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THE NATURE OF SCIENCE The nature of science refers to key principles and ideas which provide a description of science

as a way of knowing, as well as characteristics of scientific knowledge. CONCEPT OF SCIENCE Science an organized and systematized body of knowledge based on facts. Scientific Method is the commonly known basis of determining facts.

Science according to scientists: (CALLEJA) What scientists do, others we call non-scientists do not (HUXLEY) Science is a common sense the necessary mode of working of the human mind. (ZIMMAN) The product of the mind that tends to ignore the body within which the mind lives. (SIMPSON) Science is not a body of facts, not method, not a technique. Science IS or perhaps HAS, certainly a point of view, a systematic orientation, application to all material aspects of our world. In everyones daily activities as well in the laboratory of a professional scientist. (POSADAS) the dynamic cumulative system of verifiable concepts, principles, methods, laws, theories, and processes which seek to describe, understand, and predict natural phenomena. (CAOILI) an activity concerned with the systematic understanding and explanation of the laws of nature, centering on research toward the discovery or production of new knowledge as the end result. (CAMPBELL) the study of those judgments concerning which universal agreement can be obtained. Simpson believed that the inherent impossibility of complete certainty is the fundamental reason for disagreement in science. The inherent uncertainty is due to four main factors:

1.ONE fact may disprove a theory and not ALL facts can be observed; 2.Data gathered from any complex situation are rarely so complete that only once explanation or inferred relationship among the facts can be correctly conceived; 3.Theories are probabilistic in nature. 4.No scientific explanation so far achieved is, in the fullest sense of the word, COMPLETE.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENCE The world does not change, but mans understanding of the world does change and his motions of what the truth is change in view of time, place and I need. The basis of all scientific knowledge is observation of the natural world. Scientists seek to observe and interpret objectively. Scientists seek to make not only careful qualities observations but also precise qualitative observations of their subjects. The quality of an observation is dependent not only upon the care with which the scientist makes the observation, but also upon the quality of the instruments which permit the scientist to extend and improve. The results of scientific observations are arranged by the scientists in a number of arbitrary classifications. Science attempts to find order in the chaos of nature. Our understanding of observed facts is frequently enhanced by the use of physical models and the supposition of ideal systems. The quality of description is a function not only of the scientist making the report but also the intellectual tools which are available for his use. Science generally accepts the belied in cause and effect in the natural world Science recognized that all present knowledge is subject to question and possible revision. The progress of science in the past has often been accelerated by the striking contributions of a single max. The element of chance and the flash of intuition on important components in the development of scientist thought. An increasingly essential ingredient in the development of science has been the existence of scientific societies and scientific journals. AIMS OF SCIENCE The most basic and fundamental aim of science is to provide us with the best description of the natural world Science aims to build knowledge about the natural world.

This knowledge is open to question and revision as we come up with new ideas and discover new evidence. Scientific laws are the summarizing statements of the best description of nature Probing the nature of the universe is the primary motivation of many scientists to search for knowledge The principle of universality is a complementary set of principles direct scientist in their pursuit of this objective The cause and effect relationship is central to establishing a unified origin of seemingly different disciplines AIMS OF SCIENCE Science's main goal has been building knowledge and understanding, regardless of its potential application. Science is always open to questions and revisions. It is constantly seeking for new evidences, which could reveal problems with our current understandings.

Calleja (1987) - believes that science should not be made to answer for the social ills of mankind; these he noted are not problems of science.

Fox, et al (1963) - epitomizes the arguments of the utilitarian school of thought by redefining the utilitarian purpose of science.