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The Titles of Franz Klines Works : a Taxonomy

________________________________________________________________________ Martin Gladu


The people who knew him [Kline] said that he would talk endlessly about coal country and what it was like, the mines and the miners, and talk about the names of the cities. So many of his paintings are named after coal areas. The titles are almost a type of code for the feelings that are behind those paintings. Dr. Robert S. Mattison The relationship of titles to paintings in abstract expressionism practice is never clear-cut. Klines are named after trains, ballets, figures in Wagnerian operas, subway stops, and places that had some meaning for him, without the paintings necessarily bearing any pictorial relationship to the bearers of those names Arthur Coleman Danto

Introduction : From Pennsylvania to New York City Hunter & Jacobus (1992:272) described Franz Kline as one of the powerfully concentrated talents in the American vanguard. Indeed, with Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning, the Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania native was a key figure of Action Painting, the gestural branch of the New York School of Abstract Expressionism. Kline loved everything about New York City. As John Gordon rightly noted, he somewhat became the personification of the suave, sophisticated citizen of New York ; his work became the symbol of its vigor (...) Kline studied his environment, whether city or country, with discerning and appreciative eyes. (Gordon 1969) But while his appreciation for the citys sensual features never wavered, it most probably never supplanted his emotional attachment to the sloping, industrial landscapes of the Coal Region :
"Franz Kline held court at the Cedar Street Tavern almost every night after ten. He would talk to anyone and consequently was the most accessible of his peers to young artists and to me. Franz was the most amiable of the older Abstract Expressionists. As one admirer recalled 'He liked beer at the Cedar Bar and English tea in the studio. He could play the dandy or the clown, act like Ted Lewis, Wallace Beery, or Mae West, talk about rugs, vintage cars, Gericault's horse, baseball, and Baron Gros. He loved jazz and Wagner. He was a confirmed New Yorker, but had roots that he never forgot in the gritty coal country of eastern Pennsylvania...." Irving Sandler (2004:58-59)

The above quotes from Sandler and Mattison give evidence that the Coal Region was indeed never far from the painters thoughts, and many are those who have witnessed first hand the deep imprint its scenery and people had left on him :
Or about how Ed [Meneeley] and Franz Kline hit if off after meeting at the Cedar Tavern in New York, calling out Native American place names like Tamaqua or Mauch Chunk as though they spoke a secret language after discovering they had common roots in Wilkes-Barre, PA. Joel Finsel (2012)

So strong were Klines roots in the Coal Region that many connoisseurs have postulated that his black girders and joists and I-beams, built in layers and then feathered into white pictorial voids (Graham-Dixon 1994) were subconscious manifestations of the industrial installations he longly observed as a budding drafsman. Having himself claimed that his inspiration came from unconscious sources, there may very well be some truth to this hypothesis. That said, such a freudian program is not the aim of this humble paper. What is of interest to me is rather to categorize the titles of his paintings so as to try and uncover any invisible threads that might tie them together into a significant and perhaps telling whole. And studying what the painter himself (or those very close to him) have said about either the titles or of the naming process that birthed them appears the proper methodology for such an investigation. Therefore, what follows is a taxonomy of the titles of Klines paintings or at least those I could certify as his as no catalogue were ever produced of Klines oeuvre. Each category is supported by one or more selected quotes, or by a brief remark. Kline in his own words The quotes from Mattison and Finsel both imply a rather interesting fact : Kline had a keen interest in the toponymy of Pennsylvania. Whats more, the painter even appears as an amateur onomastician who specializes in the Native American place names of eastern Pennsylvania. This is obviously something that needs to be taken into account if one is looking to create a decisive taxonomy such as the one proposed here. To some, studying the naming of such abstract imagery may initially appear like a dead end research project, one that is seemingly unproductive and far too extrapolative. After all, as Coleman Danto (2001:119) rightly observed : The relationship of titles to paintings in abstract expressionism practice is never clear-cut. That said, rather than try to establish such a relationship, I see a more interesting project in pursuing Klines interest in onomastics on his own terms, so to speak. In short, I posit that studying the names of his paintings can lead to a better appreciation of his art by way of his passions, interests and life experiences. Let us first turn to the artist himself and see what he had to say on the subject :
After youve thought out of, lets say, four titles, thats about as much as you can think of, so when my paintings look somewhat alike I give them similar titles. Now take the paintings I have called Bethlehem. Youll find quite a number of Pennsylvania titles among my pictures because

I came from that part of the country. Sometimes its just that I like the names the words themselves. (...) Some pictures I dont even title, and if I do (as long as six months after theyve been painted) its only for identification. Often titles refer to places Ive been at about the time a picture was painted, like the composition I called Palladio. It was done after Id been to the Villa Malcontenta near Venice, but it didnt have a thing to do with Palladian architecture. I have always named my paintings after Ive painted them. Franz Kline (quoted in Gaugh 1994:180)

