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Philippine History The Land and People The Philippines is an archipelago compassed of 7,110 islands and islets.

lets. It belongs to the northern hemisphere and part of the South East Asian region. The largest island is Lu on!"0,#1" s$.miles% follo&ed b' (indanao !)*,+0* s$. miles%, and Samar (t. Apo is the highest pea,. The mountain ranges are Sierra (adre !longest continuous%, -estern .araballo, .araballo de /aler, 0ambales 1ange, Taga'ta' 1idge, and .entral Eastern, .entral -estern and -estern mountain range. The ri2ers in Lu on as follo&s3 .aga'an 1i2er!longest%, Agno 1i2er, Abra 1i2er and Pampanga 1i2er, &hereas in (indanao, (indanao and Agusan 1i2er. There are 17 regions, #0 pro2inces, 144 cities and 1,514 municipalities. The follo&ing are the regions3 I 6 Ilocos 1egion, II 7 .aga'an 1egion, III 7 .entral Lu on, I8A6 .ALA/A109:, I8/ (I(A19PA, 8 7 /icol 1egion, 8I 7 -estern 8isa'as, 8II 7 .entral 8isa'as, 8III 7 Eastern 8isa'as, I; 7 0amboanga Peninsula, ; 7 :orthern (indanao, ;I 7 <a2ao 1egion, ;II 6 S9..S=SA1>E:, ;III 6 .A1A>A, .A1, :.1, and A1((.

In 1+th centur' 1i al and other ?ilipinos propagandists used the term Filipino to refer to the nati2es. ?ilipino m'th and fol,lore state that the first ?ilipinos &ere (ala,as and (aganda. <r. 1obert ?o@ disco2ered the Tabon (an !44,000 /.% considered as the ?irst ?ilipino.

Pre colonial Life and .ulture The /aha' =ubo !nipa hut% made of bamboo, &ood nipa palm, cogon and &hate2er nati2e materials found in the area. The =alingas and Igorots built their houses on tops. The badAaos !sea g'psies% at Sulu li2ed in boat6houses. The male ?ilipino &ore ,anggan ! short6slee2ed Aac,et% and bahag !s strip of clothe &rapped around the &aist and in bet&een the legs.% The ?ilipino &omen &ore baro or camisa !&ide slee2ed6Aac,et and sa'a patad'ong !s,irt or lo&er part. The social classes &ere nobles !gat or la,an%, free men and dependent !aliping namamaha' and aliping sagigilid% (aragtas code6 easiest e@ample of the &ritten la&. The political unit &as the baranga' &hich &as composed of )0 to 100 families. The baranga' &as a monarch' ruled b' a chieftain called <atu, Bari or 1aAa.

The chieftain had great po&ers3 chief e@ecuti2e and chief Audge &ith the counsel and ad2iser from 2illage elders.

Timeline of the Philippines 25,000 B.C. Ancient :egroid people immigrate to the Philippines o2er a land bridge. 5,000 B.C. to 3,000 B.C. The C:e& Stone AgeC. Sea faring Malays from &hat is toda' Indonesia come to the archipelago. 3,000 B.C. to 1,000 B.C. A second &a2e of (ala' immigrants arri2es in the Philippines b' sea. Each of their ships accommodated one small clan. Such a ship load of people &as called a barangay, a term &hich &as re2i2ed b' (arcos to describe an organi ed neighborhood of more than 1000 people. 1200 to 1300. (igrants from Borneo spread into the Southern Philippines. 1300 to 1400. The Bindu empire of Majapahit on Da2a gains influence o2er parts of the islands. 13 0. !sla" reaches the Southern Philippines 2ia /orneo. 1521, Mar 1#. A Spanish e@pedition, sailing across the Pacific 9cean from east to &est, and led b' the Portuguese $er%inan% Magellan !died Apr 47, 1541% lands on Bomonhon Island east of Samar &ith three small ships, named the .oncepcion, Trinidad and 8ictoria. (agellan calls the place San &a'aro Island since (arch 1* is Saint La arus da'. 1521, Mar 2 . <irecting his ships south&est&ard, (agellan reaches Limasa&a Island, south of Le'te. It is ruled b' (ajah )*la"bo, &ho becomes (agellanEs friend. 1521, Mar 2+. To seal the friendship bet&een (agellan and 1aAah =ulambo, the' solemni e a bloo% ,o"pa,t. This is the first recorded blood compact in Philippine histor'. 1521, Mar 31. The first "ass on Philippine soil is celebrated on Limasa&a. 1521, -pr .. After sailing to .ebu Island, (agellan enters a ne& blood compact &ith the local chieftain, (ajah H*"abon. 1521, -pr 2.. (agellan dies in a battle &ith &ap*/&ap*, chieftain of (actan, an island near .ebu. 152#. Spain sends a third e@pedition to the Philippines under the leadership of 0*an Cabot. 152+. Saa1e%ra2s e3pe%ition returns to Spain &ithout Saa2edra &ho died on the &a' home. 1543, $eb 2. The leader of the most successful Spanish e@pedition after (agellan, (*y &ope' %e 4illalobos !died Apr ", 15"*% arri2es in the archipelago. Be names the islands the Philippines in honor of the son of =ing .harles I, Philip II !155*615+#% of Spain. 8illalobos reaches Sarangani Island off the eastern coast of (indanao and settles there for # months. /ut because of the scarcit' of food, the e@pedition is forced to lea2e the place and sails to the (oluccas &here 8illalobos dies. 15#5, $eb 13. -ith four ships and )#0 men, Mig*el &ope' %e &egaspi arri2es in the Philippines. 15#5, May . The Island of .ebu is surrendered to Legaspi b' its ruler )ing 5*pas. Legaspi establishes the first permanent Spanish settlement on .ebu and becomes the first Spanish >o2ernor6>eneral. /' his order, trib*tes are collected from all ?ilipino males aged 1+ to *0.

