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Qayyum Khan

Email: qayyum.khan@galfar.com
Galfar Engineering & Contracting SAOG, Lead Process Engineer Tel.: +968 24525424 GSM-95942025 Fax: +968 24525385

Always remember: "Do not draw conclusions until you know all the facts''

HotIn ColdOut

HotOut ColdIn

HotIn ColdOut

HotOut ColdIn

Pr.1bar Temp15C

Pr.60barTemp 201C

Pr.1bar Temp15C

Pr.60barTemp 50C

The two fluids flow right angle to each other .

Parameters Mass flow rate Inlet temperature Outlet temperature Inlet enthalpy Outlet enthalpy Average specific heat Heat flow rate

Hotfluid M T1 T2 H1 H2 C Q

Coldfluid m t1 t2 h1 h2 c Q

SIunits Kg/s C or K C or K J/Kg J/Kg J/Kg K W

T1 Hot In

T2 Hot Out

.t2 Cold Out

.t1 Cold In

Streams Locations A B Tube to- baffle Main (cross flow)

Typical values <20% Min. 60% for turbulent flow & 40% for laminar flow <10% <15% 15% <10%

Comments

Should be maximum

C E F

Bundle to shell B ffl Baffle-to-Shell Sh ll Pass partition

Add sealing strips Use double U d bl segmental baffles Use seal rods

pt =tubep pitch, d0 =tubeoutsidediameter, Ds=shellinsidediameter,m, IB=bafflespacing,m. As=crossflowarea

Gs=Ws/As Us=Gs/ Kg/m3 =shellsidefluiddensityKg/m3, Ws=fluidflowontheshellsideKg/s As=crossflowaream2

de=1.01/d de 1.01/d0(Pt20.917d 0.917d0) Re=Usde / Us=Gs/

L=Tubelength Jf=frictionfactor

Advantage- True countercurrent flow, Can handle large Temperature Advantagecross DisadvantageDisadvantage - Required large plot area.

Types of shell shell-and and-tube Heat Exchangers 1-Fixed tube sheet 2-U-Tube 3-Floating -head

Advantage- Can handle high Temp, pressure and flow rates AdvantageDisadvantageDisadvantage - vibrations

Advantage- less operating cost, CW saving Disadvantage- High capital cost, more hot fluid outlet T, more plot area

Advantage- less plot area, T cross, close temp approach Li it ti - handle Limitation h dl up to t 25 bar, b 250 C, C few f vendor d

Advantageg very y less fouling, g, good g flow distribution, true countercurrent Limitation- can handle up to 25 bar, 400 C, few vendor

1. 2. 3 3. 4. 5. 6 6. 7. 8. 9 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Stationary Head - Channel Stationary Head Flange - Channel or Bonnet Channel Cover Stationary Head Nozzle Stationary Tube Sheet Tubes Shell Shell Cover Sh ll Flange Shell Fl - Stationary St ti Head H d End E d Shell Flange - Rear Head End Shell Nozzle Shell Cover Flange Floating Tube Sheet

14. 15. 16 16. 17. 18. 19 19. 20. 21. 22 22. 23. 24. 25.

Floating Head Cover Floating Head Cover Flange Floating Head Backing Device Tie Rods & Spacers Baffles Impingement Plate Pass Partition Vent Connection D i C Drain Connection ti Instrument Connection Supporting Saddle Lifting Lug

PDECR REASEFROMETO OX

PRESSURE DROP IS LESSER FOR DSB THAN THE SSB SINGLE &DOUBLE SEGMENTAL BEFFLES

Window

Window

PRESSURE DROP FOR NTIW IS LOWER THAN DSB AND SSB

Preferredforsinglephaseapplications

Preferredforcondensersandvaporisers

Horizontal

Vertical

Bafflecutistheheightofthesegmentremovedformthebaffle. Bafflecutsfrom15to45%areusedbut20to25%isoptimumgenerally.