We gather from this explanation that Kline went through a process of naming works that was : a) sometimes based on the principle of similarity (ie. similar paintings -> similar titles) b) sometimes guided by a sensibility to word sound and the poetics of phonetics (ie. selection based on the words themselves) c) sometimes guided by mere practicality (ie. only for identification purposes) d) sometimes circumstantial (ie. travels that have happened about the time the picture was painted) e) initiated after the painting was completed f) probably not always an easy one While one of the goals of this paper is precisely to shed light on the second and fourth characteristics, Kline himself explicated the first and the last :
The first works in only black and white seemed related to figures, and I titled them as such. Later the results seemed to signify something but difficult to give subject (or) name to, and at present I find it impossible to make a direct, verbal statement about the paintings in black and white Franz Kline (quoted in Gaugh 1994:106)

One of the solutions he found to efface this difficulty he had of titling certain works was to enlist friends and colleagues to help him. An experience in communal naming : Klines first solo show at the Charles Egan Gallery It has been said that Kline chose his titles very arbitrarily (Waldman 1976:53). In my opinion, that is a debatable statement. Indeed, unless one opines that the semiotic relation between the painting itself (the signifier) its subject matter (if any), style, colors, etc. and its title (the signified) is arbitrary, the sole knowledge that the titles were chosen because each had a special meaning to him suffices to deter this view. In clear, the question is whether there can truly be an arbitrariness of choice, to paraphrase Waldman, when each name is related to a meaningful memory, thought, emotion, etc. Though this Saussurian view (also held by Coleman Danto) which holds that the semiotic relation between the pictures and their titles can be deemed arbitrary is agreeable to a degree, I would refrain from saying that Kline picked most his titles arbitrarily because that would imply his emotional detachment from the names as subjectively meaningful signs (see the last part of Mattisons quote above).

Where it gets interesting is the process by which canvases were sometimes named. Kline, along with his closest friends and colleagues, would sit, have drinks, and ask "What's a good title?" A bit of brainstorming would ensue, and a title would finally be selected consensually. New Year Wall, Night is one of many works that got its name this way. This consensual and democratic process is commonly referred to as communal naming. Days before his first solo show at the Charles Egan Gallery, Kline enlisted Egan, Emmanuel Navaretta (who had been living with Kline for the past ten months), Willem and Elaine De Kooning to help find names for his paintings. In a spirit of levity, with a bottle of scotch on the table was how Elaine de Kooning remembered the eight hour naming session (Gaugh 1994:93). Wotan, Riverbed, Caboose, Hazleton, Palmerton : we kept picking names of places that meant something to him, his childhood and trains, she explained (de Kooning 1982). Other canvases were named on this occasion : Hoboken, Clockface, Chief, Cardinal, Nijinsky, Leda, High Street, Wyoming, Nijinsky, Giselle, and The Drum. According to Navaretta, Kline and himself would sometimes go to Hoboken, New Jersey to eat fish. Kline simply liked the name and he chose it as a title for his canvas. Navaretta also recalled that Clockface referred to the clock at Wanamaker's Department Store. Elaine de Kooning, for her part, recalled that Chief and Cardinal were names of locomotives that Kline remembered from his childhood :
Franz invited the de Koonings to help him title the pictures in his first show. They all had to agree. Franz decided to call one work Chief, named after a Lehighton locomotive, but Elaine persuaded him that the name would go better with the canvas that now bears the title. Irving Sandler (2004:59)

Leda refers to mythology, and High Street is the name of the subway stop in Brooklyn near where the Klines lived in 1945. Klines passion for Native American place names is reflected in the title Wyoming. The story behind Nijinsky is interesting. From 1936 to 1949, Kline sketched or painted Nijinsky as Petrouchka at least six times. His wife, Elizabeth, recalled that they shared a copy of Nijinsky's diary with each other, and that she also gave her husband a copy of the Nijinsky biography written by the dancers wife, Romola. Elizabeth would later say that "He [Kline] was overcome by the photo of Nijinsky as Petrouchka. It was apropos of this that he went on about Lon Chaney. He said he knew what Petrouchka felt and Lon Chaney in his circus clown tragedy" (quoted in Gaugh 1985:67-68). David Orr, an early patron of the artist, later recalled that in early 1949, Kline claimed to him that he could paint Nijinsky blindfolded. According to Orr, "to prove his point he proceeded to draw the head on a corrugated carton which was there at the moment. It must have taken him less than thirty seconds." (quoted in Gaugh 1985:71) Implicit egotism : Klines sensibility to word sound and to the poetics of phonetics What comes through his mentionning that sometimes its just that I like the names the words themselves (quoted in Gaugh 1994:180), is that Kline appeared to have a 4