15# . The Port*g*ese, under the command of >eneral >on alo de Pereira, attac, .ebu and bloc,ade its port. 15.0. The Portuguese again attac, the colon' and are repulsed. The series of attac,s stems from PortugalEs claim to the territor' based on the pro2ision of the 5reaty of 5or%esillas entered into b' Spain and Portugal on 0*ne ., 14.4, in &hich their respecti2e spheres of influence, trade and con$uest &ere defined. The Portuguese belie2e that the Philippines falls &ithin their sphere. 15.0, May. Legaspi sends an e@pedition under the leadership of (artin de >oiti to (anila. (anila is ruled b' (ajah S*li"an, &hose friendship is &on b' de >oiti. 15.1, May 1+. 1aAah Suliman &ages &ar against the Spaniards due to a mo2e b' de >oiti &hich he mista,es for an assault. <e >oitiEs arm' defeats SulimanEs troops and o,,*pies the to&n. 15.1, 0*n 24. Legaspi establishes his go2ernment in (anila and proclaims it the ,apital of the Philippines, calling it the Cdistinguished and e2er lo'al cit'C. 15.2, -*g 20. Legaspi dies and >uido de &a1e'ares !died 1575% succeeds him as go2ernor. La2e ares e@tends coloni ation to the /icol region. 15.4, 6o1 23. The .hinese pirate captain &i"ahong attac,s (anila but the Spaniards &in &ith the help of the ?ilipinos. 15.4, 7e, 2. &i"ahong again attac,s (anila, this time &ith 1,500 soldiers, but cannot con$uer the cit'. 15.4, 7e,. In Tondo !no& a district of (anila% &a8an%*la leads a short re2olt against the Spanish. 15 0. The Spanish =ing Philip II recei2es the throne of Port*gal upon the death of the Portuguese =ing Sebastian. This puts an end to the Portuguese harassment of the Philippine archipelago. 15 0. The Spaniards institute for,e% labor on all male nati2es aged 1* to *0. 15 3, -*g. A great fire in (anila &hich starts from the candles around the bier of go2ernor Penalosa. 15 +. The Spaniards establish the first school in the Philippines, the College of San !gna,io. 1#00. The 7*t,h attac, the archipelago in a tactical offensi2e during the European &ar bet&een Spain and the :etherlands. 1#00. >o2ernor Sebastian Burtado de .orcuera begins collecting the ban%ala from the nati2es. /andala is an annual $uota of products assigned to the nati2es for compulsor' sale to the go2ernment. 1#00. The 9alleon tra%e bet&een (anila and Acapulco, (e@ico begins. /ut (anila ser2es merel' as a transshipment port for the e@change of goods bet&een Spain and Me3i,o on the one side and China on the other. Sil2er from (e@ico is traded for an' ,ind of .hinese merchandise. /ecause of the >alleon tradeEs $uic, returns, Spain lac,s interest in de2eloping the Philippine econom' during the first 400 'ears of its occupation. 1#03. .hinese insurrection in (anila.

1#22. An earl' re2olt ta,es place in Bohol. It is headed b' 5a"blot, a baba'lan or priest of the nati2e religion. 1e2olts in Le'te, Samar and Pana' follo&, all protesting the collection of tributes. 1.44. 9ne of the most successful re2olts in Philippine histor' brea,s out, once more in Bohol, and pro2ides the island a ,ind of independence from the Spaniards for the follo&ing #5 'ears. The first leader of the re2olt is $ran,is,o 7agohoy. 1.54, May 15. (t Taal emits magma and destro's the to&ns of Lipa, Sala, Tanauan and Talisa'. 1.#2, Sep 22. In a side encounter of the European Se1en :ears ;ar, the /ritish attac, (anila &ith 1) 2essels and *,#)0 men under the command of >eneral -illiam <raper and Admiral Samuel .orning. The /ritish &in the battle and occup' the cit'. 1.#2, <,t 5. The /ritish ta,e control of the Philippines and 7arsonne 7ra8e becomes >o2ernor6 >eneral. The /ritish open the colon' to international trade and ultimatel' change its economic life. 1.#2, 7e, 14. A re2olt under the leadership of 7iego Silang !<ec 1*, 17)0 6 (a' 4#, 17*)% brea,s out in the Ilocos region. 1.#3, May 2 . The re2olt ends as <iego Silang is assassinate% b' his former friend (iguel 8iscos. 1.#3, $eb 10. The 5reaty of Paris bet&een England, Spain and ?rance is signed, ending the Se2en Fears -ar in Europe as &ell as the /ritish occupation of the Philippines. 1..4, 6o1 +. Parishes are se,*lari'e% b' order of =ing .harles III of Spain. :ati2es are also permitted to enter the .atholic priesthood. 1 0 , May. ?rench Emperor :apoleon /onaparte installs his brother 0oseph as =ing of Spain. ?rench6influenced liberals support the ,ing but the people do not. 1 0+, 0an 22. As an effect of the appointment of Doseph /onaparte as =ing of Spain, all Spanish colonies including the Philippines are made integral parts of Spain b' the Spanish .entral Dunta. ?ilipinos are gi2en the pri2ileges of Spanish citi enship as &ell as representation in the Spanish .ortes !parliament%. 1 12 Mar 1+. The Spanish .ortes promulgates the Ca%i' Constit*tion. It is a liberal constitution, 2esting so2ereignt' in the people, recogni ing the e$ualit' of all men and the indi2idual libert' of the citi en, and granting the right of suffrage, but pro2iding for a hereditar' monarch' and for .atholicism as the state religion. 1 12, Sep 24. The first Philippine %elegates to the Spanish .ortes, Pedro Pere de Tagle and Dose (anuel .oretto ta,e their oath of office in (adrid, Spain. 1 13 Mar 1.. Spain officiall' implements the .adi .onstitution in (anila. 1 13, <,t 1# to 1+. The Battle of the 6ations near Leip ig, >erman'G it ends &ith :apoleon and the ?rench defeated. 1 13, <,t. ?ollo&ing the ?rench defeat at Leip ig, the /ritish >eneral <u,e of -ellington dri2es the :apoleonic forces o*t of Spain. 1 14. ?erdinand 8II, son of .harles I8, is recogni ed as )ing of Spain.

