make sure the test is long enough, and if possible test the same things in more than one way. b) Pilot your test: try it out on a group and note any problems that emerge when administering the test. c) Mark the test twice or give it to somebody else to mark it, to see if both of you agree with the marking. What is the difference between objective and subjective tests? Objective tests These tests are very quick to mark. They are based on predicted answers and on total control of what the pupil shows s/he can do. The big disadvantage of such tests is that we cannot find out if the pupils can do anything else. Subjective tests These tests are easy to design and administer, but their marking can be a timeconsuming process, involving a lot of decision-making about the quality and acceptability of the answers.

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What is the difference between discrete item testing and integrative testing? The difference between discrete item and integrative testing is primarily one of intention. When we want to know if a pupil can recognise or produce a specific item of vocabulary or structure, a specific functional exponent or a certain pronunciation feature, then we use discrete-item techniques. If we want to know how well a pupil can combine her/his knowledge of grammar and vocabulary in skills work with a specific aim, then we use integrative testing techniques. What can a teacher do to ensure the reliability of the test s/he is designing? a. Make sure the test is long enough, and if possible test the same things in more than one way. b. Pilot your test: try it out on a group and note any problems that emerge when administering the test. c. Mark the test twice or give it to somebody else to mark it, to see if both of you agree with the marking. The more people agree with your marking, the more reliable your test will be.

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What is the difference between informal and formal testing? Informal testing is usually done orally and has a short-term objective within a lesson. Formal testing is usually done via the written medium, and tends to have more longterm objectives. By what means can the pupils themselves extend their vocabulary? Guessing from context, and using dictionaries. What exhortation techniques can be used in teaching pronunciation? Checking that the pupils can hear and identify the sounds, intonation, rhythm or stress, respectively. Using some explicit exhortation: you give the pupils instructions to initiate and mimic, to make such and such a sound, without further explanation. Systematic explanation and instruction (including details of the structure and movement of parts of the mouth). Give five examples of communicative functions. Pointing Identifying oneself Demanding something Expressing thoughts or feelings Expressing needs Complaining Apologizing Give five examples of informal tests. asking concept questions checking understanding of instructions eliciting pupils own examples eliciting pupils explanation of a grammar rule eliciting pupils definition of a vocabulary item controlled oral practice (e.g. drills) elicited/cued*/guided dialogue-building elicited/cued/guided monologue-building free stage activities language games communication games comprehension questions tasks based on listening/reading material Is there any difference between the native speakers process and the foreign language learners process of learning vocabulary? There is a fundamental difference between the native speakers process and the foreign language learner's process of learning vocabulary. This is to do with the semantic networks that each of them carries in his/her mind. To the native speaker, a new word is simply a new way of referring to something in an already very familiar cultural setting. To our pupil, a new word in English is a way of referring to something in an unfamiliar cultural setting. So the pupil tends to incorporate the meaning of the new word into his/her own familiar cultural and semantic system.

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What are the functions of intonation? English intonation carries meaning in subtle and complex ways. It has three functions: grammatical, attitudinal and discoursal. Explain what intelligibility is and what it depends on. English native speakers can usually tolerate a high degree of inaccuracy of sounds and grammar. This is because many inaccurate sounds or structures, when surrounded by accurate sounds or structures, are intelligible, as they can be inferred from context. The crucial criterion of successful communication in English is then intelligibility. Intelligibility in communication depends on a few criteria: the subtlety or complexity of the message that the speaker wants to put across the extent to which the listener understands the speakers language difficulties both in production and in reception the tolerance of the listener to the speaker and/or the speakers culture and language Give five examples of formal tests. Formal tests can be most types of written exercises: transformation e.g.: He's a fast runner. He runs... clause combination e.g.: She had a cold. She went swimming. (although) gap-filling e.g.: The chocolate cake looks so good. It must be very... multiple-choice e.g.: Which of the three solutions is closest to the given word: hostage a) prey b) victim d) captive sentence-completion, etc. e.g.: My friend would be all right.

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Explain the various approaches to testing. discrete item tests These test individual grammar rules or vocabulary items (e.g. Jane (go) to school by bus every day.) integrative tests These test a more global linguistic awareness, e.g. cloze tests where every nth word is deleted from a passage. communicative tests These test the pupils communicative effectiveness in each of the four language skills, and also the socio-cultural awareness of language choice in a range of contexts.

