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IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE

I. RATIO: The ratio of two quantities a and b in the same units, is the fraction a/b and we

write it as a:b.

In the ratio a:b, we call a as the first term or antecedent and b, the second term or

consequent.

Rule: The multiplication or division of each term of a ratio by the same non-zero number does

not affect the ratio.

Ex. 4: 5 = 8: 10 = 12: 15 etc. Also, 4: 6 = 2: 3.

If a: b = c: d, we write, a: b:: c : d and we say that a, b, c, d are in proportion . Here a and d

are called extremes, while b and c are called mean terms.

Product of means = Product of extremes.

Thus, a: b:: c : d <=> (b x c) = (a x d).

to a, b, c.

(ii) Third Proportional: If a: b = b: c, then c is called the third proportional to

a and b.

(iii) Mean Proportional: Mean proportional between a and b is square root of ab

We say that (a: b) > (c: d) <=> (a/b)>(c /d).

(ii) COMPOUNDED RATIO:

The compounded ratio of the ratios (a: b), (c: d), (e : f) is (ace: bdf)

(ii) Sub-duplicate ratio of (a : b) is (√a : √b).

(iii)Triplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a3 : b3).

(iv) Sub-triplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a ⅓ : b ⅓ ).

(v) If (a/b)=(c/d), then ((a+b)/(a-b))=((c+d)/(c-d)) (Componendo and dividendo)

6. VARIATION:

(i) We say that x is directly proportional to y, if x = ky for some constant k and

we write, x ∝ y.

(ii) We say that x is inversely proportional to y, if xy = k for some constant k and

we write, x∞(1/y)

SOLVED PROBLEMS

a:b:c = 5:9:63/4 =20:36:63.

Ex. 2. Find:

(i) the fourth proportional to 4, 9, 12;

(ii) the third proportional to 16 and 36;

iii) the mean proportional between 0.08 and 0.18.

Sol.

Fourth proportional to 4, 9, 12 is 27.

Third proportional to 16 and 36 is 81.

√0.08 x 0.18 =√8/100 x 18/100= √144/(100 x 100)=12/100=0.12

(5(3/4)-2)

=(3+5)/(7/4)=32/7

Sol. Sum of ratio terms = (5 + 3) = 8.

First part = Rs. (672 x (5/8)) = Rs. 420; Second part = Rs. (672 x (3/8)) =

Rs. 252.

Ex. 5. Divide Rs. 1162 among A, B, C in the ratio 35 : 28 : 20.

Sol. Sum of ratio terms = (35 + 28 + 20) = 83.

A's share = Rs. (1162 x (35/83))= Rs. 490; B's share = Rs. (1162

x(28/83))= Rs. 392;

amounting to

Rs. 206. Find the number of coins of each type.

respectively.

(5x/2)+( 9x/ 4)+(4x/10)=206ó 50x + 45x + 8x = 4120ó1O3x = 4120

óx=40.

= 360;

Number of 10 p coins = (4 x 40) = 160.

litres of water is added to the mixture, the ratio becomes 4: 5.

Find the quantity of alcohol in the given mixture

Sol. Let the quantity of alcohol and water be 4x litres and 3x litres

respectively

4x/(3x+5)=4/5 ó20x=4(3x+5)ó8x=20 óx=2.5

Quantity of alcohol = (4 x 2.5) litres = 10 litres.

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