1 15, 0*n 1 . :apoleon /onaparte is defeated in a battle &ith another multi6national arm' under -ellington at ;aterloo, /elgium. 1 15, <,t 15. /onaparte is e@iled to St. Helena2s !slan% in the Atlantic 9cean, off the coast of -est Africa. 1 1#, May 24. After the defeat of :apoleon in Europe and his brotherEs loss of the Spanish throne, ,onser1ati1e for,es again dominate Spanish politics. The Spanish .ortes reAects the .adi .onstitution &hich means, among other things, that Philippine representation in the .ortes is abolished. 1 20. .hanges in Philippine economic life, partiall' introduced b' the /ritish, lead to some internal prosperity. In agriculture, crops are relegated b' region so that toba,,o becomes the chief crop of the north, s*gar the main crop of the 8isa'as, and aba,a the mainsta' of the /icol region. The same 'ear, foreigners are massacred in /inondo. The' &ere under suspicion of poisoning Pasig ri2er and thus being responsible for a se2ere epidemic of cholera. 1 2 . An earth=*a8e lasting bet&een 4 to ) minutes damage a number of buildings and churches in (anila. 1 30. The Port of (anila is opened to the &orld mar,et. 1 35. The Cha"ber of Co""er,e is installed. ?rancisco 1odrigue establishes the first ?ilipino ban,. 1 4 . >lo&ing a2alanche from (t Bibo,6Bibo, on .amiguin island 1 52, 7e, 4 to #. >lo&ing a2alanche from (t Bibo,6Bibo,. 1 #3. The e%*,ational syste" in the archipelago is reformed, allo&ing the nati2es higher le2els of training. -ealthier nati2e families start sending their children to stud' in Spain. 1 #3, 0*n 3. At 1+300, a terrific earth=*a8e sha,es (anila and ruins most buildings in the cit', including the cathedral. 9f maAor structures, onl' the San -g*stin church remains standing. 1 #+, 6o1 1.. The S*e' Canal is opened, establishing a regular steamship ser2ice bet&een the Philippines and Europe. This allo&s not onl' the influ@ of more goods into the colon' but also of ne& ideas. 1 .2, $eb 1.. Three "artyr priests are publicl' garroted as alleged leaders of the Ca1ite Conspira,y, a mo2ement for seculari ation and nationalism, &hich is distasteful to the Spanish friars. The' are 0ose B*rgos !born ?eb +, 1#)7%, Mariano 9o"e' !born Aug 4, 17++% and 0a,into >a"ora !born Aug 1", 1#)5%. The incident gi2es the ?ilipinos an impetus to unite and to de2elop national consciousness. It also gi2es birth to a reform mo2ement among ?ilipinos in Spain, ,no&n as the Propagan%a Mo1e"ent. 1 0. (anila is connected through telegraphic cable to the ;estern ?orl% b' @astern 5ele,o". 1 0, 0*l 1 A 20. T&o shoc,s of an earth=*a8e create destruction from (anila to Santa .ru , Laguna. Tremors continue until Aug *. 1 2, Mar 3. A talented offspring of the nati2e elite, 0ose Prota,io (i'al Mer,a%o y -lonso (ealon%a !Dun 1+, 1#*1 6 <ec )0, 1#+*% lea2es (anila for /arcelona to continue his studies in medicine.

1 2, 0*n 2. In (adrid, 1i al begins &riting 6oli "e tangere, a political no2el set in the Philippines. 1 4. E@action of tribute from all male nati2es is ended and the re$uired forced labor of "0 da's a 'ear is reduced to 15 da's. 1 4, 0*n 21. 1i al finishes his medical studies in Spain. 1 ., May 2+. 6oli "e tangere is published in (adrid and /arcelona. 1 ., <,t. 1i al begins &riting the no2el @l $ilib*steris"o, a continuation of :oli me tangere. 1 , 7e, 13. ?ilipinos in /arcelona establish the organi ation &a Soli%ari%a%. It demands for the Philippines freedom of press, speech and assembl', e$ualit' before the la&, participation in go2ernmental affairs, social and political freedom and representation in the Spanish .ortes. The demands are published and circulated in /arcelona for the purpose of reaching the Spanish =ingEs ear. Among the members are3 Dose 1i al, Lope Daena !<ec 1#, 1#5* 6 Dan 40, 1#+7%, (arcelo del Pilar !Aug )0, 1#50 6 <ec ), 1+40%, Antonio Luna !9ct 4+, 1#** 6 Dun 5, 1#++% and (ariano Ponce !(ar 4), 1#*) 6 (a' 4), 1+1#%. 1 +1, Mar 2 . 1i al finishes &riting El $ilib*steris"o in /iarrit , ?rance. 1 +2, 0*n 2#. 1i al arri2es in the Philippines 2ia Bong =ong. 1 +2, 0*l 3. In Ila'a St, Tondo, 1i al founds &a &iga $ilipina to gi2e the people a chance for direct in2ol2ement in the reform mo2ement. -n%res Bonifa,io !:o2 )0, 1#*) 6 (a' 10, 1#+7% is one of 1i alEs partners. 1 +2, 0*l .. The Spanish authorities arrest 1i al for organi ing La Liga ?ilipina. 1 +2, 0*l 1.. 1i al is e@iled to <apitan, (indanao. 1 +4, 0*l . Andres /onifacio forms the )atip*nan. Its members come from the lo&er and the middle class. The organi ation &ants to a&a,en nationalism and free the ?ilipino people from Spanish oppression and friar despotism. The organi ation belie2es that reforms can onl' be obtained b' means of a re2olution. 1 +#, 0*l 1. 1i al recei2es a telegram from >o2ernor 1amon /lanco re$uiring his ser2ices as a ph'sician for the Spanish arm' in C*ba. 1 +#, -*g #. 1i al returns to (anila. 1 +#, -*g 1+. Spanish authorities disco2er the =atipunan &hen one of its members, Teodoro Paterno, betra's the organi ation to an Agustinian priest, ?r. (ariano >il. All those implicated are ordered arrested but man' =atipuneros e2ade arrest and flee to the hills of /alinta&a,. 1 +#, -*g 23. A re2olution is proclaimed b' /onifacio. The e2ent is mar,ed in histor' as the Cry of Balinta?a8. In this instance, ?ilipinos tear up their cedulas !I.<. cards% issued b' the Spanish go2ernment and thereb' mar, the beginning of the uprising against the Spaniards. 1 +#, -*g 2#. 1i al goes to .a2ite &here he boards a ship for /arcelona. In the follo&ing night, Andres /onifacio, Emilio Dacinto and other =atipuneros are able to surreptitiousl' board 1i alEs ship. The' offer to rescue him from the Spaniards, but (i'al ref*ses.