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What pedagogic considerations need to be taken into account in teaching vocabulary? teachability/ learnability You will teach according to the level of your pupils, and to how easy is an item to put over. Even at low levels, you can teach: international words (e.g. taxi, television, hotel, cinema, weekend) cognates, that is words which are similar in both form and meaning in the two languages (e.g. the names of many school subjects like chemistry, geography, biology, mathematics, etc., or verbs such as obtain, admire, insult, form, etc.). These are obviously very easy to learn. extendability Some words allow the use of prefixes and suffixes; others enter various combinations or include the meaning of other words (their hyponyms): word families: photo graph, -graphy, -graphic, -grapher. combinable items: hand bag, home work, guitar string cover words: (at early levels): seat for chair / stool/ sofa / bench, nice with people / weather / events, house for house / flat / home / building, etc. concrete vs. abstract Those words that show concrete entities are easier to grasp and will be taught before the more subtle or abstract words, e.g.: beautiful before responsible cant stand before not keen on Could you? / Yes of course before Would you mind ing? / Not at all. amount (learning load) A rough guide according to level, mood and motivation of the learners is: maximum 6 for beginners maximum 9 - 10 for intermediate for advanced students, it is up to the students themselves. teaching for active for for passive vocabulary is a crucial decision which affects your entire approach. Are the pupils to learn vocabulary in order to recognise it or in order to produce it? meaning; ext, meaning and practice. difficulty of concept and pronunciation, etc. will also be factors to consider.

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Explain the difference between linguistic and communicative meaning. Linguistic/intrinsic meaning relates to the essential meaning of each of the structures and lexis which make up the utterance, as if that utterance were decontextualized. Communicative contextual / meaning relates to the message intended by the speaker and understood by the hearer. This meaning is sometimes called function. Describe five techniques of showing incorrectness.

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You can use a number of techniques for showing incorrectness: Repeating You ask the pupil to repeat what s/he has just said by using the word again, said with a questioning intonation. This indicates that the answer was unsatisfactory. Echoing You can repeat what the pupil has just said, with questioning intonation. This indicates that the accuracy or content of what is being said is questioned. You can either echo the complete student response, stressing the part of the utterance that was incorrect or only part of the response, up to the point where the mistake was made. Echoing is probably the most efficient way of showing incorrectness. Denying You can tell the pupil that the response was unsatisfactory and ask for it to be repeated. This technique may be a bit more discouraging for the pupil. Questioning You can say Is that correct? asking any other pupil in the class to answer the question. The advantage of this technique is that it focuses the pupils attention on the problem; the disadvantage is that it may make the pupil who made the mistake feel exposed. Using facial expression and/or gestures You can indicate that an answer was incorrect by your expression or by some gestures. 35. What does a test measure? A test is a measuring device, and a means of comparison. We use a test when either we want to compare a pupil with other pupils who belong to the same group, or we may be comparing what the pupil can do now with what s/he has done in a past test. Describe five techniques used in correcting pronunciation. You can correct pronunciation by writing the phonetic form on the blackboard; this is a more learner-centred approach than if you correct pronunciation orally, by giving a model. The pupils may also be able to write the phonetic notation on the board for correction purposes (some pupils respond with enthusiasm to this type of activity). A special area of the blackboard can be set aside for pronunciation work. Exercises on the blackboard are not rubbed off until the end of the lesson. A different colour chalk can be reserved for this end. Describe the two main approaches to teaching grammar. Deductive and Inductive Explain the following statement about teaching literature: what pupils bring to the text is as important as the text itself. ### What is a progress test? progress/achievement testing, i.e. finding out what the pupil has learnt. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using the phonetic transcription?

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If knowing a word means, among other things, knowing how to pronounce it acceptably, then the ability to transcribe it in phonemic symbols is obviously a valuable teaching/learning aid. The phonemic transcription avoids the perils of English spelling, as here one symbol equals one sound. Although a symbol chart looks rather frightening at first glance, it is really quite easy to learn the phonemes of English. There are only 44 of them, and half of these are the normal English letters, with others very close. Knowledge of the IPA symbols is extremely helpful to dictionary work. Problems with awkward words such as cough and bough disappear if the learner can discover in a dictionary that cough is pronounced /kf/ and bough /bau/. 41. Describe five techniques which can be used in teaching vocabulary. definition: a simplified version of a dictionary entry illustration: a picture or a blackboard drawing context: using the item in a sentence mime: acting the meaning synonym: using a word or phrase with roughly the same meaning antonym: using a word or phrase with roughly the opposite meaning superordinate: using a more general category, of which the new item is a member / hyponym (e.g. chair, table, stool, wardrobe, sofa are all hyponyms of the category furniture. Furniture is the superordinate term. translation: often the simplest way to present a new item is to translate it. Which techniques you choose will depend upon circumstances and type of item being introduced. Concrete items are often best introduced through pictures or translation. Asking the pupils to suggest synonyms and antonyms is a way of extending vocabulary by considering various shades of meaning and of expanding the range of the pupils command of English. What is the difference between a controlled drill and a meaningful drill? Meaningful drills Still following a model, the pupils can make a limited choice of vocabulary. Controlled drills The pupils are asked to produce examples of a structure, following models given by the teacher or found in the textbook. 43. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the subjective and objective tests? Objective tests These tests are very quick to mark. They are based on predicted answers and on total control of what the pupil shows s/he can do. The big disadvantage of such tests is that we cannot find out if the pupils can do anything else. Subjective tests These tests are easy to design and administer, but their marking can be a timeconsuming process, involving a lot of decision-making about the quality and acceptability of the answers. In such tests, the pupils can avoid or get round things they are not sure of or do not know. They can show what they can do beyond what the test is meant to test. This could be as much to their disadvantage as to their advantage. What are the most important variable affecting ones pronunciation? The most important language variables affecting ones pronunciation include: willingness to learn;

