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INSTRUCTION MANUAL.

TWO PHASE FLOW.


SET UP
DESCRIPTION
SPECIFICATIONS
INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
INSTALLATION AND CONNECTIONS
PRECAUTIONS
TROUBLE SHOOTING

EXPREMENTATION
THEORY
OPERATING PROCEDURE
SYSTEM CONSTANTS
OBSERVATION TABLE
CALCULATIONS

NOMENCLATURE.

ap = total area of packing, m/m of bed volume.

e = void fraction in bed. Dimensionless.

g = gravitational constant.

G = superficial mass velocity of gas in tower, kg/s.m.

L = superficial mass velocity of liquid in tower, kg/s.m.

(P) d/L = pressure drop, water per meter height of dry packing.

(P) tp/L = pressure drop, cm water per meter height of packing for two
phase.

(P) w/L = pressure drop, cm water per height of wet drained packing.

g = density of gas, kg/m.

L = density of liquid, kg/m.

L = viscosity of liquid, N s/m.

w = viscosity of water, N s/m.

= (density of gas/density of air)

INTRODUCTION:
Two phase flow in a packed bed is a common feature in industries. Removal of solute
gas from a mixture of the gas with inert by absorbing in a liquid solvent is a common
example of two phase counter flow in a packed bed. Cooling towers used in a cooling
process is another example of two phase countercurrent flow in a packed bed.
If only gas flows in a packed bed, the packing is called DRY PACKING. If the
column is flooded with liquid and then drained the packing is termed WET
PACKING. For the same superficial velocity through the tower, pressure drop
through wet drained packing is higher than that for dry packing. This is because
the characteristics of the packing and the void space available for the gas flows
are changed by the liquid film adhering to the solid surfaces of packing.

For a fixed gas velocity, the pressure drop across the bed increases with the
increase in liquid flow rate because the free area available for gas flow reduced
with the liquid flow rate.

Figure shows the pressure drop as a function of gas velocity for dry packing (curve
A), for wet drained packing (Curve B), and for two phase flow for a constant liquid
flow rate (Curve C).
For a fixed liquid flow rate, the pressure drop across a packed bed increases with
increase in a gas velocity. Curve C obtained by plotting pressure drop per unit
height of packing as a function of gas velocity, indicates that it is nearly parallel to
the similar curves obtained for dry and wet dumped packing till point X is reached.
Beyond point X the pressure drop is proportional to the gas velocity to the power
higher than 2. This zone is called as LOADING ZONE as indicated by the region
XY. The increase in pressure drop is due to the rapid accumulation of liquid in the
voids. If the gas rate is further increased, the change in pressure drop is quit high
even with a slight change in the gas rate. The curve obtained beyond Y is almost
parallel to the ordinate. This phenomenon is called FLOODING and is characterized
either by building of continuous liquid column at the top of the packing (if the
packing is composed essentially of extended surface) or by gas bubbling through
the liquid (if the packing surface is discontinuous nature).

Flooding represents the maximum capacity condition for a packed column. The
packed columns are operated at 50 percent the flooding velocity. An expression to
find the flooding velocity is given graphically by plotting

As a function of

On a log log graph (refer Perry) gives generalized flooding and pressure drop
correlations for packing.
Pressure drop for two phase flow for various packing are plotted as pressure drop
in mm water per meter of packed height as a function of G/ on a log log plot.
Other empirical relations are also available in the literature to obtain pressure drop
for two phase flow.

OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT.

To estimate pressure drop for dry packing, wet drained packing and for
two phase flow for at least three different flow rates.

To locate LOADING AND FLOODING ZONE.

PROCEDURE.
1. Measure height of packed bed.
2. Determine pressure drop for dry packing by adjusting air flow control valve.
3. Close air flow valve and fill column with water. When packing fully under
water close water flow valve and drain column completely by opening bottom
valve of column.
4. Open air flow valve for determination of pressure drop of wet drained
packing.

5. Select water flow rate and keep it constant. Now allow air to flow
countercurrent to water by adjusting valves.
6. Record flow rates, pressure drop.
7. Repeat procedure for different flow rates of water.
8. At the end of experiment determine the volume held by the voids of bed.

Tabulate data as below.


Inside diameter of column
Height of packed section
Specifications of packing DRY PACKING
RUN NO.
Reading of Rota meter
Pressure drop.

WET DRAINED PACKING


RUN NO.
Reading of Rota meter.
Pressure drop.

TWO PHASE FLOW


RUN NO.
Air Rota meter reading
Water Rota meter reading
Pressure drop.

CALCULATIONS AND PLOTS:


1. Plot on log log scale (P) d/L as a function of mass velocity of air, Kg/s m.
2. Volumetric flow rate of air multiplied by density of air gives mass velocity of
air and divided by inside cross section of column to obtain mass velocity of
air Kg/s m.
3. on the same graph paper plot (P)w/L as a function of mass velocity of air
for wet drained packing and (P)T-P/L. as function for all two phase flow.
4. Compare theoretical with practical pressure drop.
5. using the mass velocity of air at flooding point, calculate

X=
Y=
Determine the ratio of pressure drop for two phase flow to that for the same air
mass velocity