1 +#, -*g 30. After the spread of the =atipunan re2olt throughout The .ountr' the first real battle for Philippine independence ta,es place at San 0*an %el Monte. The Spanish >o2ernor 1amon /lanco proclaims a state of ?ar in the # pro2inces that too, up arms. The pro2inces are (anila, Laguna, .a2ite, /atangas, Pampanga, /ulacan, Tarlac and :ue2a EciAa. 1 +#, Sep 2. Aboard the ship !sla %e Panay, 1i al lea2es .a2ite for /arcelona. 1 +#, <,t 3. 1i al arri2es in /arcelona. 1 +#, <,t 4. /' order of .apt. >en. <espuAol, 1i al is incarcerated in (ontAuich. 1 +#, <,t #. 9n orders from (adrid, 1i al is sent bac, to (anila as a prisoner. 1 +#, <,t 31. A ne& group of the =atipunan is formed in .a2iteG it discards the leadership of Andres /onifacio and is headed b' @"ilio -g*inal%o !(ar 44, 1#*+ 6 ?eb *, 1+*"%. 1 +#, 6o1 13. 1i al arri2es in (anila and is immediatel' i"prisone% at ?ort Santiago. 1 +#, 6o1 20. 1i al is interrogated the first time on charges of parta,ing in an uprising against the Spanish go2ernment. 1 +#, 7e, 20. 1i al is senten,e% to %eath b' a Spanish court martial, and >o2ernor .amilo Pola2ieAa orders his e@ecution. 1 +#, 7e, 30. The Spaniards e3e,*te Dose 1i al in Bag*"bayan !toda'Es 1i al Par,%. 1 +., Mar 22. The =atipunan holds its ele,tion. Aguinaldo is elected as president &hile /onifacio is elected onl' as director of &ar. /onifacio is insulted b' the election results and refuses to recogni e the ne& leadership. 1 +., -pr 2+. =atipuneros arrest Andres /onifacio and his brothers Procopio and .iriaco on orders of Aguinaldo, &ho considers the former a threat. The /onifacios are charged &ith se%ition and treason before a militar' court of the =atipunan. 1 +., May . The =atipunan court finds the /onifacios guilt'. The' are senten,e% to %eath. 1 +., May 10. Andres /onifacio and his brothers are e3e,*te% at (t. /untis, (aragondon, .a2ite. 1 +., May 31. Aguinaldo establishes a Philippine republican go2ernment in Bia8/na/Bato, San (iguel, /ulacan. 1 +., -*g 10. Aguinaldo begins negotiating &ith the Spaniards, represented b' Pedro Paterno. 1 +., -*g 15. An earth=*a8e at estimated intensit' of 7.+ centered on Lu onEs north&est coast sha,es /atanes and northern Lu on. 1 +., 6o1 1. The Constit*tion of Bia8/na/Bato is signed. It &as prepared and &ritten b' Isabelo Artache and ?eli@ ?errer. The go2ernment of the /ia,6na6/ato 1epublic has the follo&ing officers3 @"ilio -g*inal%o, Presi%entG (ariano Trias, 8ice PresidentG Isabelo Artache, Secretar' of InteriorG Antonio (ontenegro, Secretar' of ?oreign AffairsG /aldomero Aguinaldo, Secretar' of Treasur' and Emiliano 1iego de Desus, Secretar' of -ar. The /ia,6na6/ato 1epublic fails as its

leader, Aguinaldo, resigns to the fact that the ?ilipinos are not 'et read' to confront the Spanish forces. This belief also dri2es him to negotiate &ith the Spaniards for the Pact of /ia,6na6/ato. 1 +., 7e, 14. The Pa,t of Bia8/na/Bato bet&een the Spanish and Aguinaldo is signed. In this pact, Aguinaldo agrees to surrender all arms and to go &ith his companions into e@ile in Bong =ong upon pa'ment of #00,000 pesos and an additional +00,000 pesos for the non6combatants &ho suffered losses because of the &ar. 1 +., 7e, 2.. Aguinaldo and his companions lea2e for Bong =ong &here the' li2e on the interest from their mone'. 1 + , $eb . The =atipunan is re2i2ed b' @"ilio 0a,into !<ec 15, 1#75 6 Apr 1*, 1#++% and ?eliciano Docson. 1 + , -pr 24. The HS go2ernment as,s Aguinaldo for ,ooperation in its anti6Spanish politics, and offers in e@change the promise of BS s*pport for the ?ilipinos in their struggle for independence. Aguinaldo agrees. 1 + , -pr 2#. The HS declares &ar on Spain. 1 + , May 1. The HS :a2', &ith hea2il' armed ships under the command of Co""o%ore 9eorge 7e?ey, attac, (anila. 1 + , May 1+. Aguinaldo and his companions return to the Philippines. 1 + , May 24. Aguinaldo proclaims a %i,tatorial go1ern"ent and issues t&o decrees &hich sho& his trust and reliance in HS protection. 1 + , 0*n 12. The Philippines is proclaimed in%epen%ent from Spain in =a&it, .a2ite. ?or the first time, the Philippine flag is officiall' raised and the Philippine :ational Anthem is publicl' pla'ed. The proclamation places the HS in the special position of protector of Philippine independence. 1 + , 0*n 23. Through the ad2ice of Apolinario (abini !Dul 4), 1#*" 6 (a' 1), 1+0)%, a paral'tic but ne2ertheless the Cbrains of the =atipunanC, the Philippine dictatorial go2ernment is changed to a re2olutionar' go2ernment, and in (alolos, /ulacan the Malolos (ep*bli, is institutionali ed. The (alolos republican go2ernment is geared to fight for Philippine independence until it is recogni ed b' the free nations of the &orld. 1 + , 0*l 15. Aguinaldo appoints a ,abinet &ith the follo&ing secretaries3 /aldomero Aguinaldo, Secretar' of -ar and Public -or,sG Leandro Ibarra, Secretar' of InteriorG (ariano Trias, Secretar' of ?inance. 1 + , 0*l 15. Aguinaldo greets the Malolos Congress &ith 1)* members. *0 of them are appointed b' Aguinaldo &hile the rest are chosen b' representati2es of the pro2inces. 1 + , 0*l 1.. HS reinforcements and troops arri2e in the Philippines. The' number 7"0 officers and 10,+*" men and are commanded b' 9eneral ;esley @. Meritt !died 1+10%. HS treatment of ?ilipinos changes, as the HS no longer needs the assistance of the nati2es in their &ar &ith Spain. 1 + , -*g 14. The Spanish in (anila surrender to the HS after a pre6arranged "o,8 battle. A HS militar' go2ernment is established b' >eneral (eritt. 1 + , Sep 15. The Malolos Congress meets and elects its officers. The' are3 Pedro Paterno !?eb 47, 1#5# 6 (ar 11, 1+11%, PresidentG /enito Legarda, 8ice PresidentG >regorio Araneta and Pablo 9campo !Dan 45, 1#50 6 ?eb 5, 1+45%, Secretaries.