sensibility to word sound and to the poetics of phonetics. To try and induce what the painters subjective preferences were, I have turned to the (interrelated) notions of implicit egotism (Pelham, Carvallo & Jones 2005) and the Name-Letter Effect (Nuttin 1985). Research on these notions indicates that people tend to react positively to anything that reminds them of themselves, including their own names and the letters in their names. Names can even have effects (presumably unconscious ones) on people's choices of mates and careers. Nelson & Simmons (2007), for example, presented evidence suggesting that people are attracted to name-resembling outcomes even when those outcomes undermine their conscious goals. Indeed they found that major league baseball players with first or last names starting with the letter K tend to strike out at a rate greater than that of other players. (In baseball, the letter K is used to record each time a pitcher strikes out a batter. So, if a pitcher has 80 Ks, he has cumulated 80 strike outs). They also found a significant correlation between the alphabetic order of students last names and their relative grades : students whose names start with A or B earn higher grades than students whose names start with C or D. I applied such findings to the titles of Klines works. I counted all the occurences of the stress letters found in his two full names (he changed his middle name in 1935), Franz Rowe Kline and Franz Josef Kline, and all occurences of the sounds <fr>, <anz>, <oh>, <kl>, and <ine>. Note : Kline was named after the Austrian Emperor Franz Josef I by his father, Anthony C. Kline. The latter, who committed suicide in 1917, was born in Hamburg, Germany. His mother (ne Anna Evita Rowe) was an immigrant from Cornwall, England. Here are the results of my analysis : Letters : F = 44 times Z = 13 times K = 38 times L = 142 times O = 179 times Sounds : <fr> = 0 <anz> = 0 <k> = more than 60 times <ine> = 0 <oh> = 79 times.

The taxonomy Industrial Pennsylvania According to Mattison, Kline returned home much more frequently than is commonly known () and talked constantly about his heritage in coal country (Johnson 2012). AN ARTIST'S VIEW OF LEHIGHTON the painting features the Carbon House, a hotel located on First and North Street. Kline grew up in Lehighton. BETHLEHEM is a city in Pennsylvanias Coal Region. CARBON HOUSE is a hotel located on First and North Street in Lehighton which was patronized by employees of the Lehigh Valley Railroad. CHARCOAL BLACK AND TAN obviously refers to anthracit. But it may also refer to Duke Ellingtons Black and Tan Fantasy. DELAWARE GAP is a water gap on the border of the U.S. states of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Delaware is actually a Native American tribe in Pennsylvania. The river and state take their name from Lord de la Warre, governor of the English colony of Virginia. INGOT is a term of the mining industry. LEHIGH is a common name in Pennsylvania. LEHIGH RIVER is a river in Pennsylvania. It means "where there are forks" and is reported to be an English corruption of the German shortening of the Delaware name, Lechauweing. LEHIGH RIVER, WINTER is a river in Pennsylvania. It means "where there are forks" and is reported to be an English corruption of the German shortening of the Delaware name, Lechauweing. LEHIGH V SPAN probably refers to a football game. LEHIGHTON is the city where Kline grew up with his mother and stepfather. The latter worked as a foreman for the Lehigh Valley Railroad. LUZERNE is the name of a county whose seat is Wilkes-Barre, Klines birthplace. Luzerne means "lighthouse." The name honors the Chevalier de la Luzerne, a French nobleman who raised critical funds for the colonial forces at a low point during the Revolutionary War. The family name is traced to Luzern, a village in central Switzerland on Lake Lucerne. MAHONING is the name of a county located in the state of Ohio whose seat is Youngstown. Youngstown was where a 1924 clash between immigrant mill workers and the Ku Klux Klan happened. In 1937, Youngstown saw a workers strike that turned violent and left two dead. It is also a hodonym (ie. the name of a street in Lehighton). It is of Native American origin : "Maho" = lick, "ing" = at the. Various prefixes have been attached to the word Mahoning to describe the area surrounding a specific mineral lick frequented by the animals that were essential to the Native Americans survival. PA STREET (PENNSYLVANIA MINING TOWN) PALMERTON is a borough in Carbon County, Pennsylvania. It is located in the Coal Region. PENNSYLVANIA is a state of the USA. Its name is derived from the geological formation that occupies the territory (ie. pennsylvanian).