1:2 BGM

T1 Hot In .t2 Cold Out

T2 Hot Out .t1 Cold In

- HTRI (Heat Transfer Research Institute operated by United State)

- HTFS (Heat Transfer & Fluid Flow Service operated by UK)

DESIGN

RATING

SIMULATION

CALCULATION MODE

HeatTransfer f ResearchInstitute( (HTRI) ) Xistsoftware

FLUID VELOCITY IN BOTH TUBE AND SHELL SIDE TUBE SIDE PRESSURE DROP TUBE SIDE HEAT TRANFER COEFFICIENT SHELL SIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT SHELL SIDE PRESSURE DROP FLOW-INDUCED VIBRATION STREAM ANALYSIS OVER DESIGN OUT PUTS VARIFICATION WITH PROCESS ENVLOPE. ENVLOPE

S. S No. No
1 2 3 45

DocumentTitle
Heat exchanger selection guide line Fouling resistance to heat transfer equipments Shell and tube heat exchangers HTRI Manual American Tubular Heat Exchanger Manufactures Association

DocumentID
EP-2005-5186 DEP-20.21.00.31 DEP-31.21.01.30

Team standard

6 7 8 9 10

British standard Coulsion and Richardson Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger for General Refinery Services Air-cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery services Plate Heat Exchangers for General Refinery services - Part -1 g Plate and Frame Heat Exchanger

BS 3274 Volume -1 and 6 API-660 API-661 API-662

60

To Improve Tube side Heat Transfer Coefficient:


Decrease number of tubes Increase number of tube passes Change to larger diameter tubes for laminar flow Decrease tube length for laminar flow Ch Change fl fluid id allocation ll ti

To Reduce Shell side Pressure Drop:


Increase Baffle Spacing within limits Increase baffle cut percentage Change baffle type to double segmental or NTIW Change shell type from E to J or X Increase no. of shellsshells-in in-parallel Decrease no. of shellsshells-in in-series Increase I shell h ll di diameter t Increase shell nozzle size Provide annular distributors Change fluid allocation Change tube layout to square from triangular Increase tube pitch Decrease tube length

To Improve Shellside Heat Transfer Coefficient: Decrease Baffle Spacing within limits Provide sealing g strips p or dummy y rods Decrease baffle cut percentage Change baffle type to single segmental, if otherwise Apply tight clearances Ch Change shell h ll t type Increase no. of shellsshells-in in-series Decrease shell diameter Change fluid allocation Change tube layout to triangular from square Decrease tube pitch If shell shell-side fluid is clean gas, use fin tubes D Decrease number b of ft tubes b Increase number of tube passes Change fluid allocation

AIRAIR -COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER Draft : Forced vs. Induced


Advantages of forced draft Easier accessibility for maint. Lower power consumption Longer fan blade life Advantages of induced draft Better air distribution Reduced hot air recirculation Better stack effect Better protection from the elements

Process Requirements:Exchanger should give satisfactory thermal & hydraulic performance from the start of operation to shut-down.

Mechanical Requirements:Exchanger should withstand mechanical stresses during installation, start-up, shut-down shut down, emergencies emergencies, maintenance Exchanger also should withstand thermal stresses induced by temperature differences

Maintenance Requirements: Requirements:Exchanger configuration should be such that it permits cleaning, replacement of tubes or any other component vulnerable to corrosion, erosion or vibration damage. temperature differences.

Cost Requirements:Exchanger should be most economically designed utilizing the allowable pressure drop as much as possible

Other Requirements:Limitations on exchanger diameter, diameter length, length weight, weight tube specifications due to client requirements, site requirements, lifting & servicing capabilities or inventory considerations require thorough evaluation.