1 + , 7e, 10. In the 5reaty of Paris bet&een the HS and Spain, the latter sells the Philippines to the HS for 40 million dollars. 1 + , 7e, 21. HS President (c=inle' issues the Bene1olent -ssi"ilation Pro,la"ation to e@tend the so2ereignt' of the HS o2er the entire Philippines, e2en b' force, if necessar'. 1 ++, 0an 20. In the HS, President (c=inle' appoints the $irst Philippine Co""ission, ,no&n as the Schurrman .ommission, composed of Dacob Schurrman, >eorge <e&e', El&ell 9tis, <ean -orcester and -esle' (eritt. 1 ++, 0an 21. The Malolos Constit*tion is promulgated b' Aguinaldo. It pro2ides for a republican form of go2ernment &ith the legislature as the supreme branch. The constitution is designed after the constitutions of ?rance, /elgium, and se2eral South American 1epublics. It &as drafted b' ?elipe .alderon !Apr ", 1#*# 6 Dul *, 1+0#%. 1 ++, 0an 23. The (alolos republic go2ernment is ina*g*rate%. Aguinaldo ta,es his oath of office as President. 1 ++, $eb 4. Bostilities brea, out bet&een the ?ilipinos and the HS. 1 ++, $eb #. The HS Senate ratifies the 5reaty of Paris &ith Spain and gi2es the HS militar' a free hand to subdue the Philippines. 1 ++, Mar 4. The Schurrman .ommission arri2es in (anila. It proclaims the s*pre"a,y of the BS o2er the entire archipelago, but promises full autonom'. 1 ++, May #. Aguinaldo appoints a ne& cabinet &hich gi2es the HS go2ernment confidence in securing a pea,ef*l agree"ent &ith the ?ilipinos. Among the members are3 Pedro A. Paterno, PremierG ?elipe /uencamino, Secretar' of ?oreign AffairsG Se2erino delas Alas, Secretar' of InteriorG (ariano Trias, Secretar' of -arG Bugo Ilagan, Secretar' of ?inanceG Aguedo 8elarde, Secretar' of Public InstructionG (a@imo Paterno, Secretar' of Public -or,s and .ommunicationsG Leon (a. >uerrero, Secretar' of Agriculture, Industr' and .ommerce. 1 ++, May 20. AguinaldoEs mo2es face opposition from Apolinario (abini and Antonio Luna. Antonio Luna, !9ct 4+, 1#** 6 Dun 5, 1#++% is the ablest ?ilipino general. 1 ++, 0*n 5. Antonio Luna dies, shot b' members of the =a&it .ompan', composed of AguinaldoEs men. 1 ++, <,t 12. The HS mounts a full scale offensi1e against the ?ilipinos. Aguinaldo goes into hiding. 1+00, 0an 31. The Schurrman .ommission returns to the HS. 1+00, Mar 1#. HS President (c=inle' appoints the second Philippine .ommission, ,no&n as the 5aft Co""ission. It is composed of Dudge -illiam Taft as president, Lu,e -right, Benr' Ide, /ernard (orris and <ean -orcester. 1+00, 0*n 3. The Taft .ommission arri2es in (anila. 1+00, 7e, 23. A ?ilipino organi ation, the Parti%o &iberal, is established &ith the aim of ha2ing the Philippines Aoin the Hnited States.

1+01, Mar 2. The Arm' Appropriation Act, also ,no&n as the Spooner -"en%"ent, is passed b' the HS Senate. It pro2ides that the HS President go2erns the Philippines b' the authorit' of .ongress and not as .ommander6in6.hief of the Armed ?orces, thereb' formall' ending the HS militar' regime in the archipelago. 1+01, Mar 23. Aguinaldo is captured b' HS authorities. 1+01, -pr 1. Aguinaldo ta,es an oath of allegian,e to the HS. 1+01, -pr 1+. Aguinaldo issues a proclamation of his belief that freedom can be obtained through the "agnani"ity of the HS. 1+01, 0*l 4. A ci2il go2ernment is established in the Philippines, &ith ;illia" Ho?ar% 5aft !Sep 15, 1#57 6 (ar #, 1+)0% as the first HS >o2ernor6>eneral. 1+01, 0*l 1 . The HS organi es the Philippine Constab*lary, a nati2e adAunct of the occupation arm'. 1+01, -*g 11. 7" .uba &ar 2eterans are sent to Balangiga, at the south end of Samar, under the command of .aptain Thomas .onnel, presumabl' to protect the nati2es from the insurgents and (oro pirates. 1+01, Sep. The first ?ilipino members of the second Philippine Co""ission are appointed, namel'3 Trinidad Pardo de Ta2era, /enito Legarda and Dose Lu urriaga. 1+01, Sep 2.. >uerillas, headed b' the ?ilipino Captain 7a'a, attac, the HS militar' barrac,s in /alangiga, Samar, b' surprise, ,illing almost half of the HS soldiers. 1+01, Sep 2 . /rigadier >en. Smith, .ommander of Samar, after being informed of the massacre of the soldiers, organi es a special unit of 300 Marines to be sent to /alangiga under the command of .aptain Littleton -allen. 1+01, <,t 23. The special unit of (arines arri2es in Balangiga. The' immediatel' e@ecute the orders of /rig. >en. Smith to suppress insurrection. Among the orders is to ,ill all nati2es o2er 10 'ears old &hich are capable of carr'ing &eapons. 1+01, 6o1 4. The Philippine .ommission enacts the Se%ition &a? &hich imposes the death penalt' or long imprisonment on an'one &ho ad2ocates independence or separation from the HS. 1+01, 7e, 14. An earth$ua,e estimated of magnitude 7.# sha,es Lucena .it'. 1+01. 8arious resistance groups under different leaders are organi ed in the entire countr'. 1+02, 0an. The first labor union of The .ountr' , Bnion %e &itografose !"presores %e $ilipinas, is organi ed. The Hnion del TrabaAo de ?ilipinas, and the .ongreso 9brero de ?ilipinas follo&. 1+02. The Cooper -,t, other&ise ,no&n as the Philippine /ill of 1+04, is passed b' a HS Senate committee, establishing the Philippine -sse"bly as the lo&er chamber of a bicameral legislature. The Philippine Co""ission ma,es up the upper house. The .ooper Act also pro2ides for a bill of rights. 1+02, Mar 30. The HS (arines lea2e /alangiga. <uring their 5 month sta' in the region the (arines are on record to ha2e ,illed ten tho*san% nati1es in re2enge for the earlier surprise