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possession of a good ear (i.e. good auditory discrimination); instinctive ability to mimic (i.e. good control of speech mechanisms and good monitoring of ones own performance); speed of learning; previous experience of foreign languages; changes brought about by age. 45. Describe two techniques you may use for teaching rhythm. rhymes, jingles jazz chants tongue twisters, etc. Formulate the following two aims in a more learner-centred way: a) to provide practice in reading magazine articles in informal style and to help the pupils use background knowledge to make correct inferences; b) to present discourse linkers such as however, although, though. ### What activities would you use as follow-up for narratives? Pupils need practice in other aspects of monologues, and in particular in discourse linking and in different discourse types, e.g. joke telling, explanations, instructions, directions, relating events, or telling anecdotes. Narrative building of this type is a pre-communicative activity. It helps the pupils to cope with problems of tackling monologues, but it is not a natural or authentic activity, as we seldom tell stories or relate events from pictures. Define communicative drills. Communicative drills, combine the mechanical practice and context principles, but also add the information gap principle. What factors cannot be changed and what factors can you influence or change in making your pupils good learners of English? Define accuracy and fluency. The correctness of ones language in speech or writing is referred to as accuracy. They fluency is ease with which a speaker uses the foreign language without necessarily considering the accuracy. What techniques can be used for checking the detailed comprehension of meaning? Comprehension questions: (i) factual, where the answer is clearly stated somewhere in the passage. (ii) inferential, where the pupils have to make some sort of connection themselves, such as a connection between two parts of the passage or between something in the passage and the pupils knowledge of the outside world. (iii) personal, where the question is related to the pupils own experience or opinion. Summary questions. The pupils listen to a passage and then summarise what they have heard. They may take notes as they listen. The summary can be written up in the form of a letter or a newspaper report. Logical problems can be used to encourage very careful intensive listening.

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How much freedom does a teacher have in dealing with pupil misbehaviour? It is important to try to be fair, and not to punish misbehaviour severely on one occasion while ignoring it on another. It is always better to avoid situations that may lead to misbehaviour. If you keep your pupils busy and if they believe that what they are doing is worthwhile, they will be less likely to become disruptive. Also, if you are well organized, you are less likely to have problems with discipline What suggestions would you make to a teacher who wants to use a narrative in the lesson? To plan accordingly to their pupils level, meaning not only lesson planning, finding ways to involve them like How is correction done during the language presentation stage? As an alternative to you always giving the corrected model, other pupils in the class can be called upon to give the correct version as a model. However, correction during this stage has to be mediated through you. Mention at least three strategies used for involving all the pupils in class activities. Use the class register list. Your pupils will know if you are calling on them in the order of the class register list. To avoid this, use every second or third name, or some other pattern, so that they may not realise what order you are using. Avoid looking down at the list (by putting it where you can see it easily). Also, to prevent the switching off of pupils who have just responded, ask one or two for a second response. Think of your class as a set of lines or rows of pupils and address a question to a pupil from each line or row in turn. Set rules. If your pupils tend to shout out the answers before the others have time to try, make a rule that the pupil who has responded once must miss the next three questions before s/he can answer again. This keeps the pupils busy counting, while waiting to join in again. Invite the pupil who answers to name the one who will answer next. If the pupils get used to this system, it can move quite briskly and be successful. However, it can become unpleasant if the pupils see it as a way of victimising their slower classmates Repeat the question and/or prompt. If the pupil you nominated is unable to respond, help him/her by repeating or prompting, while insisting that the rest of the class remains quiet. Sometimes, however, you may wish to pass a factual question to another pupil, or the class in general.

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List as many principles of lesson planning as you can. Take your pupils from dependence to independence. Build in your lesson plan, backward and forward links (revision, consolidation, skills work, presentation, practice, etc.) Formulate aims clearly. Be realistic: do not attempt to cover more than you can in the time you have. Limit your aims. Provide balance of input, skills work, controlled / freer / free practice activities. Provide variety of pace, focus, activity, intensity, interaction patterns.

