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fluid flow

fluid flow

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SET UP

DESCRIPTION

SPECIFICATIONS

INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

INSTALLATION AND CONNECTIONS

PRECAUTIONS

TROUBLE SHOOTING

EXPREMENTATION

THEORY

OPERATING PROCEDURE

SYSTEM CONSTANTS

OBSERVATION TABLE

CALCULATIONS

NOMENCLATURE.

g = gravitational constant.

(P) d/L = pressure drop, water per meter height of dry packing.

(P) tp/L = pressure drop, cm water per meter height of packing for two

phase.

(P) w/L = pressure drop, cm water per height of wet drained packing.

INTRODUCTION:

Two phase flow in a packed bed is a common feature in industries. Removal of solute

gas from a mixture of the gas with inert by absorbing in a liquid solvent is a common

example of two phase counter flow in a packed bed. Cooling towers used in a cooling

process is another example of two phase countercurrent flow in a packed bed.

If only gas flows in a packed bed, the packing is called DRY PACKING. If the

column is flooded with liquid and then drained the packing is termed WET

PACKING. For the same superficial velocity through the tower, pressure drop

through wet drained packing is higher than that for dry packing. This is because

the characteristics of the packing and the void space available for the gas flows

are changed by the liquid film adhering to the solid surfaces of packing.

For a fixed gas velocity, the pressure drop across the bed increases with the

increase in liquid flow rate because the free area available for gas flow reduced

with the liquid flow rate.

Figure shows the pressure drop as a function of gas velocity for dry packing (curve

A), for wet drained packing (Curve B), and for two phase flow for a constant liquid

flow rate (Curve C).

For a fixed liquid flow rate, the pressure drop across a packed bed increases with

increase in a gas velocity. Curve C obtained by plotting pressure drop per unit

height of packing as a function of gas velocity, indicates that it is nearly parallel to

the similar curves obtained for dry and wet dumped packing till point X is reached.

Beyond point X the pressure drop is proportional to the gas velocity to the power

higher than 2. This zone is called as LOADING ZONE as indicated by the region

XY. The increase in pressure drop is due to the rapid accumulation of liquid in the

voids. If the gas rate is further increased, the change in pressure drop is quit high

even with a slight change in the gas rate. The curve obtained beyond Y is almost

parallel to the ordinate. This phenomenon is called FLOODING and is characterized

either by building of continuous liquid column at the top of the packing (if the

packing is composed essentially of extended surface) or by gas bubbling through

the liquid (if the packing surface is discontinuous nature).

Flooding represents the maximum capacity condition for a packed column. The

packed columns are operated at 50 percent the flooding velocity. An expression to

find the flooding velocity is given graphically by plotting

As a function of

On a log log graph (refer Perry) gives generalized flooding and pressure drop

correlations for packing.

Pressure drop for two phase flow for various packing are plotted as pressure drop

in mm water per meter of packed height as a function of G/ on a log log plot.

Other empirical relations are also available in the literature to obtain pressure drop

for two phase flow.

To estimate pressure drop for dry packing, wet drained packing and for

two phase flow for at least three different flow rates.

PROCEDURE.

1. Measure height of packed bed.

2. Determine pressure drop for dry packing by adjusting air flow control valve.

3. Close air flow valve and fill column with water. When packing fully under

water close water flow valve and drain column completely by opening bottom

valve of column.

4. Open air flow valve for determination of pressure drop of wet drained

packing.

5. Select water flow rate and keep it constant. Now allow air to flow

countercurrent to water by adjusting valves.

6. Record flow rates, pressure drop.

7. Repeat procedure for different flow rates of water.

8. At the end of experiment determine the volume held by the voids of bed.

Inside diameter of column

Height of packed section

Specifications of packing DRY PACKING

RUN NO.

Reading of Rota meter

Pressure drop.

RUN NO.

Reading of Rota meter.

Pressure drop.

RUN NO.

Air Rota meter reading

Water Rota meter reading

Pressure drop.

1. Plot on log log scale (P) d/L as a function of mass velocity of air, Kg/s m.

2. Volumetric flow rate of air multiplied by density of air gives mass velocity of

air and divided by inside cross section of column to obtain mass velocity of

air Kg/s m.

3. on the same graph paper plot (P)w/L as a function of mass velocity of air

for wet drained packing and (P)T-P/L. as function for all two phase flow.

4. Compare theoretical with practical pressure drop.

5. using the mass velocity of air at flooding point, calculate

X=

Y=

Determine the ratio of pressure drop for two phase flow to that for the same air

mass velocity

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