PENNSYLVANIA LANDSCAPE PENNSYLVANIA STREET SCENE PITTSTON is a city in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, named in honor of Sir William Pitt (the same Pitt as in Pittsburgh). SCRANTON is a city in eastern Pennsylvania. THORPE Jim Thorpe is a borough in Carbon County, Pennsylvania. Jim Thorpe was once known as Mauch Chunk, an Anglicized form of an Indian name meaning Bear Mountain. The title of the painting may also refer to an American sculptor and painter who was part of The Washington Color School. WYOMING refers to Pennsylvanias Wyoming Valley. The toponym Wyoming is based either on an Algonquin Indian word meaning "large prairie place," or from the Delaware Indian word meaning mountains and valleys alternating (the same as the Wyoming Valley). The Lehigh Valley Railroad Klines passion for trains originates from his years growing up in Wilkes-Barre and Lehighton, two cities crossed by the railroad. Moreover, his stepfather was a foreman for the Lehigh Valley Railroad. C AND O refers to the pioneering railroad line. CABOOSE is a term of the railroad industry. CARDINAL was the name of a locomotive of the Lehigh Valley Railroad. CHIEF was the name of a locomotive of the Lehigh Valley Railroad. CHIEF (TRAIN)(1942) was the name of a locomotive of the Lehigh Valley Railroad. DIAMOND the nickmane of Wilkes-Barre is "the diamond city". Also, Kline was fascinated by Black Diamond, the once famous train of the Lehigh Valley Railroad. UNTITLED (LOCOMOTIVE) New York City Sensing that his career would progress more in NYC, Kline moved there from Buffalo, New York in 1938. 71 WEST 3RD STREET The Klines were evicted from MacDougal Street and had to move to 71 West 3rd Street. Kline later moved from 71 West 3rd Street to 430 Hudson Street (second floor). CHATHAM SQUARE is a major intersection in Chinatown, Manhattan, NYC. CHINATOWN CHRISTMAS CHEER FROM MacDOUGAL STREET Franz and his wife were evicted from 146 MacDougal Street for not paying their rent. They then moved to 71 West 3rd Street, which is also captured as the title of one of his canvases (see above). FISHING BOAT, FULTON FISH MARKET, NEW YORK CITY FULTON FISH MARKET HIGH STREET High Street is a subway stop in Brooklyn. It derives from the fact that Franz and his wife lived there in 1945.

LOWER EAST SIDE MARKET MacDOUGAL STREET GREENWICH VILLAGE Franz and his wife were evicted from 146 MacDougal Street for not paying their rent. They then moved to 71 West 3rd Street, which is also captured as the title of one of his canvases (see above). NEW YORK, N.Y. In late summer of 1938, Kline moved from Buffalo to NYC. He roomed with Frank Hahn at 6 Jane Street, then the two moved to 146 MacDougal Street. They were evicted from MacDougal Street and had to move to 71 West 3rd Street. The Klines then moved from 71 West 3rd Street to 430 Hudson Street (second floor), and then to 23 Christopher Street (top floor). In 1943, they moved to 150 West 4th Street (during 1943 Kline would also begin renting a studio in a ground floor storefront at 41 Perry Street which he would keep until the spring or summer of 1944). In September 1945, they then decided to move to Brooklyn (Kline commuted on a daily basis to his studio in Manhattan at 148 West 4th Street). In mid-December, they moved to 148 West 4th Street. In September 1947, Kline moved to 52 East 9th Street (In 1948, Kline shared his apartment for approximately six months with Earl Kerkam, and then for close to eleven months with Emmanuel Navaretta later in 1950), and in 1953, to the top floor of 32 East 10th Street. In 1957, Kline moved to 473 6th Avenue, and from there to 242 West 14th Street where he would stay until he died (In June 1961, Kline purchased a brick townhouse at 249 West 13th Street which adjoined the back of his 14th Street studio). Kline moved no less than fourteen times, including at least three evictions because he was unable to pay the rent. NINTH STREET The 9th Street Art Exhibition was a historical, ground-breaking exhibition. It was located at 60 East 9th Street. Interestingly, the Lehighton, PA house he grew up in was located at 300 South 9th Street. NINTH AVENUE ELEVATED RAILROAD AT CHRISTOPHER STREET Kline lived at 23 Christopher Street (top floor). SHERIDAN SQUARE, NEW YORK Kline painted murals for El Chico's, a Spanish nightclub on Sheridan Square (located at 80 Grove Street in Greenwich Village). STREET SCENE GREENWICH VILLAGE Kline once lived at 430 Hudson Street (second floor) in Greenwich Village. THIRD AVENUE WANAMAKER BLOCK 1955 The Wanamaker's Department Store burnt while he and de Kooning lived on the same street in NYC. Interestingly, Wanamaker is not only a street in Lehighton, PA, but Wanamaker, Kempton & Southern, Inc. (aka the "Hawk Mountain Line") was a privately owned heritage railroad company in Kempton, Pennsylvania. WASHINGTON BRIDGE WASHINGTON SQUARE, N.Y.C. this work was commissioned by Dr. Theodore J. Edlich (Klines doctor), who placed the painting on a folding screen directly in front of his examination table. In French In 1952, a few of Klines works were shown in the American Vanguard Art for Paris exhibition at the Galerie de France.