attac, b' the ?ilipinos. The HS Arm' also conducted armed missions in .andaba and (acabebe in central Lu on. 1+03. >o2ernor Taft enunciates the polic' of 5he Philippines for the $ilipinos. This polic' promises to put the administration of the Philippines into the hands of ?ilipinos. 1+04, $eb 1. >o2ernor6>eneral Taft is succeeded b' &*8e ;right. Taft &ill ser2e as the 47th HS President from 1+0+ to 1+1). 1+0#, -pr 2. >o2ernor6>eneral -right is replaced b' Henry !%e. 1+0#, Sep 20. 0a"es S"ith ta,es o2er the position of >o2ernor6>eneral Benr' Ide. 1+0., 0*n 30. The first ,ongressional ele,tion is held. There are #0 ne& assembl'men elected b' 1".1I of the 10",+** registered 2oters. 5+ are :acionalistas, 1* are Progresistas and the rest come from smaller parties. 1+0+, 6o1 11. >o2ernor6>eneral Smith steps do&n. Ca"eron $orbes becomes >o2ernor6 >eneral. 1+11, 0an 2.. (t Taal erupts, de2astating 8olcano Island and ,illing 1,))" persons 1+13, <,t #. >o2ernor >eneral ?orbes is replaced b' $ran,is B*rton Harrison. 1+1#, <,t 1#. The 0ones &a?, sponsored b' HS .ongressman -illiam At,inson Dones, is enacted. It promises independence upon the establishment of a stable go2ernment. 1+1#, <,t 1#. Man*el C*e'on !Aug 1+, 1#+# 6 Aug 1, 1+"1% is elected President of the Senate and Sergio <s"ena !Sep +, 1#+# 6 9ct 1+, 1+*1% Spea,er of the Bouse of 1epresentati2es. There are 4" members of the Senate, 44 of &hom are elected b' districts &hile 4 are appointed. 1+1., 0an 11. The first ,abinet of $ilipinos under the HS regime is organi ed. It is composed of 1afael Palma !9ct 4", 1#7" 6 (a' 4", 1+)+%, Secretar' of InteriorG Alberto /arreto, !9ct 41, 1#*7 6 <ec 7, 1+51% Secretar' of ?inanceG <ionisio Da,osalem, Secretar' of .ommerce and .ommunicationG 8ictorino (apa, Secretar' of DusticeG >alicano Apacible !Dun 45, 1#*" 6 (ar 44, 1+"+%, Secretar' of Agriculture and :atural 1esourcesG and .harles Feaster, Secretar' of Information. 1+21, <,t 5. >o2ernor6>eneral Barrison is replaced b' ;arren ;oo%s. 1+25. 1ural and urban stri8es begin among the discontented peasants and &or,ers of the agricultural and industrial sectors. The' continue until 1+)+. 1+2.. Henry Sti"son becomes the ne& >o2ernor6>eneral of the Philippines. 1+30, 6o1 30. The Co""*nist Party of the Philippines is formall' established under the leadership of .risanto E2angelista and Dacinto (anahan. 1+32. >o2ernor6>eneral Stimson is replaced b' 5heo%ore (oose1elt, 0r. 1+32, <,t 2#. The .ommunist Part' of the Philippines is declared illegal b' the Supreme .ourt. 1+33, 0*n 15. The last HS >o2ernor6>eneral of the Philippines, $ran8 M*rphy, begins his term of office.