Ensure logical progression in the staging of activities. Make the plan layout clear and easily accessible. Provide enough detail to make the lesson reconstructable Include in the lesson ways of checking that your pupils have understood or can produce something of what you have introduced or practised. 57. What are the component sub-skills of reading and how does each of them influence reading? Scanning: Searching quickly for a specific piece of information or a particular word. For example, when looking up a word in a dictionary, an address in a directory or the flight arrival schedule of a particular flight, we do not read entire pages or passages. We search for the keywords or ideas because we know what we are looking for. Scanning involves moving our eyes quickly down the page seeking specific words and phrases. Skimming: Reading through a text quickly to get an overall idea of the contents; that is, the gist of the passage. For example, before buying a book we glance quickly at the cover page, the reviewers comments on the back cover (also called book jacket), the contents page, etc., to get a general idea of its contents. Basic reference and information-finding skills (e.g. title, using contents page, index. footnotes, bibliography, chapter headings and sub-headings, chapter summaries) Deducing meaning and use of unfamiliar lexical items through understanding word formation and contextual clues Understanding grammatical (syntactic and morphological) relationships at the sentence level Understanding relationships between parts of text through cohesive devices (especially grammatical cohesion such as noun-pronoun reference) Understanding relationships between parts of text through discourse markers (especially for introduction, development, transition and conclusion of ideas) Understanding communicative functions of sentences with and without specific markers (e.g. definition and exemplification) Understanding conceptual meaning in text (e.g. comparison, cause & effect, audience & purpose) Understanding explicitly stated ideas and information in text Understanding ideas and information in a text which are not explicitly stated Separating essential and non-essential content in text: distinguishing main idea from supporting detail (e.g. fact & opinion, statement & example, proposition & argument) Transferring information or knowledge from one context to another (e.g. from science to engineering)

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What kinds of questions does the teacher need to ask her-/himself when using discussions, role-plays and simulations? Does it fit the schedule? How can I make it fit? Which pupil should I chose for this role and which for the other? Are the materials of an appropriate level? Explain what is meant by parallel writing. In parallel writing the content is free but the student must write according to a certain given model (text or plan of writing) Explain the five stages of teaching listening comprehension. 1. Lead-in/pre-listening: Setting the context and creating motivation. Pre-teaching of vocabulary has now largely been discontinued. In real life, learners cannot expect unknown words to be explained in advance; instead they have to learn to cope with situations where part of what is heard will not be familiar. It may still be necessary to present three or four critical words at the beginning of the listening lesson, but these must be absolutely indispensable key words without which any understanding of the text would be impossible. Although some kind of pre-listening activity is now usual, involving brainstorming vocabulary, reviewing areas of grammar, or discussing the topic of the listening text, one should set two simple aims for the lead-in/prelistening activity: To provide sufficient context to match what would be available in real life; To create motivation (perhaps by asking learners to speculate on what they will hear); Prepare the class or have the pupils to prepare themselves for the task and get familiar with the topic of the listening activity. One of the major reasons for this is to create expectations and arouse their interest in the subject matter of the text. 2. Directing comprehension task: Make sure that your pupils know what they are going to do (to answer questions, fill in a chart, complete a message or try and re-tell what they heard). Explain and direct the pupils purpose for listening. 3. Listening for the task. Speak or play the record while the pupils listen to the text to perform the task you have set. Extensive listening. Most teachers make use of the extensive/intensive distinction. On a similar principle, listening tasks and international examinations usually specify that the recording is to be played twice. This is unnatural because in real life one gets only one hearing. However, the whole situation of listening to a cassette in a language classroom is artificial. Furthermore, listening to a strange voice speaking in a foreign language demands a process of adjusting (to the pitch, speed, and quality of the voice). An initial period of extensive listening allows for this. Preset task/preset questions. There have been changes in the way that comprehension is checked, too. We recognise that learners listen in an unfocused way if questions are not set until after the passage has been heard. Unsure of what they will be asked, they cannot judge the level of detail that will be required of them. By presetting comprehension questions, we can ensure that learners listen with a clear purpose, and that their answers are not dependent on memory. Intensive listening. More effective than traditional comprehension questions is the current practice of providing a task where learners do something with the information they have extracted from the text. Tasks can involve labeling (e.g.

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buildings on a map), for filling (e.g. a hotel registration form), and completing a grid. Another benefit of tasks is that they demand individual responses. Each learner can make choices and makes something of what s/he hears. 4. Directing feedback. Checking answers. When the pupils have performed the task, help them to see if they have completed the task successfully and find out how well they have done. This may follow a stage in which pupils check their answers with each other first. 5. Post-listening: directing text-related task. Examining functional language. Organise follow-up tasks related to the text. For instance, ask them to do more analytical work. Thus if the first task involved getting the general picture, return to the text for such a task as inferring attitude or deducing meaning. Inferring vocabulary meaning. Also as part of post-listening, you can ask learners to infer the meaning of new words from the contexts in which they appear just as they do in reading. However, if the pupils perform unsuccessfully in their first comprehension task, redirect them to the same task to try again. 61. What is skimming? What skills can make use of this technique? Skimming involves reading for an overall understanding of the text. The reader is quickly running ones eyes through a text to get its essence, its general idea or gist. Reading a few sentences, recognising a few words and expressions, a few main point(s) and the function(s) may be enough. However, skimming involves some interpretation. For instance, a reader may skim the review of a book to see if the reviewer thinks it is good or bad. The reading skill makes most use of this technique. What elements need to be taken into account when setting up discussions, role-plays and simulations? 1. Input: give input, informational or linguistic, checking use and understanding 2. Materials: choose them carefully to ensure relevance, interest, and motivation 3. Instructions: make them clear and simple. 4. Roles: give appropriate roles to the pupils, taking care not to give dominant roles to either quiet or dominant pupils 5. Preparation time: allow your pupils the time to think, prepare, formulate language and ideas (in groups or individually, in class or at home) 6. Class management: plan the use of props and the seating. Your role will be in the background (monitoring, advising or participating as a peer) 7. Learners language: make notes of mistakes, and use them as a basis of future remedial work. 8. Feedback: organise remedial work, use written consolidation, a summary of topic points, and a summary of language points. What are the advantages of lesson planning? it means anticipation, coherence, balance and clarity of purpose it helps you learn the subject matter better it makes lesson execution easier it makes the lesson run smoothly it allows for flexibility in lesson execution it saves time in the long run