Assessing the performance of a specified heat exchanger a. Overdesign


100o 112,000kg/h 40o 102,200 kg/h 102,200kg/h 75o 70o

b. Shell side and tube side velocity, heat transfer coefficient and pr pr. drop c. Stream analysis

Performing the design for a specified duty Hot stream: Flow rate = 112,000 kg/h = 31.11 kg/sec Tin = 100 C, Tout = 75 C Physical properties Cold stream: Flow rate = 102,200 102 200 kg/h = 28.39 kg/sec Tin = 40 C, Tout = 70 C Physical properties

100o 112,000kg/h 40o 102,200 kg/h 102,200kg/h 75o 70o

Predicting the performance of a specified heat exchanger h f for a given i set t of f inlet i l t (or ( outlet) tl t) conditions diti Nil overdesign b. Shell side and tube side velocity, heat transfer coefficient and pr. drop c Stream analysis c.

100o 112,000kg/h 40o 102,200 kg/h 102,200kg/h ? ?

Questions: Why are gas htcs low? Are gas htcs always low?
Are low due to:

low thermal conductivity, h k0.67 low density

Pressure drop G2/ Therefore, if is low, G (V) is required to be low.

Since h G0.8, a low G means a low HTC. If f gas pressure i is hi high, h its i HTC will ill b be much h hi higher. h

1. Simple construction, low cost 2. Differential expansion not possible 3 Outside 3. O id of f tubes b cannot be mechanically cleaned but inside tube cleaning is possible.

1.

Cleaning inside tubes b is i difficult diffi l Low cost Removable tube bundle Permits thermal expansion

Removable tube bundle Permits thermal expansion Tube b cleaning l i possible inside and outside High cost

U Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient


Depends on Fluid properties Exchanger configuration Operating Parameters F li Fouling Factor F t

AIRAIR -COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER

Induced draft

OPTIMISE AIR AND WATER COOLING

Only water cooling: both in/out temps low, e.g., 50 C/45 C (Air + water) cooling: inlet temp high, outlet temp. low, e.g., 100 C/40 C Only O l air i cooling: li both b th inlet i l t and d outlet tl t temps t high, hi h e.g., 120 C/70 C

Multiple shells in series - Handle temperature cross - Increase velocity and HTC - Reduce penalty due to temp. profile distortion - When Wh 2 shells h ll are required i d anyway, examine putting them in series. - Advantageous when MOC varies with temperature

Defineheatingandcoolingmedium Define heating and cooling medium Determineoperatingenvelope Eliminatetypesthatcannotmeetenvelope Si h t Sizeheatexchangerandancillaryequipment(filters h d ill i t (filt ) Eliminatetypesthatdon'tfitanyshapeandweightrestrictions EstimateCapex,Opexandpotentialdefermentsforeachremainingtype Selecttypewiththerequiredavailabilityandlowestlifecostcyclecost

Assume U A Calculate MTD Find A from Q = U.A.MTD From tube OD and length, determine no. of tubes, tube pitch and no. of tube passes. Size nozzles Determine shell ID and assume baffle type/spacing/cut Run rating program and see results for velocities, stream analysis, pressure drop, overdesign and vibration Re-run until design is optimum

Process Requirements(Thermal and Hydraulic) Mechanical Requirements(Mechanical &Thermal stress) Maintenance Requirements (Tube cleaning )
Cost Requirements (Capex+Opex) Other Requirements L/D Ratio Weight Lifting and servicing capabilities

I. II.

I.

QInwhichserviceimpingementplatesshallbeused? Ans if shell side fl id contains liq id drops or for high elocit fl ids containing Ansifshellsidefluidcontainsliquiddropsorforhighvelocityfluidscontaining abrasiveparticles. Qwhyweareusinglogmeantemperaturedifferenceinsteadofnormaldifference? Ans Asthetemperatureoffluidschangesalongthelengthoftheheatexchanger g g g g sothepropertiesofthefluidsalsochangeswiththelength.LMTDgivesthemost accurateresultincompressionofT.
Qayyum Khan
Email: qayyum.khan@galfar.com
Galfar Engineering & Contracting SAOG, Lead Process Engineer Tel.: +968 24525424 GSM-95942025 Fax: +968 24525385

Always remember: "Do not draw conclusions until you know all the facts''