1+34, Mar 24. The T'dings6(c<uffie La&, ,no&n as the Philippine !n%epen%en,e &a?, is appro2ed b' HS President 1oose2elt. It pro2ides for a ten 'ear transition period of the .ommon&ealth of the Philippines under a constitution to be drafted b' a .onstitutional .on2ention, the members of &hich are to be elected b' the people. 1+34, 0*l 10. Election b' the ?ilipino people of the 404 delegates to the Constit*tional Con1ention is held in fulfillment of the T'dings6(c<uffie La&. 1+34, 0*l 30. The Philippine Constit*tional Con1ention is inaugurated. The officers are3 .laro (. 1ecto !?eb #, 1#+0 6 9ct 4, 1+*0%, PresidentG 1uperto (anansala and Teodorico Sandico, 8ice PresidentsG :arciso Pimentel, Secretar'G and Dose <io,no, Sergeant6at6arms. 1+35, $eb . (embers of the .onstitutional .on2ention appro2e the .onstitution b' a 2ote of 177 to 1. 1+35, $eb . (embers of the .onstitutional .on2ention appro2e the .onstitution b' a 2ote of 177 to 1. 1+35, $eb 15. The Philippine .onstitution is signed. 1+35, Mar 23. HS President ?ran,lin 1oose2elt appro2es the .onstitution. 1+35, May 14. The Philippine electorate ratifies the .onstitution in a referendum. 1+35, Sep 1.. The Philippines holds its first presidential election. Man*el C*e'on is elected President, and Sergio <s"ena 8ice6President for a term of * 'ears. The other presidential and 2ice6presidential candidates &ere Emilio Aguinaldo and 1a'mundo (ille aG >regorio Aglipa' and :orberto :abongG and Pascual 1acu'al. 1+35, 6o1 15. The Philippine .ommon&ealth is ina*g*rate% &ith (anuel Jue on as the first President and Sergio 9smena as the first 8ice6President. At this Auncture, the office of the HS >o2ernor6>eneral is abolishe%. 1+35. Stri,es and protests, &hich reAect the .onstitution and fa2or the establishment of a So1iet for" of go1ern"ent, accelerate until 1+"0. 1+41, 6o1 11. The Philippines holds its 4nd presidential election under the .ommon&ealth go2ernment. C*e'on and <s"ena are re6elected. 9ther presidential candidates &ere3 Duan Sumulong, Pedro Abad Santos and Bilario (oncado. 1+41, 7e, . Immediatel' after the bombing of Pearl Barbor, Dapanese fighter planes attac, the Philippines as an all' of the HS, shoc,ing the unprepared HS and ?ilipino troops. 7o*glas Ma,-rth*r, the .ommander of the HS Armed ?orces in the ?ar East, decides to retreat to the /ataan peninsula. 1+41, 7e, 20. President Jue on, his famil' and the &ar cabinet mo2e to Corregi%or !slan%. 1+41, 7e, 2#. HS troops lea2e the capital. >eneral (acArthur declares (anila an open ,ity, 2irtuall' surrendering it to the Dapanese. 1+41, 7e, 2 . ?ilipino and HS armies retreat to Bataan. 1+41, 7e, 30. President Jue on and 8ice6President 9smena ta,e their oath of office inside the Corregi%or 5*nnel.

1+42, 0an 2. Dapanese forces enter (anila. 1+42, 0an 3. The Dapanese .ommander in .hief, >eneral Masahar* Ho""a, proclaims the end to HS occupation of the Philippines. Be declares that the Dapanese Imperial forces came to the Philippines to emancipate the ?ilipinos from the oppressi2e domination of the HS and to promote the &ell6being of the people under their militar' administration. Be also imposes martial la&. 1+42, 0an 13. A la& is enacted pro2iding for the %eath penalty for acts ranging from sedition to rumor mongering, from destruction of militar' propert' to pollution of drin,ing &ater, from robber' and looting to concealing clothing to a2oid confiscation b' the militar'. 1+42, 0an 23. An e@ecuti2e committee, composed of ?ilipinos, is formed as a conduit of the militar' administrationEs policies and re$uirements. 0orge 4argas, the ma'or of >reater (anila, is appointed chairman and assigns his colleagues to 2arious departments, e.g. /enigno S. A$uino Sr, InteriorG Dose P. Laurel !(ar +, 1#+1 6 :o2 *, 1+5+%, DusticeG Antonio delas Alas, ?inanceG 1afael Alunan !<ec 1*, 1##5 6 (a' 1#, 1+"7%, Agriculture and .ommerceG .laro (. 1ecto, Education, Bealth and Public -elfareG Juintin Paredes, Public -or,s and .ommunications. 1+42, $eb 1.. The Dapanese issue an order adopting the 0apanese e%*,ational syste" in The .ountr' , eradicating the one established before b' the HS and the Spanish. The ne& educational s'stem deals &ith the propagation of ?ilipino culture, the teaching of :ipongo, diffusion of 2ocational and elementar' education, and promotion of lo2e for labor. 1+42, $eb 20. President Jue on and the &ar cabinet lea2e for the States. 1+42, Mar 11. >eneral (acArthur lea2es for Australia to ta,e command of the South -estern Pacific Area. 1+42, Mar 13. The .ommon&ealth go2ernment is mo2ed to the HS. 1+42, Mar 2+. The PeopleEs -nti/0apanese -r"y or Bu,bong /a'an Laban sa Bapon !Bu,balahap% is organi ed. Luis Taruc is its chairman. It is composed of peasants and &or,ers from 2arious pro2inces of central Lu on li,e Pampanga, /ulacan and :ue2a EciAa. Its goal is independence. It is also the onl' guerilla unit that &ill not accept directi2es from Ma,-rth*r on the conduct of resistance. In the 2ie& of (acArthur, the Bu,balahap is a semi6political, semi6bandit organi ation &hich plans to establish a communist go2ernment in the Philippines. 1+42, -pr. A pro/BS resistan,e "o1e"ent is organi ed, mainl' to pro2ide data to the HS on enem' positions. The most important organi ers are3 (arcelo Adurru, 1o$ue Ablan !Aug +, 1+0* 6 Dan )1, 1+")%, AleAo Santos, Loren o Tanada, -enceslao 8in on !Sep 4#, 1+10 6 1+"4%, (acario Peralta, Tomas .onfessor and -endell ?ertig. 1+42, -pr +. /ataan, under HS commander >eneral Ed&ard =ing, is the last pro2ince that surrenders to the Dapanese armies. The infamous 7eath Mar,h follo&s, the painful tre, of )*,000 HS and ?ilipino soldiers and guerillas &ithout food and &ater. Prisoners of &ar are ba'onetted or brutall' beaten to death b' their guards. Those &ho reach San ?ernando, Pampanga, are ta,en to a concentration camp at .apa , Tarlac. 1+42, May #. Corregi%or surrenders to the Dapanese and 14,000 ?ilipino and HS soldiers are ta,en prisoners of &ar. 1+42, 0*n 14. The .ommon&ealth of the Philippines becomes a member of the Bnite% 6ations. 1+42, 7e, 30. The )alibapi is organi ed. It is an organi ation sponsored b' the Dapanese &hich functions as an instrument for control and indoctrination. It dissol2es the e@isting political parties