ACCENT AIGU ACCENT GRAVE HEAUME is a protective helmet worn by medieval foot soldiers. INITIALE LAURELINE RUE TORCHES MAUVE was named after Joseph Torch, a friend and art dealer who sold Kline tube paint. Individuals His warm and likeable personality made Kline a popular figure of the Village nightlife. ANDRUS was the name of his cardiologist. ARTISTS WIFE BETSY probably stands for his companion and heir Elisabeth Ross Zogbaum. It might also refer either to Charles Egans spouse, Betsy Duhrssen, or to his own spouse. DANCER AT ISLIP His wife, Elizabeth, became a patient at the Central Islip State Hospital in May 1946. DOUBLE H Henry Hensche was a painter who had studied under Hawthorne and wo had taught Kline at Boston University. He was the one who first brought Kline to Provincetown. DUSTY RHOADS is a play of words : the character is a hobo. The real Dusty Rhodes was a pinch-hitter in the Major League Baseball (Kline played baseball at Lehighton High School). ELIZABETH Kline's wife (ne Elizabeth Parsons) was a former ballet dancer in England. Kline also travelled Europe with Elisabeth Ross Zogbaum, his heir and companion and the spouse of sculptor Wilfrid Meynell Zogbaum. ELIZABETH AT THE WINDOW GARCIA GISELLE may take its title from Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges and Thophile Gautiers romantic ballet Giselle, or the Wilis. The ballet is about a peasant girl named Giselle who dies of a broken heart after discovering her lover is betrothed to another. The Wilis, a group of supernatural women who dance men to death, summon Giselle from her grave. They target her lover for death, but Giselle's love frees him from their grasp. GLORIA HENRY H II Henry Hensche was a painter who had studied under Hawthorne and who had taught Kline at Boston University. He was the one who first brought Kline to Provincetown. JOHN THE MOVING MAN Kline moved a lot in his lifetime. John, the moving man, was most probably named after one the movers that Kline hired. LA VERONICA LE GROS Kline frequently talked about Baron Gros, a French Romantic painter, at the Cedar Street Tavern. The name may also come from Pierre Le Gros lan and/or Pierre Le Gros le jeune (his son), two well-known French sculptors. LEDA the myth of Leda gave rise to a popular motif in the Renaissance.

LUMBER MAN JACK MARS BLACK AND WHITE the series called Mars was named after a girl Kline knew in his student days in Boston. Mars Black is also a pigment. MAYOR LAGUARDIA refers to the former mayor of NYC. MERCE C Merce Cunningham was a dancer. She was Klines colleague at Black Mountain College, where they both sat on its Advisory Council. MERYON A pioneering master of original etching in France, Charles Meryon was a solitary and disturbed genius of great creative power. The inspiration for the painting itself was possibly an engraving of a clock tower by the artist. NIJINSKY refers to the Russian ballet dancer and choreographer. NIJINSKY AS PETROUCHKA Nijinsky is known for his work on Igor Stravinskys Petrouchka. From 1936 to 1949, Kline sketched or painted Nijinsky as Petrouchka at least six times. His wife, Elizabeth, recalled that they shared a copy of Nijinsky's diary with each other, and that she also gave her husband a copy of the Nijinsky biography written by Nijinksy's wife, Romola. Elizabeth would later say that "He [Kline] was overcome by the photo of Nijinsky as Petrouchka. It was apropos of this that he went on about Lon Chaney. He said he knew what Petrouchka felt and Lon Chaney in his circus clown tragedy." David Orr, an early patron of Kline later recalled that in early 1949 Kline claimed to him that he could paint Nijinsky blindfolded. According to Orr, "To prove his point he proceeded to draw the head on a corrugated carton which was there at the moment. It must have taken him less than thirty seconds." PORTRAIT OF DAVID ORR'S MOTHER David Orr commissioned many (13) of Kline's early works. PORTRAIT OF FREDERICK BHUNENSTEM III There were many Fredericks in Klines life : Frederic Whiting (one of his teacher in England), Frederick Ryan, (a fellow art student and roommate in England), Fred McDarrah (The Clubs doorman), and his older brother, Frederick Kline. PORTRAIT OF STEVE Stephen Edlich was Dr. Theodore J. Edlich, Jrs son. Dr. Edlich was Kline's doctor and an early patron of his. PROBST I refers to Jack (Yoachim) Probst, an artist-friend from Greenwich Village. SABRO IV refers to painter-friend Sabro Hasegawa. Sabro Hasegawa sensed that Kline's work approached his ideal of a synthesis between writing and painting : "Here are daring, strong, straight lines and their sorrows and solitudes," he once said. SAWYER SAWYER GARDEN BARBER SEATED FIGURE ELIZABETH SELF-PORTRAIT SISKIND Aaron Siskind was an American photographer involved with the abstract expressionist movement. VAWDAVITCH refers to the last name of a football player Kline liked in his youth. Drunken sprees In 1960, Kline exhibited three paintings whose titles were inspired by drunken sprees : CHICAGO, CALUMET CITY and ORLEANS.