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it looks professional it makes you understand that some things are more important than others it helps you teach more confidently it makes self-appraisal much easier. 64. What is the difference between mechanical, meaningful and communicative drills? A drill is mechanical when the sentence(s) being practised have no context and the prompts that generate the manipulations of form are provided at random either by the teacher or the material (as in repetition, substitution and transformation drills). Meaningful drills provide both context, and the mechanical manipulation necessary for accurate fluidity. Communicative drills, combine the mechanical practice and context principles, but also add the information gap principle. What is meant by an authentic text? What is a semi-authentic text? Authentic texts: Texts created by native speakers for native speakers for consumption in a native environment. Semi-authentic texts: Texts created by native and/or non-native speaker, based on original language materials, but adapted to fit curricular needs. Mention a few while-reading activities. The traditional comprehension questions, placed either at the end, at the beginning or inserted at various points within the text, are a typical example of a while-reading activity. Completing diagrams or maps, making lists, taking notes are other types of while-reading work. What factors influence the pupils attitudes to English? Classroom decisions and actions are influenced by the teachers own attitudes, intentions, beliefs and values: what you think about learning, what is important for you in learning, what you genuinely feel towards the pupils. What factors are important for building a good atmosphere in your classes? Discipline Motivation Involvement of pupils What may cause timing problems with lessons? poor understanding of aims confusion over what the main aims and subsidiary aims are unanticipated problems due to insufficient language analysis different learning rates among pupils the pupils unfamiliarity with the concepts used poor language grading insufficient or confusing instructions slow pace of the lesson, etc. What are independent learners characterised by? Analytical skills: they can formulate hypotheses, memorise language items, monitor their own speech and that of others. Motivation: they have a high motivation.

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Strategy: they concentrate on meaning rather than on form when practising; they look for cues in the context. Study: they can organise their studies and study independently (e.g. they make vocabulary lists and use them). Experiment: they try out their language knowledge and are uninhibited about making mistakes. Sociability: they mix well and work well in groups. They can transfer from Romanian to English communication strategies such as paraphrasing, circumlocution, checking that listeners have understood, etc. Exposure: they seek out every opportunity to come into contact with English, (watching films and TV programmes, reading books and newspapers, etc.) Cultural openess: they are open-minded and open hearted with regard to foreign cultures and individuals. Adaptability: they learn well despite the method, the teacher, and the school. 71. Characterise real-life listening situations Real-life listening situations often involve informal and spontaneous speech that has different vocabulary, grammar and even different phonology. For instance, there will be different phonological features in a chat and a supermarket staff announcement. A chat will generally go fast, it will make use of more contractions and there may also be a lot of fall - rise intonation. A supermarket staff announcement is generally issued in a monotone. The style of texts can vary from very formal, to formal, casual or intimate, with no hard and fast dividing lines between the styles. What is the difference between guided writing and parallel writing? In guided writing the content is controlled by the teacher whereas the for parallel writing the content is free but the form constrained to a certain given model (text or plan of writing) What types of classroom time influence learning and in what way? Description The amount of time a teacher uses for a content area or topic The amount of time left for teaching after routine management and administrative tasks are completed The amount of time pupils are actively involved in learning activities The amount of time pupils are actively involved in learning activities during which they are successful.

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Type of classroom time Allocated time Instructional time Engaged time Academic learning time

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What is the profile of a good teacher of English? The effective teacher: really listens to their pupils shows respect gives clear, positive feedback has a good sense of humour is patient knows their subject inspires confidence