and ci2ic organi ations. Benigno -=*ino, Sr. is designated <irector6>eneral of the =alibapi. There is also the Dunior =alibapi, ta,ing in 'oung ?ilipinos bet&een the ages of 7 and 1#. 1+43, 0*n 20. Dapanese Premier Bide,i ToAo nominates an all ?ilipino 40 member Preparatory Co""ission for Philippine Independence. 1+43, Sep 4. The .ommission drafts a ne& Constit*tion &hich pro2ides for a unicameral national assembl'. 1+43, Sep 20. The 10# delegates to the 6ational -sse"bly are chosen b' the members of the Preparator' .ommission for Philippine Independence. 1+43, Sep 15. The members of the :ational Assembl' elect Dose P. Laurel as the Presi%ent of the Philippines. 1+43, <,t 14. The puppet go2ernment is inaugurated. Laurel ta,es his oath of office and as,s the HS to recogni e the Din%epen%en,eD of the Philippines. 1+43, 6o1. The Philippine econom' collapses, the shortage of rice becomes serious. 1+44, May. The puppet go2ernment inaugurates the 9reen (e1ol*tion Mo1e"ent. It re$uires e2er'one aged 1* to *0 to plant on all a2ailable land to counter the threat of star2ation. 1+44, -*g 1. Sergio <s"ena succeeds in the presidenc' because of (anuel Jue onEs death at Sarana, La,e due to tuberculosis. 1+44, Sep 21. The HS raid (anila. The suppl' of food to the inhabitants &orsens. This mo2e b' the HS prompts the Dapanese to press Laurel to %e,lare ?ar against the HS. 1+44, <,t 20. >eneral (acArthur lands in Palo, &eyte, accompanied b' President Sergio 9smena and HS troops. 1+44, <,t 23. The .ommon&ealth go2ernment of the Philippines is re6established in 5a,loban, &eyte &hich is declared the temporar' capital of the Philippines pending liberation of the &hole countr'. 1+44, 7e, . The pro6Dapanese Philippine generals Pio <uran and /enigno 1amos organi e the Ma8apilis. This is a Philippine arm' &hich fights for the Dapanese in a number of encounters. 1+45, $eb 4. HS troops enter (anila and the Dapanese, in an orgy of bloo%, massacre thousands of ?ilipinos. 1+45, $eb 22. Luis Taruc, .ato AleAandrino and other Bu, leaders are arrested b' the HS .ounter Intelligence .orps and Aailed in San ?ernando, Pampanga for being communists. 1+45, $eb 24. The /attle of (anila ends. The Dapanese surrender to the HS. 1+45, $eb 2.. (acArthur hands o2er (alacanang Palace to 9smena. 1+45, Mar 22. The families of pro6Dapanese President &a*rel and Spea,er -=*ino lea2e The .ountr' for Dapan to see, refuge. 1+45, 0*n 5. The .ongress elected in 1+"1 con2enes for the first time. Man*el (o3as !Dan 1, 1#+4 6 Apr 15, 1+"#% is chosen Senate PresidentG Elpidio Juirino !:o2 1*, 1#+0 6 ?eb 4#, 1+5*%,

Senate President pro6temporeG Dose Dulueta, Spea,er of the Bouse of 1epresentati2esG and Prospero Singson, Spea,er pro6tempore of the Bouse of 1epresentati2es. 1+45, 0*l 5. >eneral (acArthur announces the liberation of the Philippines. 1+45, -*g #. The Americans drop an atomic bomb o2er Hiroshi"a, Dapan. 1+45, -*g +. The Americans drop an atomic bomb o2er 6agasa8i, Dapan. 1+45, -*g 15. Dapan accepts defeat. 1+45, Sep 12. President Laurel is arrested b' the HS arm' and first confined in S*ga"o prison, located in the outs,irts of To,'oG later he is sent bac, to the Philippines. 9ther collaborators are shipped to the I&ahig penal colon' in Pala&an for Audgment. 1+45, 7e,. Man*el (o3as separates from the :acionalista Part' of Sergio 9smena Sr and Aoins the Liberal Part'. 1+4#, -pr 20. The last presidential election under the Co""on?ealth is heldG (o3as &ins o2er 9smena b' appro@imatel' 400,000 2otes. 1o@asE running mate, Elpidio Juirino, is elected 8ice6 President. 1+*5 6 ?erdinand E. (arcos is elected b' a big maAorit' as president. 1+74 6 (artial La& &as declared b' President (arcos. 1+#1 6 (arcos lifts (artial La&. 1+#) 6 9pposition leader /enigno C:ino'C A$uino returns from e@ile and is assassinated on arri2al at (anila International AirportG A$uinoEs &ido& .ora on leads the CPeople Po&erC protest mo2ement. 1+#* 6 (arcos &as declared &inner in a presidential election beating .ora on A$uino amid charges of fraudG demonstrations eruptG (arcos flees to Ba&aiiG A$uino is declared president and forms a ne& go2ernment. 1++4 6 Endorsed b' A$uino, her Secretar' of <efense >en. ?idel 1amos &ins presidential election. H.S. Philippine congress reAects a ne& treat' &ith the H.S. and Subic /a' na2al base and .lar, Air ?ield returns to Philippine go2ernment, ending American militar' presence in the Philippines. 1++* 6 The go2ernment of 1amos agrees to greater autonom' for southern island of (indanao. (oro :ational Liberation ?ront !(:L?% ends the guerrilla &ar &ith the go2ernment. 1++7 6 Asian financial crisis grips Asia and the Philippines escapes the crisis despite series of currenc' de2aluations. 1++# 6 ?ormer mo2ie actor Doseph Estrada is elected president. 4000 6 9n charges of corruption, the lo&er house impeach Estrada. 4001 6 Estrada &as forced to step do&n due to public outrage o2er corruption allegations. 8ice President >loria (acapagal6Arro'o assumes the presidenc'. 400" 6 Presidential election ta,es place. Arro'oEs closest ri2al !a dear friend of E@6President Estrada% is film actor ?ernando Poe, Dr. Arro'o narro&l' defeats Poe, ta,ing )+.5I of the 2ote to PoeEs )*.*I. 4005 6 A taped con2ersation bet&een President Arro'o K an election official surfaced during the 400" elections impl'ing she influenced the official election results. .alls for her resignation and demonstrations follo&ed soon after. In September 4005, .ongress 2oted do&n the filing of an impeachment against Arro'o. 4007 6 ?ormer President Doseph Estrada is con2icted of plunder, the first e2er in the histor' of the Philippines. 4010 6 ?irst automated national elections in the Philippines.

4010 6 /enigno C:o'no'C Simeon .oAuangco A$uino III &ins the Presidential elections and s&orn in at (anilaEs 1i al Par, on Dune )0, 4010.

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