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CHICAGO The name Chicago derives from a word in the language spoken by the Miami and Illinois peoples meaning striped skunk, a word they also applied to the wild leek (known to later botanists as Allium tricoccum). CALUMET CITY During their visit to Chicago (to serve as jurors for the Exhibition Momentum '57), Philip Guston, Kline and Aaron Siskind went to Calumet City for a drunken spree. Noah Goldowsky gave them about $200 to finance their "adventure." Upon returning to New York the artists paid Goldowsky back by each sending him a drawing. A calumet is a type of smoking pipe used by Native Americans. ORLEANS Orleans takes its name from the French dynasty. Native American place names Many of the place names in the Coal Region are from the Delaware Indians or Lenapes and Susquehanna native American Indians. And, as noted in Carter B. Horsleys Christie's May 11, 2005 Catalogue : Kline was greatly interested in and intrigued by the place names of his childhhood surroundings, not least those with Native American origins. He was also the godfather of Ojibwe artist George Morrisons son. HOBOKEN Kline painted murals for bars in Brooklyn and Hoboken between 1939 and 1943. The toponym is either derived from 1) Middle Dutch Hooghe Buechen or Hoge Beuken, (meaning High or Tall Beeches), 2) the Dutchmen who visited the future Hoboken NJ in those early years and who called it "Hoebuck" (meaning "high bluff"), or 3) the Lenni Lenape who camped seasonally on the island. The latter called the spot "Hopoghan Hackingh," or "Land of the Tobacco Pipe," for they used the green-colored serpentine rock abundant in the area to carve pipes for smoking tobacco. CROW DANCER SHENANDOAH is an Indian name meaning either "sprucy stream" or "river flowing alongside high hills and mountains." In Iroquois, shenandoah translates into "great plains." It may also come from the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia where the meaning would lean toward "daughter of the skies." Italy and other travels Kline travelled to Italy for the 1956 and 1960 Annual Venice Biennale. Also in 1960, he won the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction Prize. A LONDON CAFE Kline lived in England for two years. Willem de Kooning would later say of Kline : "He was an Anglophile in a nice way." De Kooning also recalled Kline's fascination with English actors, particularly Ronald Colman who Kline would imitate, saying "You don't take any shit from Ronald Colman." BLACK SIENNA On July 2, 1960, Kline visited Siena to see the Palio delle Contrade, a festival and horse race in Piazza del Campo. Sienna is also an earth pigment. BRUHO Brujo means sorcerer, witch, medicine man or shaman in spanish. El Bruho is a peruvian archeological site. On July 2, 1960, Kline visited Siena to see the Palio delle Contrade, a festival and horse race in Piazza del Campo. There, Kline saw a horse named Bruco which sounds like Bruho when uttered in a strong florentine accent.

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PALLADIO Kline and Elisabeth Zogbaum left Venice on June 19, 1960 in a hired car with a driver, stopping in Vicenza the birthplace of Palladio, the architect of the Teatro Olimpico and Villa Malcontenta. While in Vicenza, Kline took a guided tour of the Villa Malcontenta. PLACIDIA refers to the tomb of Galla Placidia in Ravena which Kline visited on June 21, 1960. RAVENNA After an overnight stay in Verona on June 19, 1960, Kline and Elisabeth Zogbaum stopped in Padua, visiting the Arena Chapel on June 20. He stayed overnight in Ferrara before arriving in Ravena on June 21. SCUDERA his last painting TURIN is the capital of the Piedmont region of Italy. Jazz Kline was a jazz amateur. He hung out with the jazzmen who drank at the Cedar Street Tavern. BIGARD refers to clarinetist Barney Bigard. HOT JAZZ refers to the subject matter of this mural. KING OLIVER refers to the famous trumpeter. LESTER refers to tenorman Lester Young. Architecture Graham-Dixon (1994) wrote : The heaviness of Kline's black girders and joists and Ibeams, built in layers and then feathered into white pictorial voids, gives his pictures their most powerful quality which is fundamentally architectural. Kline paints a picture with something of the stubborn, improvisational character of an amateur carpenter building a house. BUTTRESS is an architectural structure built against or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall. CUPOLA is a small, most-often dome-like structure on top of a building. HARLEMAN Johan Harleman and his son Carl were swedish architects. SLATE CROSS SUSPENDED THE BRIDGE refers either to the Brooklyn Bridge or the Lehighton-Weissport bridge. VERTICALS Wagner On May 23, 1939, the Klines celebrated Franzs 39th birthday at the Metropolitan Opera, totally taken by one Wagners Tristan und Isolde. Several days later he purchased second-hand recordings of the opera. CURVINAL SIEGFRIED