trusts pupils empathises with pupils problems is well-organised paces lessons well does not complicate things unnecessarily is enthusiastic and inspires enthusiasm can be authoritative without being distant is honest is approachable. 75. List a few aims for listening activities. to increase the pupils awareness of how listening with a purpose can make listening more effective to increase the pupils awareness of different styles to present various aspects of culture enabling the pupils to make useful predictions to present strategies for dealing with individual unfamiliar words What roles does the teacher assume when giving feedback to writing? Audience, evaluators, examiners, assistants What would you check when you have finished writing a lesson plan? Once I have completed my lesson plan, I should finish out the details including creating the assessments, homework assignments, and any handouts, then verify if it fits the schedule. Procedures for developing bottom-up reading skills. These procedures fall into two main categories: a) helping pupils to cope with unfamiliar vocabulary and b) helping them develop text analysis skills. a) developing vocabulary decoding skills teach suffixes and prefixes and ask your pupils to work out the meanings of unfamiliar words with such suffixes and prefixes help your pupils recognise words families by getting them to complete word grids: noun adjective Verb description descriptive Describe suggestive persuade b) developing recognition of text features present grammatical reference words and show how they refer backwards and forwards to other words and phrases in the text (e.g. personal pronouns, demonstratives) do the same with typical lexical reference words. for example, you can put a circle around a lexical reference word and show, with an arrow, what it refers to present linking words (e.g. if, so, because, though, etc.) ask your pupils to put together a text whose paragraphs have been scrambled, discussing why they have made their decisions. Mention some essential practical skills a teacher needs to have. A clear voice, good presentation skills, self-confidence are all big advantages. Or, perhaps, you are good at singing or playing an instrument. If you cannot play or sing well, you can still have a song in your class by playing a tape or a record and singing

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along with the recording. If you cannot lead the singing yourself, just join in and encourage the pupils to sing. 80. What procedures can you use in order to encourage pupil response to a listening piece? Tell a story and pause at intervals to encourage your pupils to respond appropriately. Another option is to give them possible reactions accompanying the script of story: the pupils in groups will decide which reactions can fit where. Offer such reactions as: Ah, Oh, I see, Hum! Typical!, Really!, What happened?, Good idea, Oh!, Very wise, Yes, of course, What?, No, of course not, I know what you mean!, How awful / terrible / dreadful!, Oh dear, I see!, etc. What factors influence a speakers language choices? The factors which influence the speakers language choices are: a) The interlocutors (speaker and listener); b) The code (shared language of the interlocutors); c) The message topic and the message form, the setting / situation, the function of each utterance as it relates to what has been said before, to what each interlocutor assumes the other already knows, to the intended message of the speaker. The interlocutors attitudes towards each other are also important. Procedures for developing top-down reading skills. If you want to apply a top-down reading approach, you can choose from among several procedures: present typical text patterns (e.g. a typical essay paragraph pattern is Topic Restriction Illustration; a typical advertisement pattern is Problem Solution Evaluation) while pupils read topic sentence or introduction, help them to predict what might come next ask pupils to use white correction fluid to cancel unfamiliar words - this may help them to work out the approximate meaning from context. help pupils to predict next utterance, word or phrase by referring them to discourse markers: not only... helps predict but also.., and another thing helps predict additional information, opinions, etc. or referring them to grammar markers: e.g. When I got home I discovered... helps predict the past perfect. What are the roles of questions? Using questions, you can guide learning rather than simply deliver information. By questioning you can assess pupil background knowledge, cause pupils to rethink their ideas, help them form relationships. You can also involve shy pupils, recapture pupils wandering attention, promote success, and enhance self-esteem. Questioning can also maintain the pace and momentum of a lesson. What makes the classroom a complex environment? They may be too small or too large, too dim or too bright, storage space may be limited, maps may cover the board, etc. Rearranging desks is not always possible. What are the sub-skills involved in writing? mastering the mechanics of letter formation mastering and obeying conventions of spelling and punctuation using the grammatical system to convey ones intended meaning

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organising content at the level of the paragraph and the complete text to reflect new/given information and topic/comment structures polishing and revising ones initial efforts selecting an appropriate style for ones audience. 86. What do you understand by confidence as a linguistic skill? The ability to communicate without the anxiety cause by the belief that their use of language does not conform to the principles and practices of Standard English. What does skimming involve? Skimming involves reading for an overall understanding of the text. The reader is quickly running ones eyes through a text to get its essence, its general idea or gist. Reading a few sentences, recognising a few words and expressions, a few main point(s) and the function(s) may be enough. However, skimming involves some interpretation. For instance, a reader may skim the review of a book to see if the reviewer thinks it is good or bad. List a few interaction patterns and order them from the most pupil-active to the most teacher-dominated. Teacher talk: the teacher is talking or reading aloud with all pupils listening. There may be some kind of silent pupil response, such as writing from dictation or making notes in notebooks. There is no initiative on the part of the pupils. Closed-ended teacher questioning: the teacher asks a question which can get only one right response. Open-ended teacher questioning: the teacher asks a question to which there are a number of possible right answers, so that more pupils answer each cue. Choral response: the teacher gives a model which is repeated by all the class in chorus; or gives a cue which is responded to in chorus. Pupil initiates, teacher answers: the pupils think of questions and the teacher responds. Such an interaction pattern can be found in guessing games. The teacher decides who asks the question. Five types of pupil groupings are common in the classroom: Whole-class interaction: the whole class is working together with the teacher; the pupils debate a topic or do a language task as a class. The teacher may intervene occasionally to stimulate participation or to monitor. Individual work: the teacher gives a task or set of tasks, and the pupils work on them independently. They may also mix together as individuals. The teacher walks around monitoring and assisting where necessary. Collaboration or pair work: the pupils do the same sort of tasks as in individual work, but work together, usually in pairs. The teacher may or may not intervene. This is different from group work where the task itself necessitates interaction. Group work (done in small groups of three to eight pupils): the pupils work on tasks that entail interaction, conveying information or making decisions. The teacher walks around listening and intervenes little if at all. Self-access: the pupils choose their own learning tasks, and work autonomously Mention four characteristics of effective feedback. it is immediate or given soon after a pupil response it is specific it provides corrective information for the learner it has a positive emotional tone

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Is a cued dialogue an example of controlled or free practice? Give an example of cued dialogue. Cued dialogue is an activity in which pupils read a dialogue together but can only make their own part, which usually includes opportunities for the pupils to make their own responses, so it is a semi-controlled practice. Cued dialogues will be acted out. Pupil A You meet B in the street Greet B Ask B where he is going Suggest somewhere to go together Accept Bs suggestion

Pupil B You meet A in the street Greet A Say you are going for a walk Reject As suggestion. Make a different suggestion. Express pleasure

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What is the profile of a good learner of English? Perceptual skills: they can perceive new sounds. Analytical skills: they can formulate hypotheses, memorise language items, monitor their own speech and that of others. Motivation: they have a high motivation. Strategy: they concentrate on meaning rather than on form when practising; they look for cues in the context. Study: they can organise their studies and study independently (e.g. they make vocabulary lists and use them). Experiment: they try out their language knowledge and are uninhibited about making mistakes. Sociability: they mix well and work well in groups. They can transfer from Romanian to English communication strategies such as paraphrasing, circumlocution, checking that listeners have understood, etc. Exposure: they seek out every opportunity to come into contact with English, (watching films and TV programmes, reading books and newspapers, etc.) Cultural openess: they are open-minded and open hearted with regard to foreign cultures and individuals. Age: young children do not make good learners of grammar. Adaptability: they learn well despite the method, the teacher, and the school. What are classroom activities suggested by? The needs, interests and abilities of the pupils. You will need to emphasise the kind of activities your pupils will encounter in English. You must ask your pupils and yourselves what kinds of texts they read in Romanian and if the strategies and skills that they already possess in Romanian can be transferred to English reading tasks. The aims of the particular lesson. The reading activities should be harmonised with the aims and the other work that is practised during the lesson. The purpose for reading a certain text. Class activities should help your pupils to become active decision makers and risk takers. They should become independent readers who set their own goals and strategies for reading. The specific characteristics of the reading text. You often have to determine what kind of reading the text invites and develop activities and contexts that parallel the most realistic and appropriate approaches to a given text.

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Individual pupil needs. Individual pupils may require explicit instruction in different aspects of reading: skimming, scanning, understanding organisational clues, accessing prior knowledge, making hypotheses, etc. 93. What choices will you have to make when deciding for an accuracy or a fluency activity? Speaking activities may have several aims, but usually the main aim is to provide an opportunity for the learners to practise speaking, with more attention to improving fluency than to getting accurate sentences. Accuracy activities are activities in which you aim for the pupils to concentrate on the language they are using. These include manipulating, practising and freely using particular items of language (e.g. a substitution drill to practise the form of the present perfect, an elicited dialogue to practise apologising, a free stage to practise conditional II; etc.) Mention a few pre-reading activities. Guiding / signpost questions: e.g. What would you like to know about? Write down at least five questions, which you hope the text will answer or You are going to read a text about. Here are some words and phrases from the text. Can you guess how they are used in the text? Another type of pre-reading activity may be true / false questions: the pupils are given sentences that refer to the text, and they guess whether they are true or false. Alternatively, they are given a summary of the text with gaps; their task is to guess what words should go in the gaps. They may also be given the topic of the text and may be asked to write a list of things they know and things they do not know about the topic. If the text puts forward an opinion, the pupils discuss the topic beforehand and give their own point of view. What are the disadvantages of group work? Some pupils cannot concentrate on the task and talk about something else (usually in Romanian), that one pupil dominates the group, or that some weaker pupils are lost. Collaborative work can lead to a lot of noise if it is not controlled carefully. List a few listening sub-skills. Sound discrimination and recognition Identifying different intonation patterns Recognising words and understanding their information content Identifying grammatical grouping of words Understanding redundancy Recognising non-linguistic cues such as gestures Using background knowledge to predict and confirm the meaning. To these subskills we may add prediction, selective listening, listening for different purposes, and inferencing. What strategies can be used for the correction of mistakes in writing? The correction of written work can be done on much the same basis as the correction of oral work. You should not always be preoccupied with accuracy. There may be times when you are concerned with accuracy and other times when your main concern is the content of the writing. Some of us, although fully aware of the importance of content and organisation, find ourselves dealing mainly with language accuracy in our feedback, conveying the implicit message that this is what matters. This happens