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WOTAN Places : the artists studio ARTIST'S STUDIO WITH EASEL ENTRANCE TO STUDIO IN THE STUDIO OUTSIDE VIEW OF WEST 14TH STREET STUDIO STUDIO INTERIOR STUDIO WITH EASEL (ALONZO GASPARO) Places : other ANCIENT GROVE BAR ROOM PAINTING CROSSTOWN FLANDERS Kline greatly admired Rembrandt (who was from Flanders). Flanders today refers to the Dutch-speaking northern part of Belgium. HAMPTON refers to East Hampton, New York where many artists lived, Kline being one of them. He painted in John Little's barn in East Hampton. HOUSE IN A LANDSCAPE MYCENEA is an archaeological site in Greece. It was the great city and Palace of King Agamemnon the leader of the Greeks. PROVINCETOWN II is a New England town located at the extreme tip of Cape Cod in Barnstable County, Massachusetts. From 1956, Kline spent his summers there, establishing a studio. Kline bought Shadowlawn at 15 Cottage Street (it is now Kensington Gardens). He used the rear shed, 16 Mechanic Street, as his studio as had Jackson Pollock. Interestingly, the building across the street from Klines 146 MacDougal Street apartment is called The Provincetown. RIVERBED refers to the Lehigh River bed. SAUDI ARABY THE PLAYGROUND THE SYNAGOGUE The painting in the style of Rembrandt was commissioned by I. David Orr who Kline had met in 1939. The left half of the work was based on a photograph that Orr gave to Kline of Jewish pilgrims reading the scriptures inside a shelter in Palestine during the 1920s. VANISHED WORLD David Orr commissioned many (13) of Kline's early works. In 1943, Kline would incorporate painted images derived from eight different photographs of Orr's relatives into Vanished World, a dark interior featuring a Jewish bride. Flowers DAHLIA DYING FLOWERS RED DAHLIA VASE WITH FLOWERS

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Animals (cats, horses, etc.) Kline frequently talked about Gericaults way of depicting horses. CAT GREY DOVE HORSE AND BUGGY HORSES ON THE BEACH KITZKER was the name of his cat. SHASTA (SEATED DOBERMAN) was the name of a friends pet dog. THE HORSE TWO CATS TWO HORSES People and occupations CIRCUS RIDER FIREMAN AND LADDER probably got its name from the fire that destroyed the Wanamakers department store in NYC. MAN WITH A CART: A DOUBLE-SIDED WORK NIGHT FIGURE RED CLOWN Kline identified with clowns. In 1938, he wrote his wife : I have always felt that I am like a clown, and thinking that life might work out as a tragedy, a clown's tragedy. WOMAN RIDING CENTAUR WOMAN SEATED AT A TABLE IN THE ATELIER WOMAN WITH CAT Mechanical Kline studied mechanical drawing and trained in a foundry workshop at Girard College, an academy for fatherless boys located in Pennsylvania. He loved cars : he purchased a Thunderbird on June 6, 1958 and a silver gray Ferrari in July 1960. CLOCKFACE was named after the clock in NYCs Wanamakers department store. SHAFT TURBIN Rocking chairs It is a well-known fact that Kline devoted himself entirely to abstraction in 1948 after enlarging a small drawing of a rocking chair. But what is less known is that his mother insisted that he run a furniture store : she often advised him to quit painting and get a real job. ROCKER

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ROCKING CHAIR (ELIZABETH) SEATED WOMAN SMALL SEATED FIGURE TWO SEATED FIGURES WOMAN IN A ROCKER Miscellaneous AUGUST DAY BLUEBERRY EYES DEVIL'S TEMPTATION EVENING 4-5.30 PM GREEN NIGHT HARLEY RED HEAD FOR SATURN HERALD HOMAGE HOMAGE II LOWER HALF MERRY CHRISTMAS HAPPY CORONATION YEAR MONITOR NEW YEAR WALL, NIGHT was invented by his friends. OPUSTENA translates into "deserted". REQUIEM is a memorial to Jackson Pollock. SPAGNA means Spain in italian. TEAPOT metonimically recalls his years in England and his love of this country. THE BALLANTINE The triangular shape in the center of this painting resembles a letter A, which might also stand for Ale. In the 1950s, Ballantine Ale was the drink of choice for the American counterculture. THE CHAIR THE DANCES THE DRUM TRAGEDY Kline identified with clowns. In 1938 he wrote his wife : I have always felt that I am like a clown, and thinking that life might work out as a tragedy, a clown's tragedy. Kline had plenty of tragedies in his lifetime, the suicide of his father, the harsh criticism of his mother and the illness of his wife being the three major ones. Painter Paul Brach declared of Kline's paintings that they are "statements of an acute crisis. (P. Brach, quoted in Franz Kline; Art and the Structure of Identity, exh. cat., Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, 1994, p. 37). TRANSITION UNDES second person singular present of undo (latin) WAX WING WESTBRAND Kline obviously used numerous painterly names : ABSTRACTION, BLACK AND GREEN, BLACK AND WHITE, BLACK ANGLE WITH YELLOW, BLACK

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REFLECTIONS, BLACK WHITE BROWN, BLACK WHITE AND GRAY, BURIED REDS, COMPOSITION, DE MEDICI (fka Black and Green. De Medici is the name of a tube of green paint), DIAGONAL, FIGURE, FIGURE 8, FOLDED DRAWING, FOUR SQUARE (Kline exhibited his work in Washington Square art shows. According to Dan Rice, Kline attempted "to lock" corners of the canvas with his forms.), FOUR STUDIES, GREEN OBLIQUE (Study for De Medici), GREEN RED AND BROWN, GREY ABSTRACTION, GREY SHAPES ON GREEN, HORIZONTAL, HORIZONTAL RUST, LANDSCAPE WITH HOUSE, LAVENDER RUST, ORANGE AND BLACK WALL (which was used as the cover for jazz pianist Dave Brubecks LP Countdown : Time in Space on Columbia Records), ORANGE OUTLINE, OVER GREEN, PAINTED NEWSPRINT, PAINTING (1952), PAINTING NO.2, PAINTING NO.7, PURPLE ABSTRACTION, RED CANYON, RED FIELD (fka Black Over Reds), RED LANDSCAPE, RED PAINTING, RICE PAPER ABSTRACT, ROSE GRAY, ROSE PURPLE AND BLACK, SMALL YELLOW SQUARE, STILL LIFE WITH PUPPET, UNTITLED (STILL LIFE WITH FRUIT), WHITE FORMS, YELLOW ABSTRACTION, YELLOW AND RUST, YELLOW ORANGE AND PURPLE, ZINC DOOR, and ZINC YELLOWS AND GREY.

Bibliography Unknown (1994) Franz Kline; Art and the Structure of Identity, exh. cat., Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, 1994. Unknown (2010) Franz Kline : Reprised and with a Mind Open to all Kinds of Things, in Fifty Two Pieces, Jan. 19, 2010. http://fiftytwopieces.blogspot.ca/2010/01/franz-klinereprised-and-with-mind-open.html Coleman Danto, Arthur (2001) The Madonna of the Future : Essays in a Pluralistic Art World. University of California Press : Berkeley de Kooning, Elaine (1982) Strokes of Genius : Franz Kline Remembered (TV series hosted by Dustin Hoffman, directed by Carl Colby, and produced by Courtney Sale). Los Angeles : Cort Productions, Inc. Finsel, Joel (2012) Swimming Naked at the YMCA. http://www.swimming-naked-atthe-ymca.com/ Gaugh, Harry (1994) Franz Kline, Abeville Press : NewYork. Gordon, John (1969) Franz Kline 1910-1962. Published for the Whitney Museum of American Art by F. A. Praeger : New York. Graham-Dixon, Andrew (1994) ART / The master builder : Franz Kline didn't talk much about his work - one reason, perhaps, why others haven't much either. Andrew GrahamDixon on a forgotten hero The Independent, Tuesday, July 12, 1994.

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http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/art--the-master-builder-franz-klinedidnt-talk-much-about-his-work--one-reason-perhaps-why-others-havent-much-eitherandrew-grahamdixon-on-a-forgotten-hero-1413373.html Greco, John (2013) Social Realism. http://www.true212.com/english/blog/socialrealism/ Horsley, Carter B. (2005) Christie's May 11, 2005 Catalogue, Contemporary Art Christie's 7PM, May 11, 2005. Sale 1516. http://www.thecityreview.com/f02sco1.html Hunter, Sam & Jacobus, John (1992). Modern Art. Prentice Hall, Inc. & Harry N. Abrams, Inc. : New York. Johns, John,Pelham, Brett, Mirenberg, Matthew & Hetts, John (2002). Name Letter Preferences Are Not Merely Mere Exposure: Implicit Egotism as Self-Regulation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38(2), 170-177. Johnson, Elizabeth (2012) Franz Klines roots in coal and steel at Allentown Art Museum. http://www.theartblog.org/2012/12/flanz-kines-roots-in-coal-and-steel-atallentown-art-museum/ Kuh, Katharine (2000) The Artist's Voice: Talks With Seventeen Modern Artists, Da Capo Press : New York. Nuttin, Jozef (1985). Narcissism beyond gestalt and awareness : The name letter effect. European Journal of Social Psychology, 15, 353-361. OHara, Michael (2007) Origins of Town Names of Northeast PA. http://www.nepanewsletter.com/towns Pelham, Brett, Carvallo, Mauricio & Jones, John (2005). Implicit egoism. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(2), 106110. Pelham, Brett, Mirenberg, Matthew, & Jones, John (2002). Why Susie sells seashells by the seashore: Implicit egotism and major life decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(4), 469-487. Runkle, Stephen A. (2003) Native American Waterbody and Place Names Within the Susquehanna River Bassin and Surrounding Subbasins, September 2003, Susquehanna River Basin Commission Sandler, Irving (2004). A Sweeper-Up After Artists, London : Thames & Hudson Ltd. Shok, Holly (2009) Franz Joseph Kline, The Pennsylvania State University. https://secureapps.libraries.psu.edu/PACFTB/bios/biography.cfm?AuthorID=7285

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Nelson, L.D., & Simmons, J.P. (2007). Moniker Maladies: When Names Sabotage Success. Psychological Science, 18, 1106-1112. Solt, Stacy (2012) The inspiration behind the exhibit, Times News. http://www.tnonline.com/2012/oct/03/inspiration-behind-exhibit Waldman, Anne (1976) ????, Los Angeles : Sun & Moon, nos 1 to 5.

A music publishing expert and former professional musician, Martin Gladu also freelances as a translator, writer, and researcher. His research interests deal mainly with issues relating to specialist discursive competence and terminology in certain educative and workplace communities.

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