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because language mistakes are difficult to ignore, they catch the eye; they are more easily and quickly diagnosed and corrected than the ones of content and organisation. Moreover, many pupils want their language mistakes to be corrected. In spite of all this, you should not convey the message that the language mistakes are your main concern. To avoid this to happen, you may note corrections within the body of the text, and write comments on content and organisation at the end. Feedback in the form of comments by the teacher is extremely helpful. The most important contribution you can make is that of being a careful reader, willing to respond to what pupils write in terms of clarity, coherence, and effectiveness of content. 98. What does scanning involve? A listening text is given, in which the pupils are asked to identify certain limited information and note the answer(s). What are, in your opinion, the advantages of whole class teacher-led activities? Teacher-led activities. These are the best known of teaching arrangements, and they are often referred to as traditional teaching. Although traditional, if they are well done, teacher-led activities (also called lockstep teaching) can be very powerful. These activities include: teacher presentation, class dialogue and teacher-led pupil activities. What are the features of an effective questioning technique? is frequent is equitably distributed uses prompting allows adequate wait-time What are the stages of a basic methodological model for the teaching of listening comprehension? Pre-listening. Pre-teaching of all important new vocabulary in the passage. Listening. Extensive listening (followed by general questions establishing context). Intensive listening (Followed by detailed comprehension questions) Post-listening. Analysis of the language in the text (e.g. Why did the speaker use the present perfect?) Listen and repeat: teacher pauses the tape, learners repeat words. What are the features of a good presentation? A good presentation will stimulate your pupils intellectual curiosity; it may review, organize and consolidate their previous knowledge of the topic, or it can make the new learning more personal. Also, it can give guidance to the pupils about the styles and techniques to be used in doing work on the new topic. What does a teacher need to do in order to manage the pupils answers? Be prepared to wait for an answer. Refrain from filling the gap immediately if the question is met with initial silence. During the silence, use non-verbal communication, give encouraging nods or raise your eyebrows. You may also try a short prompt. Signal that you are actually enjoying the silence and are not in the least embarrassed or annoyed. Encourage pupil answers. Praise the good answers and preserve the self-esteem of those who give wrong answers. The pupils should be sure that their responses will be treated with respect, that they will not be put down or ridiculed if they say something inappropriate. Give help if you see it is needed during an answer.

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Try to get answers from as many pupils as possible. Responding only to the bright and eager tends to focus attention on them at the expense of the others. A reluctant pupil can be helped by being nominated to answer an easy question. Encourage answers which express the pupils personal thoughts or feelings, or which are bold and imaginative. Even if it is incorrect, such an answer deserves praise. Encourage respect for the contribution of others. Set a good example of respect, courtesy and constructiveness and then expect it of the pupils. Do not tolerate sarcasm, aggression, or destructive criticism. 104. What factors may hinder the understanding of a listening text? To most pupils, the purpose of listening in the classroom is an instructional one. This is one reason why pupils can normally listen to your instructions with less difficulty than when they are given a listening activity. Additionally, the classroom provides distractions which may hinder normal attention and also creates tensions, like being asked questions in front of others. Even extremely competent language users can have difficulty in listening when they are unable to use or to perceive the background information. Lack of linguistic knowledge will also hinder the pupils attempts at understanding what they listen to. They may have difficulty understanding nonstandard variants or they may be unfamiliar with many of the words in what they are listening to. Mention a few post-reading activities. The pupils may be asked to say whether they liked the text and the activities or not, or whether they found them useful or not. Other post-reading activities are: writing an outline of a paragraph or longer text; drawing a list of main ideas from the text and then working individually or in pairs to locate supporting details; matching, in pair or group work, a column with main ideas from a passage with a column of details; underlining generalisations and supporting details or creating topic sentences for portions of the text; determining the function of each sentence in a paragraph or longer text (stating a generalization, supporting it, catching and holding the readers attention, etc.); choosing a main idea (or best title) for a passage from among several choices, or creating one on their own; doing a jigsaw reading in which the pupils are given different parts of a text, and working together to create a logical sequence. Each pupil is given a sentence or a passage from a text and they have to look for significant details that will give them clues to the development of the whole text. Using these text indicators (referring either back to something mentioned before or announcing something to come), each pupil has to interact with the others until they find out where their passage belongs in the text; role-play a story; design a poster to advertise the text/the book; read interesting/exciting/well-written parts aloud; copy interesting words and useful expressions into a notebook; write a letter to the author share views about the text / the book with a small group of classmates.

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Can you think of any advantages of teacher spontaneous speech over recorded speech? Real-life listening situations often involve informal and spontaneous speech that has different vocabulary, grammar and even different phonology. For instance, there will be different phonological features in a chat and a supermarket staff announcement. A chat will generally go fast, it will make use of more contractions and there may also be a lot of fall - rise intonation. A supermarket staff announcement is generally issued in a monotone. What sub-skills are involved in reading? Recognition Knowledge of the language Knowledge of formal text structure Content and background knowledge Cognitive processing Metacognitive knowledge and skills monitoring Mention four characteristics of effective questioning. is frequent is equitably distributed uses prompting allows adequate wait-time

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